ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

If organizations to achieve continuous quality improvement they need to use appropriate selection of quality tools and techniques. In this paper a review of possibilities of the systematic use of seven basic quality; tools (7QC tools) is presented. It is shown that 7QC tools can be used in all process phases, from the beginning of a product development up to management of a production process and delivery. It is further shown how to involve 7QC tools in some phases of continuous improvement Process (PDCA-cycle), Six Sigma (DMAIC) and Design for Six Sigma (DMADV) methodologies, and Lean Six
Content may be subject to copyright.
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, StartPage-EndPage Paper received: 03.03.2008
UDC 658.5 Paper accepted: 00.00.200x
*Corr. Author's Address: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, SI-1000
Ljubljana, Slovenia, mirko.sokovic@fs.uni-lj.si 1
Basic Quality Tools in Continuous Improvement Process
Mirko Soković1,* - Jelena Jovanović2 - Zdravko Krivokapić2 - Aleksandar Vujović2
1 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovenia
2 University of Montenegro, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Podgorica, Montenegro
If organizations wish to achieve continuous quality improvement they need to use appropriate
selection of quality tools and techniques. In this paper a review of possibilities of the systematic use of
seven basic quality tools (7QC tools) is presented. It is shown that 7QC tools can be used in all process
phases, from the beginning of a product development up to management of a production process and
delivery. It is further shown how to involve 7QC tools in some phases of continuous improvement process
(PDCA-cycle), Six Sigma (DMAIC) and Design for Six Sigma (DMADV) methodologies, and Lean Six
Sigma.
© 2009 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.
Keywords: DMAIC, improvement processes, quality tools, Six Sigma, PDCA, 7QC tools, DMADV
0 INTRODUCTION
Continuous quality improvement process
assumes and requires that a team of experts
together with the company leadership actively use
quality tools in their improvement activities and
decision making process.
Currently there is a significant number of
quality assurance and quality management tools
available, so the selection of the most appropriate
is not always an easy task. Tools are essential
ingredients of a process and basic instruments for
the success of a quality program. Many
companies have used tools without giving
sufficient thought to their selection and have then
experienced barriers to progress. Quality Tools
cannot remedy every quality problem but they
certainly are a means for solving problems.
Consequently, it needs to be emphasized that
while tools can be very effective in the right
hands, they can be very dangerous in the wrong
hands. It is, therefore, important to know how,
when and which tools should be used in problem
solving or improvement processes.
Today there are more than a hundred
different tools available. Many scientists have
tried to define them and differentiate among them
on various bases [1]. Tools are generally a means
of accomplishing change and in this paper we will
focus on the most fundamental quality tools
called the seven basic quality tools - 7QC tools.
They are easy to learn and handle and are used to
analyze solutions to existing problems.
These seven quality tools which are basic
for all other tools are:
Flow chart
Pareto diagram
Check sheet
Control chart
Histogram
Scatter plot
Cause-and-effect diagram.
The seven quality tools were first
emphasized by Ishikawa (in the 1960s), who is
one of the quality management gurus. His original
seven tools include stratification, which some
authors later called a flow chart or a run chart.
They are also called the seven "basic" or "old"
tools. After that other new tools have been
developed for various purposes but the basis for
every work is related to the 7QC tools [3].These
tools are also fundamental to Kaizen and Juan’s
approach to quality improvement [2].
1 APPLICATION OF 7QC TOOLS
These simple but effective "tools of
improvement" are widely used as "graphical
problem-solving methods" and as general
management tools in every process between
design and delivery. The challenge for the
manufacturing and production industry is for:
"Everyone to understand and use the
improvements tools in their work".
Some of the the seven tools can be used in
process identification and/or process analysis.
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, StartPage-EndPage
Soković, M. - Jovanović, J. - Krivokapić, Z. - Vujović, A.
2
One possible approach, proposed by J. G.
Pimblott [4] is presented in Fig. 1 where Pareto
and Cause and effect diagrams are common and
essential in both processes (identification and
analysis).
The current approach for using 7QC tools,
according to EOQ (European Organisation for
Quality) [5], is shown in Fig. 2. The process of
data acquisitions includes three tools (Check
sheet, Histogram and Control chart), and the
process of analysis another four tools (Pareto
diagram, Cause and effect diagram, Scatter plot,
and Flow chart).
There is a distinction between the two
approaches represented in Figs. 1 and 2. The
approach in Fig. 1 is much older (1990) and
therefore, there are some key distinctions. Some
tools which are now used only for analysis were
at that time considered as tools for identification
or for both processes (identification and analysis).
But even then scientists were attempting to find
appropriate utilizations of each tool in different
processes and methodologies of improvement.
The tools must meet the main purpose or
reason for their application. No single tool is
more important in isolation, but could be most
significant for a specific application [1].
Fig. 1. Use of 7QC tools in process identification and analysis
Fig. 2. Current approach for using 7QC tools (according to EOQ)
Pareto dia
g
ram
Cause and effect dia
g
ram
Flow chart
Check sheet
Histogram
Control chart
Scatter
p
lot
Identification Analysis
Histogram
Check sheet
Data
Acquisitions
Data
Analysis
Pareto diagram
Flow chart
Scatter plot
Analyses
Is MKO
suitable?
Write data
Record
End
Correction
Condemnation
Records
End
Is corr.
possible?
Cause and effect diagram
Control chart
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, Startpage-EndPage
Basic Quality Tools in Continuous Improvement Process 3
Fig. 3. Development of quality management concept
2 7QC TOOLS THROUGH PDCA-CYCLE
In successful application of quality tools
an implemented quality management system is an
advantage. The quality management principles
are a starting point for the company’s
management striving for continuous efficiency
improvement over a long period of time and
customer satisfaction. A quality management
system is based on the integrity of all production
and support resources of a certain company. It
enables a faultless process flow in meeting related
contracts, standards and market quality
requirements. Implementation of a quality
management system is always a part of a
company’s development process, Fig. 3 [6].
Having a quality management system in
place is a prerequisite for its successful
application on a day-to-day basis. The
management has to show commitment to
development and improvement of a quality
management system. Through a quality
management system the company’s leadership
implements their quality policy. Furthermore, a
quality management system has to be well
documented. When in function, the quality
management system provides useful information
obtained by different process analyses and audits.
If a company’s focus is on the customer, the
company has to select the most efficient ways of
data acquisition and market survey to confirm
that the company’s products or services meet
customer demands and expectations. The
gathered information is invaluable in the decision
making process based on fact. Data collection and
analysis is also significant in defining
opportunities for further processes and product
quality improvement.
Continuous improvement as a fifth
principle of QMS (ISO 9001:2000) could not be
realized without quality tools which are presented
through four groups of activities of Deming’s
quality cycle or PDCA-cycle, shown in Fig. 4 [6].
The PDCA-cycle is an integral part of process
management and is designed to be used as a
dynamic model because one cycle represents one
complete step of improvement.
The PDCA-cycle is used to coordinate
continuous improvement efforts. It emphasizes
and demonstrates that improvement programs
must start with careful planning, must result in
effective action, and must move on again to
careful planning in a continuous cycle – the
Deming’s quality cycle is never-ending. It is a
strategy used to achieve breakthrough
improvements in safety, quality, morale, delivery
cost, and other critical business objectives.
Fig. 4. PDCA-cycle
The completion of one cycle continues
with the beginning of the next. A PDCA-cycle
consists of four consecutive steps or phases, as
follows:
Plan - analysis of what needs to be
improved by taking into consideration
areas that hold opportunities for change.
Decision on what should be changed.
Do - implementation of the changes that
are decided on in the Plan step.
Check - Control and measurement of
processes and products in accordance to
changes made in previous steps and in
accordance with policy, goals and
requirements on products. Report on
results.
Act - Adoption or reaction to the changes
or running the PDCA-cycle through again.
Keeping improvement on-going.
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, StartPage-EndPage
Soković, M. - Jovanović, J. - Krivokapić, Z. - Vujović, A.
4
Table 1. Seven basic quality tools (7QC tools) in correlation with PDCA-cycle steps
Steps of PDCA-cycle
Plan Do Plan, Check Plan, Act Check
Seven basic
quality tools
(7QC tools) Problem
identification
Implement
solutions Process analysis Solutions
development
Result
evaluation
Flow chart 9
9
Cause-and-
effect diagram
9 9
Check sheet 9 9 9
Pareto diagram 9 9 9
Histogram 9
9
Scatter plot
9 9 9
Control charts 9 9 9
The main purpose of PDCA-cycle
application lies in process improvement [7].
When process improvement starts with careful
planning, it results in corrective and preventive
actions supported by appropriate quality
assurance tools which lead to true process
improvement. The application of the seven basic
quality tools in correlation with four steps of
PDCA-cycle is shown in Table 1 [8].
As shown in Table 1, most of the 7QC tools
can be used for problem identification: Flow chart,
Cause-and-Effect diagram, Check sheet, Pareto
diagram, Histogram and Control charts. For
problem analysis the following tools can be used:
Cause-and-Effect diagram, Check sheet, Pareto
diagram, Scatter plot and Control charts. When a
team is developing a solution for the analyzed
problem, Flow chart and Scatter plot can be useful
as well. In the phase of achieved results evaluation,
most of 7QC tools can also be successfully
implemented: Check sheet, Pareto diagram,
Histogram, Scatter plot and Control charts.
For effective and successful team work in
solving daily quality problems, we propose a simple
model for systematic usage of "basic quality tools"
for process monitoring, data acquisition and quality
improvement, Fig. 5 [6] and [9].
Loop 1 focuses on the analysis of the biggest
causes for defects which are found by Pareto
diagram, and Loop 2 focuses on continuous process
improvement, which is one of the eight QMS
principles. The implementation of this principle is a
big stride forward which a company can take in
order to change their static quality management to a
dynamic one.
3 7QC TOOLS IN SIX SIGMA
Six Sigma is an organization-wide approach
used to specify exactly how organization managers
set up and achieve objectives. It demonstrates how
breakthrough improvements tied to significant
bottom-line results can be achieved [10].
The Six Sigma methodology goes beyond the
improvement process and tools because it requires
an intelligent use of data, emphasis of statistical
analysis and designed experiments.
Six Sigma prescribes an improvement process
known as DMAIC methodology [3]:
Define - improvement of project goals, goals
based on customer needs and wants
Measure - current process and establish
metrics to monitor the path to achievement
of goals
Analyze - current process to understand
problems and their causes
Improve - process by identifying and piloting
solutions to problems
Control - improved process with
standardization and ongoing monitoring.
Each of these processes (phases) can be
realized with different quality tools and
techniques (also 7QC) while some tools can be
used in more than one processes (phases). One
possible classification (use) of different quality
tools and techniques in the Six Sigma
methodology, proposed by the authors is
presented in Fig. 6 [9].
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, Startpage-EndPage
Basic Quality Tools in Continuous Improvement Process 5
Fig. 5. Seven basic quality tools (7QC tools) for quality improvement
In Fig. 6 the tools which are used in all
phases of DMAIC methodology are presented.
Below each phase of DMAIC the main tools for
each process are presented. Lower still the tools
which are not essential for that process but can
also be used (Additional tools) are shown. It can
be seen that, except the Improve phase, the
Analysis and Control phases have one or more
QC tools.
For the development of a new product or a
process which focuses on "problem prevention"
there is a modified version of Six Sigma called
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS). The fundamental
characteristic of DFSS is the verification which
makes it different from Six Sigma but the
proponents of DFSS are promoting it as a holistic
approach of Re-engineering. It is also known as the
application of Six Sigma techniques to the
development process. DFSS is centred on designing
a new product and services while Six Sigma is
primary a process improvement methodology. The
processes often used in practice in DFSS are called
DMADV (define, measure, analyze, design, verify)
or IDOV (identify, design, optimise and validate).
The first phase in DMAIC and DMADV (or IDOV)
is the same (define the goals of the activities) but
after that processes go in different ways. If a process
exists then you go by the DMAIC way and if not,
you follow the DMADV [11].
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, StartPage-EndPage
Soković, M. - Jovanović, J. - Krivokapić, Z. - Vujović, A.
6
Fig. 6. Quality tools and techniques in DMAIC methodology
In Table 2 a possible inclusion of 7QC tools
in three methodologies is presented: continuous
improvement PDCA-cycle, Six Sigma and Design
for Six Sigma [12]. In different phases of the
processes various tools can be taken while some
phases like (Plan for the future in PDCA-cycle) need
some other management, planning or other tools and
techniques.
In this approach (Table 2) it is also shown
that in the Improve phase of DMAIC two basic
quality tools (Control chart and Pareto diagram)
could be used while in Fig. 6 this phase does not
contain any basic tools. On the other hand, in the
Define phase of DMAIC methodology, Fig 6, there
is one basic quality tool (Flow diagram) whereas in
Table 2 the Define column is empty.
When comparing the inclusion of 7QC tools
in PDCA methodology in Tables 1 and 2 it can be
seen that the authors in both references [8,12]
consider that not a single basic quality tool could be
involved in the process which means realization (Do
or Implement Solutions).
These approaches are different and definitely
need a deeper analysis but it is evident that 7QC
tools have a big role in all the key phases of these
methodologies.
4 7QC TOOLS IN LEAN SIX SIGMA
Lean Six Sigma are a set of methods that
companies can apply to any manufacturing,
transactional or service process to reduce waste,
eliminate non-value-added actions and cut time.
Combining "Lean" with "Six Sigma" can produce
a program that brings both short-term results
through the power of Lean, and long-term change
through the power of Six Sigma. It is for this
reason that many companies are turning to a
combined Lean and Six Sigma effort.
Lean means speed and quick action
(reducing unneeded waiting time).
Six Sigma means identifying defects and
eliminating them.
Lean Six Sigma Engineering means best-
in-class [13] and [14]. It creates value in
the organization to benefit its customers
Define Measur Anal
y
sImprov Control
IPO diagram
SIPOC diagram
Flow diagram
CTQ tree
Project charter
Check sheets
Histograms
Run charts
Scatter diagrams
Cause and effect
diagrams
Pareto diagrams
Control charts
Flow charts
Process capability
measurement
Process mapping
Regression
analysis
RU/CS analysis
SWOT analysis
PESTLE analysis
Five whys
Interrelationship
diagram
OEE
Scatter diagrams
Cause and effect
diagrams
Pareto diagrams
Control charts
Affinity diagram
Nominal group
technique
SMED
Five S
Mistake proofing
Value stream
mapping
Brainstorming
Mind mapping
Gant chart
Activity network
diagram
Radar chart
PDCA cycle
Milestone tracker
diagram
Earned value
management
Control charts
Balanced scorecard
EFQM
Sales and operations
planning
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, Startpage-EndPage
Basic Quality Tools in Continuous Improvement Process 7
and saves money without capital
investment.
Both, the Lean and the Six Sigma
methodologies have proven over the last twenty
years that dramatic improvements in cost, quality,
and time can be achieved by focusing on process
performance. Most practitioners consider these
two methods as complementing each other to
achieve world class performance (WCP).
Bringing the two concepts together
delivers faster results by establishing baseline
performance levels and focusing on the use of
statistical tools where they will have the most
impact. Most companies using both
methodologies began by applying basic Lean -
manufacturing techniques - the 5Ss, standardized
work and the elimination of waste. Once Lean
techniques eliminate much of the noise from a
process, Six Sigma offers a sequential problem-
solving procedure, the DMAIC cycle, and
statistical tools so that potential causes are not
overlooked and viable solutions to chronic
problems can be discovered [14].
One may obtain Lean Six Sigma training
certification by completing the improvement
model for Lean Six Sigma Black Belt. This
training is available at academic institutions, as
well as quality societies or other certified
organizations. The preceding steps with quality
tools (also 7QC tools) and techniques for Lean
Six Sigma Black Belt are shown in Fig. 7 below
[13].
Table 2. Quality Tools and Techniques Selector Chart
Continuous improvement
(PDCA-cycle)
Six Sigma (DMAIC)
Design for Six Sigma
(DMADV)
Methodology
Tools and
techniques
Identify opportunity
Analyze the process
Develop solutions
Implement solutions
Evaluate results
Standardize solutions
Plan for the future
Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
Define
Measure
Analyze
Design
Verify
7 QC tools
Cause-and-Effect
diagram
x x X
Control chart x X x x x x x
Check sheet x x
Histogram x x x
Pareto diagram X x x x X x
Scatter diagram x X x x X
Flowchart
• Deployment
flowchart
x x x x x
• Linear or
activity
flowchart
x x x x x
• Opportunity
flowchart
x x x x
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, StartPage-EndPage
Soković, M. - Jovanović, J. - Krivokapić, Z. - Vujović, A.
8
Fig. 7. Lean Six Sigma Black Belt improvement model
(use of 7QC tools is emphasized)
5 CONCLUSIONS
This paper aimed at defining the role and
significance of seven basic quality tools (7QC
tools) within a quality management system. The
principle of continuous improvement using the
seven basic quality tools which guarantee
organizations to move from static to dynamic
improvement status was presented. As shown, the
7QC tools have an important place in data
collecting, analyzing, visualizing and all other
phases in PDCA-cycle, DMAIC and DMADV
phases, and also in Lean Six Sigma. Furthermore,
systematic application of 7QC tools will enable a
successful quality improvement process.
It is evident that a continuous
improvement process cannot be realized without
quality tools, techniques and methods. These
Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 55(2009)5, Startpage-EndPage
Basic Quality Tools in Continuous Improvement Process 9
tools also help the quality engineer to use
accessible data in decision processes. Therefore,
it is very important that the passive status
(identification needed for tools, techniques and
methods) of using these tools, techniques and
methods is transformed into proactive status,
which is the only way towards further affirmation
of a continuous improvement process.
In view of this, it is evident that an even
much more synthesized process could be realized
and improved using different tools and techniques
which have 7QC tools as their basis.
6 REFERENCES
[1] Basu, R. Implementing Quality – A Practical
Guide to Tools and Techniques, Thomson
Learning, UK, 2004.
[2] Osanna, P.H., Durakbasa, M.N., Afjehi-
Sadat, A. Quality in Industry, Vienna
University of Technology, TU AuM, Wien,
2004.
[3] Tague, N.R. The quality toolbox, ASQ
Quality press, Wisconsin 2005.
[4] Pimblott. J.G. Management improvement -
where to start, Quality forum, Vol. 16, No. 4,
December 1990, pp. 165-173.
[5] N.N. Quality Management Systems,
translation of DGQ educational material, 10.
issue 2001, SZK, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2002.
[6] Paliska. G. Universality and systematicness
of quality tools, M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of
Engineering, University of Rijeka, Croatia,
2007.
[7] Scholtes, P. Brian, J.L. Streibel, B.J. The
Team Handbook, Madison, WI: Joiner/Oriel
Inc., USA, 2003.
[8] http://elsmar.com/pdf_files
[9] Soković, M. Jovanović, J. Krivokapić, Z.
Vujović, A. Quality tools in improvement
process, Proceedings of 2nd International
Conference ICQME 2007, 12-14 September
2007, Budva, Montenegro, pp. 21-28.
[10] Keller.,P. Six Sigma Demystified – a self-
teaching guide, McGraw-Hill, New York,
2005.
[11] Soković, M. Pavletić, D. Quality
improvement – PDCA-cycle vs. DMAIC and
DFSS, Strojniški vestnik – Journal of
Mechanical Engineering53 (2007), 6, pp.
369-378.
[12] http://quality.dlsu.edu.ph/tools
[13] Taghizadegan, S. Essentials of Lean Six
Sigma, Butterworth-Heinemann, UK, 2006.
[14] Soković, M. Pavletić, D. The Lean and Six
Sigma syn ergy, Proceedings of 3rd
International Conference ICQME 2008, 10-
12 September 2008, Budva, Montenegro, pp.
5-12.
... Thus, the basic quality tools usually used in several processes can meet multiple purposes, which benefits system management, improves status, as well as decision-making processes (Soković et al. 2009). Standard operations can ensure quality consistency in monitoring procedures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Water quality degradation in reservoirs, as well as essential detailed analyses of limnological data and landscape analysis have gained much attention in recent decades. We implemented basic quality tools from the Plan–Do–Check–Act (PDCA) cycle to improve water management in the Barra Bonita Reservoir (Southwestern Brazil). These tools generated useful information concerning the causes of non-conformity of limnological variables with guideline values and the landscape pattern. We evaluated nine variables: biological oxygen demand (BOD5,20), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, thermotolerant coliforms (FC), total phosphorus (TP), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), and turbidity (Turb). Three sampling stations were considered: two upstream (P1 and P2) and one downstream (P3). Limnological data (2007–2017) were obtained from sampling campaigns carried out in January, March, May, July, September and November of each year. Four quality tools were used: (i) Check List; (ii) Ishikawa Diagram; (iii) Pareto Diagram; and (iv) the Gravity–Urgency–Tendency (GUT) Matrix. As reported by the Check Sheet, the upstream rivers showed higher levels of non-conformity of limnological variables. The Pareto Chart showed that TP, DO, FC, and BOD5,20 correspond to 84.46% of non-conformities. According to the Ishikawa Diagram, and the Distance to Nature index (D2N), the water quality loss drivers correspond to sewage input (mainly from the Tietê river due to basic sanitation issues), non-point pollution, and intense anthropogenic land use. According to the GUT Matrix, the limnological variables of highest concern were the TP and FC, followed by BOD5,20. We explored the possibility of using quality tools to analyze reservoir data.
... However, no organization can profit from every QT, and there is no guidance to assist companies in making decisions on which ones to utilize [12]. The basic seven fundamental tools are a Check sheet, Histogram, Pareto analysis, Process flow chart, Cause-Effect diagram, Scatter diagram, Control chart [13]. In this study, we are only using two of the seven fundamental tools. ...
Article
Full-text available
In comparison to other sectors such as manufacturing and service, the construction sector is perceived to impose a low value on performance. TQM is implemented by very few construction companies in this world, and the top-down technique is widely used. To incorporate TQM in a company, top management must contribute to a “bottom-up” strategy by creating a “Quality Circle.” According to this study, the first and most important criteria for introducing TQM in construction firms is top management involvement, other obstacles that companies must overcome include a lack of education, lack of confidence, lack of common trust, a lack of skilled staff, market competition, weak strategies and requirements, bad behavior, the availability of experienced field managers, and so on. In this approach, one case study is analyzed to show how Total Quality Management (TQM) is efficiently applied by using a “bottom-up” approach and creating a PMO in an Indian construction company. After some study of the Pareto graph, and identifying root causes using Root Cause analysis, experience is applied in the provided studied construction firm to apply TQM. Following that, a method for applying TQM in a building company is suggested.
... Assim, visando a atenuação de riscos em processos de manutenção, a implantação do PDCA sobre máquinas é uma estratégia inteligente para se atingir os requisitos de qualidade, normas de segurança e manter homens, máquinas e meio ambiente em boas condições de desempenho e operação. (LIU, 2011) Para o alcance de excelência na execução de uma manutenção segura por meio do PDCA, se destacam técnicas e ferramentas da qualidade para identificar, controlar e diagnosticar não-conformidades ou riscos potenciais em processos de manutenção (SOKOVIC, 2009e VARGAS, 2018. ...
Article
Segurança e saúde ocupacional são duas abordagens estritamente relacionadas dentro de indústrias de mineração. Enquanto as indústrias de mineração almejam por crescimento sustentável de suas operações, deve-se haver um equilíbrio na busca por maior faturamento e segurança na execução das atividades. Este trabalho realiza uma medida corretiva em uma escavadeira elétrica a cabos, com o objetivo de atenuar riscos graves e reduzir a potencial materialização de acidentes na manutenção de troca de cabo de aço destas máquinas. Para isso foi utilizado o método do ciclo PDCA para adoção da medida corretiva. Na etapa de planejamento foi desenvolvido o gerenciamento de riscos e concluído com o plano de ação 5W1H. Em seguida o projeto foi executado, avaliado quanto à atenuação dos riscos e padronizados. Como resultados, a equipe de engenharia realizou a soldagem de uma extensão no teto da casa de máquinas da escavadeira, reduzindo o risco de grave para moderado, proporcionando mais segurança às atividades envolvidas na troca de cabo de aço da escavadeira elétrica aos colaboradores.Segurança e saúde ocupacional são duas abordagens estritamente relacionadas dentro de indústrias de mineração. Enquanto as indústrias de mineração almejam por crescimento sustentável de suas operações, deve-se haver um equilíbrio na busca por maior faturamento e segurança na execução das atividades. Este trabalho realiza uma medida corretiva em uma escavadeira elétrica a cabos, com o objetivo de atenuar riscos graves e reduzir a potencial materialização de acidentes na manutenção de troca de cabo de aço destas máquinas. Para isso foi utilizado o método do ciclo PDCA para adoção da medida corretiva. Na etapa de planejamento foi desenvolvido o gerenciamento de riscos e concluído com o plano de ação 5W1H. Em seguida o projeto foi executado, avaliado quanto à atenuação dos riscos e padronizados. Como resultados, a equipe de engenharia realizou a soldagem de uma extensão no teto da casa de máquinas da escavadeira, reduzindo o risco de grave para moderado, proporcionando mais segurança às atividades envolvidas na troca de cabo de aço da escavadeira elétrica aos colaboradores.
... Ahmed & Hassan (2003) (Ishikawa, 1985). These original seven basic QMTs are simple, easy to learn and widely used, and also called as old, quality tools or quality control tools (Kang & Park, 2000;Sokovic et al., 2009). In addition to the seven basic QMTs, there are the new seven QMTs in this group of QMTs: Affinity diagram, Arrow diagram, Matrix data analysis, Matrix diagram, Process decision programme chart, Relations diagram and Tree systematic diagram (Dale & McQuater, 1998;Terziovski & Sohal, 2000;Siva et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since monitoring, managing, sustaining and improving the quality are is so important to the competitiveness of the company, it is advisable to use a variety of Quality Management tools (QMTs) and techniques, in addition to comprehensive Quality Management Systems (QMSs). The main aim of this research study is to explore the connection between Quality Management System (QMS) and selected Quality Management tools (QMTs) in industrial companies in the Czech Republic. This study summarizes the results of the online questionnaire survey between April 2017 and July 2017. The final sample consisted of answers from 200 companies. It has been found that 46% of surveyed companies monitor and evaluate quality of their business processes. Furthermore, it has been found that 59% of surveyed companies are ISO 9001 certified. Larger companies tend to monitor and evaluate quality of their business processes and to have ISO 9001 certification. The relationships between the use of Quality Management tools (QMTs), monitoring and quality assessment of business processes (MQABP) and ISO 9001 certification have been found based on the Pearson's Chi-square Test of Independence, the Fisher's Exact Test of Independence and the Column Proportions Z-Test.
Chapter
The growing competitiveness in the emerging global market is a challenge that transforms into a vast need for the industry to begin to expand. Each manufacturing industry cares about the quality of its products so as to stay ahead of its rivals and so become their consumers’ first choice. It is essential that the finished product meets standard requirements. Since customer satisfaction is derived from quality products and services, it is very important to control quality. In all types of engines, the crankshaft is the significant powerful component. Most crankshafts are made of micro-alloy steel, to acquire the mechanical characteristics necessary. Many designs of the crankshaft are inherently complicated by various defects, e.g. underfilling, overlapping, misalignment, scaling pits, etc. Various types of forging processes die materials for forging and crankshaft production processes are briefly discussed in this paper. The overview of the latest research on forging analysis for single-cylinder crankshafts is presented here by the practice of high-quality tools used to eliminate defects in crankshaft production. This research study explored the use of quality tools, including Pareto graph and chart of cause and effect, to evaluate various forging defects in the crankshaft manufacturing industries to reduce the rejection rate and increase profitability of production yield. Finally, corrective measures are recommended to resolve significant defects in the crankshaft production process. The execution of the remedial plan would diminish the rate of rejection from 4.54 to 0.72%.
Article
Statistical quality control of any manufacturing process of the product using statistical tools has 100% best quality for the product of any daily life use. Quality means a level or standard for any production process, for example water supply, chilled drinks, food and other type of product for any use in daily life. We can use statistical quality control tools for any manufacturing process, such as Walter A. Shewart's control chart and sampling control plan. Control chart to compare the production of products in daily life and get better result for any product also provide the accuracy of quality product that we can use in daily life, similarly sampling control plan we use batch by batch inspection then you will get better result for any product good quality. Both statistical tools will achieve a better result of any product of good quality of the standard mark than we use in our daily life.
Thesis
Full-text available
A disciplina contemporânea de gestão de ativos tem se destacado como um campo atuante de interesse nos últimos anos. Por meio dela, coordenam-se as atividades de uma organização para obter valor a partir de seus ativos. No entanto, por ser essencialmente multidisciplinar e complexa, a gestão de ativos ainda tem sido pouco explorada. Ademais, as diretrizes para o alinhamento de processos da organização com a gestão de ativos especificam o que precisa ser feito, mas não como fazê-lo. Em se tratando de ativos físicos, a manutenção representa um estágio do ciclo de vida de grandes impactos para o alcance dos objetivos organizacionais. Evidências mostram que uma manutenção deficiente pode resultar em falhas nos processos que podem colocar as pessoas em risco, acarretar perda de receitas e inviabilizar as operações. Nesse contexto, esta pesquisa visa elaborar uma proposta de estrutura de gerenciamento de manutenção para a gestão de ativos físicos. Para tal, foram realizadas duas revisões integrativas da literatura a fim de embasar as considerações para a modelagem da estrutura proposta. Utilizou-se a abordagem da modelagem de processos seguindo as especificações da linguagem gráfica padronizada BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation). Na sequência, discutiu-se a aplicabilidade da estrutura proposta por meio de um estudo de caso que considerou o contexto operacional real de uma usina hidrelétrica. Logo, a partir dos resultados obtidos, espera-se contribuir com os profissionais e pesquisadores de manutenção na compreensão e na difusão de uma proposta de estrutura de gerenciamento de manutenção que esteja alinhada com as diretrizes internacionais da gestão de ativos. Além disso, essa pesquisa preenche uma lacuna na literatura de manutenção visto que aborda a disciplina de gestão de ativos, assim como a série ISO 55000, em profundidade no contexto do gerenciamento de manutenção.
Chapter
Maintenance is one of the main stages to deliver business outcomes from physical assets over their life cycles. However, as unexpected events and performance may occur in maintenance management, organizations shall be aware of how to address them as well as other opportunities for improvement. Accordingly, this chapter intends to present an improvement framework for maintenance management. The first two sections provide an introduction to maintenance management improvement and its interface with the ISO 55000 series for asset management and the maintenance management model (MMM). Then, the proposed framework and its activities for improvement in maintenance management are discussed in the third section. The fourth section addresses an overview of the main RCA techniques to support the framework implementation. Finally, a hydroelectric power plant case study is discussed to demonstrate the framework in a real operational context.
Article
Full-text available
The local authority in Malaysia is the giant holder of public assets and they are obligated in performing better management to ensure the assets are of prominent quality to serve the needs of the local people. The local authority should take initiatives in having the right systems in managing and maintaining their assets. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the maintenance management practices and performance improvement techniques to be integrated into developing the continuous improvement model towards achieving a sustainable performance of public assets. The resource-based view (RBV) and performance improvement (PI) theory are integrated as the reference to develop the maintenance management framework. The RBV emphasizing the resources and capabilities to achieve the value of strategic management. While the PI provides a suitable tool which is the maturity model for improving the current practices. Nine key elements of maintenance management were identified which demonstrating the maintenance capabilities and resources. Grounded on the theory of RBV and PI, the conceptual framework was established as the foundation towards developing strategic maintenance practices for sustainable performance of public assets and continuous improvement in maintenance management by the local authority in Malaysia.
Thesis
Full-text available
Somanath Ojha for the award of the degree of Master of Technology (Research) of NIT Rourkela, is a record of bonafide research work carried out by him under our supervision and guidance. He has worked for two years on the above problem at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela and this has reached the standard fulfilling the requirements and the regulation relating to the degree.
Article
Full-text available
To achieve continuous quality improvements every organization needs to use an appropriate selection of tools and techniques. The fundamental requirements for success are a clear understanding, both of the tools and techniques as well as the process by which they should be applied. In this paper we provide an overview and the fields of application of the PDCA, Six Sigma and DFSS techniques for the continuous quality improvement of products, processes and services. The PDCA cycle is a simple-to-understand concept of continuous quality improvement; the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology is a systematic and fact-based project-management approach; while DFSS methodology is a systematic approach to product or process design that includes all organization functions.
Book
Six Sigma is a management program that provides tools that help manufacturers obtain efficient, stream-lined production to coincide with ultimate high quality products. Lean Six Sigma will show how the well-regarded analytical tools of Six Sigma quality control can be successfully brought into the well-established moose of lean manufacturing, bringing efficient, stream-lined production and high quality product readily together. This book offers a thorough, yet concise introduction to the essential mathematics of Six Sigma, with solid case examples from a variety of industrial settings, culminating in an extended case study. Various professionals will find this book immensely useful, whether it be the industrial engineer, the industrial manager, or anyone associated with engineering in a technical or managing role. It will bring about a clear understanding of not only how to implement Six Sigma statistical tools, but also how to do so within the bounds of Lean manufacturing scheme. It will show how Lean Six Sigma can help reinforce the notion of less is more, while at the same time preserving minimal error rates in final manufactured products. *Reviews the essential statistical tools upon which Six Sigma rests, including normal distribution and mean deviation and the derivation of 1 sigma through six sigma *Shows how engineering design and manufacturing process can be accelerated (lean engineering) while at the same making quality improvements at each step along the way (six Sigma) *Explains essential lean tools like Value-Stream Mapping and quality improvement tools like Kaizen techniques within the context of Lean Six Sigma practice *Extended case study to clearly demonstrate how Six Sigma and Lean principles have been actually implemented, reducing production times and costs and creating improved product quality.
Implementing Quality -A Practical Guide to Tools and Techniques
  • R Basu
Basu, R. Implementing Quality -A Practical Guide to Tools and Techniques, Thomson Learning, UK, 2004.
Management improvementwhere to start
  • . J Pimblott
Pimblott. J.G. Management improvementwhere to start, Quality forum, Vol. 16, No. 4, December 1990, pp. 165-173.
Universality and systematicness of quality tools
  • G Paliska
Paliska. G. Universality and systematicness of quality tools, M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Croatia, 2007.
Quality tools in improvement process
  • M Soković
  • J Jovanović
  • Z Krivokapić
  • A Vujović
Soković, M. Jovanović, J. Krivokapić, Z. Vujović, A. Quality tools in improvement process, Proceedings of 2 nd International Conference ICQME 2007, 12-14 September 2007, Budva, Montenegro, pp. 21-28.
Six Sigma Demystified -a selfteaching guide
  • P Keller
Keller.,P. Six Sigma Demystified -a selfteaching guide, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005.
The Lean and Six Sigma syn ergy
  • M Soković
  • D Pavletić
Soković, M. Pavletić, D. The Lean and Six Sigma syn ergy, Proceedings of 3 rd International Conference ICQME 2008, 10-12 September 2008, Budva, Montenegro, pp. 5-12.