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Effects of different duration of traditional thai massage on parasympathetic nervous system

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Abstract

Routine practice of TTM may last 1 - 2 hours depending on available time of clients. We doubt that 1 hour and 2 hours may yield different results. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of different duration of treatment of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on stress, heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Seventeen healthy participants were randomly allocated to receive either 1 hour of TTM (1-TTM) group or 2 hour of TTM (2-TTM) group after which they were swabbed to receive the other one with a 2 - week washed out period. Stress, HRV, and ANS function were measured before and immediately after the TTM treatment. Within-groups comparison demonstrated that stress index was decreased (p<0.05) in both groups. Stress resistance, the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were increased (p<0.05) in both groups. Low frequency per high frequency (LF/HF) ratio was decreased (p<0.05) in 1-TTM group. HF and ANS activity were increased (p<0.05) in 1-TTM group whereas LF and ANS balance status were not changed in both groups. However, all of them were not significant difference for between groups comparison. We concluded that a single session of either 1 or 2 hours of TTM could decrease stress and increase heart rate variability whereas only the 1-hour TTM could increase ANS function.

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... 12,25 The mechanical action of reflexology and massage are based on energy theory postulating that an alternating pressure on the reflex points of the feet also stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system that bring about the same effects mentioned above. 12,28 Additionally, serotonin, endorphin, and enkephalin hormones are released that help to reduce labor pain, and suppress the release of stress hormones, such as the cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine hormones. 26 Touching and pressing during a massage could stimulate the afferent impulses that block pain transmission that are based on the neuro-matrix pain theory. ...
... 31,32 Many studies have reported that pharmacological methods reduce labor pain and anxiety. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33] Several studies have also reported side-effects for mothers, such as hypotension, prolonged second-stage of labor, and increased risk of assisted delivery. As well as their new-borns, such as decreased blood flow to the placenta, fetal-hypoxia, and difficulty in lactation for new-borns. ...
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Background: Labor pain and anxiety are important concerns during labor, especially among the primigravidae. It may increase the duration of labor, increase stress hormones, and affect maternal and new-born related outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of combined breathing exercises, foot reflexology, and massage (BRM) interventions on labor pain, anxiety, labor duration, stress hormone levels, maternal satisfaction, maternal vital signs, and the new-born's APGAR scores. Participants and methods: This single-blind-parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH), Makkah, Saudi Arabia, by recruiting primigravidae aged 20 to 35 years, without any medical complications, and who were block-randomized at six-centimeter cervical dilation and stratified by intramuscular pethidine. The intervention is BRM compared to standard care. The labor pain was measured via present behavioral intensity (PBI) and visual analogue scale (VAS), and the anxiety was measured via Anxiety Assessment Scale for Pregnant Women in Labor (AASPWL). The secondary outcomes were duration of labor, maternal stress hormone levels, maternal vital signs, maternal satisfaction, fetal heart rate, and APGAR scores. All outcomes were measured at multiple time-points during and after contraction at baseline, during BRM intervention, at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post-intervention. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effects over time. Results: A total of 225 participants were randomized for the control (n = 112) and intervention group (113). BRM lowered the labor pain intensity at 60 minutes after intervention during (1.3 vs 3.5, F = 102.5, p < 0.001) and after contraction (0.4 vs 2.4, F = 63.6, p < 0.001) and also lowered anxiety (2.9 vs 4.2, F = 80.4, p < 0.001). BRM correspondingly lowered adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) (133 vs 209 pg/mL, p < 0.001), cortisol (1231 vs 1360 nmol/mL, p = 0.003), and oxytocin (159 vs 121 pg/mL, p < 0.001). It also shortened the labor duration (165 vs 333 minutes, p < 0.001), improved vital signs, which resulted in higher APGAR scores, and increased maternal satisfaction. Conclusion: The labor unit management could consider adopting BRM as one of the non-pharmacological analgesia for healthy women in labor. Trial registration: ISRCTN87414969, registered 3 May 2019.
... 46 Moreover, reflexology has a positive role in regulating the function of the autonomic nervous system, 47 and activating the parasympathetic nervous system. 48,49 It is widely accepted that norepinephrine is effective in memory and learning regulation. 50 Therefore, it can be concluded that reflexology can be effective in improving memory function. ...
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Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability has often been used to assess cardiac autonomic function; however, the relationship of low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability to cardiac sympathetic tone has been unclear. With or without adjustment for high-frequency (HF) power, total power or respiration, LF power seems to provide an index not of cardiac sympathetic tone but of baroreflex function. Manipulations and drugs that change LF power or LF:HF may do so not by affecting cardiac autonomic outflows directly but by affecting modulation of those outflows by baroreflexes.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on stress-related parameters including heart rate variability (HRV), anxiety, muscle tension, pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and body flexibility in patients with back pain associated with myofascial trigger points. Thirty-six patients were randomly allocated to receive a 30-min session of either TTM or control (rest on bed) for one session. Results indicated that TTM was associated with significant increases in HRV (increased total power frequency (TPF) and high frequency (HF)), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and body flexibility (p<0.05) and significant decreases in self-reported pain intensity, anxiety and muscle tension (p<0.001). For all outcomes, similar changes were not observed in the control group. The adjusted post-test mean values for TPF, HF, PPT and body flexibility were significantly higher in the TTM group when compared with the control group (p<0.01) and the values for pain intensity, anxiety and muscle tension were significantly lower. We conclude that TTM can increase HRV and improve stress-related parameters in this patient population.
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To evaluate effects of touch massage (TM) on stress responses in healthy volunteers. A crossover design including twenty-two (mean age=28.2) healthy volunteers (11 male and 11 female) cardiac autonomic tone was measured by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Stress hormone levels (cortisol) were followed in saliva. We also measured blood glucose and serum insulin. Extracellular (ECV) levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol were followed using the microdialysis technique (MD). TM was performed on hands and feet for 80 min, during control, participants rested in the same setting. Data were collected before, during, and after TM and at rest. Saliva cortisol, serum glucose, and serum insulin were collected before, immediately following, and 1 h after intervention or control, respectively. After 5 min TM, HR decreased significantly, indicating a reduced stress response. Total HRV and all HRV components decreased during intervention. Saliva cortisol and insulin levels decreased significantly after intervention, while serum glucose levels remained stable. A similar, though less prominent, pattern was seen during the control situation. Only minor changes were observed in ECV levels of glucose (a decrease) and lactate (an increase). No significant alterations were observed in glycerol or pyruvate levels throughout the study. There were no significant differences between groups in ECV concentrations of analyzed substances. In healthy volunteers, TM decreased sympathetic nervous activity, leading to decreased overall autonomic activity where parasympathetic nervous activity also decreased, thereby maintaining the autonomic balance.
Massage therapy has been demonstrated to be effective during pregnancy. Women who received massage therapy reported decreased depression, anxiety, and leg and back pain. Cortisol levels decreased and, in turn, excessive fetal activity decreased, and the rate of prematurity was lower in the massage group. In a study of labor pain, women who received massage therapy experienced significantly less pain, and their labors were on average 3 h shorter with less need for medication. An underlying mechanism we have been exploring is that these effects are mediated by increased vagal activity. This likely occurs by the stimulation of pressure receptors that are innervated by vagal afferent fibers, which ultimately project to the limbic system, including hypothalamic structures involved in autonomic nervous system regulation and cortisol secretion.
Article
Although massage is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments for anxiety, its effectiveness has never been rigorously evaluated for a diagnosed anxiety disorder. This study evaluates the effectiveness of therapeutic massage for persons with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Sixty-eight persons with GAD were randomized to therapeutic massage (n=23), thermotherapy (n=22), or relaxing room therapy (n=23) for a total of 10 sessions over 12 weeks. Mean reduction in anxiety was measured by the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). Secondary outcomes included 50% reduction in HARS and symptom resolution of GAD, changes in depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)), worry and GAD-related disability. We compared changes in these outcomes in the massage and control groups posttreatment and at 6 months using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression. All groups had improved by the end of treatment (adjusted mean change scores for the HARS ranged from -10.0 to -13.0; P<.001) and maintained their gains at the 26-week followup. No differences were seen between groups (P=.39). Symptom reduction and resolution of GAD, depressive symptoms, worry and disability showed similar patterns. Massage was not superior to the control treatments, and all showed some clinically important improvements, likely due to some beneficial but generalized relaxation response. Because the relaxing room treatment is substantially less expensive than the other treatments, a similar treatment packaged in a clinically credible manner might be the most cost effective option for persons with GAD who want to try relaxation-oriented CAM therapies.
Article
At present, there is little scientific evidence that postexercise manual massage has any effect on the factors associated with the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage against a resting control condition upon femoral artery blood flow (FABF), skin blood flow (SKBF), skin (SKT), and muscle (MT) temperature after dynamic quadriceps exercise. Thirteen male volunteers participated in 3 x 2-min bouts of concentric quadriceps exercise followed by 2 x 6-min bouts of deep effleurage and pétrissage massage or a control (rest) period of similar duration in a counterbalanced fashion. Measures of FABF, SKBF, SKT, MT, blood lactate concentration (BLa), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were taken at baseline, immediately after exercise, as well as at the midpoint and end of the massage/rest periods. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Significant main effects were found for all variables over time due to effects of exercise. Massage to the quadriceps did not significantly elevate FABF (end-massage 760 +/- 256 vs end-control 733 +/- 161 mL x min(-1)), MT, BL, HR, and BP over control values (P < 0.05). SKBF (end-massage 150 +/- 49 vs end control 6 +/- 4 au) SKT (end-massage 32.2 +/- 0.9 vs end-control 31.1 +/- 1.3degreesC) were elevated after the application of massage compared with the control trial (P < 0.05). From these data it is proposed that without an increase in arterial blood flow, any increase in SKBF is potentially diverting flow away from recovering muscle. Such a response would question the efficacy of massage as an aid to recovery in postexercise settings.
Article
Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA=30 weeks) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages three times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15min before and during the first 15-min therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5-day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: (1) active sleep; (2) fussing; (3) crying; (4) movement; and (5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group.
Effects of massage therapy on sleep quality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery
  • Fb Nerbass
  • Miz Feltrim
  • Sa Souza
  • De
  • Ds Ykeda
  • G Lorenzi-Filho
Nerbass FB, Feltrim MIZ, Souza SA de, Ykeda DS, Lorenzi-Filho G, " Effects of massage therapy on sleep quality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery ", Clinics (Sao Paulo), Vol. 65(11), Nov. 2010, pp. 1105–1110.
and reviewed under GEOMATE publication policies All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including authors' closure, if any, will be published in Dec Corresponding Author:Thanarat Sripongngam
MS No. 1343 received on July 29, 2015 and reviewed under GEOMATE publication policies. Copyright © 2016, Int. J. of GEOMATE. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including authors' closure, if any, will be published in Dec. 2017 if the discussion is received by June 2017. Corresponding Author:Thanarat Sripongngam
  • W Eungpinichpong
  • Therapeutic Thai Massage
  • Bankok
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