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England's Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, 1262-1290

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... Both of these explanations pose a number of puzzles however. The latter factor cannot account for the timing of the expulsion, while a major problem with the former explanation is that recent research shows that the king did not benefit financially from the expulsion, at least not directly (Mundill, 1998). Despite this, it is possible to provide a rational choice explanation of the expulsion of the Jews, and this is what this paper sets out to do. ...
... During the 1220s through to the 1240s, the Exchequer of the Jewry provided a regular contribution to the royal treasury. The tallages assessed during the 1230s were usually of the value of £3000 and the Jewish community was allowed several years to meet each assessment (Mundill, 1998; Huscroft, 2006). This permitted them the time to plan ahead and accommodate the demands of the king. ...
Article
This paper develops an analytic narrative examining an institution known as ‘The Exchequer of the Jewry’. The prohibition on usury resulted in most moneylending activities being concentrated within the Jewish community. The king set up the Exchequer of the Jewry in order to extract these monopoly profits. This institution lasted for almost 100years but collapsed during the second part of the thirteenth century. This collapse resulted in the expulsion of the Anglo-Jewish population. This paper provides a rational choice account of the institutional trajectory of the Exchequer of the Jewry. This account explains why it ultimately failed to provide a suitable framework for the development of capital markets in medieval England. KeywordsTaxation-Usury-Rent creation-Parliament
... 4 Biddick describes medieval Jewish time as being filtered through an 'apocalyptic telos' that operated 'as a radical space stripped of earthly time,' one that 'robbed Jews of a past in the present' as well as 'a future in the present' (Biddick, 2003, 29; italics hers). Biddick's work intersects with that of Funkenstein, who reasons that Jewish scholars tell and retell Jewish history to memorialize 'the name of a person, Rubin (1999), Bale (2006Bale ( , 2010 and Mundill (1998Mundill ( , 2010. ...
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In Perceptions of Jewish History, Amos Funkenstein argues that Jews are caught in a continuous loop of telling and retelling Jewish history. Taking medieval reimaginings as a starting point, this essay maps this loop as expressing a resistance to temporal erasure by considering modern historical fiction that reimagines Jewish presence in annus domini temporality. In essence, modern Jewish writers populate history with Jewish characters in order to write Jewish presence into the medieval now of Christian time. This essay explores what is involved in balancing the historical record (where Jews are frequently subalterns and often oppressed victims of establishment authority) with a fictionalized history (where utopian visions of the past imagine a Jew who has agency and voice).
... 11 Known as a``concord''. Agreement was reached between the parties and became binding on record. 12 Henry de Derngate was one of the jurors who swore that the three accused of the murder of Licoricia were not guilty (Jenkinson, 1929, p. 293 Mundill (1998). Some writers have seen this as a moreor-less straightforward despoilation: ruinous taxation taken to an extreme (Elman, 1937;Richardson, 1960;Singer, 1964). ...
Article
Recounts how medieval English Jewry began when Jews were invited to immigrate by William I and ended with their expulsion by Edward I in 1290. The Jewish community was important and for most of its existence it was prosperous, owing to its particular social function – being the bankers, moneylenders and financiers of the time. Concentrates on a relatively little known aspect of the medieval Jewish community: the role played by its women. Jewish women played a significant part in business, not just as the wives or widows of businessmen, but as entrepreneurs on their own account. This was in sharp contrast to the position of women in wider English society. Using contemporary documents, the article examines the scale and nature of the business activities of Jewish women in medieval England, sketches the activities of some of these female entrepreneurs, and attempts to investigate the factors which enabled them to play such a prominent role.
... These credit markets did not involve professional moneylenders: ''[f]or cash loans neighbor relied on neighbor' (Clark, 1981, 262). Nor was credit based on collateral, since many peasants lacked well specified 9 As Mundill (1998) notes the Statute of the Acton Burnell was based on the Exchequer of the Jewry and it was designed to allow Christian creditors to lend securely (Mundill, 1998, 121-122). 10 Huge sums such as the £648, 16s, 6d that Sir Peter de Bermengham owed the Riccardi of Lucca were also registered (McNall, 2002, 71). ...
Article
How do credit markets function in societies where legal contract enforce-ment is weak? This paper uses a model to examine how the institution of personal pledging aided the development of credit markets in medieval Eng-land. It demonstrates how the practice of pledging improved repayment rates by lowering enforcement costs, mitigating the problems associated with ad-verse selection, and provides an additional source of mutual insurance. By combining the model with historical evidence, it can be shown that pledging helped to enable illiterate peasants to gain access to capital markets.
... 22 He emerges in the various governmental rolls in the middle of the thirteenth century, engaging as a moneylender during the 1250s, 1260s and part of the 1270s while turning to trade in the 1270s when restrictions were placed on Jewish money lending activities. 23 His public life brought him into contact with officials from the Exchequer and with other public officials including Richard, earl of Cornwall, brother of King Henry III and eventual king of the Germans. 24 In addition to his economic activities Elijah was recognized as one of the leading members of the English Jewish community. ...
Article
Introduction The study of medieval law occupies a unique niche within traditional academic discourse. A concentration on philological precision, challenges pertaining to manuscript study, and the ‘internal language’ of jurisprudence have at times over-shadowed the consideration of the wider societal implications of medieval law and curtailed its use in the investigation of broad themes of social and cultural history. This is particularly true of the thirteenth-century Anglo-Jewish legal corpus, the study of which has been relegated to a select few articles and studies. Law can, however, serve as an important medium for understanding the social fabric and communal identity of a particular group. Numerous studies have utilized legal texts to explicate the wider terms of medieval European social and cultural history. By studying the law and legal culture of the Anglo Jewish community, particularly the legal corpus of the thirteenth-century figure Elijah Menahem of London, this chapter aims to further expand our understanding of the already nuanced picture of the medieval English community. It explores the thirteenth-century Anglo-Jewish intellectual world as a localized domain with distinct regional identities, features, and mentalities that was in debt to and negotiated with the reigning Tosafist culture of northern France and the continental mainland.
... The first large-scale emigration of Jews from Western Europe to Poland was a consequence of the first crusade in 1098. Up to the twentieth century every conflict between Jews and European nations resulted in Jewish immigration to Poland (Mundill, 2002). Dates of expulsion of Jews from different countries in Europe are gathered in Table 7.1. ...
... However, it was difficult for Jews to participate in the debates directly, and over the course of the early modern period fell further and further behind. 8 See Langmuir (1990), Cohen (1994), Mundill (1998) and Koyama (2010) for analyses of the conditions of Jews in the middle ages and Dubnov (1971) and Katz (1974) for details on the discriminatory barriers facing Jews in the early modern period. 9 Bach (1984, p. 32) notes that 'Jews on the whole were not only felt to be alien, but looked it'. ...
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Why do some minority communities take up opportunities for education while others reject them? To shed light on this, we study the impact of Jewish Emancipation in nineteenth century Europe on patterns of education. In Germany, non-religious and Reform Jews dramatically increased their rates of education. In the less developed parts of Eastern Europe, Orthodox and ultra-Orthodox communities imposed unprecedented restrictions on secular education and isolated themselves from society. Explaining this bifurcation requires a model of education that is different from the standard human capital approach. In our model, education not only confers economic benefits but also transmits values that undermine the cultural identity of minority groups. We show that it is individually rational for agents who benefit least from rising returns to education to respond by reducing their investment in education. Group-level sanctions for high levels of education piggyback upon this effect and amplify it.
... 107 Intriguingly, Catherine Lovel was among the creditors from whom Canterbury cathedral priory borrowed money in the late thirteenth century. 108 Glimpses of the spiritual benefits that accrued to benefactors of Becket's cult at Canterbury can be found in model letters which were entered into a register there in 1411. The model letters included a letter of confraternity, which referred to the 'glorious Thomas the Martyr' ('gloriosum Thomam Martirem'), whereby a benefactor became an honorary member of Canterbury's chapter and a beneficiary of the cathedral priory's pious works. ...
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In July 1220, the boy king Henry III attended the Translation of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury, whereby the saint's body was transferred from its original tomb in the crypt of Canterbury cathedral to a splendid new shrine in the main body of the church. This article explores the continuing appeal of Becket's cult at Canterbury for elite ecclesiastical and lay circles in thirteenth‐ and early fourteenth‐century England. It argues that the Englishmen, or holders of ecclesiastical office in England, who were canonised as saints in the thirteenth century were associated with St Thomas and his cult. Drawing on the records of the English royal household and wardrobe, alongside letters and charters, this article then examines the reception of Becket's cult at the royal court. Although Henry III was more famous for his adult devotion to St Edward the Confessor, Henry and his wife, Eleanor of Provence, still paid their respects to Becket's shrine at Canterbury. Royal interest in St Thomas of Canterbury, or St Thomas the Martyr, continued, but with added vigour, under Edward I, his wives and his children. Despite St Thomas's appeal for opponents of the English crown, Becket's cult remained firmly connected to the English ruling dynasty.
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The Merchant of Genoa is a study of the Genoese engagement in the affairs of the eastern Mediterranean during the late Middle Ages. In particular, the dissertation examines Genoa's involvement in three crusades following the fall of the first kingdom of Jerusalem as well as the role played by Genoese in commerce and in the re-establishment of the Latin society in the crusader states. The research focuses on the people of Genoa, merchants and travellers who explored the Mediterranean Sea, crusaders and the Genoese who settled in the crusader states, far away from Genoa. What these people had in common, apart from being Genoese, is that they left records of their activities in the form of notarial documents. This is probably the earliest time in the history of Europe in which such documents were not only recorded but also preserved for posterity. The existence of this collection of documents from the time of the crusades, many of which are as yet unpublished, is therefore an opportunity for a fresh examination of the events from the perspective of individual merchants and exploring the economic interests of the commune. This dissertation addresses questions about the connection between crusade and commerce. What motivated the Genoese to help the crusaders in 1187-1192? Why did they not provide ships for the participants of the Fourth Crusade? How did the crusade affect Genoa's web of commerce? Special attention is given to individual and families of Genoese who settled in the Latin East. The case of the aristocratic Genoese family of the Embriaco is particularly interesting because of that family's integration into the aristocracy in the kingdom of Jerusalem. Issues concerning the loyalties and identities of Genoese settlers in the crusader states are addressed and examined in parallel with the examination of the activities of other Genoese, merchants and travellers, who were involved in commerce in Muslim centres in the same period.
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The aim of this MA these was to describe antisemitism in the Great Britain. This topic is not new and it is not unique only to this county. There were plenty of studies, statistics and books written on this topic, which I used in this work. Apart from them I also used TV, radio recordings and also interview I conducted with Mr Gary Mond. In the first part I talked about arrival of the Jewish people to the Great Britain with the Norman king William the Conqueror and looked at various forms of antisemitism coming from the mob and also from the kings ruling mostly on the 12th and 13th century, which ended with the expulsion of these people by Edward I. in the 1290. Then I moved to the period of and after the return of the Jewish people to the Great Britain. In the chapters that followed I looked at the first steps and attempts of the Jewish people to the Great Britain and I mentioned personalities such as Menasse Ben Israel or Oliver Cromwell who stood behind and who helped with returning of these people to this country. Then I described the situation of the Jewish people in Britain not only pointing out forms or examples of antisemitism but also at how was this community thriving, developing and slowly partially integrating in this country. This second section was finished by the events after the Second World War. In the fourth chapter I looked in more details at various definitions and development of the terms antisemitism, Zionism, Anti- Zionism and Anti- Israel, which was then followed by the chapters focusing on the antisemitism in the educational system and in the British politics as those two are hot topics in the current media reports. Various statistical data closed this section of the work, which was followed by the ending, bibliography this resume and pictures.
Thesis
Die Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Interaktion zwischen den Juden des Regnum Teutonicum und den verschiedenen Herrschaftsträgern, mit denen die Juden in Kontakt kamen. Dies waren neben dem König auch geistliche und weltliche Landes- und Stadtherren. Chronologisch an vier Herrschaftsphasen Rudolfs ausgerichtet, analysiert die Studie sämtliche überlieferte schriftliche Zeugnisse, um insbesondere der Frage nach der Bedeutung der Kammerknechtschaft im Reich nachzugehen. Diese stellt sich als höchst ambivalente und keinesfalls nur negative Beziehungsform heraus, die zudem nur in einem europäischen Kontext verständlich wird.rn
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The Merchant of Genoa is a study of the Genoese engagement in the affairs of the eastern Mediterranean during the late Middle Ages. In particular, the dissertation examines Genoa's involvement in three crusades following the fall of the first kingdom of Jerusalem as well as the role played by Genoese in commerce and in the re-establishment of the Latin society in the crusader states. The research focuses on the people of Genoa, merchants and travellers who explored the Mediterranean Sea, crusaders and the Genoese who settled in the crusader states, far away from Genoa. What these people had in common, apart from being Genoese, is that they left records of their activities in the form of notarial documents. This is probably the earliest time in the history of Europe in which such documents were not only recorded but also preserved for posterity. The existence of this collection of documents from the time of the crusades, many of which are as yet unpublished, is therefore an opportunity for a fresh examination of the events from the perspective of individual merchants and exploring the economic interests of the commune. This dissertation addresses questions about the connection between crusade and commerce. What motivated the Genoese to help the crusaders in 1187-1192? Why did they not provide ships for the participants of the Fourth Crusade? How did the crusade affect Genoa's web of commerce? Special attention is given to individual and families of Genoese who settled in the Latin East. The case of the aristocratic Genoese family of the Embriaco is particularly interesting because of that family's integration into the aristocracy in the kingdom of Jerusalem. Issues concerning the loyalties and identities of Genoese settlers in the crusader states are addressed and examined in parallel with the examination of the activities of other Genoese, merchants and travellers, who were involved in commerce in Muslim centres in the same period.
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There are many narratives, some old, some relatively recent, covering the presence of crypto-Jews and Jews in England during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. I have tried, specifically with non-specialists and general readers in mind, to give an overview of that story here. Given this essay's origin as a public lecture commemorating the 350th anniversary of the tacit readmission of Jews to England in 1656, my account has a particular focus on developments during the English Revolution of 1641-60, though it is also positioned within a more ambitious grand narrative recounting the Jewish, crypto-Jewish and Jewish apostate experience in England from the Norman Conquest to the Restoration. While I have drawn on my own research - notably on Judaizing, readers familiar with the material will see that my text is also greatly indebted to a number of important scholars in the field of Anglo-Jewish history; something fully acknowledged in the endnotes. Indeed, there is another story to tell, namely how from the mid-nineteenth century scholars of Anglo-Jewry, desiring acceptance within British society and the legitimation of their distinctive history, collectively constructed a narrative of gradual social assimilation and communal unity. But that these histories were themselves written against a background of religious and racial prejudice, exclusion, marginalisation, tensions and conflict, as well as the disturbing continuity of antisemitic tropes, is itself revealing. Intended as a companion piece to this article, my discussion of the evolution of Anglo-Jewish historiography will appear elsewhere shortly
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This article offers a re-evaluation of the notorious Statute of Kilkenny by placing it within a broader context of English state development in the fourteenth century. It argues that the Statute needs to be understood as part of a wider political and legislative programme shaped by military expansionism and the upheaval of the Black Death. Although racially motivated, at least in part, the Statute should not be seen as attempting to engineer a form of apartheid in Anglo-Ireland. Rather it was representative of a broader governing culture and compares closely with legislation enforced not only in the other Plantagenet dominions but also in England itself.
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persistent theme among critics of Jews—particularly those on the pre-World War II right—has been that the Bolshevik revolution was a Jewish revolution and that the Soviet Union was dominated by Jews. This theme appears in a wide range of writings, from Henry Ford's International Jew, to published statements by a long list of British, French, and American political figures in the 1920s (Winston Churchill, Woodrow Wilson, and David Lloyd George), and, in its most extreme form, by Adolf Hitler, who wrote: Now begins the last great revolution. By wresting political power for himself, the Jew casts off the few remaining shreds of disguise he still wears. The democratic plebeian Jew turns into the blood Jew and the tyrant of peoples. In a few years he will try to exterminate the national pillars of intelligence and, by robbing the peoples of their natural spiritual leadership, will make them ripe for the slavish lot of a permanent subjugation. The most terrible example of this is Russia.1 This long tradition stands in sharp contradiction to the official view, promulgated by Jewish organizations and almost all contemporary historians, that Jews played no special role in Bolshevism and indeed were specifically victimized by it. Yuri Slezkine's book provides a much needed resolution to these opposing perspectives. It is an intellectual tour de force, alternately muddled and brilliant, courageous and apologetic.
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