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Antibacterial analysis in vitro of ethyl-cyanoacrylate against ocular pathogens

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Antibacterial analysis in vitro of ethyl-cyanoacrylate against ocular pathogens

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Purpose: To analyze the antimicrobial properties of ethyl-cyanoacrylate (Superbonder, Loctite, Brazil) in vitro in different microorganisms related to corneal infections. Methods: We analyzed the following microorganisms: (1) Staphylococcus aureus (multiresistant); (2) S. aureus (ATCC 25923); (3) coagulase-negative Staphylococcus; (4) Streptococcus pyogenes; (5) Streptococcus pneumoniae; (6) Pseudomonas aerarginosa (multiresistant); (7) P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853); (8) Escherichia coli (ATCC25922); and (9) Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). One drop of the glue was dropped directly into the nutrient broth. The plates were incubated at 35 +/- 2 degrees C and its growth examined after 24 hours. Bactericidal activity of the glue was verified by sampling inhibition zones when present. The samples were plated in blood agar an analyzed after 24 and 48 hours. Results: The ethyl-cyanoacrylate inhibited the growth of every grain-positive microorganism tested and showed bactericidal effect over 70% for all of them. Among the gram-negative microorganisms, only the E. coli and the E. faecalis had its growth inhibited, and the bactericidal effect was 60% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion: The ethyl-cyanoacryl ate has bacteriostatic and bactericidal action in vitro, mainly against gram-positive microorganisms.

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... Besides physical sealing of corneal defects, cyanoacrylate was also reported to inhibit keratolysis by arresting the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the site of a cornea "melt" [7,8]. In addition, it exhibits anti-microbial activities, especially to common Gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus species and Streptococcus species [9]. An in vitro study of cyanoacrylate showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, but it was reported to have no bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas species [9]. ...
... In addition, it exhibits anti-microbial activities, especially to common Gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus species and Streptococcus species [9]. An in vitro study of cyanoacrylate showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, but it was reported to have no bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas species [9]. ...
... The carbon length of the alkyl side chain of cyanoacrylate is inversely proportional to rate of degradation and release of toxic byproducts cyanoacetate and formaldehyde [9]. These degradation byproducts can cause inflammatory reaction that manifest as scarring, vascularisation, symblepharon and giant papillary conjunctivitis [16]. ...
... [4] The antimicrobial properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives have been reported previously and some authors have even promoted its use in the prophylaxis or treatment of infection in corneal ulcers. [7][8][9] It has also been postulated that the antimicrobial effects may be derived, at least in part, from the polymerization process itself, although no study has specifically analyzed this assumption. [8] The aim of the study was to establish the role of the polymerization reaction in conferring additional antibacterial properties to cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. ...
... [7][8][9] It has also been postulated that the antimicrobial effects may be derived, at least in part, from the polymerization process itself, although no study has specifically analyzed this assumption. [8] The aim of the study was to establish the role of the polymerization reaction in conferring additional antibacterial properties to cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. ...
... [11] The bactericidal effect of the adhesives was lower than in previous studies. [7][8][9]12] This discrepancy may be due in part to differences in volumes of cyanoacrylate studied, as well as the unstandardized volumes utilized in previous studies. Our use of standard diameter filter-paper disc carriers instead of merely dropping the cyanoacrylate directly onto the cultures could contribute to this discrepancy from previous studies. ...
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To ascertain if the polymerization reaction also contributes additionally to the antibacterial effects of two commonly used cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. Fresh liquid ethyl-cyanoacrylate (EC) and N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (BC) adhesives were applied onto 6-mm sterile filter paper discs. In the first group, the adhesive-soaked discs were immediately placed onto confluent monolayer cultures of bacteria, allowing the polymerization reaction to proceed while in culture. In the second group, the adhesive-soaked disc was allowed to first polymerize prior to being placed onto the bacterial cultures. Four types of bacteria were studied: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Immediately after the discs were applied, the cultures were incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibitory halos were measured in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. For EC, exposure of the bacteria to the cyanoacrylate polymerization reaction increased the bacterial inhibitory halos in Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. For BC, it increased the bacterial inhibitory halos in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. No inhibitory halos were observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bactericidal effect was higher in actively polymerizing EC, compared to previously polymerized EC in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli; however, no such differences were observed for BC. The polymerization reaction may also be an important factor in the antibacterial properties of EC and BC.
... Se han estudiado las propiedades antimicrobianas del cianocrilato, comprobándose su poder bacteriostático y bactericida frente a microorganismos grampositivos 4,5 . ...
... Durante el postoperatorio los pacientes incluidos en el estudio fueron examinados a las 24 horas de la intervención, a la semana y al mes, no se encontró ningún caso de infecciones o dehiscencia de herida, ni con sutura convencional ni con cianocrilato (figs. [3][4][5]. ...
... En nuestro estudio no encontramos diferencias en cuanto al riesgo de infección con ambas técnicas de cierre, ya que ningún paciente presentó esta complicación. Según varios estudios el cianocrilato tiene un efecto bacteriostático y bactericida gracias a que sus productos de degradación son tóxicos para las bacterias, esta actividad antibacteriana está limitada a microorganismos grampositivos, además el cianocrilato es también protector contra las infecciones frente a la sutura normal, debido a la desaparición del riesgo de infección por no requerir de aguja 4,5,10 . ...
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Objective: To study the safety and surgical time required when using the tissue adhesive 2-ethyl-cyanoacrylate compared with conventional suture in upper lid blepharoplasty. Method: A retrospective study was performed on 40 eyes of 20 patients who underwent bilateral upper lid blepharoplasty. In 7 patients, continuous non-absorbable suture (6-0 nylon monofilament Ethilon®, Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ) was used for closure of the incision and in 13 patients 2-ethyl-cyanoacrylate (Epiglue®, Meyer -Haake, Germany) was used. The variables studied were intraoperative time required to close the incision, the cost of the material used and the incidence of infections and suture dehiscence. Results: The average time taken to close the incision was 6.069 minutes with cyanoacrylate and 11.914 minutes with conventional suture (P
... They have also been applied in kidney, liver, and bone lesions and on animal and human blood vessels (Singer and Thode 2004; Toriumi et al. 1998; Vote and Elder 2000). Cyanoacrylate enhances skin wound healing by decreasing inflammatory response (Eriksson 1976) and preventing collagenase production (de Almeida Manzano et al. 2006; Eiferman and Snyder 1983). Cyanoacrylate glues have been successfully applied in ophthalmology to repair corneal perforations (de Almeida Manzano et al. 2006). ...
... Cyanoacrylate enhances skin wound healing by decreasing inflammatory response (Eriksson 1976) and preventing collagenase production (de Almeida Manzano et al. 2006; Eiferman and Snyder 1983). Cyanoacrylate glues have been successfully applied in ophthalmology to repair corneal perforations (de Almeida Manzano et al. 2006). Watte et al. (2004) used butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive combined with conjunctival grafts in the management of canine and feline corneal disease. ...
... Sutures are associated with several disadvantages such as interfering with the healing process and tissue necrosis (Koranyi et al. 2004; Sridhar et al. 2002; Ti et al. 2000; Uy et al. 2005). On the other hand, cyanoacrylate may support stromal ulceration and has anti-microbial effects (Slatter 2008) and prevents collagenase production (de Almeida Manzano et al. 2006; Eiferman and Snyder 1983). Neovascularisation, mainly superficial, was observed in the control group more than the other groups. ...
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This study was performed to evaluate the surgical technique required and the clinical usefulness of tissue adhesive (2-Octyl cyanoacrylate) combined with amniotic membrane (AM) patching in the treatment of experimental corneal burn in dogs. Alkali wounds were inflicted on the central corneas of dogs by applying a round filter paper, 6.0mm in diameter, soaked in 1M NaOH for 60s. Only one eye in each dog was used. A total of 15 dogs were divided into three groups of five animals each: (1) uncovered—control, (2) covered by AM with the amnion cell side down and secured with 10–0 nylon sutures to the cornea around the wound area—AM + suture, and (3) covered by sutureless AM patching secured with 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond)—AM + glue. The operating time was compared between both treatment groups. Clinical outcome was monitored by evaluation of epithelial defects, corneal opacity, duration of blepharospasm, time of AM persistence, corneal vascularisation, and duration of ocular discharge. The mean surgery time in AM + suture group was significantly longer than AM + glue group. AM persistence in AM + glue group was significantly greater than AM + suture group. The duration of ocular discharge and corneal vascularisation in AM + glue group was significantly lower in comparison with control group. Epithelial healing was faster in the AM + glue group than in controls. In conclusion, sutureless AM patching with 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond) as a dressing on a corneal alkali burn, used for the first time in this research, may induce rapid epithelial healing with less vascularisation and be a much faster and useful technique in dogs. KeywordsDog-Amniotic membrane-2-Octyl cyanoacrylate-Dermabond-Corneal alkali burn
... [4] The antimicrobial properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives have been reported previously and some authors have even promoted its use in the prophylaxis or treatment of infection in corneal ulcers. [7][8][9] It has also been postulated that the antimicrobial effects may be derived, at least in part, from the polymerization process itself, although no study has specifically analyzed this assumption. [8] The aim of the study was to establish the role of the polymerization reaction in conferring additional antibacterial properties to cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. ...
... [7][8][9] It has also been postulated that the antimicrobial effects may be derived, at least in part, from the polymerization process itself, although no study has specifically analyzed this assumption. [8] The aim of the study was to establish the role of the polymerization reaction in conferring additional antibacterial properties to cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. ...
... [11] The bactericidal effect of the adhesives was lower than in previous studies. [7][8][9]12] This discrepancy may be due in part to differences in volumes of cyanoacrylate studied, as well as the unstandardized volumes utilized in previous studies. Our use of standard diameter filter-paper disc carriers instead of merely dropping the cyanoacrylate directly onto the cultures could contribute to this discrepancy from previous studies. ...
... Alguns estudos apontam propriedade antimicrobiana dos CA in vivo e in vitro, principalmente contra bactérias gram positivas 3,11,17 . Há um destaque para o etil-cianoacrilato (super bonder®), que teria ação efetiva contra Staphylococcus e Streptococci e bactérias gram negativas, como Escherichia coli e Escherichia faecalis 18 , mas não contra Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19 . Na prática cirúrgica, dois autores não observaram qualquer diminuição da taxa geral de infecção com o uso de adesivos teciduais 9,16 , porém Ridgway et al. 4 relatam tendência à redução de infecção do sítio operatório com uso de colas. ...
... Em seu estudo não foi observada qualquer diferença em relação às complicações e resultado estético. Outros autores comprovaram a esterilidade e efeito antibacteriano dessa cola 18,19 , porém em um estudo experimental com animais a o Three Bond® (alfa cianoacrilado) apresentou maior biocompatibilidade, comparável à água destilada 20 . Enquanto outro afirma que o etil-cianoacrilato obteve os piores resultados em relação à inflamação quando comparados ao fio de nylon 21 . ...
Article
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INTRODUÇÃO: Cianoacrilatos (CA) são monômeros líquidos que se polimerizam quando aplicados à pele, formando uma forte cola. Aplicável em várias áreas médicas e resultados promissores em salas de emergência. DISCUSSÃO: A maioria dos estudos revisados demonstra resultados comparáveis desses adesivos aos métodos tradicionais. Seu uso está indicado para lesões limpas, após hemostasia adequada, em locais de baixa tensão e não úmidos, especialmente em pessoas jovens. Algumas vantagens são a redução do tempo operatório proporcional ao tamanho da sutura, fácil aplicação, sem uso de anestesia, não necessidade de remoção, menor risco de acidente perfurocortante, indolor e provável ação antimicrobiana de alguns CA. Como desvantagens há o alto custo do adesivo, menor resistência à tensão e à umidade, sensação de queimação no local da aplicação, aderência do adesivo a roupas e contato com o interior da lesão. Complicações relatadas são maior índice de deiscência de suturas, segundo apenas um autor, e pior aproximação das bordas da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: Quando bem indicados, os CA são uma boa alternativa aos fios de sutura, com resultados estéticos e funcionais comparáveis aos métodos tradicionais e risco de complicações aceitáveis. Há necessidade de mais ensaios clínicos com uso de colas de menor custo, para demonstrar sua segurança e aplicabilidade na prática médica, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil.
... In combination with our study results, the optimal volume of applied glue that contained in anti-fungal eff ect in dose dependent fashion may range from 5 to 15 μl. As the authors expected, diff erent fungi and diff erent isolates from the same genus showed diff erent IZD which is similar to the previous researches that studied on the bacteriostatic eff ects of cyanoacrylate glues (7,(13)(14)(15) . ...
... Several studies reported secondary infection after glue applications of which most of them were bacteria in nature such as S. aureus, Haemophilus infl uenzae, and few of them caused by fungi (5,9,18,19) . Other minor side eff ects of cyanoacrylate glue applications are giant papillary conjunctivitis (20) , foreign body sensation, corneal infl ammation, stromal neovascularization, and anterior chamber infl ammation, which vary upon individual sensitivity, amount of utilized glue, type of glue, and site of application (7,15) . Despite all drawbacks, the benefits of the adhesives always outweigh, particularly for emergency situations or in areas with shortage of corneal tissues. ...
Article
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Objective: To determine anti-fungal effect of butyl cyanoacrylate glue in vitro in common fungi related to corneal infections. Materials and Methods: The authors transferred the following fungi; Fusarium spp. (2 isolates, no.1431 and no.2861), Aspergillus lavus (no.5573) and Curvularia spp. (no.1631) into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates. Then, a single drop of butyl cyanoacrylate glue was dropped on the center of studied plates in various volumes (5, 15, 25, and 35 μl), two copies for each condition. Anti-fungal activities were determined by measuring inhibition zones (inhibition zone diameter [IZD]) and the ratio between IZD and direct contact diameter [DCD] after 48-hour incubation at room temperature. Results: Mean of IZD of all fungi at glue volumes of 5, 15, 25, and 35 μl were 10, 23, 22.75, and 26.86 mm, respectively. The maximum IZD was found in A. lavus 5573 at glue volume of 35 μl (36.50 mm) and the minimum IZD was found in Curvularia spp. 1631 at glue volume of 5 μl (0 mm). The IZD/DCD ratio were directly increased with higher glue volume in dose-dependent relationship. Every 1 μl of additional glue volume, increased IZD for 0.5 mm with R-square 0.78 (95% CI 0.30 to 1.31). Conclusion: Butyl cyanoacrylate glue demonstrated anti-fungal effects in dose-dependent fashion in vitro experiment. The clinical application of glue for small fungal infectious corneal perforations might be considered as an optimal treatment, particularly for developing countries and areas with shortage of corneal tissue.
... Its design was specific for the biological closure of surgical wounds or recent trauma seeking a faster healing process since it sets in the presence of biological fluids which gives it a marked hemostatic character when adhering strongly to the tissues [7]. Regarding the bactericide spectrum, it was observed that it inhibits the growth of all gram-positive microorganisms with a bactericidal effect above 70%, but among gram-negative microorganisms, it only inhibits the growth of E. coli and E. fecalis with bactericidal effect of 60% and 40%, respectively [8]. ...
... The use of filter paper discs on the evaluation of antimicrobial activity is proven to be a very easy method, with high sensitivity and specificity, since it analyzes solely the effect of the studied substance in direct and homogeneous contact with the microorganisms in growth. Other authors have chosen this method to assess the antimicrobial activity of different substances used daily in clinical and surgical practice, such as trypan blue, fluorescein and cyanoacrylate, obtaining reliable results (32)(33)(34) . ...
Article
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To analyze the antimicrobial properties of silicon oil (Óleo de Silicone®, Ophthalmos, Brazil) on in vitro bacterial growth of different microorganisms related to endophthalmitis. The following microorganisms were analyzed: (1) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27583); (2) Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922); (3) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923); (4) Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228); (5) Candida albicans (ATCC 10231); (6) Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883); and (7) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619). The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2ºC and its growth examined after 24 hours. An empty disk was placed in the center of each plate as a control. No inhibition halos were verified in any of the plates containing the four different concentrations of the bacterial inocula. The silicon oil 1000 cps does not have any effect on bacterial growth of any of the studied microrganisms.
... [6] Numerous in-vitro studies have shown bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties of varying degrees against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. [12,13,14] However, there exists paucity of literature regarding antibacterial properties of cyanoacrylates against oral microorganisms in vivo. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluation of the antibacterial and healing properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives following periodontal flap surgery. ...
Article
Surgical pocket therapy entails raising a mucoperiosteal flap in order to carry out effective debridement so as to eliminate periodontal pockets and result in a healthy periodontium. Braided silk is the most commonly used suture material following periodontal flap surgery. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives are slowly gaining popularity as wound closure agents. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antibacterial and healing properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives following periodontal flap surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing full mouth periodontal flap surgery were randomly selected for placement of cyanoacrylates or silk sutures using split mouth study design. Wound healing was evaluated at 1 week using Early Wound Healing Index. Supragingival pooled plaque samples were collected for analysis of total bacterial count at 1week follow up using lawn cultures in blood agar. Pain and burning sensation with cyanoacrylates during and post surgery was recorded using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Silk sutures showed improved wound healing when compared with cyanoacrylates. However, use of cyanoacrylates resulted in reduced bacterial colony counts thereby exhibiting antibacterial properties. Enhanced patient compliance was noted with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. SIGNIFICANCE: Cyanoacrylates can be used as an alternative to silk sutures for periodontal wound closure. KEY WORDS: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive, silk sutures, antibacterial efficacy, wound healing
... In fact, the antimicrobial properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives have been well-documented and promoted in the ophthalmology literature for treatment of corneal ulcers. 16,17 Antibacterial properties appear to be bactericidal and more robust for gram-positive organisms than gram-negative organisms, which are encapsulated by an outer carbohydrate membrane. 18 A limitation of this technique is the reduced visibility through the lateral surface of the implant in that the cartilage graft covers the open head of the titanium prosthesis during insertion. ...
... This confirms previous studies. 5,13,14 Volume-dependent bactericidal activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were observed for the volumes studied. Variability was reduced by analyzing the normalized ratio of A IH /A EC , rather than the more variable diameter and the respective EC volume (Fig. 3). ...
Article
To analyze the antibacterial effects in vitro of ethyl-cyanoacrylate (EC) tissue adhesive in different application volumes. Volumes of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 25, and 35 mu l of EC were applied onto the surface of monolayer cultures of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25924), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC49619), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883). The diameter of each EC drop was measured, and the area of the circle of EC (formed after its application onto the monolayer culture) was calculated. The area of the antibacterial inhibitory halo surrounding the drop of EC on the monolayer culture was calculated. The ratio between the area of the EC and of the corresponding inhibitory halo was obtained for each EC volume and for each of the 5 types of bacteria studied. EC volume-dependent inhibitory halos were seen in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae. The in vitro antibacterial effect of EC against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli varies in a dose-dependent fashion with its volume. No effect was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
... The ideal adhesive should have the following essential characteristics: fast adhesion to the tissue, low heat release, good adhesion even in an internal human environment, the ability to be sterilized and, especially, it should not have carcinogenic potential. 1 In medicine, cyanoacrylates are well known for their bactericidal characteristics. 2 De Almeida Manzano et al. 3 reported the effective antimicrobial action of ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate against Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Escherichia faecalis strains. Shamiyeh et al. 4 and Coulthard et al. 5 did not observe any increase in infection rates after the use of cyanoacrylates. ...
Article
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Objective: Synthetic adhesives are used by various medical specialties, especially in surgery; however, studies reporting their use in orthopedic practice are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the results in using ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate or butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the treatment of fractures in rats. Methods: This was an experimental prospective controlled study in 90 rats, with humerus, femur, and tibia fractures, treated with ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (SB group; n = 45) or butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (HA group; n = 45). Biomechanical and histomorphometric analyses were performed at three different moments (60, 120, and 180 days); besides a clinical study performed weekly by measurement of the animals body mass. Results: No differences were observed regarding body mass (p = 0.07). In both groups, there were no significant differences regarding maximum load (p = 0.6), yield point strength (p = 0.6), and stiffness coefficient (p = 0.4) of the femurs. The same was observed in tibias for maximum load (p = 0.4), yield point strength (p = 0.7), and stiffness coefficient (p = 0.6). The humerus from both groups had similar bone callus area (p = 0.66). In both groups, there were no statistical differences related to inflammatory cells (p = 0.4), osteoblasts (p = 0.2), and osteoclasts (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate was more effective than butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the treatment of fractures in rats.
... Cyanoacrylate adhesives have also shown some level of bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects [53]. Butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate exhibited bacteriostatic effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms in vitro and in vivo, especially when the adhesive was polymerized in situ [56][57][58]. ...
Article
Closure of ocular wounds after an accident or surgery is typically performed by suturing, which is associated with numerous potential complications, including suture breakage, inflammation, secondary neovascularization, erosion to the surface and secondary infection, and astigmatism; for example, more than half of post-corneal transplant infections are due to suture related complications. Tissue adhesives provide promising substitutes for sutures in ophthalmic surgery. Ocular adhesives are not only intended to address the shortcomings of sutures, but also designed to be easy to use, and can potentially minimize post-operative complications. Herein, recent progress in the design, synthesis, and application of ocular adhesives, along with their advantages, limitations, and potential are discussed. This review covers two main classes of ocular adhesives: (1) synthetic adhesives based on cyanoacrylates, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and other synthetic polymers, and (2) adhesives based on naturally derived polymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides. In addition, different technologies to cover and protect ocular wounds such as contact bandage lenses, contact lenses coupled with novel technologies, and decellularized corneas are discussed. Continued advances in this area can help improve both patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes.
... Authors have reported the antimicrobial and antiadhesive activity of cyanoacrylate-based adhesives when used as biocompatible materials (20). Ali et al. (18) investigated C. albicans growth on resin plates coated with octyl-cyanoacrylate, a long side chain cyanoacrylate, and verified complete inhibition of fungal adhesion. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to verify whether modifications made in a hard chairside reline resin by an ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive, ECA (Super Bonder®, Loctite, Itapevi, SP, Brazil) would be able to inhibit or reduce Candida albicans biofilm formation on its surface, comparing to a commercial surface sealant (BisCover®, Bisco, Schaumburg, USA). Reline resin specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8): CG (control group), no surface treatment; ECA1, ECA coating on the surface before sterilization; ECA2, ECA coating after sterilization; ECA3, ECA incorporated in the resin bulk; DPE1, BisCover® coating before sterilization; DPE2, BisCover® coating after sterilization. Specimens were inoculated with C. albicans SC5314 (1x107 cells/mL) and incubated for 24 h. Then, the biofilm were stained with LIVE/DEAD® BaclightTM L7007 Kit and analyzed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. The images were evaluated by bioImageL® v.2.0 software and total biovolume (µm3), viable cells (%), and covered area (%) were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results showed that ECA-coated groups presented better results, reducing C. albicans biofilm formation. Acquired images revealed that these groups (ECA1 and ECA2) presented a reduced number of cells, mostly in yeast form (less pathogenic), while the other groups presented higher number of cells, mostly in hyphae form (more pathogenic). Based on these findings, a beneficial effect of Super Bonder® coating reline resins surface could be demonstrated, suggesting a promising way to prevent fungal biofilm formation on dentures.
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To compare the integrity of clear corneal incisions closed with fibrin (Tisseel) and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) tissue adhesives to those closed with conventional sutures. Four replicate experiments were performed on porcine eyes with each of the following conditions: three limbal clear corneal incision sizes (3.0 mm, 4.5 mm, and 6.0 mm), three incision closure techniques (fibrin adhesive, n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive, and 10-0 interrupted nylon sutures)-1, 2, and 3 sutures at the 3.0-mm, 4.5-mm, and 6.0-mm incision sizes, respectively. Wound integrity was then measured by elevating the intraocular pressure of the eye to the point where wound leakage (IOP(L)) occurred. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the IOP(L) data. Incision closure technique and incision size showed significant interaction in the ANOVA model (p = 0.0008). Fibrin adhesive demonstrated higher IOP(L) compared to suture closure at the 3.0-mm incision size (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in IOP(L) when comparing wound closure with fibrin adhesive and sutures at the 4.5-mm and 6.0-mm incision sizes (p = 0.52 and p = 0.56, respectively). There was no significant difference between the three closure techniques for the 6.0-mm incisions (p > 0.15). When comparing the wound closure techniques for all incision sizes, the mean IOP(L) significantly increased in the following order: suture(s), fibrin adhesive, n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue. Fibrin or n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive may be used as a more stable alternative to conventional sutures in the closure of clear corneal incisions.
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Tissue adhesive sealants have been used as substitutes for sutures in ophthalmic surgery in recent years since the latter may cause irritation, inflammation and infection. Tissue adhesives were developed as suture adjuncts and alternatives for sealing wounded tissues. They are gaining popularity for their ease of use and postoperative comfort. Two broad classes of tissue adhesives, synthetic and biological, have been reported in previous studies. Cyanoacrylate-based synthetic tissue adhesives have been conventionally used for corneal perforation surgeries. Fibrin glue is a bioadhesive developed from blood plasma. Aside from these surface sealants, a new class of compounds termed biodendrimers has also found a use in ophthalmic surgery. Other adhesives in development include acrylic-based adhesives, polyethylene glycol hydrogels, chondroitin sulfate, riboflavin–fibrinogen compounds, photoactivated serum albumin solder and photo-polymerized hyaluronic acid compounds. This article aims to cover the therapeutic uses and application techniques of the aforementioned tissue adhesives in ophthalmology.
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Tissue reconstruction and wound closure rely on sutures, staples and clips in current surgical procedures. These traditional devices are nonetheless unable to prevent leakage of fluids from a variety of tissue including blood vessels and dura mater. Furthermore, sutures are usually difficult to apply during minimal invasive surgery and often induce detrimental scarring that may impair healing. To overcome these disadvantages, biocompatible and biodegradable glues based on fibrin, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cyanoacrylate have recently been used in patients to seal and repair tissue wounds. Cyanoacrylate glues create typically very strong tissue bonds but have mostly been applied externally for skin wound closure because of their residual cytotoxicity. Other adhesive biomaterials are also emerging; these glues and adhesives are usually based on proteins such as albumin and collagen or polysaccharides like chitosan; these are irradiated with coherent or non-coherent light to trigger their adhesion to tissue. These biomaterial based devices offer significant advantages over sutures, such as their sealing or repairing ability, easy application modality and delivery in situ of compounds for accelerating wound healing. This paper reviews different tissue reconstruction strategies employing adhesive biomaterials currently used in surgical and experimental procedures. Copyright
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Blood loss has always been a sensitive issue in surgery. Traditional techniques, such as suturing and electrocautery, have drastically reduced operatory bleeding. Unfortunately, wound edges and point application devices are frequently characterized by bleeding and infections. Over the past 20 years, haemostatic agents and tissue sealants have been developed and now are currently used, along with classic suture in various surgical specialties. Their fluid nature allows management of blood loss along any point of the wound and tissue repair. This review presents an overview of the most diffused haemostatic sealants, focusing on their main use in surgery and their adverse effects.
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Objective- This study was performed to evaluate and compare grossly and pathologically two surgical techniques of amniotic membrane patching on experimental corneal alkali burn in dogs. Design- Experimental study. Animals- Fifteen healthy dogs Procedures- The central corneas of the dogs were inflicted by applying a round filter paper, 6.0 mm in diameter, soaked in 1 N NaOH for 60 sec. A corneal alkali burn was made unilaterally in each dog's eye. A total of fifteen dogs were divided into three groups of five each: (A) uncovered as a control group; (B) covered by amniotic membrane (AM) patching with the amnion cell side down sutured around the corneal wound area with 10/0 nylon as AM+suture group; (C) covered by sutureless amniotic membrane patch adhered by 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond®) as AM+glue group. Time of surgery and AM persistence were recorded. After 3 weeks eyes enucleated and Samples were monitored by evaluating of most important pathological features. Results- The mean time of surgery in group B was significantly longer than group C. AM persistence in group C was significantly more than group B. Corneal thickness measurements and numbers of epithelial rows showed no significant statistical differences between different groups. Group C has had significant lower degree of corneal vascularization than group A. Stromal edema was most prominent in group A, but statistical analysis revealed no significant statistical differences between groups. Stromal collagen arrangement showed no significant differences. AM patched corneas (group B, C) show lower inflammation, compared with the uncovered one (group A). Among the AM patching groups, the group C revealed the best result. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance- use of the sutureless amniotic membrane patching with 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate as a dressing on a corneal alkali burn could induce rapid epithelial healing with less inflammatory response as well as reduce the time of operation in dogs. Key Words- Amniotic membrane, corneal alkali burn, Dermabond®, 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate, Dog.
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Objective-This study was performed to evaluate and compare grossly and pathologically two surgical techniques of amniotic membrane patching on experimental corneal alkali burn in dogs. Design-Experimental study. Animals-Fifteen healthy dogs Procedures-The central corneas of the dogs were inflicted by applying a round filter paper, 6.0 mm in diameter, soaked in 1 N NaOH for 60 sec. A corneal alkali burn was made unilaterally in each dog's eye. A total of fifteen dogs were divided into three groups of five each: (A) uncovered as a control group; (B) covered by amniotic membrane (AM) patching with the amnion cell side down sutured around the corneal wound area with 10/0 nylon as AM+suture group; (C) covered by sutureless amniotic membrane patch adhered by 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond ®) as AM+glue group. Time of surgery and AM persistence were 22 recorded. After 3 weeks eyes enucleated and Samples were monitored by evaluating of most important pathological features. Results-The mean time of surgery in group B was significantly longer than group C. AM persistence in group C was significantly more than group B. Corneal thickness measurements and numbers of epithelial rows showed no significant statistical differences between different groups. Group C has had significant lower degree of corneal vascularization than group A. Stromal edema was most prominent in group A, but statistical analysis revealed no significant statistical differences between groups. Stromal collagen arrangement showed no significant differences. AM patched corneas (group B, C) show lower inflammation, compared with the uncovered one (group A). Among the AM patching groups, the group C revealed the best result. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-use of the sutureless amniotic membrane patching with 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate as a dressing on a corneal alkali burn could induce rapid epithelial healing with less inflammatory response as well as reduce the time of operation in dogs.
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