Structure and position (topography) of spiracles in larvae of the lower Brachycera (Diptera, Brachycera, Orthorrhapha)

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A comparative morphological analysis of the structure of spiracles in the lower Brachycera (Orthorrhapha) larvae was performed for the first time. The spiracular atrium is shown to be characterized by the similar type of the structure in representatives of different families. It consists of morphological structures resembling plastron of Nematocera pupae. The majority of larvae in the lower Brachycera considered as amphipneustic or apneustic forms is shown to be of polypneustic type and possesses metathoracal and abdominal spiracles connected with tracheal trunks by tracheal branches. The data obtained attest to the stability of the tracheal system in the lower Brachycera.

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... Os espiráculos posteriores estão localizados no último segmento abdominal, póstero-dorsalmente, e mostram-se esclerotizados com o peritrema circundando as fendas espiraculares em número de três (Fig. 2). Considera-se que a estrutura morfológica dos espiráculos posteriores de N. perezi poderá ser utilizada na caracterização da espécie, assim como proposto por Krivosheina (2005). As medidas das mandíbulas e de espiráculos posteriores de larvas N. perezi obtidas estão representadas na Tabela 3. ...
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