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Deutsch im mehrsprachigen Kontext: Beobachtungen zu lexikalisch-grammatischen Entwicklungen im Namdeutschen und im Kiezdeutschen

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Abstract

Based on corpus data and the results of a linguistic survey, we will examine grammatical and lexical developments in two relatively new varieties of Modern German: Kiezdeutsch and Nam- deutsch. Both varieties are spoken in multilingual speech communities in Germany and Namibia respectively. In spite of considerable differences in the contact languages involved, the social backgrounds of the speakers and other differences, our comparison shows that the inovations have a series of conspicuous similarities. For example, gibs has developed into an element similar to a particle indicating existance and so functions as a focus marker. New particles are also being borrowed. Furthermore, in the course of a semantic-pragmatic development, the article in (ein) bisschen or bietje/bikkie has been gradually disappearing. In comparison to the German spoken in monolingual contexts, the relatively strong changes in Kiezdeutsch and Namdeutsch bear witness to the highly innovative power of these varieties. In addition, the parallelism of the developments in the domains studied here indicates fundamental tendencies of the internal structure of German.

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... The empirical basis of my study is a corpus of "Wenker sentence" translations into Namibian German that was compiled by Heike Wiese in 2014 within the context of a pilot study relating to the project mentioned in the acknowledgements (Wiese 2014). Participants were asked to translate the so-called "Wenker sentences" into their local vernacular, that is, to reformulate them in accordance with their way of talking to their friends or family. ...
... 11 Fleischer, Hinterhölzl, and Solf (2008) provide a detailed discussion and application of this differential method for studies on historical syntax; Fleischer (2015) presents comparable studies on dialect syntax using the original "Wenker data". See also Wiese et al. (2014). In order to reach as many speakers as possible, the data collection was carried out via an online questionnaire. ...
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In Namibia, German is spoken as a minority language in a speech community that has its roots in immigration from Europe in the context of colonialism. In contrast to what is happening in most varieties of German outside Europe, Namibian German is consistently passed on to the younger generations, thus offering a special opportunity to investigate the age of speakers as a factor in linguistic variation. To study this, I used data from an online survey eliciting translations of the classical "Wenker sentences" into Namibian German, with over 100 participants from 12 to 78 years of age. My paper presents results from quantitative and qualitative analyses of loan words from the major contact languages Afrikaans and English. Findings indicate that the quantity of loan words is interrelated with the age of speakers, while their grammatical integration does not show cross-generational differences. Comparing my findings with those from other varieties, I discuss the vitality of Namibian German and examine how the concepts of age grading and apparent-time change can contribute to our understanding of linguistic variation in language islands.
... Smakman and Heinrich conclude that '[t] he city is more diverse than mainstream sociolinguistic theories have portrayed it to be (ibid., 2015, 186).' Recent research refl ects the potential of contemporary urban settings for the understanding of multilingual practices. To give an example, studies on the urban variety of Kiezdeutsch have shown the sociolinguistic interplay between migrant languages and older German varieties in cities such as Berlin ( Freywald et al. 2011 ;Wiese 2012 ;Wiese et al. 2014 ). They allow for a comparison with other recent and historic vernaculars in urban (youth) culture such as Straattaal in the Netherlands. ...
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This article strives to extend the focus on urban multilingual practices by applying them to rural multilingualism through an analysis of data from computer-mediated communication (CMC). The article argues that urban and rural areas are not necessarily isolated phenomena. In many cases, they are interconnected through Networks of Exchange (NoE). How does the notion of urbanhood unfold in these networks? Do individuals of urban background deploy different forms of multilingual practices than individuals of rural background? To what extent does the place of origin affect the individual’s linguistic choices in CMC? The article addresses these questions through the example of the German-Namibian diaspora and their multilingual practices. Therefore, it draws on speech act theory to unveil the role and function of multilingual patterns in both urban and rural CMC. In doing so, it captures the unique linguistic repertoire of German Namibians which includes (Namibian) German, Afrikaans, English and to a lesser extent indigenous Namibian languages. A preview of this article is available here: shorturl.at/vAUZ0
... Aus bisherigen linguistischen Untersuchungen zum Kiezdeutschen hat sich nun ergeben, dass es verschiedene, vom Standarddeutschen abweichende Merkmale in den Bereichen Lexik (vgl. Dirim/Auer 2004, Keim 2008, Wiese 2012, Morphologie und Syntax (Auer 2003(Auer , 2013Dirim/ Auer 2004;Keim 2008;Wiese 2006Wiese , 2009Wiese , 2012Wiese et al. 2014;Wiese/Pohle 2016), Gesprächsorganisation (Kern/Selting 2006a, 2006bSelting 2011;Şimşek 2011, 2012 und Phonetik und Phonologie aufweist. ...
... e.g. Wiese et al, 2014) relevant results of this and other research projects on NG (e.g. Shah, 2007) could inform the development of an NG dictionary and ultimately involve those researchers in the lexicographic process. ...
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This article reports on the initial planning stages of a Namibian German dictionary project, i.e. a dictionary that would primarily provide semantic information in Standard German about Namibian German lexical items. The concept of Namibian German is explained, and existing dictionaries of Namibian German are briefly surveyed. The theoretical framework is that of a new lexicographic theory , i.e. the theory of lexicographical communication. Within this framework, a new classification of three types of dictionary purposes is introduced, i.e. macro-contextual purposes, meso-contextual purposes and micro-contextual purposes. The focus then shifts to the development of a basic microstructure for the dictionary, which refers to a set of lexicographic messages encoded in lexicographic utterances that would be included in a dictionary article in order to answer specific potential target user questions. Pertinent elements of the theory of lexicographical communication are worked out to develop a basic microstructure for the equivalent relation of full equivalence. This demonstrates that the theory can be applied generatively, i.e. to develop a dictionary model starting from a set of empirically identified user questions relating to a particular user situation. In the process, a formal link between user questions, consultation objectives, lexicographic messages and lexicographic utterances is established. This is followed by an overview of how a basic microstructure could be amplified to ensure successful lexicographical communication.
... "Kiezdeutsch", sind jedoch linguistisch besonders interessant, da sie durch den sprachlich diversen Kontext und ihren Ursprung in jugendsprachlichen Praktiken besonders dynamisch sind und beispielsweise neuere Entwicklungen des Deutschen besonders leicht aufnehmen und ausbauen (Wiese 2013, Walkden ersch.; zur Subsumtion urbaner Kontakt-Dialekte unter den herkömmlichen Dialektbegriff vgl. Wiese 2013; Wiese et al. 2014). Jugendsprachliche Praktiken in diesen Kontexten können auf einer Vielfalt sprachlicher Kompetenzen aufbauen, die neue Kontaktdialekte wie Kiezdeutsch ebenso wie andere umgangssprachliche und formellere Stile und Varietäten im Deutschen und in unterschiedlichen Herkunftssprachen umfasst und durch Code-Switching, sprachliche Bricolage und horizontale Mehrsprachigkeit charakterisiert ist. ...
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Manuscript / Authors’ copy: a shorter version will appear as a contribution to HSK 30.4, "Language & Space: Deutsch" (de Gruyter), eds. Joachim Herrgen & Jürgen Erich Schmidt; Chapter 38.
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In Afrika gibt es deutschsprachige Minderheiten in Namibia und in der Republik Südafrika. Die multilinguale Situation in diesen Ländern wird in diesem Beitrag unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Deutschen beschrieben. Dabei werden historische und sprachpolitische Aspekte thematisiert und die Vitalität der Minderheitensprache wird erörert. Darüber hinaus werden die sprachlichen Repertoires der deutschsprachigen Community in Namibia dargestellt sowie die Lage von Deutsch als Fremdsprache in den beiden Ländern mit deutscher Minderheitensprache.
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In this paper I try to demonstrate the benefits of interaction between the fields of historical syntax of German on the one hand and linguistic typology on the other hand. Using four examples for each direction, I argue that both fields need each other’s input: German historical syntax can learn to avoid various forms of parochialism, and at the same time it can feed its vast amount of detailed knowledge into discussions of general linguistics.
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This article investigates a public debate in Germany that put a special spotlight on the interaction of standard language ideologies with social dichotomies, centering on the question of whether Kiezdeutsch , a new way of speaking in multilingual urban neighbourhoods, is a legitimate German dialect. Based on a corpus of emails and postings to media websites, I analyse central topoi in this debate and an underlying narrative on language and identity. Central elements of this narrative are claims of cultural elevation and cultural unity for an idealised standard language ‘High German’, a view of German dialects as part of a national folk culture, and the construction of an exclusive in-group of ‘German’ speakers who own this language and its dialects. The narrative provides a potent conceptual frame for the Othering of Kiezdeutsch and its speakers, and for the projection of social and sometimes racist deliminations onto the linguistic plane. (Standard language ideology, Kiezdeutsch, dialect, public discourse, Othering, racism by proxy)* Open Access: doi:10.1017/S0047404515000226
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Introduction Contemporary urban multilingual settings in Europe lead to rich sources of language contact involving the majority languages and a range of typologically diverse minority languages, such as Arabic, Urdu, Turkish, Kurdish, Croatian and Sranan. The linguistic outcomes of these settings may result in the emergence of what we shall refer to as contemporary urban vernaculars (see Chapter 2). By choosing this label, we make clear that this is a way of speaking related not to a particular ethnicity, but rather to contemporary urban areas in Europe (see also Chapter 3 for a discussion of terms such as ‘ethnolect’, which assume pre-existing social categories such as ‘ethnicity’). Multilingual urban settings constitute a linguistic environment that is particularly open to linguistic variation and innovation, and might also support a faster pace of language change – in comparison not only to national standard varieties that are more restricted by normative processes, but also compared to informal varieties and styles that are set in more monoethnic/monolingual speech communities and that cannot draw on this kind of language diversity. This linguistic dynamics makes contemporary urban vernaculars particularly interesting for investigations that target the linguistic system and the interactions of different grammatical and extragrammatical subsystems in the emergence of new patterns. This chapter is devoted to a case study from this domain that brings together similar lexical items from three Germanic languages, namely Swedish sån, Norwegian sånn and German so (‘such (a)’). We will show that these items can be used in a similar way across the three languages as grammatical and pragmatic markers, building on a pattern of semantic bleaching and functional gain.
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Language Island Research: The Traditional Framework and Some Sociolinguistic Questions The metaphor of a ‘language island’ was coined with reference to the ‘colonies’ of German-speaking settlers in Eastern, Central, and South Eastern Europe, which were mostly founded in the late Middle Ages (‘old language islands’) and in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (‘new language islands’), and which for a long time preserved their ethnic, linguistic, cultural, economic, administrative, and sometimes religious distinctness from the surrounding society. Brought in by the state authorities or private colonisers, the settlers cultivated the land, introducing new methods of agriculture, trade, crafts, and mining, stabilising political borders, and increasing the proportion of educated, skilled (and sometimes ‘white’) population; however, for a long time they did not mingle with the surrounding population. Since these linguistic communities were founded by settlers speaking different dialects – but lacking the German standard language – they have been subject to dialect convergence from the first days of their existence. The dialects of these language islands are therefore more or less mixed or levelled dialects, as was noted by the Russian dialectologist Victor Schirmunski (1930). For him, the ‘language islands’ were a ‘linguistic laboratory’ bringing about the same linguistic processes in short time which over centuries have shaped our contemporary standard languages. Only in the twentieth century did the language islands open to outside linguistic influence from the surrounding language(s).
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Etwa seit Mitte der 90er Jahre ist mit Kiezdeutsch eine Jugend-sprache in den Blick der Öffentlichkeit getreten, die sich in Wohn-gebieten mit hohem Migrantenanteil ausgebildet hat. Hier einige Beispiele aus diesem Sprachgebrauch: "Lassma Viktoriapark gehen, lan." "Ich höre Alpa Gun, weil der so aus Schöneberg kommt." "Ich hab meiner Mutter so Zunge rausgestreckt, so aus Spaß. Wallah." Wie die Beispiele illustrieren, weicht Kiezdeutsch in verschiede-nen Bereichen vom Standarddeutschen ab. Entgegen einer verbrei-teten öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist Kiezdeutsch jedoch kein ge-brochenes Deutsch, sondern begründet einen neuen, urbanen Dia-lekt des Deutschen, der – ebenso wie andere deutsche Dialekte auch – systematische sprachliche Besonderheiten in Bereichen wie Aussprache, Wortwahl und Grammatik aufweist. 1. Der Begriff "Kiezdeutsch" In der öffentlichen Diskussion werden z.T. auch andere Bezeich-nungen verwendet, etwa "Kanak Sprak", ein Begriff der besonders in den Comedy-Bereich Eingang gefunden hat. "Kiezdeutsch", die Bezeichnung, die hier benutzt wird, ist aus mehreren Gründen be-sonders passend für diese Jugendsprache. Zum einen macht sie deutlich, dass wir es mit einer Varietät des Deutschen zu tun ha-ben, mit einer sprachlichen Praxis, die zum Spektrum des Deut-schen gehört. Zum anderen weist sie darauf hin, dass diese Ju-gendsprache im Kiez beheimatet ist, der im Berlinerischen ein all-APuZ (Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte) 8/2010, Themenheft "Sprache und Gesellschaft"
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This paper discusses a hitherto undescribed usage of the particle so as a dedi-cated focus marker in contemporary German. I discuss grammatical and prag-matic characteristics of this focus marker, supporting my account with natural linguistic data and with controlled experimental evidence showing that so has a significant influence on speakers' understanding of what the focus expression in a sentence is. Against this background, I sketch a possible pragmaticaliza-tion path from referential usages of so via hedging to a semantically bleached focus marker, which, unlike particles such as auch 'also'/'too' or nur 'only', does not contribute any additional meaning.
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Das Potential multiethnischer Sprechergemeinschaften Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag behandelt den Sprachgebrauch in multiethnischen Sprechergemeinschaften im urbanen Raum. Ich zeige, dass die Varietät, die sich hier entwickelt, als neuer Dialekt des Deutschen verstanden werden kann. Dieser Dialekt ist gekennzeichnet durch Charakteristika auf lexikalischer und grammatischer Ebene, die auf systematische Muster sprachlicher Variation und sprachlichen Wandels hinweisen, und erhält durch seine Sprechergemeinschaft mit vielen (aber nicht nur) mehrsprachigen Sprecher/inne/n eine besondere sprachliche Dynamik. Ich diskutiere zwei Beispiele, intensivierend gebrauchtes "voll" und monomorphematisches, existenzanzeigendes "gib(t)s", die die quantitative Expansion bzw. die Weiterentwicklung und den qualitativen Ausbau von Phänomenen illustrieren, die auch aus anderen Varietäten des Deutschen bekannt sind. Der multiethnische urbane Dialekt, der hier entsteht, spiegelt damit Entwicklungstendenzen des Deutschen wieder, die in einigen Fällen zusätzlich durch Sprachkontaktphänomene gestützt werden können.
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