Article

Molecular correlation of Zinfandel (Primitivo) with Austrian, Croatian, and Hungarian cultivars and Kratosija, an additional synonym

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Abstract

Results of comparative DNA analysis of Zinfandel with Austrian, Croatian, and Hungarian grape varieties by means of 13 SSR nuclear markers are reported. Twenty-six additional cultivars, representing Italian and foreign grapevines, were used as an outgroup in the search for clues that might indicate possible links with Zinfandel. Zinfandel clustered with the following cultivars: its offspring Plavac mali and Plavina, Dobricic, the other parent of Plavac mali, three Malvasias known to have a historical presence along Dalmatian coast, the Croatian cultivars Jarbola and Hrvatica, the Austrian cultivars Franconia and Veltliner fruhrot, and the Hungarian cultivars Furmint, Harzevelu, and Kadarka. All these varieties are localized in a well-defined geographic area that includes Austria, Dalmatia, and Hungary. The possible first-degree relationship of Zinfandel with Plavac mali and Plavina has been corroborated by results from 21 other SSR loci. An additional synonym for Zinfandel has been identified: Kratosija, an old variety growing in Montenegro.

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... Primitivo of Gioia is the best known variety used in Gioia del Colle DOC areas [42]. This variety is genetically related to the Croatian Crljenak Kaštelanski and the American Zinfandel [50]. Further comparative DNA analysis highlighted correlations of both Primitivo and Zinfandel with Austrian, Croatian, and Hungarian cultivars. ...
... Further comparative DNA analysis highlighted correlations of both Primitivo and Zinfandel with Austrian, Croatian, and Hungarian cultivars. It is now acknowledged that Primitivo and Zinfandel are synonyms for Crljenak Kaštelanski and that Plavac mali is the progeny of Zinfandel and Dobričić [50][51][52]. Thus, the history of this variety and its diffusion in Europe and in California is very interesting and it has stimulated numerous investigations devoted to the study of its origin and of the occurrence of various homonyms and synonyms in different areas [51]. ...
... Thus, the history of this variety and its diffusion in Europe and in California is very interesting and it has stimulated numerous investigations devoted to the study of its origin and of the occurrence of various homonyms and synonyms in different areas [51]. And interestingly, the analysis of historical documents, ampelographic literature, and botanical paintings has shown that Primitivo was present under many different names in the Carpathians, Hungary, Slovakia, Moravia, Bohemia, and Slovenia [50,53]. ...
Article
The genetic grapevine intravarietal variability will be analyzed by PCR-derived marker systems. In particular, the object of the investigation will be the clonal variations of Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce, Negroamaro and Primitivo, also known as Zinfandel, which are three grapevine varieties cultivated in Apulia region (Italy). In order to assess varietal identity of the samples, 132 DNA tests were performed by amplifying 16 SSR loci. The study of the intravarietal variability was performed using AFLPs, SAMPLs, ISSRs, and M-AFLPs. The application of the above-mentioned techniques allowed both to discriminate all genotypes of the three cultivars and to distinguish the accessions of each cultivar sampled from different geographic cultivation areas. Furthermore, the study of biotypes cultivated in different geographical environments of Salento (i.e., Apulia region) allowed important correlations between molecular marker variability and phenotypic traits. These results are suggesting both to focus our attention on the effects of the environment on the genotype and to consider, as a practical consequence, the importance of preserving autochthon grapevine biotypes found in different areas to truly preserve the richness of the germplasm. Thus, more accurate DNA studies give new information that can be extremely useful to the vine nurseries for the correct choice (i.e., supported by more accurate intravarietal variability analysis) of the grape multiplication materials.
... Zahvaljujući dobrim klimatskim uvjetima, povijesti, pomorskoj tradiciji i geografskom položaju, u Dalmaciji je početkom 19. stoljeća postojalo preko 400 sorata (Bulić 1949;Jelaska i Briza, 1967.). Između 1887. ...
... godine, Bulić (1949 je opisao 200 sorata od kojih se većina smatrala autohtonima. Isto tako, do pojave filoksere, površina pod vinogradima u Dalmaciji iznosila je 78000 ha, a u jednom je trenutku dosegnula brojku od 90 000 ha (Bulić 1949.). Od početka 20. ...
... Također je potvrđeno da se sorta Babić pod sinonimom Rogoznička uzgaja na području Kaštela (Vokurka i sur., 2003.). Nakon filoksere, a za vrijeme obnove vinograda, podizale su se značajne površine vinograda pod ovom sortom (Bulić, 1949.). Jedan od najstarijih spomena ove sorte, pod sinonimom Babičevac, zabilježen je u izvještaju s "Prve dalmatinsko-hrvatsko-slavonske izložbe" održane u Zagrebu 1864. ...
Article
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Tradition of grape wine cultivation in Dalmatia lasts over two millenniums. Overviewing the historical accounts on the production of researched varieties in Dalmatia, most of the varieties are mentioned in the 19th century. Variety Tribidrag is an exception as accounts on its cultivation date to 16th century. Most of the researched varieties have been significantly cultivated during the pre-phylloxera period and are still exceptionally economically important in Dalmatia and Republic of Croatia as a whole. Key words: grapevine, autochthonous cultivars, Dalmatia, Babic, Tribidrag, Debit, Grk, Marastina, Plavac mali, Plavina, Posip
... In the field of grapevine studies, there is still an ongoing debate about the origin of the synonymic genotypes: Californian 'Zinfandel ', Croatian 'Crljenak Kaštelanski', Montenegrian 'Kratošija' and Italian 'Primitivo' (MALETIĆ et al. 2004;CALÒ et al. 2008;LACOMBE et al. 2007;CIPRI-ANI et al. 2010). Some data suggest a possible first-degree relationship between the cultivars 'Kratošija' and 'Vranac' (MALETIĆ et al. 2004, CALÒ et al. 2008) and a parent-offspring relationship of ' Kratošija' with 'Plavina' and 'Vranac' has been proposed (MALETIĆ et al. 2004;CALÒ et al. 2008). ...
... In the field of grapevine studies, there is still an ongoing debate about the origin of the synonymic genotypes: Californian 'Zinfandel ', Croatian 'Crljenak Kaštelanski', Montenegrian 'Kratošija' and Italian 'Primitivo' (MALETIĆ et al. 2004;CALÒ et al. 2008;LACOMBE et al. 2007;CIPRI-ANI et al. 2010). Some data suggest a possible first-degree relationship between the cultivars 'Kratošija' and 'Vranac' (MALETIĆ et al. 2004, CALÒ et al. 2008) and a parent-offspring relationship of ' Kratošija' with 'Plavina' and 'Vranac' has been proposed (MALETIĆ et al. 2004;CALÒ et al. 2008). Others have suggested that 'Plavina' (= 'Plavina crna') could be an offspring of 'Kratošija' and 'Verdeca', a white cultivar grown in southern Italy (LACOMBE et al. 2007, CIPRIANI et al. 2010, LACOMBE et al. 2013. ...
... In the field of grapevine studies, there is still an ongoing debate about the origin of the synonymic genotypes: Californian 'Zinfandel ', Croatian 'Crljenak Kaštelanski', Montenegrian 'Kratošija' and Italian 'Primitivo' (MALETIĆ et al. 2004;CALÒ et al. 2008;LACOMBE et al. 2007;CIPRI-ANI et al. 2010). Some data suggest a possible first-degree relationship between the cultivars 'Kratošija' and 'Vranac' (MALETIĆ et al. 2004, CALÒ et al. 2008) and a parent-offspring relationship of ' Kratošija' with 'Plavina' and 'Vranac' has been proposed (MALETIĆ et al. 2004;CALÒ et al. 2008). Others have suggested that 'Plavina' (= 'Plavina crna') could be an offspring of 'Kratošija' and 'Verdeca', a white cultivar grown in southern Italy (LACOMBE et al. 2007, CIPRIANI et al. 2010, LACOMBE et al. 2013. ...
Article
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A total of 90 grapevine samples collected in five countries of the Western Balkan region were evaluated for trueness-to-type and kinship relations based on comparative analysis with 1,130 grapevine genotypes held at the INRA "Domaine de Vassal" French Grape Germplasm Repository, using 14 microsatellite markers. In the context of the comparative analysis, twenty-four synonyms/counterparts and the putative parents for twelve Balkan accessions were identified. We discovered five pairs of homonyms, subsequently confirming the identity or parentage of three of them. Some of the examined accessions were identified either on the basis of the genotypes found in the literature, or through parentage relationships revealed in this study. For the remaining fifty accessions we were unable to establish either their pedigree or to identify them on the basis of SSR profiles available elsewhere. Finally, the Balkan genotypes that were not well classified by synonymy or parentage analysis were further studied with a Principal Coordinate Analysis to reveal genetic clustering within larger datasets of genotypes. The graphical display of the individual and group distances showed that about forty accessions (85 %) are structured within a group of Balkan and Eastern Europe genotypes and only a minor proportion resulted in admixed population assignment.
... Ulićević (1959) argues that the Californian Zinfandel is identical to Kratošija and that Zinfandel likely originatesfromMontenegroandhasbeenexportedby Montenegrin emigrants. This was supported by the work of Calò et al. (2008), confirming that Kratošija has the same genetic profile as Zinfandel. Avramov (1988), Pejović (1988), Cindrić (1994), Cindrić et al. (2000), Burić(1995), Božinovik(1996), Maraš(2000) and Maraš et al. (2004) write that Vranac and Kratošija are autochthonous cultivars from Montenegro and that Kratošija has a very heterogeneouspopulation.Thewinesofthesecultivars are complementary : Kratošija usually provides a higheramountoftotalacidsandsugars,whileVranac isricherincolouredsubstances. ...
Article
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p style="text-align: justify;"> Aim : Given that the information about the origin, genetic relationships, and diversity of Montenegrin grapevines is still partial, we performed a detailed analysis of the germplasm in this country using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Our main goal was to determine the identity of cultivars unique to Montenegro and those shared with other countries, especially the neighbouring ones. Methods and results : Seventy samples were collected and 14 genotypes were found. After SSR profile comparison with available molecular databases and literature data, the identity of each genotype was established. Five well-known cultivars were found, the others being minor, lesser-known cultivars. Conclusion : This research provides an overview of the Montenegrin grapevine assortment. There are cultivars shared with other countries, mainly the neighbouring ones, while others are likely native to Montenegro. The Kratošija population ( alias Primitivo, Zinfandel and Crljenak Kaštelanski) has a large number of different names in Montenegro and also a wide morphological variability. Therefore, Montenegro is the best candidate as the origin and spreading point of this cultivar. Significance and impact of the study : The present study adds information on the identity, origin, diffusion and variability of some grapevine cultivars, allowing us to reconstruct the history and evolution of national and transnational ampelographic assortment of Montenegro.</p
... Primitivo is a grapevine variety very important for Apulian viticulture and according to tradition it was first planted by Benedictine monks in Gioia del Colle (Bari, Apulia, Italy). Primitivo di Gioia is the best known variety used in Gioia del Colle DOC wine and is genetically equivalent to the Croatian Crljenak Kaštelanski and the American Zinfandel (Calò & Costacurta, 2004;Calò, 2008). ...
Article
Grapevine is the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop in the world. Molecular markers have been used on Vitis vinifera to distinguish among both varieties and clones. Microsatellites are used to fingerprint varieties and several other techniques, reported in many papers, are used to analyze the differences among clones, but it is not available in the literature as a well defined strategy to screen a large number of Vitis cultivars. In fact, it is often necessary to use different techniques to investigate the genetic variability in different grapevine varieties and a proposed technique is used to study a cultivar, which is often not suitable for either the study of another cultivar or compare the genetic relationship among various cultivars. We describe here a strategy used for the analysis of several grapevine cultivars to describe a universal method to obtain DNA polymorphisms of Vitis vinifera genotypes from the same cultivar by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), microsatellites AFLP (M-AFLP), and ISSR molecular markers. The strategy here adopted permitted both to identify different biotypes (i.e., Primitivo), accessions (i.e., Garnacha tinta), and clones (i.e., Callet, Manto Negro, Moll) among the variability of same variety and to correlate the genetic differences to their geographical origins (i.e., Garnacha tinta; Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce) or morphological traits (i.e., Malvasia of Candia). Here is also described the application of the protocol that allows to highlight the genetic variability accumulated during centuries of cultivations and selections of the same variety in different environments by vine growers.
... Gerace (I), Malvasia delle Lipari (I), Malvasia di Sardegna (I), Malvasia de Sitges (E), Malvasia de La Palma (E, Canary islands), Malvasija dubrovačka (HR)Crespan et al. 2006, Zerolo Hernandez et al. 2007 Crljenak kaštelanski (HR), Pribidrag (HR), Primitivo (I), Tribidrag (HR), Zinfandel (USA), Kratošija (Montenegro)Maletić et al. 2004, Calò et al. 2008 Cipar(HR), Grec rouge (F), Grisa rousa (Piedmont, I) Pejić and Maletić, unpublished, Schneider et al. 2001 Malvasia bianca lunga (I), Malvasia del Chianti (I), Maraština (HR), Pavlos (GR), Rukatac (HR) Šimon et al. 2007 Malvasia (E), Malvasia Castellana (E), Dona Blanca (E) Arranz et al. 2007 Moscato Bianco (I), Moscato (Cyprus), Tamyanka (BG) Lefkas (Cyprus), Verdzami (GR) Malaga (Cyprus), Muscat of Alexandria (CH), Bordeaux blanc (F), Gros Bourgogne (F) Vouillamoz et al. 2004 Black Kishmish (RU), Russian seedless (RU), Kishmish Chernyi (RU), Negrita (Chile) Sultanina, Thompson Seedless (USA), Keshmesh (Pakistan) "Quinn of the Vineyard", Scolokertek Kiralnoje (H) Dangl et al. 2001 Moscato bianco (I), Moscatel fino (E), Muškat momjanski (HR), Muscat d'Alsace blanc (F), Muscat de Frontignan (F), ... + 22 additional synonyms Muscat of Alexandria (Egypt), Moscatel blanco (E), Moscatel de Malaga (E), Moscato francese (I) Crespan and Milani 2001 Sangiovese (I), Guarnacciola (I), Tabernello (I), Toustain (Algeria) + 12 already supposed and confirmed synonyms Di Vechi Staraz et al. 2007 Borsé (I), Cardin (I), Avaná (I), Hibou rouge (F), Canari (F), Luverdon (I), Chatus (F), Neiret (I), Nebbiolo di Dronero (I), Bian ver (I), Verdesse (F), Bianco (I), Listan (F), Biquet (I), Persan (F), Gouais blanc (F), Liseiret (I), Preveiral (I), Heunisch Weiss (A) Schneider et al. 2001 ...
Chapter
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Microsatellites have become a favorite type of DNA marker for identification of grapevine cultivars, and their properties enable a wide range of applications from cultivar identification based on various parts of the grapevine plant to pedigree reconstruction and genome mapping (Sefc et al. 2001). Genetic markers have the advantage that the DNA of a certain plant is identical in all cells of any tissue at any stage of development and is not influenced by environmental or sanitary conditions of the plants. DNA can be obtained from every kind of plant tissue available, e.g. wood, leaves or berries, and analyses can therefore be carried out at any time of the year. Thanks to the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technology, minute amounts of DNA can be analyzed, which extends the usefulness of the method from plant tissue to grapevine products such as must and wine.
... Ulićević (1959) argues that the Californian Zinfandel is identical to Kratošija and that Zinfandel likely originatesfromMontenegroandhasbeenexportedby Montenegrin emigrants. This was supported by the work of Calò et al. (2008), confirming that Kratošija has the same genetic profile as Zinfandel. Avramov (1988), Pejović (1988), Cindrić (1994), Cindrić et al. (2000), Burić(1995), Božinovik(1996), Maraš(2000) and Maraš et al. (2004) write that Vranac and Kratošija are autochthonous cultivars from Montenegro and that Kratošija has a very heterogeneouspopulation.Thewinesofthesecultivars are complementary : Kratošija usually provides a higheramountoftotalacidsandsugars,whileVranac isricherincolouredsubstances. ...
... The study aimed to help catalog, characterize, and identify local grape varieties of relevance for their economic or historical significance and for endangered germplasm conservation. Since intense cultivar migration has been demonstrated for the prominent grape Primitivo (Maletić et al. 2004, Calò et al. 2008, published allelic profiles of cultivars from neighboring and surrounding areas were compared with their Apulian counterparts in order to discover any new synonyms and provide historical evidence on grape circulation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forty-five grape accessions, traditional and historically mentioned in Apulia (southeastern Italy), were genotyped at 13 microsatellite (SSR) markers and observed for their morphological features with the aim of characterizing and identifying the local grape diversity relevant for economic or historical significance and for endangered germplasm conservation. Twelve of the 45 accessions examined were found to be synonyms or somatic mutants, leaving 33 distinct genotypes. Attempts were then made to verify the true identities of the accessions investigated and to determine their appropriate denominations. This entailed comparing them with published allelic profiles and morphological features of cultivars from Apulia and from surrounding areas linked historically to the region. While confirming the identity of the major Apulian cultivars, further matches with varieties from other Mediterranean regions were revealed. Approximately half of the Apulian cultivars investigated were found to have a foreign counterpart mainly along the Adriatic Sea (Croatia), in Greece, or in other southern Italian regions. The new synonymies found with cultivars traditional to other areas shed light on the migration of cultivars following the settlement of colonies and the historical establishment of Mediterranean trade routes.
... 'Kratošija' is heterogeneous variety in term of expressing its attributes, which led to the appearance of series varieties-biotype with obvious differences, which caused its lower representation in Montenegrin vineyards [9]. It is confirmed by genetic analysis that 'Kratošija' has identical genetic profile as 'Zinfandel' from California, 'Primitivo' from Italy and 'Crljenak kaštelanski' from Croatia [10]. Kratošija wine is characterized by an intense ruby-red color and aroma of red berry fruits and an extremely pleasant taste; it has a light and harmonious structure and smooth finish. ...
Article
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The influence of five different grape yields on the quality of grapes and wines of autochthonous red grapevine variety ‘Kratošija’ (‘Zinfandel’) and white grapevine variety ‘Žižak’, in sub-region Podgorica was investigated. The aim of this study was to determine which yield has the best effects on grape and wine quality of grapevine varieties investigated. As result of multiyear investigation (2009 - 2012) and research of yield parameters, in order to achieve the optimal quality of grape and wine, we decided to leave different number of buds within both varieties. By different kind of winter pruning within ‘Kratošija’ variety it is approximately achieved yield of 6, 8, 11, 13 and 15 t/ha, while within ‘Žižak’ variety 6, 8, 9, 10 and 12 t/ha was achieved. During vegetation yield parameters (average number of bunch per vine, average weight of bunch, average yield per vine) and quality parameters (sugar content, pH and total acids) of grape were monitored. Average yield was determined by measuring harvested grape weight of fifteen marked vines, while average weight of bunch was determined by dividing of total grape weight by total number of bunches. Sugar content was determined using Oechesle’s hydrometer, total acids and pH by potentiometric method. Wine quality parameters: alcohol content, total dry extract were determined by densitometry, reducing sugar, total and free SO2 by titration method and total polyphenols and anthocyanins by spectrophotometric methods. Sensory analysis was done by OIV 100 points evaluation method. Based on obtained results of ‘Kratošija’ variety, it was concluded that the best quality of grapes and wines achieved at yield of 8 t/ha (sugar content (23.9%), alcohol (13.49 vol%) and total dry extract (31.5 g/l)), what is also confirmed by sensory analysis (84.00). The optimal chemical (sugar content (22.8%), alcohol (14.20 vol%) and total dry extract (23.5 g/L) and sensorial parameters (86.25) of ‘Žižak’ variety was achieved at yield of 12 t/ha.
... 'Kratošija' is heterogeneous variety in term of expressing its attributes, which led to the appearance of series varieties-biotype with obvious differences, which caused its lower representation in Montenegrin vineyards [9]. It is confirmed by genetic analysis that 'Kratošija' has identical genetic profile as 'Zinfandel' from California, 'Primitivo' from Italy and 'Crljenak kaštelanski' from Croatia [10]. Kratošija wine is characterized by an intense ruby-red color and aroma of red berry fruits and an extremely pleasant taste; it has a light and harmonious structure and smooth finish. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The influence of five different grape yields on the quali-ty of grapes and wines of autochthonous red grapevine variety 'Kratošija' ('Zinfandel') and white grapevine va-riety 'Žižak' , in sub-region Podgorica was investigated. The aim of this study was to determine which yield has the best effects on grape and wine quality of grapevine varieties investigated. As result of multiyear investiga-tion (2009 -2012) and research of yield parameters, in order to achieve the optimal quality of grape and wine, we decided to leave different number of buds within both varieties. By different kind of winter pruning with-in 'Kratošija' variety it is approximately achieved yield of 6, 8, 11, 13 and 15 t/ha, while within 'Žižak' variety 6, 8, 9, 10 and 12 t/ha was achieved. During vegeta-tion yield parameters (average number of bunch per vine, average weight of bunch, average yield per vine) and quality parameters (sugar content, pH and total acids) of grape were monitored. Average yield was de-termined by measuring harvested grape weight of fif-teen marked vines, while average weight of bunch was determined by dividing of total grape weight by total number of bunches. Sugar content was determined using Oechesle's hydrometer, total acids and pH by po-tentiometric method. Wine quality parameters: alcohol content, total dry extract were determined by densi-tometry, reducing sugar, total and free SO 2 by titration method and total polyphenols and anthocyanins by spectrophotometric methods. Sensory analysis was done by OIV 100 points evaluation method. Based on obtained results of 'Kratošija' variety, it was concluded that the best quality of grapes and wines achieved at yield of 8 t/ha (sugar content (23.9%), alco-hol (13.49 vol%) and total dry extract (31.5 g/l)), what is also confirmed by sensory analysis (84.00). The optimal chemical (sugar content (22.8%), alcohol (14.20 vol%) and total dry extract (23.5 g/L) and sensorial parameters (86.25) of 'Žižak' variety was achieved at yield of 12 t/ha.
... Structure clustering of 129 unique genotypes (Balkan and West European) resulted in four well distinct groups (K =4) and, according to the Negrul classification (Negrul 1946), we identified these groups as follows: (Calò et al. 2008;Maletić et al. 2004). This group of cultivars is composed mainly of wine grapes providing premium quality wine and, according to their characteristics, they belong to conv. ...
Article
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A collection of 196 grapevine samples from five countries of theWestern Balkan region, representing local and traditional cultivars, was genotyped with 22 SSR markers. Identity analysis revealed 125 unique genotypes, which were further used for diversity assessment. The average number of alleles per locus detected was 11±3.53, ranging from 6 to 21. The low cumulative probability of identical genotypes (2.96× 10−20) shown in this study implies an even distribution of alleles within the analyzed set of grapevines and a sufficient number of loci. On the basis of the discriminatory power of each SSR, a set of five markers (VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD28, VChr3a, and VChr8b) was determined as sufficient for high-throughput discrimination of the target cultivars. The maximum discriminating power was evidenced for loci VVMD28 and Vchr8b (0.96, 0.94, respectively). A core collection covering the entire genetic diversity resulted in a set of 60 genotypes representing approximately 50 % of the samples from each country. Structure clustering of Balkan and West European cultivars resulted in four well distinct groups identified according to the classification of Negrul (1946). The lowest level of admixed genotypes was assigned for grapevines from Bosnia and Herzegovina (61 %) and the highest for Serbian (87 %) grapevines. In terms of grape use, the wine cultivars were divided into three groups and the fourth group was intermixed, with half wine and half table grapes. The highest Nei’s genetic distance (0.22) was discovered between Slovenian and Macedonian cultivars, while the lowest (0.09) was between Slovenian and Serbian cultivars. Macedonian cultivars were genetically most distant from the others (0.17). A similar pattern of differentiation among populations is seen with distance-based clustering. Analysis of molecular variance revealed only 1 % of genetic variation among groups of different origin, while the variation among individuals within geographical groups and within individuals explained 13 and 86 % of the total variation, respectively.
... The genome of grape varieties is marked by different SSR patterns that have been used to reveal the pedigree of several varieties [54,55] and their historical origins [12,13,16,55,56] since the 1990s. SSRs have revealed unexpected synonyms [57][58][59] also in grape varieties from distant geographical areas, as in the case of Malvasia delle Lipari, Malvasia di Sardegna, Greco di Gerace (Italy), Malvasia de Sitges (Spain) and Malvasia dubrovačka (Croatia) [60]. Owing to their extensive use worldwide, large international Vitis databases containing SSR profiles are now available as references for cultivar identification (http://www.eu-vitis.de/index.php ...
Article
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The cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera L., is represented by an enormous population of varieties and clones. They arise from the accumulation of gametic and somatic mutations during centuries of sexual and asexual propagation. These varieties represent a vast reservoir of traits/alleles that could be useful in improving the berry quality as well as against environmental stresses. However, most of them are still unexploited. For this reason, an efficient characterization system is essential to define the varietal identity, avoid cases of synonymy (identical genotypes but different names) and homonymy (same names but different genotypes) and deepen our understanding of the existing diversity within the grape germplasm. The plethora of DNA-based high-throughput technologies currently available provides promising tools for the analysis of diversity, overcoming many of the limitations of phenotypic-based diversity analyses. However, the analysis of intra-varietal diversity remains challenging. In this scenario, after summarizing the causes and consequences of grapevine genetic inter- and intra-varietal diversity, we review the DNA-based technologies used for varietal genotyping, emphasizing those able to distinguish clones within a variety. This review provides an update on the technologies used to explore grapevine diversity, the knowledge of which is necessary for an efficient exploitation and conservation of the grapevine germplasm.
... Although Montenegro is a small country, located in Balkan Peninsula, this country is very rich in grapevine diversity (Maraš, 2019 There are many reports by the authors from former Yugoslavia, indicating that Vranac and Kratošija are autochthonous Montenegrin grape varieties (Stojanović, 1929;Bulić, 1949;Ulićević, 1959Ulićević, , 1966Nastev, 1967;Zirojević, 1979;Pejović, 1988, Burić, 1995, Maraš, 2000Maraš et al., 2004;Milosavljević, 2008). It was also reported by Calò et al. (2008) that Kratošija is a synonym of the grape variety Primitivo from Italy, Crljenak Kaštelanski from Croatia, and Zinfandel from California, and they also suggested a first-degree relationship between Kratošija and Vranac varieties. Maraš et al. (2012a) have reported that Kratošija variety has appeared in Montenegrin vineyards before Vranac. ...
Thesis
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The aim of this research has been to examine the microbiological and technological parameters influencing volatile phenols (VP) production in wine of the autochthonous Montenegrin grape varieties Kratošija and Vranac and the international grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon. Within two consecutive vintages (2012 and 2013) grape must and wines have been analysed on the presence of Dekkera bruxellensis yeast and on hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA) as precursors of VP. Among technological parameters, the influence of commercial yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the addition of oak alternatives on wine chemical composition and sensory profile has been examined. Caffeic acid represented the prevalent HCA compound for all varietal wines, with the exception of Kratošija in the 2012 vintage in which ferulic acid (93.2%) was the main HCA. Higher total content of all three examined HCA was observed in all varietal wines inoculated with commercial yeast in 2012, as compared to 2013, due to the high content of caffeic acid in the 2012 vintage. Statistically significant differences in VP content were found between commercial yeast, LAB and oak alternatives. The presence of Dekkera bruxellensis spp. has been noticed only in the 2013 vintage for Vranac control wine after alcoholic fermentation (AF), confirming that these yeasts are present in extremely low numbers at the beginning of AF only. Vranac wines, inoculated with commercial yeast, contained the highest content of p-coumaric acid in 2012 (1.54 mg/L), followed by Kratošija wines in the 2013 vintage (1.03 mg/L). The highest number of samples with detected VP from the vintage 2012 were found for Vranac wines (12 out of 28), while in 2013 vintage, Kratošija had the highest number of samples (18 out of 28). VP have appeared only in wines of autochthonous grape varieties, after long bottle aging and the number of infected samples were vintage dependent. Comparing autochthonous Montenegrin wines to Cabernet Sauvignon, it can be concluded that this international variety grown in agro-ecological conditions of Ćemovsko field does not show increased VP even after three or four years of aging in bottles. It has been concluded that VP are formed predominantly in wines with high alcohol content, low pH, low reducing sugars content, and even in wines with free SO2 above 30 mg/L
... In altri casi varietà presunte autoctone e/o a diffusione molto limitata , risultano invece coltivate in isole Canarie ed a Madera (Crespan et al., 2006). Il Primitivo coltivato in Puglia non è sinonimo solo dello Zinfandel (California ) e dello Crljenak Kastelanski (Croazia), ma anche della Kratošija (Montenegro) (Calò et al., 2008) e dell'antico Tribigrad (Croazia) (Malenica et al., 2011 ). La cultivar pugliese Francavidda corrisponde alla Bioka (Montenegro) ed anche alla Zlatarica Vrgorska (Croazia) (Maraš et al., 2014). ...
... Malvasía Rei (1,54), Palomino (36,25,17,45), Sercial (4) MBG (34), Cainho Branco (28) MBG-026 ESP080- BGVCAM1116 17 Caíño Bravo N 133 : 141 223 : 229 238 : 262 179 : 187 194 : 196 242 : 244 Amaral (10,40), Azal Tinto (40), Caíño Astureses (18) (10,1,34,40,46,4), Borrançal (54), Caíño Redondo-1 (17,18), Tinto Redondo, Tinta Femia-2 (17) Tinta Femia-1, Caíño da Terra, Zamarrica (17) MBG Aragón ( Tempranillo, Aragonez (10,1,40,54,4), Tinta de Toro, Cencibel (7), Tinta de Nava, Tinta del País (45), Tinta Roriz (34), Arauxa (17) Tinta de Toro Blanca. Berry color-grey-somatic mutation (45) MBG-108 ESP080- BGVCAM1579 24 Cumbrao B 131 : 151 229 : 237 242 : 246 183 : 187 194 : 204 242 : 248 Silveiriña Cagarrizo Folgaçao (1,33), Carão de Moça (54), Antão Vaz (4), Folgasão (54,11) Cumbrao as Godello (17) Rondal (36), Síria (1,33,54), Malvasía Blanca (25), Malvasía (at Toro region), Verdegudillo (45), Sabro (54), Encruzado (4), Codega (28) MBG (17,18), Camaraou Noir (28,38) Several Portuguese Espadeiro and Padeiro (33,10,1), Espadeiro (17) MBG Muscat à Petits Grains Blancs (5,22,15,28,30), Muscat du Frontignan (7), Moscatel de Toro (45), Moscatel Galego Branco (10,40,21,53), Moscato Samos (2), Moscato Bianco (8,44,50), Moscato B. U6547 (37) (10,1,54,4,11,38), Pazao, Viñón (17), Souzao (28) Sousão and Sousão Galego (10) Suplementary Moscatel Graudo (1,54), Muscat of Alexandria/Muscat d'Alexandrie (2,15,24,27,28,30,38,42), Jaen (4), Zibibbo, Zibibbo Augustano, Zibibbo Carricante, Zibibbo Grosso (9), Muscat de Fandouk 1 (29) Somatic variant: Moscatel Rosa (7) (7), Boal Cachudo (34,32), Boal da Graciosa, Assario Branco (31), Boal da Madeira (32), Malvasia Fina (40,32,54,4), Arinto do Dao ( Bastardo (1,25,54,39), Pan y Carne-1 (45,25), Estaladiña, Ojos de Sapo (25), Trousseau (5,7,28), Graciosa (54), Tinta Miúda (4) Bastardo (21,54,49,41,19) ESP080-BGVCAM1974 I Alsacia Negra (17), Perdigueira (36), Albillo Negro (45), Temprano Colorado-Chasselas Rosé-Alsacia (25), Chasselas Roxo (53) Somatic variants: Chasselas Cioutat, Pirixileira (25,17,2), Petersilen Gutedel (22) ESP080 (17) Jaén as Mencía (1) ...
Article
Background and Aims Numerous descriptions have been made of the wines produced in the past, however, the grapevine genotypes have been poorly recorded. Naming errors are also common, a problem that could negatively impact scientific work and cause economic damage to wine markets. The aim of the present work was to compare the accessions from Galicia and Asturias held in the Misión Biológica de Galicia‐Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and El Encín‐Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario collections in Spain in order to resolve synonyms, homonyms and naming errors in both. Materials and Methods The accessions of these collections were compared in terms of their leaf and bunch ampelographic characteristics, via simple sequence repeat analysis and via the examination of old photographs and other historic documentation. Results The two collections were found to hold 59 distinct genotypes from the two regions. Ten were unique to the Misión Biológica de Galicia‐Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas collection and four to the El Encín‐Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario collection – rather fewer than expected. Traces of intra‐genotype variation were seen for some genotypes. Conclusions The comparison of the accessions allowed some problems of genotype identity and origin to be identified and resolved. The possible intra‐genotype variation detected should be examined in greater depth. The results also highlight the value of well documented live collections, gathered at different times and curated in different places, for this type of work, as well as in the conservation of world viticultural heritage. Significance of this Study These findings open up paths for future research on the material conserved, and its commercial exploitation.
... Kasnije se proširila u Kavadarce (Makedonija). Genetička identi kacija je pokazala da je sorta vranac jedinstvena, originalna sorta, dok sorta kratošija ima isti genetski pro l, odnosno da je riječ o istoj sorti koja se pod imenom primitivo i zinfandel gaji u Italiji i Kaliforniji [21,24]. Kratošija je najstarija sorta, uvedena u kulturu gajenja u Crnoj Gori prije sorte vranac, koju su naši iseljenici prenijeli u Kaliforniju [7,8]. ...
Conference Paper
Vinogradarsko-vinarska proizvodnja Crne Gore uglavnom se zasniva na gajenju i proizvodnji grožđa i vina od autohtonih sorti vinove loze. Vranac i kratošija su ekonomski najznačajnije crnogorske autohtone sorte vinove loze od kojih se proi-zvodi crveno vino. Kratošija je autohtona crnogorska sorta nastala ranije i prema mno-gim literaturnim podacima uvedena u kulturu gajenja znatno prije vranca. Osobina starih sorti koje se dugo gaje na jednom prostoru je da pokazuju hetero-genost u pogledu ispoljavanja svojih agro-bioloških i privredno-tehnoloških osobina (razlike u prinosu i kvalitetu grožđa između pojedinih čokota), što postepeno dovodi do pojave niza različitih biotipova unutar populacije. Iz ovih razloga, u okviru starih cijenjenih sorti, nameće se potreba za individualnom klonskom selekcijom i izdvaja-njem pojedinih čokota koji su nosioci pozitivnih mutacija nekih privredno značajnih osobina. Za razliku od kratošije, koja na teritoriji Crne Gore ima vrlo heterogenu po-pulaciju unutar koje je izdvojeno 17 biotipova širom Crne Gore, u sorte vranac mor-fološke karakteristike su dosta stabilne i on je posljednjih godina doživio ekspanziju i postao glavna sorta za crvena vina, ne samo u Crnoj Gori nego i u regionu. Cilj istraživanja je bio da se izdvoje najbolji čokoti unutar populacija sorti vranac i kratošija, koji se ističu visokim prinosom, kvalitetom grožđa, dobrim habitusom, koji su vizuelno zdravi i bez prisustva virusa. U toku višegodišnjeg rada na klonskoj selek-ciji autohtonih sorti vranca i kratošije, urađena je sanitarna kontrola izdvojenih čoko-ta i ispitana njihova agro-biološka i privredno-tehnološka svojstva. Na osnovu dobi-jenih rezultata ispitivanja, selekcionisano je i 2014. godine priznato 7 klonova sorte vranac (vranac klon 1, vranac klon 2, vranac klon 3, vranac klon 4, vranac klon 5, vranac klon 6 i vranac klon 7). Selekcionisani klonovi su nadmašili populaciju sorte u pojedinim parametrima kvaliteta grožđa i vina. * "13. jul-Plantaže",
... Nevertheless, its place of origin is controversial, and it has changed as new evidence was added: first from USA to Italy 49 , and then to Croatia, where old references and a reduced number of plants with a matching genotype were found under the name Crljenak Kastelanski 50 . More recently, the first molecular analysis of Kratošija proved that it has the same genotype 32 . In our study we identified 106 plants of Kratošija in old Montenegrin vineyards, and we found it to be the genitor (trios and duos) of almost 20 grapevine genotypes cultivated in Montenegro. ...
Article
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Global viticulture has evolved following market trends, causing loss of cultivar diversity and traditional practices. In Montenegro, modern viticulture co-exists with a traditional viticulture that still maintains ancient practices and exploits local cultivars. As a result, this region provides a unique opportunity to explore processes increasing genetic diversity. To evaluate the diversity of Montenegrin grapevines and the processes involved in their diversification, we collected and analyzed 419 samples in situ across the country (cultivated plants from old orchards and vines growing in the wild), and 57 local varieties preserved in a grapevine collection. We obtained 144 different genetic profiles, more than 100 corresponding to cultivated grapevines, representing a surprising diversity for one of the smallest European countries. Part of this high diversity reflects historical records indicating multiple and intense introduction events from diverse viticultural regions at different times. Another important gene pool includes many autochthonous varieties, some on the edge of extinction, linked in a complex parentage network where two varieties (Razaklija and Kratošija) played a leading role on the generation of indigenous varieties. Finally, analyses of genetic structure unveiled several putative proto-varieties, likely representing the first steps involved in the generation of new cultivars or even secondary domestication events.
... This resulted in the creation of a database of 2152 non-redundant genotypes, including 100 Croatian accessions previously genotyped through the GrapeGen06 project [7]. In addition, 1906 genetic profiles from publications containing shared loci [11,14,26,[29][30][31][32][33]36,37,60,[79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94] have been manually harmonized using common genotypes and added to the database for further analysis. Comparing all alleles across loci using the Excel-Microsatellite Toolkit [95], two conditions were identified: genotypes' uniqueness and/or synonymy/duplication. Accessions were considered as duplicates when they had an identical SSR profile, and assuming the existence of genotyping errors/spontaneous mutations, maximum difference of two alleles was allowed. ...
Article
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Croatian viticulture was most extensive at the beginning of the 20th century, when about 400 varieties were in use. Autochthonous varieties are the result of spontaneous hybridization from the pre-phylloxera era and are still cultivated today on about 35 % of vineyard area, while some exist only in repositories. We present what is the most comprehensive genetic analysis of all major Croatian national repositories, with a large number of microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and it is also the first study to apply single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After 212 accessions were fingerprinted, 95 were classified as unique to Croatian germplasm. Genetic diversity of Croatian germplasm is rather high considering its size. SNP markers proved useful for fingerprinting but less informative and practical than SSRs. Analysis of the genetic structure showed that Croatian germplasm is predominantly part of the Balkan grape gene pool. A high number of admixed varieties and synonyms is a consequence of complex pedigrees and migrations. Parentage analysis confirmed 24 full parentages, as well as 113 half-kinships. Unexpectedly, several key genitors could not be detected within the present Croatian germplasm. The low number of reconstructed parentages (19%) points to severe genetic erosion and stresses the importance of germplasm repositories.
... The analysis confirmed that Vranac, Krstač, and Žižak have an original DNA profile. Kratošija, an old Montenegrin grape variety, has an identical genetic profile as the Zinfandel from California, Primitivo from Italy, and Crljenak kaštelanski from Croatia [32]. The same authors also suggest a probable first degree relationship between Vranac and Kratošija. ...
... Some cultivars were identified in more than one region, such as Nerello mascalese (from Sicilia), also identified in Calabria and Campania. Zibibbo sampled in Campania and Sicilia, Primitivo in Campania and Montenegro (Kratosija), as already reported in other studies [10,14,15,21,[64][65][66][67]. Many known synonymies were confirmed, while the remaining eight cases of synonymies were identified here for the first time (Additional file 4). ...
Article
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Background Magna Graecia is the ancient name for the modern geopolitical region of South Italy extensively populated by Greek colonizers, shown by archeological and historical evidence to be the oldest wine growing region of Italy, crucial for the spread of specialized viticulture around Mediterranean shores. Here, the genetic diversity of Magna Graecia grape germplasm was assessed and its role in grapevine propagation around the Mediterranean basin was underlined. Results A large collection of grapevines from Magna Graecia was compared with germplasm from Georgia to the Iberian Peninsula using the 18 K SNP array. A high level of genetic diversity of the analyzed germplasm was determined; clustering, structure analysis and DAPC (Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components) highlighted the genetic relationships among genotypes from South Italy and the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece). Gene flow from east (Georgia) to west (Iberian Peninsula) was identified throughout the large number of detected admixed samples. Pedigree analysis showed a complex and well-structured network of first degree relationships, where the cultivars from Magna Graecia were mainly involved. Conclusions This study provided evidence that Magna Graecia germplasm was shaped by historical events that occurred in the area due to the robust link between South Italian and Greek genotypes, as well as, by the availability of different thermal resources for cultivars growing in such different winegrowing areas. The uniqueness of this ampelographic platform was mainly an outcome of complex natural or human-driven crosses involving elite cultivars. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12870-018-1576-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... These two varieties are also important in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia, being considered autochthonous varieties of the Western Balkan countries [16]. Recently, however, a study revealed that Kratošija has the same molecular profile of accessions as Zinfandel and Primitivo [17]. The area dedicated to the cultivation of vineyards and the number of grape and wine producers has been increasing in Montenegro, mainly in the last decade, where both local and international varieties are being produced. ...
Article
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The present work intends to study, for the first time, the characterization of the phenolic composition (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols) of Montenegrin autochthonous varietal wines Vranac, Kratošija, and an international recognized variety, Cabernet Sauvignon, from different locations of Montenegro, under the same conditions and enological practices by applying chromatographic techniques. The studied varietal wines showed specific varietal profiles for the examined phenolic groups: relative proportion of hydroxycinnamic acids, composition of stilbenes, anthocyanin profile, flavan-3-ols composition of monomers and dimers, as well as some certain wine varietal ratios, namely acetylated/p-coumarylated anthocyanins and trans-coutaric/trans-caftaric acid. Principal component analyses confirmed a separation according to varietal wines. A linear discriminant analysis proved the discriminant power of the phenolic profile to authenticate wine varieties. Vranac wines contained the highest content of anthocyanins. Kratošija wines had the highest content of hydroxycinnamic acids. Cabernet Sauvignon wines contained the highest content of flavan-3-ols and the lowest content of stilbenes. All wines showed high antioxidant activity.
... All authors from the former Yugoslavia (STOJANOVIĆ 1929, BULIĆ 1949, ULIĆEVIĆ 1959, 1966, NASTEV 1967, ĆETKOVIĆ 1978, ZIROJEVIĆ 1979, AVRAMOV 1988, PEJOVIĆ 1988, Burić 1995, BOŽINOVIЌ 1996, MARAŠ 2000, MARAŠ et al. 2004, MILOSAVLJEVIĆ 2008 report 'Vranac' and 'Kratošija' as Montenegrin autochthonous grapevine varieties. Moreover, they state that 'Vranac' and 'Kratošija' were grown only in Montenegro. ...
Article
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Viticultural tradition in Montenegro dates back before the Roman period. Viticulture and winemaking of Montenegro is still mainly based on autochthonous grapevine varieties ('Vranac', 'Kratošija', 'Krstač' and 'Žižak'). Relevant historical data concerning the origin of Montenegrin grapevine varieties, as well as Montenegrin germplasm characterization reviews are reported in this paper. The available literature data indicate a long tradition and an important breeding history of grapevine evaluation in Montenegro, especially concerning 'Vranac' and 'Kratošija'. Through international projects, by ampelographic analysis and DNA profiles, the originality of 'Vranac', 'Žižak' and 'Krstač' varieties was confirmed, while it was found that 'Kratošija' has the same genetic profile as 'Primitivo', 'Zinfandel' and 'Crljenak Kaštelanski'. According to the literature and to the exploration in vine growing regions, it can be concluded that Montenegro has a very rich grapevine germplasm, yet not investigated enough. Further works on Montenegrin germplasm will contribute to the better evaluation of the grapevine genetic resources of Montenegro, and, therefore, to the enrichment of grapevine diversity in Europe.
... Along with this, in the cooperation with Institute for viticulture (Istituto sperimentale per la viticultura in Conegliaono) (Italy), genetic profile of grape variety Vranac was confirmed. Actually, it was confirmed that grape variety Vranac has original genetic profile and that it is closely related with variety Kratošija for which is determined that has the same genetic profile as Zinfandel [1], [2], [3]. Further activities were directed to analyses of variability of population of variety, analyses of individual biotypes within this variety and work on the clonal selection (individual selection). ...
Chapter
Vranac is very important grape variety within Montenegrin autochthonous assortment and it is one of the most significant for viticulture and winemaking sector in Montenegro. Grape of this variety is used for production of top quality red wine which is much appreciated at domestic and foreign market. Old grape varieties that have been cultivated for a long time on a specific area, such as Vranac, are characteristic by their heterogeneity in term of manifesting their features that gradually lead to degradation of grape variety. Because of that, within those appreciated grapevine varieties, there was a need for clonal selection in aim of certain vines separation which have positive mutations of some economically important traits. Work on clonal selection has started in 2004 in order to separate the best vines within population of grape variety Vranac. During multi-year (2004-2014) work on clonal selection of grape variety Vranac in Montenegro it was selected and recognized seven clones of this variety (Vranac clone 1, Vranac clone 2, Vranac clone 3, Vranac clone 4, Vranac clone 5, Vranac clone 6 and Vranac clone 7). Paper presents agro-biological, economic and technological features of Vranac clones comparing to population of variety. Selected clones surpassed population of variety in some of parameters of yield and grape and wine quality and based on that were recognized.
... As expected, Crljenak Kaštelanski from our study matched perfectly the genotype of the Italian Primitivo (syn. Zinfandel), as previously reported (Maletić et al. 2004), and Kratošija, an old cultivar in neighboring Montenegro (Calò et al. 2008). We also found synonyms between Malvasija Dubrovačka from our study and Malvasia delle Lipari from southern Italy. ...
Article
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The genetic diversity of wild grapevine [ Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Hegi] in the eastern Adriatic region, which includes Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, has previously not been documented. Natural populations of wild grapevine were identified in their natural habitats, and their genetic diversity was studied and compared with both local and widespread European cultivars. Ninety-two grapevine genotypes were determined at 21 nuclear microsatellite loci, including 53 wild grapevine individuals, 32 diverse local Croatian and west European cultivars, and seven commonly used rootstocks. Two hundred thirty-nine alleles were detected, with a mean of 11.4 alleles per locus and high heterozygosity, ranging from 0.461 to 0.897 for observed heterozygosity and from 0.391 to 0.837 for expected heterozygosity. The genetic diversity of the wild grapevines was slightly lower than that observed in cultivars. Distance- and model-based cluster analysis differentiated three main groups, indicating clear separation between wild, cultivated, and rootstock accessions. This study greatly contributes to knowledge of genetic diversity in local wild grapevine populations in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and provides necessary information for their conservation and further characterization.
Article
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‘Vranac’ is an autochthonous cultivar of grape vine of Montenegro and it has been used for the production of red wine of top quality. ‘Negro Amaro’ and ‘Primitivo’ are cultivars of southern Italy, designated for the production of red wines. They were introduced in Montenegro in 2003. Examinations were performed during the period 2007-2009 in the vineyard located at Cemovsko field. What has been observed is the length and width of the cluster and berries, cluster weight, yield of grape, contents of sugar and acid in the must as well as the quality of wine that is made by microvinification. The highest yield of grape per vine was found in ‘Vranac’ (1.72 kg/vine), while the highest amount of sugar was in ‘Negro Amaro’ (24%). Wine that was made from ‘Vranac’ turned out to be the best among these wines. The highest contents of extracts, polyphenols, and anthocyanins were found in the wine of the ‘Vranac’ cultivar, while the lowest was in the wine of ‘Primitivo’.
Article
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Viticulture production and winemaking of Montenegro are mostly based on growing of autochthonous grapevine varieties. Besides Vranac variety, Kratosija variety takes a significant place in Montenegrin autochthonous grapevine varieties. According to many literature data, Kratosija is an autochthonous grapevine variety whose origin and cultivation started earlier than with Vranac variety. Because of its heterogeneity, it is not so much represented in Montenegrin vineyards and it is mostly found in combination with Vranac variety. The research results about the origin of Vranac variety are shown in this paper. Furthermore, genetic identification which approved originality of Vranac variety is shown and it has also been approved that autochthonous variety Kratosija has the same genetic profile as cv. Zinfandel. The paper presents multi-annual results of examination of variability of their populations and work on clonal selection. Mother vines were selected and vineyards of pre-base and base category of Vranac variety potential clones were planted. The results achieved, in view of manifesting agro-biological, economic and technological characteristics, point to the need for further work on clonal selecton of these grapevine varieties.
Article
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At the beginning of the 20(th) century more than 400 grape varieties were under cultivation in Croatia. But because of introduced pests and pathogens, modern economic pressure and the changeover to internationally well-known varieties, a drastic germplasm erosion has occurred. During the last decade, a detailed inventory of wine-growing regions has shown that a lot of autochthonous varieties still can be found, but many of them are extremely rare and endangered. For their conservation collecting expeditions have been organized and in 2001 a national ex situ collection was established at the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb consisting nowadays of more than 140 native accessions. In addition, several regional (back-up) collections have been established to keep duplicates and enable economic evaluation under appropriate climatic conditions. Along with conservation efforts, a thorough amphelographic description and genetic fingerprinting of the varieties were carried out. So far, more than 100 varieties have been positively identified and genetically profiled according to the protocols of the EU project GrapeGen06. Consequently, their photos, descriptions and genetic profiles have been entered into the EU Vitis Database. Comparison of their microsatellite genotypes with those of international varieties showed most of them having unique genotypes supporting the hypothesis of their Croatian origin. Microsatellite analysis enabled clarification of synonyms and homonyms as well as analyses of parent-progeny relationships. In case of few neglected varieties a high quality potential was observed, and their economic revitalization has been started ('Malvasija dubrovacka', 'Crljenak kastelanski', 'Sansigot'). Clonal and sanitary selections of major native varieties ('Plavac mali', 'Posip', 'Zlahtina', 'Kraljevina', 'Skrlet', 'Plavina', 'Debit', 'Marstina', 'Vugava', 'Grk') also have been launched.'
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IntroductionMolecular MethodsChoice of Method ApplicationsConclusions and Future OutlooksLiterature Cited
Data
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A collection of 196 grapevine samples from five countries of the Western Balkan region, representing local and traditional cultivars, was genotyped with 22 SSR markers. Identity analysis revealed 125 unique genotypes, which were further used for diversity assessment. The average number of alleles per locus detected was 11 ± 3.53, ranging from 6 to 21. The low cumulative probability of identical genotypes (2.96 × 10−20) shown in this study implies an even distribution of alleles within the analyzed set of grapevines and a sufficient number of loci. On the basis of the discriminatory power of each SSR, a set of five markers (VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD28, VChr3a, and VChr8b) was determined as sufficient for high-throughput discrimination of the target cultivars. The maximum discriminating power was evidenced for loci VVMD28 and Vchr8b (0.96, 0.94, respectively). A core collection covering the entire genetic diversity resulted in a set of 60 genotypes representing approximately 50 % of the samples from each country. Structure clustering of Balkan and West European cultivars resulted in four well distinct groups identified according to the classification of Negrul (1946). The lowest level of admixed genotypes was assigned for grapevines from Bosnia and Herzegovina (61 %) and the highest for Serbian (87 %) grapevines. In terms of grape use, the wine cultivars were divided into three groups and the fourth group was intermixed, with half wine and half table grapes. The highest Nei’s genetic distance (0.22) was discovered between Slovenian and Macedonian cultivars, while the lowest (0.09) was between Slovenian and Serbian cultivars. Macedonian cultivars were genetically most distant from the others (0.17). A similar pattern of differentiation among populations is seen with distance-based clustering. Analysis of molecular variance revealed only 1 % of genetic variation among groups of different origin, while the variation among individuals within geographical groups and within individuals explained 13 and 86 % of the total variation, respectively.
Chapter
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Since their discovery in the 80s, microsatellites have become a popular molecular marker for studying plant genomes and are still the marker system of choice for various applications, such as genetic diversity and genetic structure studies, fingerprinting of individuals, parentage analyses and mapping studies. Although they have been used as a PCR marker system for more than 20 years now [1, 2], the numerous recent publications on their use confirm their durability and relevance. This is mainly due to their intrinsic properties (associated high polymorphisms) and a constant evolution of the technical methodology in terms of high throughput, ease of use and price. The starting methodology was based on radioactive labelled amplified microsatellite alleles separated on polyacrilamide gels. Nowadays, highly multiplexed fluorescently labelled microsatellites are commonly genotyped in capillary based automatic systems.
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‘Vranac’ is an autochthonous cultivar of grape vine of Montenegro and it has been used for the production of red wine of top quality. ‘Negro Amaro’ and ‘Primitivo’ are cultivars of southern Italy, designated for the production of red wines. They were introduced in Montenegro in 2003. Examinations were performed during the period 2007-2009 in the vineyard located at Cemovsko field. What has been observed is the length and width of the cluster and berries, cluster weight, yield of grape, contents of sugar and acid in the must as well as the quality of wine that is made by microvinification. The highest yield of grape per vine was found in ‘Vranac’ (1.72 kg/vine), while the highest amount of sugar was in ‘Negro Amaro’ (24%). Wine that was made from ‘Vranac’ turned out to be the best among these wines. The highest contents of extracts, polyphenols, and anthocyanins were found in the wine of the ‘Vranac’ cultivar, while the lowest was in the wine of ‘Primitivo’.
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Vranac is autochthonous grape variety of Montenegro, being of significant importance for Montenegrin economy. Grape of this variety has been used for the production of red wine of top quality, very appreciated at the domestic and foreign market. Researching was done during three years in three locations in sub-region Podgorica. Beside ampelometric and uvologic indicators for vranac variety, average sugar content and total acids in must (22.08% and 4.95 g/l). Based on three years of investigation, an average largest number of bunches is noticed in population of vranac variety in location Nikolj crkva and the largest weight of bunch is measured in location Cijevna. The largest yield of grape per vine is reached in location Nikolj crkva. The content of total anthocyanins is medium high while the value of total flavonoids is high. Total polyphenols, proantocyanidols and flavans which react with vanilla reached medium values in years of researching. Using Elisa test, samples were tested for viruses: Arabis Mosaic virus (Ar); Fanleaf (FL); inf.mix (F+GVA+Lr3); Fleck virus (K), inf.mix (GVA+Lr3); Leafrool virus type1 (LR1); Leafrool virus type3 (LR3); inf.mix Lr1 + Lr3 (Lr1+Lr3). Turned out that of 145 tested samples 17 genotypes (11.72 %) are negative in virus testing. After Elisa test, these 17 samples were analyzed by PCR and indexing after which 4 genotypes (23.53 %) passed complete sanitary control and entered the individual clone selection procedure. The content of total anthocyanins is medium-high, while the value of total flavonoids is high. Total polyphenols, proanthocyanidol and flavans which react with vanilla have reached medium values in examined years.
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Biological diversity is a foundation of human existence and its role in sustainable development is becoming increasingly valuable. Genetic resources in food and agriculture (agrobiodiversity) represent one of the most important components of overall biodiversity. Rich Montenegrin plant gene pool represents important natural resource for food production and agriculture in general. Intensification of agricultural production, inadequate land usage and human negligence resulted in disappearance of large number of local varieties and population. However, small part of diversity is saved thanks to extensive production of farmers. Although in last few years big efforts were done in order to collect and conserve them, accession number in national gene bank is still small, as a consequence of long delays in organized work on genetic resources. This paper represents the status of plant genetic resources in Montenegro and the activities carried out in order to preserve them.
Article
Identification of grapevine cultivars using methods based on morphological differences between plants may be incorrect due to the influence of environmental factors. For these reasons, alternative methods for cultivar identification, which better illustrate differences at the genotype level, were developed. The diverse techniques for the molecular characterization (isoenzyme, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SCAR and SSR markers) developed in the past twenty years have been also applied to the grapevines. Among them, microsatellites show the best value of polymorphism information and are generally very variable. Microsatellites consist of short, tandem repeated DNA motifs and are ubiquitous in most organisms. The polymorphism among individuals is due to changes in the number of repeat units. In the early studies primers for the PCR amplification of the microsatellite loci were designed on the basis of the microsatellite sequences already existing in the Gene Bank databases. Subsequently a strategy was developed towards the construction of a genomic libraries enriched in microsatellites. A large number of microsatellite markers (more than 500) have been developed in grapevines and their extraordinary potential in determining grapevine cultivars and rootstocks was confirmed by numerous studies. The set of six or nine microsatellite markers, which are highly polymorphic and the most appropriate to determine the genetic variability among the European grapevine cultivars, is mainly used in the genotyping analysis. Using a definite set of markers and the integration of reference cultivars in the genotyping analysis allows comparison of genotypes between different research groups, and thus allows solving many dilemmas of synonyms, homonyms and origin or grape varieties.
Article
A field experiment was conducted in the Rockpile appellation of Sonoma County during 2007 and 2008. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replicates. Zinfandel vines were subjected to three levels of cluster thinning during the lag phase of berry growth: vines were thinned to 2 clusters per shoot with shoulders retained if present (2CS), 1 cluster per shoot with shoulders retained if present (1CS), or 2 clusters per shoot with shoulders removed if present (2CNS). Cluster thinning Zinfandel grapevines during lag phase led to reductions in yield and crop load and increased °Brix of the fruit. In both years, wines that were made from vines with the lowest crop load had consistently higher amounts of small and large polymeric pigments, tannins and total iron-reactive phenolics. Cluster thinning vines to 2CNS at lag phase consistently decreased the number of berries per cluster and cluster weight. Thinning vines to 1CS resulted in fewer clusters per vine in 2008. Botrytis bunch rot tends to develop between the shoulder or wing and the main cluster in certain varieties. Shoulder removal in areas with a high risk of Botrytis should conclusively determine if this thinning method helps to decrease disease incidence. Additional research is also recommended with other varieties to assess possible differences between shoulder thinning and removing entire clusters on berry composition, yield, subsequent wine composition and crop load.
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Eleven SSR loci were used to identify 76 accessions of presumed native Dalmatian grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant material was collected throughout the Dalmatian region and used to reestablish a grape germplasm collection in Dalmatia, the Adriatic region of Croatia. The 76 accessions had 63 unique genotypes, of which 35 are published here for the first time. Twelve synonyms were found within the Dalmatian cultivars and 11 Dalmatian cultivars matched previously published genotypes, mainly from neighboring countries, suggesting historic exchange of grapevine cultivars. Several cultivars with similar names had different SSR profiles, making them homonyms. Genetic distance analysis revealed five groups of cultivars and confirmed several distinct grape gene pools in Croatia.
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Microsatellite genotyping of 38 local Slovenian varieties was performed using 11 SSR markers that have been shown to be highly polymorphic in European Vitis resources. Combining those data with previous studies, 49 unique genotypes were identified within the varieties currently cultivated in the Slovenian Primorje region. These genotypes were further compared to 161 cultivars from eight European countries to assess their genetic relationships. A high level of genetic diversity among Slovenian grapevines was revealed and some unknown relationships were discovered. Identity analyses revealed 11 groups of synonyms among Slovenian varieties and three matches between a Slovenian variety and a variety from other countries. Several groups of Slovenian varieties with similar names resulted in different SSR profiles. The genetic distances between varieties used in Slovenia and the most popular cultivars used in other European countries revealed the closest relationship with Croatian varieties and the most distant with French varieties.
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Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook is an essential guide for any professional or serious connoisseur seeking to understand both the theory and practice of wine tasting. From techniques for assessing wine properties and quality, including physiological, psychological, and physicochemical sensory evaluation, to the latest information on types of wine, the author guides the reader to a clear and applicable understanding of the wine tasting process. Including illustrative data and testing technique descriptions, Wine Tasting is for professional tasters, those who train tasters and those involved in designing wine tastings as well as the connoisseur seeking to maximize their perception and appreciation of wine. Key Features: * Revised and updated coverage, notably the physiology and neurology taste and odor perception. * Expanded coverage of the statistical aspect of wine tasting (specific examples to show the process), qualitative wine tasting (examples for winery staff tasting their own wines; more examples for consumer groups and restaurants), tripling of the material on wine styles and types, wine language, the origins of wine quality, and food and wine combination * Flow chart of wine tasting steps * Flow chart of wine production procedures * Practical details on wine storage and problems during and following bottle opening * Examples of tasting sheets * Details of errors to be avoided * Procedures for training and testing sensory skill.
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In total, 25 clones of Vitis vinifera 'Pinot noir' and 22 clones of 'Chardonnay' were analyzed with 100 microsatellite markers, selected from an initial screening of 228 markers. Of the 100 markers, 17 detected polymorphism within one or both of the cultivars. In 'Pinot noir', 15 polymorphic markers detected 15 different genotypes, uniqnely distinguished 12 clones out of the 25 and separated the remaining 13 clones into 3 groups. In 'Chardonnay', 9 polymorphic markers detected 9 genotypes and uniquely distinguished 6 clones out of the 22. The remaining 16 clones were separated into 3 groups. For markers that were polymorphic in 'Pinot noir' and 'Chardonnay', none of the variant alleles were common to both cultivars. It is inferred from this result that the natural cross that produced 'Chardonnay' probably occurred when 'Pinot' was still relatively young. Many of the variant genotypes were expressed as three alleles. Further analysis revealed the presence of chimeras in which the third allele was present in leaf but not root or wood tissues, confirming that the grape apical meristem is functionally two-layered. Some clones that share the same microsatellite genotype are documented to have originated in the same locality, suggesting that the origins of undocumented clones may be traced by comparing their microsatellite genotypes with those of well-documented clones. Because clones of 'Pinot noir' and 'Char donnay' are often visually indistinguishable, microsatellite genotyping may also be useful to detect identification errors in collections and nurseries.
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Altogether 101 Vitis vinifera L. genotypes were ana-lysed at 6 microsatellite loci (Scu8vv, Scu10vv, VVMD21, VVMD36, ssrVRZAG64, ssrVRZAG79). Ninety-seven were autochthonous accessions of the Carpathian Basin and 4 were international cultivars. The allele composition and sizes obtained with the 6 microsatellite primer pairs were appropriate for discrimination of 95 cultivars. Berry colour-variants of cvs Gohér (Gohér fehér-white and Gohér piros-red), Lisztes (Lisztes fehér and Lisztes piros) as well as the cvs Bakator (Bakator piros and Bakator tüdőszín -light red) were exceptions. K e y w o r d s : microsatellite, SSR, Vitis vinifera L., genotyping.
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Thirty five new grape microsatellite markers were de-veloped under an international consortium involving AGROGENE. These loci were amplified in 41 Spanish cultivars of V. vinifera. Eleven of the markers were poly-morphic and informative in V. vinifera. Twelve were mono-morphic and of the remaining markers one was polymor-phic but less useful because individuals amplified more than two bands and the rest had amplification problems. The number of alleles detected for the 11 informative markers ranged from 4 to 12, with heterozygosity values ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. Primer sequences are reported for these markers. K e y w o r d s : Grape, Vitis vinifera, microsatellites, DNA polymorphism.
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This research demonstrates that Muscat of Hamburg, a fine black table grape variety with muscat flavour, is the progeny of Schiava Grossa x Muscat of Alexandria. Two isozymes (GPI and PGM), 30 nuclear and 5 chloroplastic microsatellite markers were used. Two highly informative microsatellite markers from VMC ('Vitis Microsatellite Consortium') are suggested to enlarge the minimum set of loci selected for grapevine identification in the frame of the European Project GenRes 081. K e y w o r d s : Muscat of Hamburg parentage, nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast microsatellite markers, identification.
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Previously believed to be distinct cultivars Malvasia delle Lipari, Malvasia di Sardegna, Greco di Gerace (Italy), Malvasia de Sitges (Spain) and Malvasia dubrovaka (Croatia) displayed an identical molecular profile when analyzed by 15 SSR markers. Ampelographic comparison supports the genetic analysis indicating that they are all the same variety; they do not differ in any important morphological trait. This genotype is scattered all over the Mediterranean area and as far as the Canaries and Madeira. Historical investigation indicates that the genotype has been imported from Greece. However, so far, the search in Greek databases has produced no useful results to confirm this theory. Allele frequency comparison among cultivars from Greece, Croatia, Italy, Spain and Portugal showed that none of these countries can be pinpointed as the 'home country' of this genotype.
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A characterization of the Bulgarian grapevine genepool (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars) was initiated through microsatellite analysis. Seventy four wine and table grape-vine varieties from the National List of Cultivars, were analyzed at 9 microsatellite loci: VVS2, ssrVvUCH11, ssrVvUCH 29, ssrVrZAG21, ssrVrZAG47, ssrVrZAG62, ssrVrZAG64, ssrVrZAG79 and ssrVrZAG83. The high genetic diversity (78 %) allowed accurate identification and discrimination of the cultivars. The low PI value (1.201 x 10 -8) reflects the high discriminative power of the chosen set of markers for the investigated population. Based on the microsatellite allele data, two pairs of old native vari-eties, Misket Cherven and Misket Vrachanski; Tamyanka and Tamyanka tvarda, were considered distinct cultivars. The synonymy of (i) Tamyanka, Italian Moscato Bianco and Greek Moschato Kerkyras and (ii) Pamid and Greek Pamidi was verified, while the putative synonymy of Mavrud and Greek Mavroudi Arachovis was rejected. Further utiliza-tion of microsatellite profiling in the management of the Bulgarian grapevine genepool is discussed. K e y w o r d s : SSR, microsatellite, Vitis vinifera L, cultivar identification.
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Nine microsatellite markers (VVMD5, VVMD7, VVS2, ssrVrZAG21, ssrVrZAG47, ssrVrZAG62, ssrVrZAG64, ssrVrZAG79 and ssrVrZAG83) were chosen for the analysis of marker information content, the genetic structure of grapevine cultivar gene pools, and differentiation among grapevines sampled from seven European vine-growing regions (Greece, Croatia, North Italy, Austria and Germany, France, Spain and Portugal). The markers were found to be highly informative in all cultivar groups and therefore constitute a useful set for the genetic characterization of European grapevines. Similar and high levels of genetic variability were detected in all investigated grapevine gene pools. Genetic differentiation among cultivars from different regions was significant, even in the case of adjacent groups such as the Spanish and Portuguese cultivars. No genetic differentiation could be detected between vines with blue and white grapes, indicating that they have undergone the processes of cultivar development jointly. The observed genetic differentiation among vine-growing regions suggested that cultivars could possibly be assigned to their regions of origin according to their genotypes. This might allow one to determine the geographical origin of cultivars with an unknown background. The assignment procedure proved to work for cultivars from the higher differentiated regions, as for example from Austria and Portugal.
Article
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Eleven microsatellites isolated from grapevine (Vitis vinifera) were used to study the degree of conservation of these sequences across different Vitis species. Nine microsatellites were newly isolated, the remaining two (VVS2 and VVS5) came from the literature. A preliminary assay on the conservation of priming sites was carried out on 14 non-V. vinifera species, including relevant taxa for breeding. Parthenocissus quinquefolia was added as representative of a related genus. Cross-species amplification was obtained in 94% of the 176 genotype×locus tested combinations. Three microsatellite loci were then cloned and sequenced in ten species. The microsatellite repeat was found present in all cases. The repeat region was often longer in V. vinifera than in the other species. Furthermore the non-source species showed interruptions in the repeat. In spite of these constraints, which could reduce the polymorphism of microsatellites in non-source species, the results demonstrate the possibility of extending the use of microsatellite markers to wild germplasm and inter-specific hybrids. Point mutations have been found in microsatellite flanking regions and these variations have been used to investigate the genetic relationship among taxa. The Neighbor-joining tree that was obtained on the basis of ten nucleotide variations, showed that there is not a clear cut difference between American, Asian and European species and that the actual taxonomy which reflects the geographical distribution of species must most likely be revised. Moreover, in general, nucleotide variations which occur in microsatellite flanking regions provide new molecular tools for investigating the evolution of species.
Article
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One hundred and twenty four microsatellites were isolated from analysis of 5000 Vitis expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A diversity of dinucleotide and trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were present. Primers were designed for 16 of these SSRs and they were tested on seven accessions. Ten of the sixteen primer pairs resulted in PCR products of the expected size. All ten functional primers were polymorphic across the accessions studied. Polymorphisms were evident at the level of cultivars, Vitis species, and between related genera. SSRs that were from the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) were most polymorphic at the cultivar level, the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) SSRs were most polymorphic between cultivars and species, and those SSRs within coding sequence were most polymorphic between species and genera. These results show that EST-derived SSRs in Vitis are useful as they are polymorphic and highly transferable. With EST SSRs being applicable to studies at several taxonomic levels, the large number of SSRs (approximately 1000) that will be available from an expanded EST database of 45 000 will have many potential applications in mapping and identity research.
Article
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In order to investigate the comparability of microsatellite profiles obtained in different laboratories, ten partners in seven countries analyzed 46 grape cultivars at six loci (VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD27, VVS2, VrZAG62, and VrZAG79). No effort was made to standardize equipment or protocols. Although some partners obtained very similar results, in other cases different absolute allele sizes and, sometimes, different relative allele sizes were obtained. A strategy for data comparison by means of reference to the alleles detected in well-known cultivars was proposed. For each marker, each allele was designated by a code based on the name of the reference cultivar carrying that allele. Thirty-three cultivars, representing from 13 to 23 alleles per marker, were chosen as references. After the raw data obtained by the different partners were coded, more than 97% of the data were in agreement. Minor discrepancies were attributed to errors, suboptimal amplification and visualization, and misscoring of heterozygous versus homozygous allele pairs. We have shown that coded microsatellite data produced in different laboratories with different protocols and conditions can be compared, and that it is suitable for the identification and SSR allele characterization of cultivars. It is proposed that the six markers employed here, already widely used, be adopted as a minimal standard marker set for future grapevine cultivar analyses, and that additional cultivars be characterized by means of the coded reference alleles presented here. The complete database is available at http://www.genres.de/eccdb/vitis/. Cuttings of the 33 reference cultivars are available on request from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Vassal collection ([email protected] /* */).
Article
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Four new simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci (designated VVMD5, VVMD6, VVMD7, and VVMD8) were characterized in grape and analyzed by silver staining in 77 cultivars of Vitis vinifera. Amplification products ranged in size from 141 to 263 base pairs (bp). The number of alleles observed per locus ranged from 5 to 11 and the number of diploid genotypes per locus ranged from 13 to 27. At each locus at least 75% of the cultivars were heterozygous. Alleles differing in length by only 1 bp could be distinguished by silver staining, and size estimates were within 1 or 2 bp, depending on the locus, of those obtained by fluorescence detection at previously reported loci. Allele frequencies were generally similar in wine grapes and table grapes, with some exceptions. Some alleles were found only in one of the two groups of cultivars. All 77 cultivars were distinguished by the four loci with the exception of four wine grapes considered to be somatic variants of the same cultivar, 'Pinot noir', 'Pinot gris', 'Pinot blanc', and 'Meunier'; two table grapes that are known to be synonymous, 'Keshmesh' and 'Thompson Seedless'; and three table grapes, 'Dattier', 'Rhazaki Arhanon', and 'Markandi', the first two of which have been suggested to be synonymous. Although the high polymorphism at grape SSR loci suggests that very few loci would theoretically be needed to separate all cultivars, the economic and legal significance of grape variety identification requires the increased resolution that can be provided by a larger number of loci. The ease with which SSR markers and data can be shared internationally should encourage their broad use, which will in turn increase the power of these markers for both identification and genetic analysis of grape. Key words : grape, Vitis, microsatellite, simple sequence repeat, DNA typing, identification.
Article
A Vitis riparia genomic library was screened for the presence of (GA), simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 18 primer pairs yielding amplification products of the expected size were designed. Heterologous amplification with the primer pairs in related species (V. rupestris, V. berlandieri, V. labrusca, V. cinerea, V. aestivalis, V. vinifera, and interspecific hybrids) was successful in most primer-species combinations. Therefore, the new markers are applicable to the genotyping of a range of Vitis species. Variations in the SSR flanking sequence were detected between and within the species. The degree of polymorphism and performance of the markers were determined in up to 120 individuals of V. vinifera. Four of fifteen alleles per locus were detected and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.37 and 0.88. Null alleles were shown to be present at two loci by a lack of heterozygous individuals and by transmission of the null alleles in a controlled cross. Regular Mendelian inheritance is indicated for all but one loci by a preliminary segregation analysis in 36 offspring. Thirteen of the markers were found suitable for the genotyping of grapevines (V. vinifera).
Article
Several types of grape varieties have been traditionally considered under the generic term of Malvasia, often with a complementing name related to geographic origin. We examined 56 Malvasia accessions presently maintained and 14 accessions introduced previously but no longer maintained at Domaine de Vassal (INRA) grape collection. Accessions were analyzed by ampelography and/or with 20 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers, allowing us to individualize 49 varieties and propose a list of synonyms for 37 varieties. Eight accessions are unique to the collection and no other name can be proposed. Parentage analysis clarified the origin of 10 varieties. Data analysis showed that the use of Malvasia or related names is not justified for 29 varieties. Twenty other varieties could rightly be considered as Malvasia, particularly when no other name or synonym is known, even if this generic term may be a source of confusion. Within Malvasia varieties, eight have some muscat or aromatic flavor and the majority have white berries. Copyright © 2007 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.
Article
Twenty-two new grape microsatellite markers were developed from CT-repeat regions cloned from Vitis vinifera Pinot noir and Cabernet Sauvignon. These loci were amplified in from 51 to 347 cultivars of V. vinifera. Twelve of the markers are polymorphic and informative in V. vinifera. Five are monomorphic in V. vinifera and the remaining five are polymorphic but less useful because they have only two alleles or more than two bands are amplified per individual. The number of alleles detected in the twelve informative markers ranged from 4 to 19, with heterozygosity values ranging from 0.42 to 0.90. Primer sequences and allele frequencies in the cultivars tested are reported for these markers. Revised allele frequencies are also presented for three previously reported microsatellite markers. Genotypes for the 12 informative new markers are presented for seven suggested reference cultivars.
Article
Microsatellite repeat sequences were investigated as sequenced-tagged site (STS) DNA markers to determine the potential for genetic analysis of the grapevine genome. The PCR-generated markers detect codominant alleles at a single locus or site in the genome. The marker type is very informative detecting high heterozygosity (69%-88%) within individual grapevine cultivars and high genetic variation between cultivars, making it a useful marker type for plant genome mapping and genome typing. For five loci a screening of 26 V. vinifera cultivars found 13, 12, 8, 5, and 4 different length alleles respectively with some alleles more common than others. The genomic DNA sequences surrounding microsatellite sequences were conserved within the genus permitting STS primers to amplify STSs from other Vitis species. These Vitis species were found to have some unique alleles not present in V. vinifera.
Article
The USDA germplasm repositories help to preserve the genetic variability of important crop species by collecting and maintaining representative cultivars and related germplasm. Simple sequence repeat markers with high allelic diversity were used to type 41 grapevines from 40 accessions. All vines were either seedless table grape cultivars or cultivars with names similar to table grape cultivars. The proportion of shared alleles was selected as the most appropriate statistical measure of genetic distance for this population. In conjunction with morphological traits, known synonyms were confirmed and a previously unknown synonym was discovered. An alleged synonym in the literature was disproved by the DNA data. The data were consistent with known parentage, where such data were available. Two mislabeled vines in the USDA collection were identified. UPGMA grouped the cultivars loosely into three groups: a group of nine mostly Middle Eastern cultivars, a group of 22 accessions mostly from Russia and Afghanistan that were morphologically similar to 'Thompson Seedless', and a third very loose group of 11 accessions consisting mostly of eastern European wine grape cultivars. The limitations and usefulness of this type of analysis are discussed.
Article
In the course of DNA profiling of grapevine cultivars using microsatellite loci we have occasionally observed more than two alleles at a locus in some individuals and have identified periclinal chimerism as the source of such anomalies. This phenomenon in long-lived clonally propagated crops, such as grapevine, which contains historically ancient cultivars, may have a role in clonal differences and affect cultivar identification and pedigree analysis. Here we show that when the two cell layers of a periclinal chimera, Pinot Meunier, are separated by passage through somatic embryogenesis the regenerated plants not only have distinct DNA profiles which are different from those of the parent plant but also have novel phenotypes. Recovery of these phenotypes indicates that additional genetic differences can exist between the two cell layers and that the Pinot Meunier phenotype is due to the interaction of genetically distinct cell layers. It appears that grapevine chimerism can not only modify phenotype but can also impact on grapevine improvement as both genetic transformation and conventional breeding strategies separate mutations in the L1 and L2 cell layers.
Article
This paper contributes a description of four mutations in microsatellite allele-length found within strains of each of the varieties known as Muscat d'Alsace, Greco di Tufo, Primitivo and Corvina veronese: the comparison of microsatellite sequences of wild and mutated strains showed in all cases an increase of one or more repeats of the core GA sequence. Whereas studies on animals reported mutations which originated in gametes, in grapevines somatic cell-mutations take place and are eventually fixed and transmitted to new individuals through vegetative propagation. The mutations detected in 1998 were found again 3 years later in seven out of eight plants. A chimeric situation was clearly noted and resolved in three of the four cases described. Considerations about the genesis of microsatellite alleles and the reliability of fingerprinting with these markers are provided.
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