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... The most popular method of investigating a person's recognition in historiometric studies is to measure space devoted to that person in standard reference works, such as encyclopedias or dictionaries (Simonton, 2012). This method was applied, among other purposes, to establish changes in creators' reputation (Runco et al., 2016;Runco et al., 2010). We used it in this study because it allowed us to distinguish recognition of Nobel Prize winners among professionals from the recognition they enjoyed with the public. ...
... Empirical research shows signi cant discrepancies among di erent groups of judges (Runco, McCar- & Svensen, 1994;Runco & Smith, 1992). There are even more dramatic discrepancies when judgments from di erent eras are compared (Runco, 1993;Runco, Acar, Kaufman, & Halladay, 2016;Runco, Kaufman, Halladay, & Cole, 2010). ...
... CAQ scores were highly skewed, as in the previous research (e.g., Carson et al., 2005). For adolescents, other instruments such as Creative Behavior Inventory (Dollinger, 2007;Hocevar, 1979) and Creative Activity and Accomplishment Check list (Holland, 1961;Runco, Acar, Kaufman, & Halladay, 2016) should be better. Another drawback was the time limits for divergent thinking tasks. ...
Article
Creativity plays an important role in human society as well as in individual development, and creativity in the domain of science is a specific form. A body of research had demonstrated the role of divergent thinking in creativity. The role of convergent thinking had also been recognized, but more empirical evidence was needed. To investigate the interaction between convergent and divergent thinking on adolescent scientific creativity, the current study tested 588 high school students. The results showed that convergent thinking interacted with fluency/flexibility of divergent thinking on scientific creativity. In particular, divergent thinking predicted creativity in those high in convergent thinking. Findings suggested a threshold-setting effect of convergent thinking, which meant only when convergent thinking capacity reached a certain level, divergent thinking could play a role in scientific creativity. Implications for future research and educational practice were discussed.
... Rembrandt was not the most famous painter of his time, but today his reputation far exceeds his contemporaries. As a matter of fact, it may be that reputations vary more often than they remain stable [10,11] so there are questions about where and when something is creative. ...
Article
Who decides what counts as creative? Although most creativity researchers would acknowledge that both individuals and broader social audiences can offer interpretations about creativity, the way in which researchers tend to conceptualize and study creativity typically focuses on either an individual or a social perspective. Those who focus on individual interpretations may treat the social superficially (if at all), whereas those who focus on social judgments risk minimizing or erasing the role of the individual. Consequently, the question of `Creativity for whom?’ too often divides creativity research. In this article, we briefly review recent work in the field of creativity studies that falls along the lines of personal and social judgments of creativity. We introduce an integrative framework that endeavors to reconcile the divide between the personal and the social. Specifically, we introduce a model of Primary and Secondary Creativity, which illustrates how the one process of creativity can explain both personal and social judgments of creativity.
... The CBI (Hocevar, 1979) was used to measure participants' past and current creative achievements in six domains, namely, literature, music, crafts, arts, performing arts, and math/science. The initial version was created by Holland (1961) and later different versions have been employed in a large number of studies (e.g, Milgram & Hong, 1999;Paek & Runco, 2017;Runco, 1987;Runco, Acar, Kaufman, & Halliday, 2016;Wallach & Wing, 1969). It is an extensive checklist containing 90 items, and 53 items were selected for this study because they assessed everyday creativity instead of eminent creativity in those six areas (e.g., Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009). ...
Article
Creativity is increasingly identified as a key educational outcome at the local, regional, and national levels in several countries. Yet one key issue about the nature of creativity remains controversial: Whether creativity is domain specific or domain general. Resolving this issue would significantly impact the way creativity is identified, nurtured, and assessed in our schools. Three-hundred and fifty-nine undergraduate and graduate students completed measures that assessed their creative achievements in 6 distinct domains. Results based on item response theory models suggested that creativity was domain general, rather than domain specific, and part of the evidence provided by the classical test theory models seemed to favor the domain-specific view. These findings have great implications for researchers and practitioners who aim to assess and promote creativity in schools.
... Empirical research shows signi cant discrepancies among di erent groups of judges (Runco, McCarthy, & Svensen, 1994;Runco & Smith, 1992). There are even more dramatic discrepancies when judgments from di erent eras are compared (Runco, 1993;Runco, Acar, Kaufman, & Halladay, 2016;Runco, Kaufman, Halladay, & Cole, 2010). The theory of personal creativity acknowledges that social recognition is an important part of innovation, social change, and progress. ...
Chapter
With the world rapidly changing, creativity has become more fundamental than ever before. We live in a society where those who do not creatively innovate risk failure in any of several domains of life. With the growth of computational power of machines and the development of Artificial Intelligent systems, the centrality of humans in the future will strongly rely on their creativity skills that are therefore transforming from a sort of scientific singularity reserved to a few talented individuals to an essential ability for the entire human species.
Chapter
This entire volume is intended to challenge static conceptions of creative action and thought. The present chapter introduces a particular dynamic definition of creativity. It also explores applications of that definition, primarily for education. The definition detailed herein is only one of several, as is evidenced by the other chapters in this same volume, and it may be that there is overlap. There may also be disagreement, the exploration of which will no doubt lead to further refinements and advance in our understanding of creativity. For obvious reasons the present chapter begins with a brief summary of previous definitions of creativity. The new dynamic definition will make the most sense after this summary (also see Corazza, GE. Creativity Research Journal, 28:258–267 (2016)).
Article
This Commentary examines where the creativity research has been and where it is going. They key points include evolving definitions of creativity, interdisciplinarity in the creativity research, divergent thinking as a reliable index of creative potential, improvements in testing, the impact of technology, the inclusion of political, moral, and everyday creativity in the research, the use of semantic networks and conceptual maps, the creative economy, and the need to extricate personal creativity from social recognition.
Article
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Every paradigm shift begins with an idea. Not surprisingly, ideas are often investigated. Still, psychometric studies of the ideation of famous creators is scarce. This is in part because it is difficult, and often impossible, to bring famous creators into the laboratory for testing. Fortunately, there is an alternative. This is to examine the idea density of written products. As it happens, the idea density (ID) of narratives was operationalized by linguists and an objective method (and algorithm) developed. The present investigation used that method to test the possibility that ID (as defined and calculated in linguistics) would also be useful for quantifying the ideation and creativity of high-level performances. In Study 1, the ID of 138 published research articles was calculated and correlated with the citation impact (CI) of the same articles. CI was based on Web of Citation and Google Scholar web sites. Results indicated a small but statistically significant correlation: Articles that had higher ID scores were cited more in the research literature. Study 2 examined the relationship of the level of eminence of 100 historical figures (all writers) with the ID of their published works. Level of eminence had been calculated in previous archival research on reputation and creative achievement. Analyses indicated that ID was significantly correlated with level of creative achievement and with the biographical measure indicating level of eminence. Study 3 did not have high level creative products but was informative in that it demonstrated a significant correlation between ID and divergent thinking. In Study 4 one hundred TED Talks were converted into text and their ID calculated. Here, ID was significantly correlated with the number of online “hits” associated with each TED Talk. These four studies suggests that ID is far from redundant with creativity but represents a useful measure of ideation and creative potential, and one that can be used with high-level performances, including published research, citations, and TED Talks. Limitations of the method and the three studies are discussed, as are future research directions.
Book
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With few exceptions, scholarship on creativity has focused on its positive aspects while largely ignoring its dark side. This includes not only creativity deliberately aimed at hurting others, such as crime or terrorism, or at gaining unfair advantages, but also the accidental negative side effects of well-intentioned acts. This book brings together essays written by experts from various fields (psychology, criminal justice, sociology, engineering, education, history, and design) and with different interests (personality development, mental health, deviant behavior, law enforcement, and counter-terrorism) to illustrate the nature of negative creativity, examine its variants, call attention to its dangers, and draw conclusions about how to prevent it or protect society from its effects.
Article
Biographical data on 197 Nobel Prize winners were used to examine the relationship between birth order and eminence in various fields. Two new findings are presented: eminent scientists appeared to be earlier born than eminent nonscientists, even when family size is controlled, and laureates who won their prizes later in the century appeared to be later born, when family size is controlled. The first finding raises the question of whether there are different kinds of creativity and/or achievement-orientation required for different kinds of eminence; the second finding raises the issue of how declines in family size have benefitted later-borns.
Article
The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship of birth-order and creativity using a large sample of gifted and nongifted children (N = 234), five divergent thinking tests, and multivariate procedures to test birth-order and its interaction with number of siblings, gender, and age. Results indicated that only children had the highest divergent thinking test scores, followed by eldest, youngest, and finally middle children. Age also accounted for a significant amount of the variance in the scores, with older children having higher scores than younger children. Finally, the number of siblings was important: Children with more siblings had higher scores than children with one sibling.
Article
This inquiry into one aspect of collective memory-the differential survival of reputation-distinguishes between two components of reputation: recognition by peers and more universal renown. Before their style of working went out of fashion in the 1930s, all the artists studied had been recognized as painter-etchers, but few had achieved a level of renown that guaranteed the preservation of their original oeuvres, a condition that, in the instance of visual artists, is a sine qua non for being remembered. Where such preservation was not assured, the posthumous durability of reputation depended on the artist's own lifetime efforts to protect or project that reputation, survivors with a stake in preserving or enhancing the artist's reputation, linkages to networks facilitating entry into the cultural archives, and retrospective interest leading to the rediscovery of the artist as the symbolic representative of emerging cultural or political identities. Similar conditions for remembering exist in other areas of culture production; these are affected by the rate at which "old" work loses relevance, the nature of the creative achievement, and the medium in which it is preserved.
Article
Many previous investigations have relied on entries in encyclopedias or similar sources (e.g., Who's Who) to quantify eminence and achievement. The premises in these earlier studies have been that eminence is a function of reputation and that reputation is accurately captured by encyclopedias and the like. In this article, the authors examine reputational changes from era to era. They expected that a comparison of encyclopedias from different eras would show significant changes, with some eminent persons having reputations (or at least biographical entries) that increase, some having reputations that decrease, and others having stable reputations. Can such change (or stability) be reliably assessed and predicted? To address these questions, encyclopedia entry length from 1911 was compared to encyclopedia entry length from 2002, using 1,004 individuals selected in a previous biographical study. Regression analysis indicates that biographical entries did in fact change significantly. The authors also explore implications for definitions of eminence and for the quantification of reputation.
Article
There are three types of criticism: Journalistic, essayistic, and academic. The three types of critics cooperate and compete in establishing and maintaining the field of literature. All criticism is carried out against the background of a shared frame of reference. The literary frame of reference contains a hierarchy of fame, a ranking list of old and modern writers. This hierarchy of fame may be empirically studied by means of the mentions technique. In this article, the cohort of writers born 1825–1849, mainly consisting of realists and naturalists, is studied as it enters, dominates and vanishes from the frames of reference of Swedish daily reviewers in the 1880s and the postwar period. Considerable similarity is found between the cohort's hierarchies of fame in the 1880s and the postwar period. This similarity demonstrates the power of journalistic critics in shaping the literary frame of reference of the future. The influence of the reviewers must have been relayed by essayists and academics in the periods between the 1880s and our time. The continued, comparative study of this dynamic process of cooperation and competition between the three types of literary critics will yield an increased understanding of the whole ‘field of literature’.
Article
This article offers a new way to interpret the relation between mental illness and creative achievement. With some license for imagination the author adopts the fractal metaphor to explain the "self-similarity" of results found at every level of analysis in a prior study of more than 1,000 eminent persons and a new exploratory study on 137 well-known visual artists. These results show that regardless of scale, the same pattern exists between mental disturbances and creative expression. Persons in professions that require more logical, objective, and formal forms of expression tend be more emotionally stable than those in professions that require more intuitive subjective, and emotive forms. This same pattern even applies, for example, when we focus on the visual arts and compare persons using different artistic styles. These results, in their entirety, suggest that a powerful relation exists between the presence or absence of mental illness and particular forms of creative expression both between and within the sciences and the arts.