Article

When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Every year, hundreds of thousands of jailed Americans leave prison and return to society. Largely uneducated, unskilled, often without family support, and with the stigma of a prison record hanging over them, many, if not most, will experience serious social and psychological problems after release. Fewer than one in three prisoners receive substance abuse or mental health treatment while incarcerated, and each year fewer and fewer participate in the dwindling number of vocational or educational pre-release programs, leaving many all but unemployable. Not surprisingly, the great majority is rearrested, most within six months of their release. As long as there have been prisons, society has struggled with how best to help prisoners reintegrate once released. But the current situation is unprecedented. As a result of the quadrupling of the American prison population in the last quarter century, the number of returning offenders dwarfs anything in America's history. A crisis looms, and the criminal justice and social welfare system is wholly unprepared to confront it. Drawing on dozens of interviews with inmates, former prisoners, and prison officials, the book shows us how the current system is failing, and failing badly. Unwilling merely to sound the alarm, it explores the harsh realities of prisoner re-entry and offers specific solutions to prepare inmates for release, reduce recidivism, and restore them to full citizenship, while never losing sight of the demands of public safety. As the number of ex-convicts in America continues to grow, their systemic marginalization threatens the very society their imprisonment was meant to protect.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The aging prison population is a growing concern for both correctional and parole administrators. A greater proportion of those released from prison are of advanced age (Petersilia, 2003). People who are aged 55 and older in state prisons increased from 3% to 10% from 1993 to 2013 (Carson and Sabol, 2016). ...
... Many people return to the community with untreated mental illnesses that were present before incarceration or developed during the course of incarceration (Petersilia, 2003;Smoyer et al., 2019;Western, Braga, Davis & Sirois, 2015). Older persons with mental illness have great difficulty developing social ties, have trouble maintaining ties with family and likely had low social capital before incarceration (Western et al., 2015) making reentry particularly challenging. ...
... Brown (2004aBrown ( , 2004b found the greatest needs and challenges in the first 90 days of release included food, clothing, shelter, life skills, transportation, employment, and education assistance. Research supports these findings (Gunnison & Helfgott, 2007;Helfgott, 1997;Petersilia, 2003). However, studies have not addressed the increasingly older parole population and if their needs are greater or differ significantly from their younger counterparts. ...
Full-text available
Thesis
As the prison population grays, so too does the people leaving prison. In New Jersey and New York, 35% and 26% of people on parole are over the age of 50 respectively. While older persons have lower recidivism rates compared to younger persons, there are physical, mental, and societal challenges that come with advancing age that can make reentry and reintegration a particularly difficult experience compared to younger persons. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the experiences of older adults on parole and the parole officers that assist them in their reentry and reintegration. This study is unique in that it is the first known study that looks at differences in redeemability and reintegration based on age. Additionally, this study uses sociological perspectives that are under-utilized when studying the correctional, but more specifically, the paroled population. Maruna (2001) and O’Sullivan’s (2018) Belief in Redeemability, and Braithwaite’s (1989) Reintegrative Shaming and Wolff and Draine (2004), Smith & Hattery (2011) and Lin’s (2000) social capital theories will be used to address the following four research questions addressing persons on parole: (1) Do the needs of people leaving prison differ based on age? (2) Are there age-related differences in concerns regarding reintegration for people leaving prison? (3) Are there age-related differences in concerns regarding stigmatization for people leaving prison? (4) Are there age-related differences in finding meaning in life post incarceration? To understand parole officer perceptions of counseling older persons on parole Helfgott’s (1997) theory on social distance as well as parole officer decision-making theories will be used to answer the following two research questions: (1) Are parole officers’ experiences working with older persons on parole different than younger persons? (2) How do parole officers manage counseling and supervision of older persons on parole compared to younger persons? This dissertation is, as far as the author knows, the first mixed methods examination of life on parole for older persons, and how their experiences differ from their younger cohorts. This mixed methods study will use qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis to understand the experiences of older person on parole from multiple angles including thematic and quantitative content analysis, descriptive analyses and chi-square analyses where appropriate. This study defines older person on parole as someone over the age of 50, and a younger person on parole as someone between the ages of 18-49 under parole supervision. This proposal investigates whether older persons on parole believe they can be successfully reintegrated into the community, considering their age, time served and health conditions that typically accompany older persons who have been impacted by the criminal justice system as it compares to younger persons on parole. Furthermore, this study aims to understand how older persons on parole find life satisfaction after prison and parole. Finally, this dissertation aims to understand how parole officers view older persons on parole and seeks to understand their perceptions of managing and counseling older persons on parole.
... In fact, research has demonstrated that housing instability increases the risk of recidivism (Makarios et al., 2010;Metraux & Culhane, 2004). Despite its importance for a successful reentry, housing is often difficult to obtain for those with criminal history (Helfgott, 1997;Legal Action Center, 2016;O'Brien, 2001;Petersilia, 2003). ...
... For example, while many reentering individuals return to family members' or friends' households (Nelson et al., 1999;Western et al., 2015), parole conditions can sometimes prevent a reentering individual from living with others who also possess criminal history (Petersilia, 2003). Community-based correctional or noncorrectional transitional housing options generally have limited availability often due to poor funding and/or public support (Legal Action Center, 2016; Roman & Travis, 2004). ...
... However, numerous factors also limit access to private housing. First, many individuals with criminal history lack the funds, credit history, or work stability necessary to secure private housing (Nagin & Waldfogel, 1998;Petersilia, 2003;Travis, 2005). Even if an individual can afford private housing, some suggest that they will be charged higher rental rates or deposits because of their perceived risk (Clark, 2007). ...
Article
Although there are a number of experimental studies showing that private housing can be difficult to secure for those with criminal history, many issues in this area remain unexplored or underexplored. The goal of the current study was to address the following unexplored or underexplored issues: (a) the impact of various types of multiple conviction records on private housing outcomes, including one that possessed a certificate of relief; (b) racial differences in private housing outcomes; (c) the impact of housing type on private housing outcomes; and (d) the impact of a criminal record, race, and housing type interaction on private housing outcomes. This goal was achieved with the use of a field experiment (correspondence audit). Results showed several statistically and substantively significant differences among the criminal record, race, and housing type conditions. These results can be used to better inform individuals with criminal history who are seeking private housing options.
... For example, the literature has established those recently released from jail or prison often lack access to community resources; a reality that places them at higher risks for problematic relationships and behaviors (Crutchfield & Weeks, 2015;Pettus-Davis et al., 2017;Stojkovic, 2007;Visher & Mallik-Kane, 2007;Williams et al., 2019). Because of a criminal record, limited education, poor employment history, and the stigma of incarceration, recently released people may also have limited employment opportunities (Li, 2018;Petersilia, 2003). ...
... In addition, the stigma of a criminal conviction creates obstacles for reentering job candidates, as many employers are unwilling to hire those with criminal records even when they are qualified for the position (Berg & Huebner;2011;Pager, 2003). Legal and gainful employment is a critical component of successful reentry which enables individuals to pay their bills and secure housing by reducing the economic incentive to engage in income-generating crimes (Petersilia, 2003;Rosenfeld et al., 2008;Shover, 1996;Visher & Courtney, 2006;Visher & Travis, 2003). ...
... The US criminal justice system is complex and challenging to navigate. Once individuals are released, they are often met with challenges that make it difficult to succeed in the community (Griffiths et al., 2007;Petersilia, 2003). In this diversion program, justice navigation services are designed to help clients walk through the process with support and advocacy. ...
Full-text available
Article
The United States has among the highest recidivism rates globally, with at least 1 in 4 rearrested within the same year of their initial charge. Many of these individuals are significantly impacted by poverty, mental illness, and substance use disorders. Recidivism reduction has become a significant focus of criminal justice reform and is gaining attention nationwide. Current scholarly literature suggests evidence-based reentry policies and programs can improve individual-level outcomes. This paper introduces the concept of diversion programming and measures how one diversion program impacted recidivism rates in a mid-sized metropolitan area of the US. Researchers examined one year's worth of data from 757 individuals released from the local county jail (January 2021 - December 2021) and calculated the average one-year recidivism rate comparing that of program participants to those of the larger community. Findings revealed that only 3.70% of those who completed this specific diversion program were rearrested within a year after their completion date. In comparison, members of the local community, who were not part of the program, were rearrested at a rate of 28.4%. Moreover, when clients were not retained in the program, recidivism rates were significantly higher at 31.22%. The authors suggest justice navigation-based diversion programs can effectively reduce recidivism if, and when, those programs ensure retention. This study can be a resource for future researchers, stakeholders, policymakers, and practitioners to support diversionary programming to reduce recidivism.
... However, there is no parole in North Carolina, so differences in the institutional setting may explain the discrepancies. Importantly, if released prisoners on parole are more intensely supervised than probationers (Petersilia, 2003), the discretionality in supervision can generate differential outcomes based on perceptions of risk by parole officers. Adding to previous work, our study identifies which groups may be perceived as more risky and hence receive more intense or strict supervision. ...
... Parolees are typically subject to higher surveillance and swifter punishments than probationers (Petersilia, 2003), which is consistent with higher-risk individuals receiving more intense supervision even when this label is not correlated with actual risk due to random assignment of the risk level (Hyatt and Barnes, 2017). ...
... Third, the higher future imprisonment rates could reflect differences in the intensity of monitoring between those initially in prison and in non-prison sentences, so that those with higher intensity supervision are more likely to be punished with a technical violation. There is some evidence that probation supervision is generally less intensive than parole (Petersilia, 2003). ...
... The challenges faced by inmates who are returning to the community are well documented (Jonson & Cullen, 2015;Petersilia, 2003;Serin et al., 2010) and highlight that while a sound risk assessment and effective custodial intervention are requisite, they are insufficient on their own to ensure successful re-entry and reintegration (Borzycki & Baldry, 2003;Jonson & Cullen, 2015;Serin et al., 2010). Community re-entry, especially for those who have sexually offended, is particularly stressful and in some cases, can lead parolees to breach their parole conditions or reoffend simply to be re-incarcerated (see Chapter 9). ...
... While the terms 're-entry' and 'reintegration' tend to be used interchangeably in the literature, there are subtle differences between the two terms, which are important for the current research. Re-entry tends to be more State-led and is defined as how inmates are supervised after release (Petersilia, 2003). Re-entry is seen as a more technical term that refers to the process of re-entering society without any specific connotations of whether it is a successful process (Muntingh, 2005). ...
... Subsequent to re-entry, the parolee can begin the process of reintegration. Reintegration is most relevant to CMPs and has been suggested to go beyond re-entry in that it considers social interactions more heavily (Petersilia, 2003). ...
Thesis
Although an extensive body of research exists regarding offence-specific interventions for incarcerated men who have sexually offended, research about the programs that are available for these individuals post-release, referred to as Community Maintenance Programs (CMPs), is scarce. One of the difficulties with CMP implementation for those who have sexually offended has been the lack of a definitive conceptualisation or standardised design and delivery. This research sought to consult with CMP participants and service providers who facilitated an Australian CMP to formulate a working definition and better understanding of CMPs by combining their perceptions with a review of the extant literature regarding the nature of desistance and the factors contributing to behaviour change and its maintenance. The CMP program selected for use in this research is the largest of three CMPs known to be in operation in Australia. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with three groups of participants: Study 1 included 13 CMP participants who had not reoffended and 13 CMP participants who had sexually reoffended either during their CMP participation or after completion of the CMP program; and Study 2 included 11 service providers who facilitated the CMP. Using an open ended recursive style of questioning, interviewees were asked about their perceptions regarding the purpose and objectives of CMPs as well as their experience of either facilitating or participating in the program. Narratives offered by the CMP participants (those with and without reoffence) centred on themes consistent with desistance theories, behaviour change, and maintenance factors such as hope, identity, social support, employment, and accommodation. There was a strong emphasis on the importance of the Therapeutic Alliance (TA) and the impact of the organisation on the formation and maintenance of the TA. The most notable difference between the two groups of CMP participants was that non-reoffenders wanted to “give back” and felt a sense of competence; they did not identify with the “sex offender” label, and perceived they were able to find a “hook for change”. In contrast, participants who reoffended did not report the same sense of competence, identified with the “sex offender” label, failed to find a “hook for change”, and perceived being in prison as safer than being in the community. Narratives offered by the service providers revealed that they were unclear about the underpinnings of the CMP, which was reflected in their understanding of the role being primarily risk-as opposed to reintegration-focused. They also reported feeling this stemmed from organisational pressure to manage risk, the outcome of which was that it impacted on both how the CMP was delivered and, the manner in which they interacted with CMP participants. This led service providers to the supposition that the TA was less important in a CMP as compared to a treatment program, a perception that differed markedly to the importance placed on the TA by CMP participants. The findings from this research support the importance of desistance theories, behaviour change, and maintenance factors during the re-entry and reintegration process. Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 1985, 2000) emerged as a critical underpinning in CMPs. The development and maintenance of the TA was found to be directly impacted by the context within which it takes place. The implications of these findings for practitioners and researchers are discussed and Transformative Learning Theory (TLT; Mezirow, 1996) is proposed as a framework to guide the development and delivery of CMPs.
... Perceptions about the value and appropriateness of education for incarcerated persons (IP) or formerly incarcerated persons (FIP) have varied depending on the prevailing views of punishment vs. rehabilitation (Blumstein & Beck, 2005;Davis et al., 2014;Petersilia, 2003;Rade, Desmarais, & Mitchell, 2016). Opinions about the value of correctional education are generally bifurcated between beliefs about whether crime is primarily attributable to individual or societal factors (Rade et al., 2016). ...
... Amid this increasingly punitive atmosphere, the publication of Martinson's (1974) metaanalysis of correctional programming was widely interpreted as an assessment that "nothing works," dealing a devastating blow to the rehabilitation movement and all sorts of correctional programming, including educational programs (Kenner, 2019;Petersilia, 2003). Such a negative assessment was arguably an oversimplification of Martinson's (1974) report, but it, nevertheless, dealt a death blow to the era of rehabilitation (Mears & Cochran, 2014). ...
... Such a negative assessment was arguably an oversimplification of Martinson's (1974) report, but it, nevertheless, dealt a death blow to the era of rehabilitation (Mears & Cochran, 2014). This new punishment-oriented environment included a rise in prosecutorial aggressiveness (Pfaff, 2017), harsher sentencing, including mandatory minimums and "Truth in Sentencing" laws that constrained discretionary judicial sentencing, and an exponential increase in drug sentencing (Abramsky, 2013;Blumstein & Beck, 2005;Dortsch & James, 2019;Mears & Cochran, 2014;Petersilia, 2003). The effect of these various "tough on crime" measures have had a disproportionate impact on people of color and women (Abramsky, 2013;Alexander, 2012;Delaney, Patrick, & Boldin, 2019; Executive Office of the President of the United States [POTUS], 2016; Petersilia, 2003). ...
Full-text available
Thesis
This study describes Second Chance Pell (SCP) first cohort (2015-16) higher education institutional practices to foster persistence during reentry. Five case studies of SCP reentry programs are described and analyzed. Services varied according to institutional size and resources, with smaller schools collaborating with other agencies for wraparound services. Participant schools used a relational model; larger programs offering peer mentoring and staff with lived experience. Wrap-around services were a larger factor than inferred by traditional persistence theories. Reentry programs can improve their effectiveness with better data, diversifying, and increasing funding, and hiring more lived experience staff. I recommend future random controlled trials to examine the role of wrap-around services and to develop a validated institutional reentry support services instrument.
... L'idée en est apparue notamment au vu de l'échec de la suppression de la LC discrétionnaire, laquelle s'est traduite tantôt par des LC automatiques et obligatoires, tantôt par des fins de peine sèches, dans les deux cas, sans plus de préparation de la sortie. Au vu du très grand nombre de sortants de prison chaque année aux Etats-Unis, et de leur très élevé taux de récidive, lequel s'ajoutait à des retours en grand nombre dans des quartiers déjà affectés par la pauvreté et la criminalité, il était devenu urgent de faire quelque chose (Petersilia, 2003;Travis et Visher, 2005). Sur le plan juridique, cela s'est traduit par le retour des LC discrétionnaires et individualisantes dans un certain nombre d'Etats (Rhine et al., 2015). ...
... Nous choisissons ici délibérément d'utiliser le terme américain « reentry 19 » (en anglais prisoner resettlement), car il décrit exactement la double réalité, d'une part, de la sortie de prison, de la réinsertion au sortir de la prison et du risque de récidive, tout autant que des obstacles que rencontre la personne et, d'autre part, la nécessité d'y apporter des solutions collaboratives, interinstitutionnelles et partenariales, dans les lieux de vie même où cette personne retourne s'installer. Tandis que la France répond à cette gageure par les aménagements de peine, dès lors forcément espérés pour tous, d'autres Etats, et notamment les Etats-Unis -spécialement depuis les travaux de Petersilia(Petersilia, 2003) etTravis et Visher (2005) -ont lancé des programmes globaux multipartenariaux, visant non le cadre juridique dans lequel la personne sort de prison (avec ou sans mesure, en fin de peine ou de manière anticipée), mais la situation matérielle, sanitaire, criminologique et psychologique, qui est la sienne et qui est également celle de son environnement. Cette approche est au demeurant recommandée par l'ONU (UNODC, 2012). ...
Full-text available
Article
The purpose of this study is to measure the implementation of a 2014 Act creating a McDonaldised "early release under constraint" procedure - i.e. bad fast early release devoid of reentry work or support, this in four Northern France jurisdictions. Cette recherche portait sur la procédure de libération sous contrainte (LSC) de l’article 720 du C. pr. pén. créée par la loi n° 2014-896 du 15 août 2014. L’article 720 représentait la troisième tentative de création d’une procédure écartant le débat contradictoire (DC) en pensant ainsi favoriser le prononcé d’aménagements de peine. Les deux précédentes avaient échoué sur ce point. Notre méthodologie a été « grounded in theory », mais « réaliste », soit élaborée empiriquement dans le cadre de théories éprouvées et visant, de manière ultime, à proposer une nouvelle théorie. Nous avons ainsi proposé une théorie cadre permettant de lier l’ensemble des théories pertinentes. Celles-ci ont emprunté au droit, à la criminologie, aux sciences politiques et sociologiques, à la psychologie, voire parfois à l’économie, à la philosophie ou à la médecine. L’étude a commencé par une analyse juridique de la LSC : procédure et non mesure. Sur le plan empirique, elle a consisté en deux années et demie d’observation des audiences contradictoires (DC) et commissions de l’application des peines (CAP)-LSC, et d’entretiens avec les praticiens et avec des personnes condamnées en sortie de CAP-LSC. Ce travail a été réalisé outre nous-même par vingt-deux étudiants de Master ainsi que d’un doctorant tous formés aux protocoles établis et monitorés. Nous avons également analysé des rapports de CPIP et des jugements et ordonnances de JAP. Une première question a porté sur la réussite ou, au contraire, de l’échec de la mise en œuvre de la procédure de LSC et notamment en nombre d’aménagements de peine. L’analyse des données a été menée grâce aux théories de l’implémentation et celles relatives à la diffusion de l’innovation. L’ensemble des critères mis en lumière par ces théories a permis de comprendre pourquoi la LSC ne pouvait que constituer un échec, ce que nos données locales, ainsi que des données nationales (Delbos, 2016) ont confirmé. Nous avons, en deuxième lieu, observé les situations procédurales (DC, CAP-LSC avec et sans comparution) à l’aune du paradigme LJ-PJ-TJ (légitimité de la justice, justice procédurale, jurisprudence « thérapeutique »), mais aussi des théories de la compliance et de l’autonomie. L’analyse sur ce point a hélas confirmé que les situations de LSC sans comparution et, à un moindre degré, avec comparution offraient un contexte violant fortement – la personnalité du JAP pouvant réduire l’impact nocébo – les principes d’une justice respectueuse et légitime. Les entretiens avec les condamnés ont confirmé la colère qu’ils pouvaient en ressentir. La littérature empirique LJ-PJ-TJ nous enseigne que, plus gravement, la conséquence risque d’en être une très faible compliance, voire une résistance ainsi que de la récidive. La conclusion sur ce point est que le respect procédural est une arme criminologique qu’il est dangereux d’écarter. Enfin, nous nous sommes interrogée sur la question à la fois théorique et pratique de l’accompagnement des sortants de détention et avons questionné le choix d’aménagements de peine obtenus de manière rapide et sans exigence substantielle. Le législateur en pensant « simplifier » les procédures a confondu emballage juridique et contenu : on ne peut faire l’économie d’une préparation de la sortie et d’un projet viable pour les justiciables et pour la société, ni d’un traitement criminologique adapté ; c’est au demeurant le sens des recommandations de l’ONU. Tant les praticiens qui donnent leur avis, que les JAP qui se prononcent, que les condamnés ainsi non accompagnés, rejettent en majorité des processus dénués de contenu. Au surplus, le temps de CPIP serait mieux utilisé à préparer de manière substantielle des projets de sortie plutôt qu’à produire des écrits de manière industrielle. Le cœur de leur métier devrait être le traitement criminologique et multi-partenarial et la transition qualitative avec le monde libre.
... One in 46 Americans is on community supervision; about 4.4 million people are on probation or parole (Oudekerk and Kaeble 2021). Although only a small minority of the community supervision population is on postprison parole, many of those experiencing reentry have been or will be on probation at some point, and probation and parole are similar in their structures and administration in many jurisdictions, with parolees typically experiencing more intensive supervision (Petersilia 2003). Probation is also central to criminal justice policy because it is the putative alternative to imprisonment as a widespread form of punishment. ...
... Third, studies of reintegration consistently demonstrate that a significant number of formerly incarcerated individuals are excluded from conventional or mainstream social roles that structure daily lives in contemporary society, despite managing to avoid continued involvement with the criminal justice system (Petersilia 2003;Crutchfield 2014;Western 2018;Harding, Morenoff, and Wyse 2019). Careers in criminalization may help us understand why an important subset of this group "ages out" of crime without "aging into" full participation in the economy, community, and polity. ...
Article
Criminalization is the process by which people are classified by authorities as criminal and become subject to the control of criminal justice agencies— police, courts, and correctional departments. “Careers in criminalization” refers to sustained criminal justice involvement through repeated incarceration and ongoing police and court contact. Careers in criminalization are produced through a mutually reinforcing process of system-induced harms and criminal justice traps that combine to prolong surveillance and penal control. System-induced harms are physical, psychological, and reputational injuries that may be criminogenic or otherwise impede adjustment to community life. Criminal justice traps are cycles of involvement created through intensive surveillance, compliance enforcement, and system marking. The idea of careers in criminalization has special relevance for understanding prisoner reentry, in which criminal justice institutions and officials sustain surveillance and penal control, delaying social integration.
... Some question exists as to whether prisons are ideal or appropriate environments in which to rehabilitate individuals, however. Prisons isolate offenders from their families and communities and contribute to the development of antisocial coping mechanisms, all of which make prison environments unlikely to be supportive of rehabilitation (Petersilia 2003;Sykes 1958). The presence of prison gangs and the threat of physical and sexual violence further contribute to negative environments (Fleisher and Decker 2001;Trammell 2012). ...
... Programming geared toward improving the social environment of prisons could be created to reduce bullying and other hierarchical conflicts between incarcerated individuals and to promote positive social relations within correctional facilities and as part of reentry programming aimed at helping the incarcerated to enact positive social interactions and relationships. Given the scholarship on difficulties of reentering society (Liem 2016;Petersilia 2003;Western 2018), such programming could be far-reaching inside and outside the prison. It should be noted that although bullying in prison has been examined in English prisons (Adams and Ireland 2018;Allison and Ireland 2010;Ireland 1999aIreland , 1999bIreland , 2000Ireland , 2001Ireland , 2002aIreland , 2002bIreland , 2003Ireland , 2005Ireland , 2008Ireland , 2012Archer 1996, 2002;Ireland 2000, 2003;Ireland and Power 2004;Ireland et al. 1999Ireland et al. , 2016, research on bullying in the United States seems limited to nonincarcerated children and adolescents and not focused on adult inmates. ...
Full-text available
Article
The punitiveness of prisons is considered necessary for deterrence, but there is also a societal expectation that prisons will also rehabilitate. Scholars have examined whether prisons are ideal environments for rehabilitation from the perspective of the inmate, though this work largely focuses on measurement issues related to the scales used to measure offenders’ perceptions. The current research expands upon this by asking a sample of 154 incarcerated men from three different correctional facilities in the Midwestern United States what they think about their current correctional environment using the Prison Environment Scale (PES) and focusing on the answers provided by those incarcerated individuals. These results are presented descriptively, giving a voice to the incarcerated and their perceptions of the prison environment. Results from this exploratory study indicate incarcerated individuals feel negatively about the social and physical environment of prisons, noting the existence of hierarchies, possessions being used as currency, lack of physical space, and the lack of meaningful activities. Devising ways to promote a prosocial prison environment is important for effective rehabilitation, improved institutional conduct, and positive post-release outcomes.
... It's like they went from hell [in Ad Seg] to heaven [in GRAD]." -P.F., personal communication, April 13, 2007 Although it has been at the forefront of the correctional lexicon for several years (Petersilia, 2003), prisoner reentry, commonly defined as "the process of leaving prison or jail and returning to society" (Solomon, Waul, Van Ness & Travis, 2005, p. xii), excludes the transition offenders confined to segregation or other confinement must make upon return to the general prison population. They are not suddenly tossed back into mainstream society (which formal prisoner reentry addresses), but they are merely transferred from one restrictive environment (segregation) to another albeit-less-restrictive one (general population). ...
... They are not suddenly tossed back into mainstream society (which formal prisoner reentry addresses), but they are merely transferred from one restrictive environment (segregation) to another albeit-less-restrictive one (general population). But how are the transfer and reintegration accomplished for those having spent years in Ad Seg? Petersilia (2003) enumerates several points to encourage successful reentry back into the community, including the need to "front-load postprison services during the first six months after release" (p. 18). ...
Full-text available
Thesis
This research is a case study focused on the resocialization of prison gang members through the lens of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice’s (TDCJ) Gang Renouncement and Disassociation (GRAD) process, a nine-month, three-phase voluntary process whereby confirmed prison gang, or Security Threat Group (STG), members renounce their gang membership and disassociate from the gang while still incarcerated. The TDCJ implemented its gang renunciation process to relinquish its dependence on segregating confirmed prison gang members and to provide them a way to transition out of segregation. The GRAD process has been in place since 2000 with more than 2,600 offenders completing it, but little information, other than anecdotal evidence, is available to support or disprove its success or effectiveness at de-ganging and resocializing prison gang members for the long haul.
... This physical distance during incarceration makes it hard for women to keep in touch with family and maintain strong relationships when they are behind bars, especially if their family members are at an economic disadvantage. Additionally, although children and their incarcerated mothers can keep in touch with letters and phone calls if in-person visits are hard to arrange, these forms of contact usually decrease in frequency over time (Petersilia, 2003). ...
... This led to a discussion of reentry facts and statistics to preface the presentation. For example, staff were made aware of the fact that 95 percent of the prison population is expected to return home in the future (Petersilia, 2003). Among those who left prison in 2014, it was the case that approximately 55 percent returned (or recidivated) within five years. ...
Article
Restorative values such as collaboration, community, and resiliency are not new, but they are new in their relationship to the criminal justice system. Within recent decades, restorative justice practices have grown in popularity as they provide a number of solution-focused strategies to address crime. Restorative practices also have the potential to positively transform reentry-specific processes. In Wilmington, North Carolina, Leading Into New Communities (LINC) is an organization that assists its residents in their return from prison, recognizing that restorative values are essential to a successful transition. However, while LINC is restorative in its overall mission, most staff members do not possess concrete understandings of restorative justice. In this study, in order to improve staff understandings of these topics, two voluntary training workshops were held to provide LINC staff members with more information on restorative justice, including its many programs and practices, as well as the unique ways in which it relates to reentry. Workshop observations and anonymous feedback forms provide insight into how these workshops benefitted LINC staff. This paper highlights the importance of restorative workshops in similar organizations as a way to improve understandings of restorative justice practices and how they can be utilized throughout reentry processes. With a broader understanding of restorative justice, organizations such as LINC will be in a better position to assist individuals with reentry in more meaningful ways.
... Each day, formerly incarcerated people attempt to reintegrate back into their communities but face challenges such as obtaining stable employment, permanent housing, support, and adjusting to new circumstances (Crutchfield & Weeks, 2015;Gunnison & Helfgott, 2013;Petersilia, 2003;Stojkovic, 2007). Evidence-based reentry policies and programs that have been enacted in recent years have been shown to improve outcomes for people released from prison (Gelb & Velázquez, 2018). ...
... Existing studies found that resilience is a protective factor against mental health and positively influences the quality of life as a buffer against the negative impact of stressors (Duggal et al., Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society -Volume 23, Issue 2 2016; Ong et al., 2018;Rydén et al., 2003;Wu, 2011). Diversion clients can face obstacles in adjusting to new circumstances after they release, and they might have a history of trauma in their life, mental health issues, and substance abuse (Gunnison & Helfgott, 2013;Petersilia, 2003). Furthermore, in the context of reentry, research has shown that resilience-promoting strategies, such as having a positive mental framework, patience, and adjusting to obstacles, were contributors to successful community reentry (Hodgkinson et al., 2021;Kim et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
Article
The United States has the highest levels of incarceration in the world, and finding ways to address this ever-growing concern has value both to system-involved individuals and broader society. "Diversion" programs are a pre-trial option that provides rehabilitation and personal development as alternatives to incarceration. Hope is an asset to coping with adversity, and studies have revealed that people who have lower levels of hope are at greater risk of becoming involved in the criminal justice system. One characteristic linked to success in navigating diversion programs is psychological resilience, with hope theory suggesting a hopeful mindset is an antecedent of that resilience. The current study (N = 52) evaluated this theory by testing a model of hope as a driver of resilience. Participants were receiving various diversion-related services in the Heartland of the United States. Participant surveys included established measures of both hope and resilience. First, item scores' principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that hope and resilience operated as unique psychological constructs within the sample. A subsequent path model analysis of hope as a predictor of resilience indicated that, as theorized, hope accounted for 17.2% of the variance in resilience across both race and gender. The results support that hope is essential to psychological resilience among diversion clients. The results suggest that future research into hope theory-based interventions with diversion clients is worthwhile.
... This study developed separate interview protocols for former prisoners who repeat crimes (recidivists) and those who avoid criminal behaviour (desisters). Both interview protocols were developed based on previous studies (Andrews et al., 2011;Doherty & Bersani, 2016;Hanson, 2003;Maruna, 2017;Petersilia, 2003;Sampson & Laub, 1993, 2005 and reviewed by two expert academicians from the field of criminology. As a result, both experts can ensure that the questions posed in the interview protocol account for participants' rights and the research objectives. ...
... Problems related to this disease become more critical when former prisoners come out of prison unconscious and know that they have diseases such as Tuberculosis, Hepatitis C and HIV. As a result, their health condition is becoming more critical, as well as the worrying thing is that they have the potential to spread infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV to the community (Petersilia, 2003). Researchers interviewed the respondents about the effects of their illness on well-being, and most of them claimed that the disease did not cause any problems to them. ...
Full-text available
Article
The Age-Graded Theory suggests that the causes of premature delinquency and adult deviant behaviour are not the exclusive outcomes of individual characteristics since a particular incident in life can affect individuals, perpetuating their persistency in committing offences. This paper demonstrates that constructive events in life can successfully prevent former prisoners from being reinvolved in crime, whilst adverse life happenings can derail former prisoners from staying on the right path—a phenomenon known as recidivism. Adopting the phenomenology research paradigm, the findings of this paper are based on the empirical data from a Malaysian case study involving 19 former prisoners with criminal records of various offences. The findings of this study reveal that Age-Graded life-course events are essential predictors of former prisoner criminal behaviour, rendering the theory valuable, especially when it comes to modelling social reintegration strategies and interventions for former prisoners.
... Under the draft of the Model Penal Code, there were sentencing recommendations that would direct state and local courts to provide back all rights the ex-inmate had lost due to imprisonment. This draft proposed allowing ex-prisoners to petition the court to vacate their old judgment of conviction, depending on the type of crime they were imprisoned for (Petersilia, 2003). While a record of their sentence would still be available, the idea behind vacating a conviction would provide further evidence of repayment and society's forgiveness (Petersilia, 2003). ...
... This draft proposed allowing ex-prisoners to petition the court to vacate their old judgment of conviction, depending on the type of crime they were imprisoned for (Petersilia, 2003). While a record of their sentence would still be available, the idea behind vacating a conviction would provide further evidence of repayment and society's forgiveness (Petersilia, 2003). ...
... In the U.S., group threat theory has gained prominence in research that seeks to draw links between Black American's social, economic, political and spatial position and disproportionate harsh sentencing and policing practices, overrepresentation in prison, and public punitiveness (Barkan & Cohn, 2005;Behrens et al., 2003;Jacobs et al., 2005;King & Wheelock, 2007). This intergroup theoretical framework is also in line with sociological theories about social statuses and social positioning (Becker, 1963;Davis, 2003), and how the criminal status supersedes other statuses (Petersilia, 2009), shaping social responses toward criminals (e.g., Becker, 1963;Lebel, 2012;Matza, 1969;Pager, 2003;Petersilia, 2009). Criminalized individuals are therefore not thought of as people with their own contexts and stories (Christie, 2003), because doing so would make it "too agonizing to cope with the possibility that anyone, including ourselves, could be a prisoner" (Davis, 2003, p. 15). ...
... In the U.S., group threat theory has gained prominence in research that seeks to draw links between Black American's social, economic, political and spatial position and disproportionate harsh sentencing and policing practices, overrepresentation in prison, and public punitiveness (Barkan & Cohn, 2005;Behrens et al., 2003;Jacobs et al., 2005;King & Wheelock, 2007). This intergroup theoretical framework is also in line with sociological theories about social statuses and social positioning (Becker, 1963;Davis, 2003), and how the criminal status supersedes other statuses (Petersilia, 2009), shaping social responses toward criminals (e.g., Becker, 1963;Lebel, 2012;Matza, 1969;Pager, 2003;Petersilia, 2009). Criminalized individuals are therefore not thought of as people with their own contexts and stories (Christie, 2003), because doing so would make it "too agonizing to cope with the possibility that anyone, including ourselves, could be a prisoner" (Davis, 2003, p. 15). ...
Full-text available
Article
Anger is a key emotion in terms of understanding public responses toward crime: it is frequently mobilized in public discourses and is elicited by specific incidents. This study focuses on intuitive anger: a rapidly emerging negative emotional response that eschews principles of punishment but nevertheless contributes to punitiveness. This study uses facial electromyography to measure intuitive anger, and assess its effect on punitiveness drawing on data collected among university students in Canada (N = 87). The study’s repeated-measures experimental design allows for testing the hypotheses that: (i) individuals will experience greater intuitive angry responses when making punitive decisions for purported ‘stereotypical criminals’ and that (ii) anger will appear early in the decision-making process, and lead to more punitive decisions. The results of crossed-multilevel regression models provide evidence of the manifestation of anger within half of a second of individuals’ engagement in punitive decision-making. Intuitive anger follows principles that are central to intergroup relations, although it was not found to be predictive of rapid punitive decisions. The findings are discussed in terms of the moral and social implications of intuitive anger in the context of punitiveness toward crime.
... For justice-involved women, social support is especially critical. Women are the fastest growing segment of the criminal justice system, severely under-resourced, and heavily reliant on family members and significant others for support, even when relationship dynamics are mixed or negative (Bui and Morash, 2010;Clone and DeHart, 2014;Goodson, 2018;Harding et al., 2019;O'Brien, 2001;Petersilia, 2003;Valera et al., 2015). Compounding women's economic barriers to reintegration is their limited support networks. ...
... Family members, friends, and significant others typically step in to provide emotional and tangible support (i.e., housing, financial aid; (Berg and Huebner, 2011;Valera et al., 2015;Visher et al., 2010;Wright et al., 2013). Such relationships can ease the reentry process (Parsons and Warner-Robbins, 2002), improve returning citizens' success in parole compliance (Bahr et al., 2010), provide access to employment opportunities (Western and Sirois, 2019), and are associated with lower rates of recidivism and drug-use relapses (Barrick et al., 2014;Berg and Huebner, 2011;Bui and Morash, 2010;Clone and DeHart, 2014;O'Brien, 2001;Petersilia, 2003). ...
Article
Despite the prominence of social support research in the offender rehabilitation literature, network methods have yet to be used to extend research beyond core network support to investigate resources accessible to justice-involved individuals from semi-regular interaction partners. This study is the first to apply egocentric (personal) social network methods to assess the composition and structure of justice-involved individuals’ networks. Using data from in-person interviews with 159 justice-involved women about their 1313 network members, four social layers – core, active peripheral, latent peripheral, and estranged ties – are delineated, described, and compared. Findings indicated: 1) there is an abundance of resources available to women in the intermediate and outer social layers of their networks – active and latent peripheral – that are ignored when scholars exclusively study core network members, 2) Latent peripheral ties (i.e., colleagues) provide access to resources associated with women’s correctional needs (i.e., legal advice, employment opportunities), and 3) relationships become decentralized and unstable – in terms of frequency of contact, geographical distance, and emotional closeness – from the inner to outer layers. Measuring the outer social layers is critical to identifying relationships that compromise reintegration (i.e., estranged) and altering network configurations to improve access to social capital and social support.
... Experts in this field were used to review the content in an FGD session. The case management approach is commonly used for caring for people released from prison and those with a history of substance abuse disorders [23]. This approach has empirical scientific support [24]. ...
... Throughout the evaluation and intervention planning process, case managers act as a bridge between internal/external resources and individuals to achieve positive change. This bridge seeks to increase prisoners' motivation and acquire clear cooperation between providers and recipients of services and continued care for people released from prison so that a successful community re-entry can finally be achieved [23]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Objective: The re-entry of offenders to the community after their imprisonment is a sensitive and important stage and should always be considered by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The proper transition from prison to the community occurs when rehabilitation and social reintegration programs are developed and implemented based on the real needs of individuals. Social work is one of the professions that can help the judicial system with this issue. Many graduates of this profession provide social work services to prisoners and their families. Therefore, it is necessary to identify effective operational solutions in accordance with the conditions of the country and formulate a specific framework. This study aims to prepare a guideline for specialized social work intervention for community re-entry of offenders with a history of violence against individuals. Materials & Methods: In this study, a qualitative approach was used to prepare the specialized guideline. First, the initial barriers and facilitators of successful community re-entry for offenders with a history of violence against individuals were prepared using thematic analysis. Then, based on the protocols of the social work process, the initial draft was developed. Next, at a focus group discussion session with faculty members and experts, the draft was reviewed and improved. To assess its applicability, we used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) tool. Results: Intertwined concerns, protective shields, welfare/economic security, social support, and achieving relative independence were identified as the five dimensions of successful community re-entry. The specialized social work interventions were presented after approval in four main stages: preparation for the case plan, development of the case plan, interventions and actions, and monitoring and review of interventions. The results of evaluation by AGREE tool showed an overall acceptable average of 58.7% (82.9% for scope and purpose, 88.1% for stakeholder involvement, 85.6% for rigor of development, 83% for clarity of presentation, 84.9% for applicability, and 89.8% for editorial independence). The users of this guideline are social workers and other professions related to prisons and training and security organizations, especially after-release care centers. Conclusion: Investing in rehabilitation programs for prisoners is one of the best and most cost-effective ways to prevent the reoccurrence of violence, which not only has beneficial effects on those concerned but also promotes public safety. This issue becomes important when social reintegration and rehabilitation programs are developed based on scientific approaches and perspectives. Future studies on the effectiveness of the developed guideline, considering the local conditions, can help identify the effective factors of re-entry to the community in newly released prisoners. The skills and capabilities of social workers in presenting specialized interventions and establishing professional and inter-organizational communication, supporting rules and programs, motivation, and enthusiasm of the offender to change can all contribute to the success of this guideline in achieving the defined goals.
... Persons on parole are also likely to experience barriers and stigma once released into the community due to the stigma associated with their criminal history (Sheppard & Ricciardelli, 2020). This stigma adversely affects this population by creating barriers to obtaining employment (Harding et al., 2019;Sheppard & Ricciardelli, 2020); securing adequate housing (Evans et al., 2019;Furst & Evans, 2017;Herbert et al., 2015), unstable housing that results in homelessness (Petersilia, 2003) and loss of social standing (Gunnison & Helfgot, 2017;Moore et al., 2013). ...
Full-text available
Article
There is limited knowledge regarding precipitating factors associated with suicidality among persons on parole. Pairing the suicide ideation-to-action framework and stress process theory, the present study aimed to characterize sources of major stress (drug use, physical health, and mental health) and their associations to suicide ideation, planning, and attempt among a national sample of persons on parole. This study included a subsample of persons on parole (N = 1725) using pooled national data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2015–2019). A series of logistic regression results indicate that various drug use, physical health, and mental health factors significantly influenced all three suicidality measures. Due to this population’s unique experiences and numerous barriers following release from prison, it is essential to personalize interventions geared toward this population to meet their specific needs and address suicidality based on where they fall on this continuum.
... In fact, hiring people with criminal records, when combined with provision of stable housing, can increase public safety as it is well established that stable employment and housing reduce future recidivism (Blumstein & Nakamura, 2009;Clow et al., 2012;Kurlychek et al., 2006;Zweig et al., 2011). Other studies emphasize the importance of strong social ties for the desistance of crime (Laub & Sampson, 1993;Petersilia, 2003), which are harder to create for groups, such as formerly incarcerated people, who are publicly stigmatized. ...
Full-text available
Article
Objectives This study tests if the public overestimates the immoral behavior of formerly incarcerated people. Methods In a benchmark study with people on parole and people without a criminal record, participants played a game that allowed them to deceive their counterparts in order to make more money. A subsequent prediction study asked an online US-nationally representative sample to estimate how both groups played the game. By comparing the estimated likelihoods to the observed likelihoods of deception we examine if people correctly assess the deception rates of both groups. Results Both groups showed an equal propensity to deceive. In contrast, respondents from the online sample believed that people on parole would be much more likely to deceive than their counterparts. Conclusions The results suggest that the public holds stigmatizing attitudes towards formerly incarcerated people, which can be a detriment to successful reentry into their communities.
... Yani, yüksek riskli gruplardaki kadınlarda, tedavi ve rehabilitasyona yanıt ve Denetimli Serbestlik tedbir kararlarının uygulanmasının yeniden suç işleme ile ilişkisi bulunmamıştır. Yüksek riskli gruptaki kadınların yeniden suç işleme oranları zaten yüksek bulunmuştur (57). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
This book chapter aims to review research on the epidemiology, influencing factors, classification, and types of recidivism in children, adolescents and adults, and to develop a mental and forensic perspective of recidivism, a broad term that refers to the repetition of criminal behavior.
... Preparing for reentry and making transition plans for adults and young people to meet their educational needs and continue their education back in the community prior to leaving correctional institutions is vital for their ongoing educational success (Clark, 2018;Tolbert, 2012). Educational assistance is likewise vital for employment opportunities that prevent repeat crime after release (Petersilia, 2003). The reentry planning circles provided to women in this programme have been successfully replicated in other states and countries, and in the U.S. federal court in Honolulu (Walker & Kobayashi, 2020). ...
Chapter
This chapter describes the development and implementation of a programme providing higher and continuing education for imprisoned women in Hawai‘i. The purpose of the chapter is to show how the programme, which was based on principles of restorative justice and peace education, connects to and illustrates peace psychology. The programme consists of educational and restorative components. The education component provides women with opportunities to increase self-efficacy and personal agency. The project design motivates inner and relational peace by applying Montessori’s peace education and cooperative learning theories. The restorative re-entry planning process increases respect, empathy, and redemption. The value of respect advanced by Montessori and restorative justice is embedded in the project. Through cooperative learning and restorative re-entry planning practices, the women build supportive and peaceful relationships both internally and relationally to help decrease the structural violence that they have experienced. This chapter describes research supporting education for incarcerated women to address structural violence. The chapter includes an explanation of concepts and applications of cooperative learning and restorative re-entry planning circles and discusses their effectiveness in generating inner and relational peace. This chapter describes how education can increase incarcerated women’s personal agency, self-efficacy, and confidence, creating inner and relational peace, leading to successful re-entry and decreased domestic violence. The program addresses the connection between lack of personal agency and domestic violence, problems shared by many women, incarcerated and otherwise, throughout the world. The programme, created and conducted in Hawai‘i, could be replicated by other correctional institutions.
... employed before incarceration experienced deterioration of skills, experience and network contacts where education was not offered (Wolff, Shi, and Schumann, 2012). Given positive associations between education, employment, and desistance from crime, researchers and practitioners suggest that incarceration should be organized such that it functions as a mechanism for enhancing offenders" human capital (Petersilia, 2003;Travis, 2005). ...
... Also, surveillance is related to low levels of trust and cooperation, which may be related to negative experiences within the parole officer-parolee relationship (Fulton et al., 1997;Seiter, 2002;Skeem et al., 2003). Conversely, parole officers who take on a therapeutic role may be more likely to have positive experiences with their parolees as this orientation requires the parole officer to deeply engage with parolees, and to aid them in addressing criminogenic obstacles, such as mental health problems, substance abuse, physical health conditions, inadequate educational and employment skills, and lack of stable housing (Seiter, 2002;Petersilia, 2003;Travis, 2005;National Research Council, 2008;Tatman and Love, 2010;Blasko et al., 2015). Therefore, professional orientation may moderate the effect of parole officers' relationship experiences with parolees on their implicit associations with parolees. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background Parole officers are one of many actors in the legal system charged with interpreting and enforcing the law. Officers not only assure that parolees under their supervision comply with the terms of their release, but also monitor and control parolees’ criminal behavior. They conduct their jobs through their understanding of their official mandate and make considered and deliberate choices while executing that mandate. However, their experiences as legal actors may impact their implicit cognitions about parolees. This experiment is the first of its kind to examine implicit (i.e., automatic) associations between the self and parolees among actors of the legal system. Objective The present study examines the implicit cognitive consequences of the quality of the parole officer-parolee relationship from the perspective of the parole officer; specifically, whether parole officers who are reminded of positive experiences with parolees implicitly associate more with the group parolees than those reminded of a negative experience. In addition, we explore the moderating effects of parole officers’ subjective professional orientation and identification. Method Eighty-four New Jersey parole officers participated in the study. First, an experimental manipulation of either a past positive or negative experience was administered via a writing task. Participants then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between the self-concept of parole officers with parolees who are part of the group criminal, followed by measures of professional orientation and identification. Results Participants who were reminded of a positive experience with a parolee exhibited stronger associations between self and the group parolee when compared to those who were reminded of a negative experience. Neither professional orientation nor parole officer group identification were related to implicit associations and did not moderate the effect of the past experience reminder on implicit associations. Conclusion and Implications Implicit cognitions of parole officers may influence their behaviors and interactions with those whom they supervise. Positive reminders affect implicit self-associations with parolees presumably via empathy, which is known to affect the quality of therapeutic and supervision relationships; thus, theoretically, leading to improved outcomes for both officers and parolees.
... For example, previously incarcerated individuals lose time on the job market, job skills, and connection with friends and family, all of which act as obstacles in obtaining employment (Cherney & Fitzgerald, 2016;Wakefield & Uggen, 2010). Additionally, the lack of job training and educational programs provided within criminal legal institutions contribute to the challenges of securing employment once individuals have been released (Petersilia, 2003). Although innocent, being released from wrongful incarceration does not automatically erase or eliminate the experiences of previous incarceration and the barriers to gaining employment. ...
Full-text available
Article
The scientific study of wrongful convictions has been ongoing for the past few decades. These studies have worked to quantify wrongful convictions, identify contributing factors, and understand the negative implications to society and the individuals who experiences a wrongful incarceration. The majority of existing studies focus on what leads to a wrongful conviction, with fewer studies examining the community reentry processes of wrongfully convicted individuals. Those studies that do specifically focus on after-release experiences among wrongfully convicted individuals generally focus on the wide range of experiences that wrongfully convicted individuals have in terms of community reentry. The current study aims to contribute to these existing conversations on post-release experiences of wrongfully convicted individuals by focusing on a very specific aspect of community reentry, employment. Utilizing qualitative interviews with innocence organizational employees, individuals who work closely with wrongfully convicted individuals before their release and often maintain relationships after their release as well, this study examines how wrongful convictions impact employment. Findings show that obtaining innocence in often a long and complex process, resulting in numerous barriers that individuals must navigate in the job market. Organizational employees discuss the many barriers that their clients often encounter and the ways in which they, their organization, and wider society can assist wrongfully convicted individuals in the community reentry efforts more broadly. Policy implications are also discussed to aid wrongfully convicted individuals after their release.
... The challenges faced by those who are returning to the community after prison are well documented (Jonson & Cullen, 2015;Petersilia, 2003;Serin et al., 2010) and highlight that while a sound risk assessment and effective custodial intervention are requisite, they are insufficient on their own to ensure successful reentry and reintegration (Borzycki & Baldry, 2003;Jonson & Cullen, 2015;Serin et al., 2010). Research has suggested several factors with the potential to impair desistance. ...
Article
Developing an understanding of how people who have been to prison maintain changes they may have made in a custodial program, successfully (re)integrate upon release to the community and ultimately, desist, is imperative if we want to prevent their return to prison. Reentry and reintegration processes are fraught with challenges for parolees and community support to assist with this process is important. Community maintenance programs are programs that are in theory designed to aid those who have been released from prison to successfully reintegrate, by providing ongoing specialized and professional support in the community. Factors relevant to successful reintegration for those who have offended included a variety of factors beyond program content, which includes therapist characteristics, client’s perceptions of their therapists and the therapeutic alliance. This paper examines the therapeutic relationship and proposes that the setting within which a therapeutic relationship takes place needs to be considered as a fourth factor to Bordin’s model of therapeutic alliance, which seems particularly relevant to the forensic context. There will be a specific focus on the impact of correctional organizations on therapeutic programs and staff. Implications for practice and future research are also considered.
... In any given year, an estimated 600,000 individuals are released from prison and confronted with the daunting challenges of what's come to be known as "reentry." A substantial body of literature has documented the barriers and challenges faced by individuals as they navigate life following release (Petersilia 2003;Travis 2005;Western 2018). Those returning to life beyond the prison walls face rampant employment discrimination (Pager 2003;Peck and Theodore 2008), relegation to the bottom of the labor market (Bumiller 2015;Augustine 2019;Purser 2021), and crushing poverty combined with penal-related debt (Harris 2016;Sobol 2016;Prior 2021). ...
... Challenges in reentry, from the justice-involved individual's perspective, service provider's perspective, and the system's perspective, are plentiful. Incarcerated individuals tend to be undereducated, and often lack vocational training and legitimate work experience prior to entering prison (Petersilia, 2003;Richmond, 2014;Western, 2006). Despite a relatively glim landscape for corrections, research has demonstrated that prison can serve as a turning point from crime when returning individuals have the resources to succeed after release (Harding, Morenoff et al., 2019). ...
Article
This study utilized life story interviews with 21 formerly incarcerated individuals to examine the role vocational reentry programming played in the desistance process. We begin with a review of theories of desistance and the state of reentry programs. A thematic analysis revealed that providers assisted individuals to understand their behavioral trajectories and to take steps toward desistance. Further, participants felt empowered by program provided social support, developed strategies to overcome employment barriers, and held resilient and optimistic attitudes in changing their identities and behavioral trajectories. We conclude with a discussion on how these findings can inform desistance theory and reentry policy.
... im Zuge der Inhaftierung des Mannes bei deren Partnerinnen außerhalb der Gefängnismauern entstandene Zugewinn an Autonomie und Eigenständigkeit kann eine Trennung oder Scheidung noch während der Zeit der Inhaftierung oder auch nach der Haftentlassung wahrscheinlicher machen(Apel et al., 2010). Letzteres möglicherweise umso mehr, da Haftentlassene oftmals große Schwierigkeiten erleben, eine adäquate berufliche Anstellung zu finden und ihnen somit keine hinreichenden finanzielle Mittel zur Verfügung stehen, um eine Familie zu unterhalten(Travis et al., 2014), in den USA auch vom Bezug verschiedener Sozialleistungen abgeschnitten werden können, ihnen mitunter der Einzug in staatlich unterstützte Sozialwohnungen untersagt wird oder ihre Rechte als Elternteil beschnitten werden(Petersilia, 2003). Eine ähnliche, wie diese auf individueller Ebene beschriebene Entwicklung lässt sich in bestimmten Regionen bzw. ...
Thesis
Mitgefangen. Seltener im Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit, aber oftmals von einer Haftstrafe in ähnlichem Ausmaß betroffen wie Inhaftierte selbst, sind deren Partnerinnen. Aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln und unter Rückgriff auf Erkenntnisse der Rechts-, Entwicklungs- und Partnerschaftspsychologie beleuchtet diese Studie Licht- und Schattenseiten, die die Inhaftierung des Lebenspartners für Frauen mit sich bringt. Um die Umstände dieser sehr außergewöhnlichen Lebens- und Beziehungssituation abzubilden, kommen neben validierten Fragebogeninstrumenten stichprobenspezifische und für diese Studie konzipierte Fragebögen zum Einsatz, die faktoren- und reliabilitätsanalytisch geprüft werden und sich als tauglich für den intendierten Zweck erweisen. Das psychische Belastungserleben, die Lebenszufriedenheit und die Partnerschaftszufriedenheit stellen die Kriteriumsvariablen regressionsanalytisch geprüfter Hypothesen dar, zeigen sich teilweise durch das Ausmaß erlebter negativer Haftfolgen ungünstig beeinflusst, bedingen sich mitunter aber auch gegenseitig. Dass das Ausmaß einiger abträglicher Effekte auf die verwendeten Kriteriumsvariablen durch verschiedene Ressourcen und Bewältigungsmodi tendenziell abgeschwächt werden kann, belegen durchgeführte Interaktionsanalysen. Nach einer kritischen Diskussion der Einschränkungen der Fragebogenstudie kommen im Rahmen qualitativer Interviews betroffene Personen zu Wort, deren Berichte das breite Spektrum von Herausforderungen, aber auch förderlichen Entwicklungen im Kontext der Inhaftierung ihres Partners bzw. ihrer Partnerin verdeutlichen.
... Despite the importance of community reentry for rehabilitation and desistance research [46], little is known about whether an individual's experiences and transformations while incarcerated impact the likelihood of future offending. This neglect is perhaps because the incarceration experience and the process of institutionalization, often referred to as prisonization (e.g., [59]), are assumed to adversely impact all individuals (e.g., [58]) by immersing them in a prison culture that acts as a barrier to effective socialization (e.g., [67]) and prosocial thinking styles (e.g., [65]). ...
... The stigmatic label of "offender" placed on the extracted individual gives this form of separation a different nature. Research has documented the effects of the stigma attached to once incarcerated individuals and potentially to their family members (Braithwaite, 1989;Petersilia, 2003;Pager, 2007;Braman, 2004;Foster & Hagan, 2007). As the majority of incarcerated individuals are parents (Travis et al., 2003;Glaze & Maruschak, 2008), it is important to build on these areas of research and expand on the mechanisms through which elements of stigma and separation affect the second generation. ...
Full-text available
Article
Parental incarceration in the United States has drastically increased since the 1980s. As there is much stigma around incarceration and the majority of incarcerated individuals are parents, it is important to identify the effects of this form of parent-child separation. I argue that parental incarceration is in many cases a secretive form of separation, and this is mostly due to protective efforts of gatekeepers and the stigma associated with the incarceration. I also argue that children of incarcerated parents seek information and sometimes reconnect with their parent using online platforms such as Google. Utilizing qualitative in-depth interviews from children of incarcerated parents (N = 31), I identify the possible negative effects of secrecy on children of incarcerated parents, and discuss cases in which children grow up and use “Google” to reclaim truth.
... While reentry is seen as a more technical term that refers to the process of reentering society without any specific connotations of whether it is a successful process (Muntingh, 2005), subsequent to reentry, those released can begin the process of reintegration (Petersilia, 2003), which is most relevant to CMPs. Reintegration is not a new concept, first recognized as an important endeavor as early as 1970 (Irwin, 1970), although defining it is not a straightforward task. ...
Article
One of the difficulties with the implementation of community maintenance programs (CMPs) for men who have sexually offended has been the lack of a definitive conceptualisation of maintenance and therefore no standardised theory or program. The aim of this study was one part of a broader attempt to develop an understanding of maintenance programs by exploring the views, opinions, and experiences of those who facilitate maintenance programs. The current study sought to consult with service providers, after interviewing CMP participants, to formulate a working definition by incorporating their perceptions with existing knowledge of the extant literature. Eleven service providers (i.e., psychologists) who delivered the largest Australian CMP were interviewed and asked about their perceptions regarding the purpose and objectives of the CMP as well as their experiences of facilitating the program. Four primary themes emerged as relevant which are discussed as well as the implications for practice and researchers.
... The reentry process for formerly incarcerated people is fraught with uncertainty and there is a long list of tasks that needs to be achieved for them to successfully reintegrate back into society (Petersilia, 2003 ;Mears & Cochran, 2014 ). Upon release, returning citizens need to fi nd housing, secure employment, reconnect with family and their communities, continue substance treatment (if required) and maintain regular contact with their parole or probation offi cer. ...
Chapter
The period immediately following prison release is challenging, as returning citizens need to obtain housing, find employment, secure health care, and reconnect with families. In addition to having a criminal record, returning citizens encounter a technologically savvy and hyper-secured society that requires use of touchscreens, mobile phones, computers, and the Internet, and relies heavily on dataveillance and big data analysis for predictive policing and crime-prevention. Most returning citizens do not have the digital access and skills needed for employment, access to online human and social services, enrollment in education, connecting with family and community, protecting their privacy online, and adapting to cultural changes. This chapter examines the kinds of technologies returning citizens encounter during reentry and reentry programs that focus on integrating digital technologies and digital literacy into their curriculum. We discuss the implications of the lack of such programs and the potential benefits of digital literacy training during reentry.
... While rest and positive affect replenish the 'energy' required to successively overwrite impulses ( Tice et al., 2007 ), participants' circumstances offered little room for such respite. As mirrored in numerous other studies (see for example Baldry, 2010 ;Petersilia, 2009 ;Visher & Travis, 2003 ), participants' transition experiences were characterised by high uncertainty and lacking supportive routines which took a cumulative toll on their capacity to navigate everyday life in the community effectively. ...
Article
Background People who inject drugs (PWID) are overrepresented among prisoner populations worldwide. This qualitative study used the psychological concept of “ego-depletion” as an exploratory framework to better understand the disproportionate rates of reincarceration among people with injecting drug use histories. The aim was to illuminate mechanisms by which prospects for positive post-release outcomes for PWID are enhanced or constricted. Methods Participants were recruited from a longitudinal cohort study, SuperMIX, in Victoria, Australia. Eligible participants were invited to participate in an in-depth interview. Inclusion criteria were: aged 18+; lifetime history of injecting drug use; incarcerated for >three months and released from custody <12 months previously. Analysis of 48 interviews examined how concepts relevant to the ego-depletion framework (self-regulation; standards; consequences and mitigators of ego-depletion) manifested in participants’ narratives. Results Predominantly, participants aimed to avoid a return to problematic drug use and recidivism, and engaged in effortful self-regulation to pursue their post-release goals. Post-release environments were found to diminish self-regulation resources, leading to states of ego-depletion and compromising the capacity to self-regulate according to their ideals. Fatalism, stress, and fatigue associated with the transition period exacerbated ego-depletion. Strategies that mitigated ego-depletion included avoidance of triggering environments; reducing stress through opioid agonist therapy; and fostering positive affect through supportive relationships. Conclusions Post-release environments are ego-depleting and inconducive to sustaining behavioural changes for PWID leaving prison. Corrections’ behaviourist paradigms take insufficient account of the socio-structural factors impacting on an individual's self-regulation capacities in the context of drug dependence and desistance processes. Breaking the cycles of reincarceration among PWID requires new approaches that moderate ego-depletion and facilitate long-term goal-pursuit.
... Black men in America without a criminal record face increased stressors and discrimination due to historical trauma, systemic oppression, prejudice, and economic disparities rooted in racism; those with a criminal conviction and incarceration history experience substantial additional challenges (Lipscomb & Ashley, 2018). Petersilia (2003) describes a criminal conviction as -a scar for life, no matter how trivial or how long ago it occurred‖ (p. 19). ...
... The challenges faced by offenders who are returning to the community are well documented (Jonson & Cullen, 2015;Petersilia, 2003;Serin et al., 2010) and highlight that while a good risk assessment and effective custodial intervention are requisite, they are insufficient on their own to ensure successful reentry and reintegration (Borzycki & Baldry, 2003;Jonson & Cullen, 2015;Serin et al., 2010). Community reentry, especially for sexual offenders, is particularly stressful and in some cases, can lead offenders to breaching their parole conditions or reoffending, even to be reincarcerated. ...
Article
Although it seems community maintenance programs (CMPs) can play an important role in the desistance journey for those who have committed a sexual offence and there is increased recognition of the various factors that can impact behaviour change, there remains a paucity of research that considers the lived experience of those who have participated in CMPs. The primary aim of this study was to solicit views from a group of individuals who had participated in a CMP post-release to develop an understanding of CMPs in terms of its significance in the transition from prison to community reintegration. Thirteen men who participated in an Australian CMP and did not reoffend and thirteen men who participated and went on to reoffend sexually were interviewed about their perceptions and experiences of the CMP. The results for the two groups are outlined as well as implications for practice and future research.
... "Crimes of desperation" (Gowan 2002) alongside public "order" and "civility" laws against panhandling, public drinking, trespassing, camping, loitering, and other behaviors help explain how people experiencing homelessness end up in jails and prisons. Once released, former detainees face myriad barriers to stable housing, including outright prohibitions of people with a criminal record in public and subsidized housing, the stigma of a criminal record in the unsubsidized sector, inability to pay rent because of unemployment, and frayed ties with family members, which added together can land people on the street (Cox et al. 2021;Geller and Curtis 2011;Herbert, Morenoff, and Harding 2015;Petersilia 2003;Western 2018). ...
... One key goal of an equitable and appropriate criminal justice system should be to allocate sentences and judgments that are proportional to the gravity of the offense. Legal scholars Norval Morris and Michael Tonry (1990) argue that a void separates probation and prison sentences in the United States, a void in which individuals on the fringe of these two sentences are not appropriately considered (see also Petersilia 2003). They contend that probation in general is an attempt to use community supervision to account for individuals who occupy this disciplinary lacuna, but the result is an often misguided and poorly adjudicated series of sentences that fail to rehabilitate the individual effectively. ...
Article
Probation is the most commonly imposed correctional sanction, is often accompanied by supplementary costs, and can be operated by the state or private companies. Private probation is a unique sanction used in lower courts, most often for misdemeanor offenses, and is managed by third-party actors. We focus on documenting the process and unique costs of private probation, including the rituals of compliance and proportionality of punishment. We use data from interviews with individuals on private probation and local criminal justice officials as well as evidence from court ethnographies in Georgia and Missouri. For individuals on private probation, payment of monetary sanctions is a crucial way of demonstrating compliance. Yet the financial burden of added costs for supervision and monitoring creates substantial challenges.
... This is why careful, responsible transition management should be a crucial concern of criminal justice agencies. 368 If prisoners are released in a careless, unplanned manner, without adequate financial provision, safe, stable housing, access to healthcare and food, the goal of desistance from crime will be way down their list of priorities. They will be operating in survival mode and their cortical, thinking brains will be deactivated. ...
Full-text available
Research
This is my (very lengthy) submission to the High Level Taskforce to consider the mental health and addiction challenges of persons interacting with the criminal justice system in Ireland on "Towards a neurodevelopmentally aware, trauma-responsive penal policy and practice". It draws from my PhD, trauma trainings and interviews with various trauma, neuroscience and mental health experts for my Law and Justice series on “How to talk policy and influence people” and “Relationships Matter”. It is lengthy in order to give the members of the High Level Taskforce the full benefit of learning from the 12 long sentence male prisoners whom I had the pleasure of interviewing for my PhD research, as well as my carefully considered recommendations on prison rehabilitation, personal development, relationship building, sentence planning, reentry management, post-release support and urgent trauma training for all those working in the criminal justice system (see, for example, an 8-week online programme I developed that is suitable for trauma survivors, parents and front-line professionals including GPs, social workers, addiction counsellors, youth workers, Prison Officers, lawyers and judges: https://www.eventbrite.ie/e/childhood-trauma-consequences-and-essential-responses-tickets-162808419365). To date, my offer of appearing before the Taskforce to deliver a presentation summarising my key findings and recommendations has not been accepted.
Chapter
This chapter outlines the scope of the project and the importance of studying public attitudes towards and public confidence in parole. It includes a general introduction, overview of parole authorities and the public, and the work of such bodies. It also explores broader issues, in relation to the function of and public attitudes towards parole. In addition, it summarises the authors’ prior research from the project, on which the present findings build. Finally, this chapter provides the methodology for the present study.KeywordsParoleParole populismPublic confidence in parole
Chapter
Democratic Spain can be studied as an example of adaptation of its legislation and penal practices to European prison policies. Since the Spanish transition to democracy started after the death of Franco (1975), Spain has transformed radically its legislation and practices related to imprisonment. Among the main aspects of this transformation are the introduction of a system of alternatives to imprisonment (which has significantly reduced the number of admissions to prison), the high standard of prisoners’ rights and quality of life in Spanish institutions and the opportunities given to prisoners for rehabilitation and resettlement. This chapter explores to what extent these changes can be related to the reports of the Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) and the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). However, in some other aspects Spanish penal practices are less adapted to European policies: the increase in the length of imprisonment and the lack of a universal system of early release are features that seem in contradiction with the recommendations of the Council of Europe. Explanations for these gaps are explored.KeywordsSpainImprisonmentEuropeanizationCPTECtHR
Article
Most incarcerated individuals do not participate in prison programming, which may be due to the limited availability of programs or the voluntaristic nature of programming. Most incarcerated individuals are provided the opportunity to select their own non-clinical programming. This voluntaristic approach to program participation provides an opportunity to explore the characteristics of who opts into non-clinical programming when given the choice, an inquiry that acknowledges potential practical and ethical limitations to a non-clinical delivery of programming. In this study, we utilize administrative data from a Midwestern state to understand who volunteers for correctional programming in institutional and community settings. Findings reveal days incarcerated and gender are the strongest predictors of volunteerism for a broad array of correctional programs. Implications include a deeper understanding of volunteer characteristics that may assist agencies to adjust strategies aimed at improving correctional outcomes.
Article
This qualitative study of theoretical frameworks was conducted to explain criminal offending and attitudes towards desistance from crime for a sample of 26 women reintegrating back into society after incarceration. Theoretical pathways and desistance theories were used to provide themes for analyzing in depth interviews, journal entries written by the study’s participants, and halfway house records. Pathways and desistance perspectives suggest that gendered pathways can explain how women are led into criminal lifestyles, as well as how their criminality may come to an end. Distinct gender-specific policy implications and programs, as well as directions for future research, are also discussed.
Chapter
Die Lebenssituation Haftentlassener hat einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf ihren Ausstieg aus der Straffälligkeit. Mögliche Präventionseffekte des Strafvollzuges können verpuffen, wenn sie im Übergang aus der Haft in die Freiheit nicht durch anschlussfähige Integrationshilfen gestützt werden – vor allem in den ersten Monaten nach einer Haft. Daraus folgt, dass die Eingliederungschancen ehemaliger Strafgefangener durch ein systematisches Übergangsmanagement erhöht werden müssen, um die Rückfallrisiken nachhaltig zu senken. Der Beitrag skizziert zunächst kriminologische Grundlagen des Übergangsmanagements aus der Sicht der qualitativ orientierten Desistance-Forschung. Es folgen Beispiele von Modellprojekten, deren Ergebnisse zur Verstetigung des Übergangsmanagements im deutschen Strafvollzug beigetragen haben. Schließlich werden anhand internationaler Studien quantitativ belegbare Wirkungen des Übergangsmanagements und Möglichkeiten ihrer Verbesserung mithilfe begleitend durchgeführter Erfolgskontrollen aufgezeigt.
Article
Policy-makers need the best available evidence to inform policy decisions during public health emergencies. We illustrate this in the context of temporary prisoner release decisions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We leverage parolee COVID-19 mortality rates in PA to show that prior estimates of the expected COVID-19 mortality rate for prisoners if released into the community, calculated from community rates, underestimate expected deaths by a factor of over 2.5. These results suggest a substantially smaller return to public health from temporary prisoner release programs than previously estimated and that, in some settings, such programs can increase COVID-19 risk. They also highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate comparison group when estimating counterfactuals to inform public policy.
Full-text available
Article
Los actos de mala conducta efectuados por personas privadas de la libertad representan violaciones a la normativa interna. Han sido estudiados en países desarrollados, pero no así en países en desarrollo. El objetivo del estudio es presentar un marco conceptual que describe la relación entre variables de lateoría del control administrativo e incidentes de mala conducta. Para este fin, se evalúan 3 hipótesis. Se aplicó un cuestionario a una muestra de 129 internos del centro penitenciario CERESO Hermosillo I en Hermosillo (Sonora, México). A partir de los hallazgos se concluyó que la percepción de la comunicación y legitimidad de las autoridades vista por parte de los internos tienen influencia como predictores de actos de mala conducta debido a su impacto en el quiebre organizacional.
Full-text available
Article
This study aimed at establishing the influence of physiological stress coping strategies on the psychological well-being of life-sentenced inmates in maximum-security prisons in Kenya. Cognitive behavioural theory and Logotherapy theory guided this study. This study was a descriptive survey. The target population was life-sentenced inmates in nine maximum security prisons in Kenya. The accessible population was 4,487 life-sentenced inmates. The sample size of the life-sentenced inmates was 365, which was selected through systematic sampling. In addition, 30 specialised prison officers were purposively selected. Thus, the total sample size was 395 respondents. The study collected data using questionnaires for life-sentenced inmates, an adapted psychological well-being scale for life-sentenced inmates and interviews for specialised prison officers. Data was analysed through both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study indicate that physiological stress coping strategies influence the psychological well-being of life-sentenced inmates. The study concluded that correctional facilities are intended to serve diverse purposes, which include keeping the imprisoned persons in safe custody, deterrence, rehabilitation and behaviour modification. The lifers’ physiological activities that include; sleep, diet, exercises, relaxation, reading, listening to music, watching TV, games, and recreation have an influence on their psychological well-being. The study recommends that; policymakers and stakeholders of correctional and rehabilitation of inmates prioritise the psychological well-being of lifers and enhance physiological stress coping strategies for the psychological well-being of lifers and effective rehabilitation and reintegration of the inmates.
Full-text available
Article
Ex-prisoners often experience barriers to successful transition regarding employment, finances, housing, healthcare, and valid identification. Based on the Offender Management framework, assistance during imprisonment by prison- and community-based professionals is considered key in preparing prisoners for release regarding these reintegration needs. Therefore, the current study examines the degree to which prisoners with reintegration needs are assisted by relevant professionals. We used self-reported data from 4,309 prisoners of the Dutch Prison Visitation Study, part of the Life in Custody Study. The results showed that prisoners have more contact with prison-based than with community-based professionals, but that the latter relatively often have contact with prisoners with related reintegration needs. Yet, a specific group of prisoners with reintegration needs remains invisible. Prisoners with complex, health, or valid identification needs, and prisoners in the start or pre-release phase require further attention. It is discussed what can be learned from these findings on Dutch Offender Management practices.
Article
While some programs for justice system-involved adults have included mentoring as one of many different program components, a problem-solving court known as the MENTOR (Mentors Empowering Now to Overcome Recidivism) program was recently the first known program to center mentoring as the primary program component. Evaluation results suggested that program participants experienced a high quantity and quality of mentoring and case management. Using a quasi-experimental research design with a matched comparison group, outcome evaluation results revealed that the program was associated with a significant reduction in probation revocations, a marginally significant reduction in new arrests, and no significant effects on employment outcomes in the 12-month study period.
Chapter
The trans-jurisdictional discourse on criminal justice is often hampered by mutual misunderstandings. The translation of legal concepts from English into other languages and vice versa is subject to ambiguity and potential error: the same term may assume different meanings in different legal contexts. More importantly, legal systems may choose differing theoretical or policy approaches to resolving the same issues, which sometimes – but not always – lead to similar outcomes. This book is the second volume of a series in which eminent scholars from German-speaking and Anglo-American jurisdictions work together on comparative essays that explore foundational concepts of criminal law and procedure. Each topic is illuminated from German and Anglo-American perspectives, and differences and similarities are analysed.
Full-text available
Article
ABSTRACT As incarcerationlevels have risen in the United States, an ever-larger number of citizens have temporarily or permanently lost the right to vote. What are the political consequences,of such franchise restrictions for convicted felons? To estimate expected turnout and vote choice among disfranchised felons, we combine legal sources with data series from the National Election Study, the Current Population Survey Voting Supplement, Surveys of State Prison Inmates, and National Corrections Reporting Program. To assess political impact, we examine two counterfactual conditions: (1) whether removing,disfranchisementlaws would have altered the composition of the U.S. Senate; and, (2) whether applying contemporary rates of disfranchisement to prior presidential elections would have affected their outcomes. Because felons are drawn disproportionately from the ranks of racial minorities and the poor, disfranchisementlaws tend to take votes from Democratic candidates. Our results suggest that felon disfranchisementplayed a decisive role in several U.S. Senate elections, contributing to the Republican Senate majority of the early 1980s and mid-1990s. Moreover, at least one
Full-text available
Article
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is committed to improving the justice system's response to crimes against children. OJJDP recognizes that children are at increased risk for crime victimization. Not only are children the vic-tims of many of the same crimes that victimize adults, they are subject to other crimes, like child abuse and neglect, that are specific to childhood. The impact of these crimes on young victims can be devastating, and the violent or sexual victimization of children can often lead to an intergenerational cycle of violence and abuse. The purpose of OJJDP's Crimes Against Children Series is to improve and expand the Nation's efforts to better serve child victims by presenting the latest information about child victimization, including analyses of crime victimization statistics, studies of child victims and their spe-cial needs, and descriptions of programs and approaches that address these needs.
Full-text available
Article
The study of desistance from crime is hampered by definitional, measurement, and theoretical incoherence. A unifying framework can distinguish termination of offending from the process of desistance. Termination is the point when criminal activity stops and desistance is the underlying causal process. A small number of factors are sturdy correlates of desistance (e.g., good marriages, stable work, transformation of identity, and aging). The processes of desistance from crime and other forms of problem behavior appear to be similar. Several theoretical frameworks can be employed to explain the process of desistance, including maturation and aging, developmental, life-course, rational choice, and social learning theories. A life-course perspective provides the most compelling framework, and it can be used to identify institutional sources of desistance and the dynamic social processes inherent in stopping crime. Sociology
Full-text available
Article
The authors examine the possible adverse consequences of incarceration on drug offenders, their families, and their communities. State and federal policies on drug felons may affect eight elements of personal and community well-being: children and families, access to health benefits, access to housing benefits, access to assistance for higher education, immigration status, employment, eligibility to vote, and drug use or recidivism. Minorities have a high chance of felony conviction and an increasing lack of access to resources, suggesting that patterns of drug conviction and health disparities may be mutually reinforcing. Large numbers of people sent to prison for drug offenses are now completing their terms and reentering communities. Their reentry will disproportionately affect minority communities. Without resources (education, job opportunities, insurance, health care, housing, and the right to vote) drug abusers face a higher risk of recidivism and increase the burden on their communities.
Full-text available
Article
s. If drug trafficking is inherently violent, and if illicit drug use catalyzes criminal and other delinquent behavior (immediately as intoxication reduces inhibition and stimulates aggression, and in the longer term through the impacts of longterm substance abuse on character, lifestyle, and non-criminal opportunities), then it seems to follow that enforcement efforts to suppress drug-selling and 2 drug-taking will tend to reduce crime (Office of National Drug Control Policy 1994). But there is a strongly held dissenting view. On this account, it is drug policy, and not drug abuse, that is principally responsible for the observed drugs-crime connection (Nadelman 1988). Drug laws, and their enforcement, make illicit drugs more expensive. Since many heavy users of those drugs commit crimes to finance their habits, those price increases increase, rather than decreasing, non-drug crime. As to violent crime among dealers, that is even more obviously attributable to prohibi
Article
At least thirty-four American states in the late 1990s operated supermaximum. security prisons or units, providing nearly 20,000 beds and accounting for 1.8 percent of the state prison population. Although conditions vary from state to state, many supermaxes subject inmates to nearly complete isolation and deprivation of sensory stimuli. Surprisingly little is known from research on who is sent to supermaxes, why, and for how long; the effects of supermaxes on security and conditions in other prisons; or die effects of supermax confinement on the mental conditions and social skills of inmates. Deleterious effects are likely to be especially acute for mentally ill and subnormal inmates. The recent proliferation of supermaxes appears premised on a belief that prison disorder is the product primarily of disruptive inmates rather than the characteristics of prison regimes; the best evidence suggests otherwise.
Article
This article is divided into four major sections. The first describes the factors that have resulted in persons with serious mental illnesses' (PSMIs') becoming a growing segment of the correctional population. The second explores the changing face of parole supervision and the implications of those changes for the care of PSMIs on parole. Section three discusses the prevalence of mental illnesses among adult prisoners and probationers and draws inferences from those data to the parolee population. Section three also explores mental health care for prison inmates and special programs for PSMIs on probation and parole. The article concludes with several suggestions for improving parole practices to meet the needs of PSMIs.
Article
This article reports results from a recently completed randomized field experiment testing the effects of intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP) for drug-involved offenders. The ISP demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, included five jurisdictions: Contra Costa, California; Seattle, Washington; Des Moines, Iowa; Santa Fe, New Mexico; and Winchester, Virginia. Jurisdictions developed ISP programs tailored to their own contexts, using the general ISP model developed by Georgia and New Jersey in the early 1980s. Results show that ISP offenders were seen more often, submitted more often to drug testing, received more drug counseling, and had higher levels of employment than their counterparts on routine probation/parole supervision. With respect to 1-year recidivism outcomes, a higher proportion of ISP offenders had technical violations (primarily for drug use), but there was no difference between the two study groups in new criminal arrests. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, more ISP offenders had been placed in jail or prison (mostly for technical violations). This policy drove up system costs, which for ISP averaged just under $8,000 per year per offender versus about $5,500 per year per offender for routine supervision. The article concludes with a discussion of how these results can be used to inform future ISP research and policy discussions.
Article
The opening section of this article discusses the need for more explicit definition of elements governing parole selection and the problem of determining the weight that should be given to each. The study then demonstrates a method by which analysis of parole board decisions may make present paroling policy more explicit. Decision guidelines developed from this method provide an aid in actual case decision-making. By structuring discretion without re moving it, these guidelines permit it to be exercised fairly and ra tionally. A United States Board of Parole pilot project which in cludes guideline usage and a procedure for regular evaluation and modification of guidelines is then described.
Article
Rusche and Kirchheimer argued that attempts at penal reform are limited by a principle of less eligibility, by which the regimen of punishment is made harsher than the conditions of life among the least well-off members of the working classes. In addition, Black posited that the benefits of law are inversely related to stratification and morphology; that is, inmates would be entitled to fewer benefits in law than would free-world citizens. Today the penal harm movement strives to make prison life harder, asserting that comfortable prison conditions are responsible for high crime rates. Critics frequently blame judicial intervention in prison operations for upsetting the careful calibration necessary to deter crime. In this article we examine these assertions by focusing on medical care litigation. Comparing the legal rules and precedents used to hold prison physicians liable for inadequate medical care under 42 U.S.C., Section 1983 with the standards customarily employed by courts in evaluating medical malpractice in the free world, we conclude that judicial decisions in this vital area conform to what would be expected, given the operation of the principle of less eligibility and Black's “differentiation of law” thesis.
Article
This article presents results from two studies of Washington State's prison work release program conducted between 1991 and 1994. The first study analyzed a cohort of all male prisoners released from Washington prisons in 1990 (N = 2,452) to describe how work release operates and how successfully inmates perform in the program. The second study compared the recidivism of 218 offenders, approximately half of whom participated in work release and half of whom completed their sentences in prison. Results of the evaluation were mostly positive. Nearly a quarter of all prisoners released made a successful transition to the community through work release. Few work release inmates committed crimes while on work release. Recidivism and correctional costs for work releases and nonwork releases were similar.
Article
Prison administration in this country has changed dramatically in recent years. Twenty-five years ago, the warden was the overseer of an attempt to achieve reformation of character through isolation, hard work, and repentance. Today's superintendent must manage complex personnel systems, overcrowded institutions, and technological advances in a context of increased public and political scrutiny and close legal oversight. No one twenty-five years ago could have foreseen massive involvement of federal courts in prison oversight, rapid recent proliferation of private prisons, or politicization of criminal justice policy. The most important challenges for the next quarter century are probably as unforeseeable as were the most important in the past quarter century.
Article
During the past decade, there has been a renewed interest in prisoner reentry. This is due to a change in many of the factors surrounding the release of prisoners and their reentry to the community. These changes include a modification of sentencing from the use of parole to determinate release with fewer ex-offenders having supervision in the community, an increased emphasis on surveillance rather than assistance for those under supervision, less community stability and availability of community social service support, and dramatically larger numbers returning to the community. More releasees are being violated and returned to the community than ever before. Therefore, it is important to identify prisoner reentry programs that work. We define reentry, categorize reentry programs, and use the Maryland Scale of Scientific Method to determine the effectiveness of program categories. We conclude that many such categories are effective in aiding reentry and reducing recidivism.
Article
The current scale of offender reentry creates unprecedented challenges for those, including victims, who have an interest in the successful reintegration of offenders into the community. Current problem-solving approaches emphasize the need for continuity between in-custody and postrelease programs and the importance of partnerships and collaborations in supervision and support for offenders. These developments offer increasing opportunities to victims and victims organizations because their experience and knowledge are often directly relevant to reentry issues. Increased victim involvement in the planning, management, and implementation of reentry policies and programs can contribute positively to better informed decisions and the achievement of reentry goals.
Article
After three decades of passing laws and implementing policies designed to dramatically increase the nation's prison population and harden the conditions of confinement, there is a newfound interest among policy makers and criminologists in prisoner release. Using national data and a survey of eight states, this article examines the current “state of the art” of prisoner reentry. Not surprisingly, most state prison systems are ill equipped to ease the transition of inmates from prison to the community. A significant portion of released inmates pose minimal risk to public safety. Parole supervision increasingly results in ex-convicts' being reincarcerated for noncriminal behavior or misdemeanor crimes. For most inmates, reentry should be curtailed by either eliminating supervision or greatly shortening the period of supervision.
Article
The origins of diversion in juvenile justice are discussed, as are the meaning of and various rationales for diversion. Judicious nonintervention is clarified. The diver sion movement has to a large extent been preempted or coopted by law enforcement agencies, in part by police because of their dominant, narrowly conceived social control function. More particularly, diversion has offered police a solution to the dilemma posed by pressures for control and the decarceration of status offenders. Questions are raised about the future of diversion in the juvenile justice system, drawing on English and Scottish experiences.
Article
In the 1990s 2 new models have been adopted for dealing with sex offenders—sexually violent predator laws and registration and community notification laws. The predator laws were recently upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Kansas v. Hendricks. The author analyzes Hendricks and its implications for civil commitment generally and then conducts a therapeutic jurisprudence analysis of these two new statutory models. Sexual predator laws are shown to have serious antitherapeutic consequences for those subjected to them, including labeling effects and other negative effects on treatment outcome. The author explores additional antitherapeutic effects for clinicians employed in predator programs and for people with mental illness who are not sex offenders. Community notification laws are shown to have both positive and negative effects for the community and for sex offenders. Proposals for restructuring these laws to increase their therapeutic potential are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traditional views of incapacitation as a crime control strategy rely fundamentally on behavioral prediction. Most attempts at predicting offenders' behaviors have relied on simple dichotomous dependent variables. Recent attention to components of the “criminal career,” such as the rate of offending and the nature and potential patterning of offending behavior, could provide significant advantage to the prediction problem while informing debates about incapacitation strategies. We examine this possibility in the context of a study of some 6,000 offenders followed for more than 25 years. Little predictive advantage is realized by attention to more sophisticated behavioral outcome criteria. In agreement with other studies, we observe little support for hypotheses concerning the pattern of careers with respect to offense behaviors. The utility of incapacitation as a crime control strategy seems to be constrained by the limits imposed by predictive validity and perhaps by the nature of the criminal career.
Article
Although empirically-based recidivism prediction instruments were developed as far back as the 1920s, the adoption of the Salient Factor Score by the federal parole board in 1972—as part of a system of explicit parole decisionmaking guidelines—marked the first time that such an instrument was used in a way that had a definite, measurable impact on paroling decisions. The Salient Factor Score has been used in federal parole decisionmaking continuously for the past twenty years. It is axiomatic that a prediction instrument, particularly an instrument used in actual case decisionmaking, be revalidated periodically to ensure that it has retained predictive accuracy. In this article, the predictive accuracy of the Salient Factor Score over time is examined using data on three, large random samples of federal prisoners released in 1970–1972, 1978, and 1987. In addition, the relationship of the Salient Factor Score to the Criminal History Score of the new federal sentencing guidelines—which apply to defendants convicted of federal offenses committed on or after November 1, 1987—is discussed.
Article
Rapid growth in the incarceration rate over the past two decades has made prison time a routine event in the life course of young, economically disadvantaged Black and Hispanic men. Although incarceration may now have large effects on economic inequality, only a few studies systematically examine the labor market experiences of ex-offenders. We review the mechanisms that plausibly link incarceration to employment and earnings and discuss the challenges of causal inference for a highly self-selected sample of criminal offenders. There is little consensus about the labor market effects of a variety of justice system sanctions, but there is consistent evidence for the negative effects of prison time on earnings, particularly among older or white-collar offenders. The labor market effects of incarceration are not yet well understood, but prior research suggests several promising avenues for future work.
The population of incarcerated individuals in the United States has risen dramatically in the last decade. There is very little information available about the psychological reactions or adjustment of the children of these incarcerated individuals, although it is likely that this population of apparently high risk children also has increased. This article reviews the literature on the behavioral problems and adjustment of children during the time of their parent's incarceration. It discusses these children and their behavior in the context of their family characteristics, their prognosis, and their current clinical needs.
Article
From January through March 1993, there were 54 cases of meningococcal disease in Los Angeles County, California, of which 9 occurred among men incarcerated in the county's jail system, which was 40 percent above capacity at the time. Several of the 45 patients from the community had had contact with men recently released from a county jail. We interviewed patients from the community (n=42) and neighborhood controls matched with the patients for age, race, and ethnic group (n=84) about potential exposures. We collected and cultured pharyngeal swabs for Neisseria meningitidis from men entering the central jail (n=162), men leaving the central jail (n=379), members of the jail staff (n=121), and patients at a community health center (n=214). Meningococcal isolates were identified by serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The presence of community-acquired meningococcal disease was strongly associated with exposure to a person who had been in or worked at one of the county jails (multivariate matched odds ratio, 18.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 90.8; P<0.001). Pharyngeal carriage of meningococcus was significantly more frequent among men released from jail (19 percent) or entering jail (17 percent) than among workers at the jails (3 percent) or community residents seen at the clinic (1 percent). Among men entering jail, those who had previously been incarcerated were more often carriers than those who had not (21 percent vs. 7 percent, P=0.03). Of the isolates from nine community residents with serogroup C meningococcal disease, eight were the same strain as that isolated from the eight inmates with serogroup C disease. In this outbreak of meningococcal disease in Los Angeles County, nearly half of community residents with the disease had contact with persons who had been in a county jail. The high rates of carriage among recidivists and released inmates suggests that the men became meningococcal carriers while in jail.
Article
Existing studies of the impact of conviction on income and employment do not consider life cycle issues. We postulate that conviction reduces access to career jobs offering stable, long-term employment. Instead, conviction relegates offenders to spot market jobs, which may have higher pay at the outset of the career but do not offer stable employment or rapidly rising wages. Thus, first-time conviction may increase the wages of young workers while decreasing the wages of older workers. We test our theory with data on federal offenders and find that first-time conviction has a positive and significant effect on income for offenders under age 25 and an increasingly negative and significant impact for offenders over age 30. These results imply that the present value of income lost as a result of conviction varies over the life cycle, reaching a maximum in the middle of the career. We find that the gains sought by these offenders follow similar profiles, suggesting that prospective offenders may be deterred by the possibility of lost future income. Because the discounted loss in future income facing young offenders may be small, our results may provide part of an explanation of youth crime.