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Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

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Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

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... With the spread of his Holy Roman Empire around 800 AD, Charlemagne built many monasteries across Europe, many of which became centres of brewing (Unger 2004). Initially, most of the monasteries were located in Southern Europe, where the climate permitted the monks to grow grapes and make wine for themselves and their guests. ...
... However, when later monasteries were established in Northern regions of Europe, where the cooler climate made it easier to grow barley instead of grapes, the monks started to brew beer instead of wine (Jackson 1996). Throughout the early Middle Ages 'monastic brewing' spread to the British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia and the Low Countries (Unger 2004). Only in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries would brewing emerge as a commercial venture. ...
... Hence, the innovation of hops threatened local rulers' revenue from the Grutrecht tax on beer. Therefore, in many regions, including Britain and Holland, the use of hops was prohibited for a long time (Unger 2004). In fact, it took several centuries before the use of hops became commonplace in some European regions. ...
Article
This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transformed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidation, major shifts in consumption patterns, and the re-emergence of small breweries. (JEL Classification: N30, N40, L23, L66)
... Touger-Decker and Van Loveren (2003) demonstrate that beer in particular has a high caries-promoting potential. During the central medieval period in Holland, beer production on a commercial scale was still in its infancy (Unger, 2004). Although small quantities may have been produced at home, commercial beer production only became important after 1300 CE (Unger, 2004), and it is therefore likely that this was a much more common beverage for the Alkmaar population. ...
... During the central medieval period in Holland, beer production on a commercial scale was still in its infancy (Unger, 2004). Although small quantities may have been produced at home, commercial beer production only became important after 1300 CE (Unger, 2004), and it is therefore likely that this was a much more common beverage for the Alkmaar population. ...
Article
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In the late medieval period, Holland experienced substantial socioeconomic change. While the region was largely undeveloped prior to 1200 CE, the period after was characterised by extensive urbanisation and flourishing international trade, changes that would have impacted many aspects of life. This paper investigates the effect of these changes on diet by comparing skeletal collections from the early/central medieval rural village of Blokhuizen (800‐1200 CE) to the late medieval urban town of Alkmaar (1448‐1572 CE) using a combination of the prevalence and location of carious lesions (n teeth=3475) and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data (n=50). Results show that the urban Alkmaar population had a significantly higher caries frequency (7.4% vs. 16.1%), starting at a younger age. Moreover, Alkmaar had significantly more approximal caries. These results point to increased consumption of cariogenic products, such as sugars and starches, by the urban citizens. Dietary differences are also demonstrated by the stable isotope data. Alkmaar individuals have significantly enriched δ15N ratios and more variable δ13C ratios compared to rural Blokhuizen. The elevated δ15N values may be due to increased consumption of fish or animals such as omnivorous pigs and chickens. The combination of caries and isotopic data points to clear changes in diet suggesting that urban individuals in the late medieval period had a substantially different diet compared to early rural inhabitants from the same area. Specifically, an increase in market dependence, availability of international trade products, and the growth of commercial fishing in the late medieval period may have contributed to this dietary shift. Future research should include a late medieval rural population to better understand the effects of late medieval socioeconomic developments outside of the urban environment. This study demonstrates that the integration of palaeopathology and stable isotopic research provides a more complete understanding of dietary changes in medieval Holland.
... Archeological remains and pictographic evidence of cereal based beer-like brews have been found across the Fertile Crescent, the oldest dating back to the twelfth millennium BC (Katz and Maytag, 1991;Michel et al., 1992;Hornsey, 2003;Black et al., 2006;Legras et al., 2007;Sicard and Legras, 2011;Liu et al., 2018). China also has a long history of beer-like beverages (McGovern et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2016), and in Europe, Celtic tribes spread beer brewing across the continent up to 2,000 years ago (Corran, 1975;Nelson, 2005), where over time it developed into the modern beer-brewing process as we know it today (Hornsey, 2003;Unger, 2004). While many changes have been made to the fermentation process over time, the one constant factor needed for successful beer production has been an alcohol producing yeast (Lodolo et al., 2008). ...
... In addition, the introduction of new regulations in the sixteenth century standardized the brewing process and limited the number of ingredients used (the famous "Reinheitsgebot" from 1,516; Dornbusch, 1998;Hornsey, 2003), which improved beer quality but probably also reduced the numbers of yeasts used even further. Interestingly though, restricting the brewing period to the winter season not only resulted in a novel beer style commonly known as "lager" (vs. the traditional "ale, " Jentsch, 2007) but also in a novel brewing yeast lineage, that is, better adapted to lower fermentation temperatures (Unger, 2004;Dredge, 2019). During the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century, other groundbreaking technical discoveries were made that modernized the brewing process and allowed the year around production of "lager" beers. ...
Article
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Fermented foods and particularly beer have accompanied the development of human civilization for thousands of years. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dominant yeast in the production of alcoholic beverages, probably co-evolved with human activity. Considering that alcoholic fermentations emerged worldwide, the number of strains used in beer production nowadays is surprisingly low. Thus, the genetic diversity is often limited. This is among others related to the switch from a household brewing style to a more artisan brewing regime during the sixteenth century and latterly the development of single yeast isolation techniques at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory in 1883, resulting in process optimizations in the brewing industry. However, due to fierce competition within the beer market and the increasing demand for novel beer styles, diversification is becoming increasingly important. Moreover, the emergence of craft brewing has influenced big breweries to rediscover yeast as a significant contributor to a beer's aroma profile and realize that there is still room for innovation in the fermentation process. Here, we aim at giving a brief overview on how currently used S. cerevisiae brewing yeasts emerged and comment on the rationale behind replacing them with novel strains. We will present potential sources of yeasts that have not only been used in beer brewing before, including natural sources and sources linked to human activity but also an overlooked source, such as yeast culture collections. We will briefly comment on common yeast isolation techniques and finally touch on additional challenges for the brewing industry in replacing their current brewer's yeasts.
... To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to make this argument. We draw upon important contributions by Fritschy (2002) and Liesker and Fritschy (2004) who document the composition of government finances in Holland during the Revolt, and by Unger (2001Unger ( , 2004 and Yntema (1992Yntema ( , 1994 ...
... The success of the beer excise was in part due to a highly efficient system of tax enforcement (Unger 2001;2004). During the sixteenth century, most cities in the Netherlands developed a similar system to minimize the possibility of fraud and tax evasion based on a strict separation of beer production, beer transportation and beer selling. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation contains five chapters discussing some of the economic aspects of alcohol consumption and production. Following a concise introductory chapter, the second chapter, “Peer Effects in Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Russia,” contributes to the literature on the determinants of alcohol consumption by studying the importance of social influence in the individual decision to start drinking beer in Russia. Between 1996 and 2007, beer consumption in Russia grew strongly from about 15 liters per capita to 80 liters per capita, and beer has become the most important alcoholic beverage in Russia, overtaking vodka. Our empirical analysis, using individual-level panel data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, indicates that peer effects played an important role in the spread of beer consumption. By contrast, economic variables such as prices or incomes probably played only a minor role. These results may hold important policy implications given the widespread problem of alcoholism in Russia. The third and fourth chapter analyze regulatory issues. Chapter 3, “The Economics of Planting Rights in Wine Production,” presents the first economic model of the so-called “planting rights” system used to restrict the growth of the total area of vineyards in the European Union, home to half of the world’s vineyards. The planting rights system forbids any new plantings of vineyards in the European Union except when a “planting right” has been obtained from a government reserve or from a former vineyard owner who has grubbed up his vines. This “cap-and-trade” system, which has been in place since the 1970s, is subject to large differences in implementation in the different Member States of the EU. We develop a theoretical model analyzing the welfare and distributional effects of the planting rights system, as well as of the differences in implementation. Our results show the importance of distinguishing between land owners, planting rights owners and wine producers to study the distributional consequences of (a liberalization of) the planting rights system. In the fourth chapter, “The Political Economy of Geographical Indications,” we contribute to the economic analysis of geographical indications (GIs) – government-backed collective labels to certify the geographical origins of a product, such as Champagne. Government regulation stipulates the geographical area which can identify its products with the GI. An increase in the total area of the GI region can have three effects. First, production increases and hence prices of the product would decrease. Second, certain fixed costs (such as marketing) can be spread over a larger production volume, thus reducing the costs for individual producers. Third, the actual or perceived quality of the product may decrease, whether because of a decline in quality as land with less suitable “terroir” is added, or because of reputational effects. We derive the size of thesocially optimal GI region and then proceed with a political economy analysis to study how a government subject to lobbying will set the size of the GI area. Interestingly, our analysis shows that if producers can influence decision-making, the political outcome may either be too small or too large from a social welfare perspective. Chapter 5, “Tied Houses: An Economic Analysis of Brewery-Pub Contracts,” studies the contracts between publicans and brewers. In several countries (including Belgium) a large number of pubs have exclusivity agreements (or “ties”) with brewers. This is often the case for pubs which the publican rents from the brewer, or in pubs where the brewer has made financial or material investments on behalf of the publican. These contracts have attracted a great deal of criticism from publicans, who complain about paying unreasonably high wholesale prices for beer compared to pubs which are free of tie. Our chapter presents an economic analysis of the contracts between brewers and publicans to answer two questions. The first question is how the terms of contract are determined – and in particular, why contracts for rental pubs typically have a low rent but a high wholesale price, even though this high wholesale price generates inefficiencies. The second question is why wholesale prices differ between “tied” and “free” pubs. Our analysis emphasizes that publicans are typically risk-averse (inducing brewers to use the wholesale price rather than a fixed payment to extract surplus) and credit-constrained, with publicans sorting into different contracts depending on their initial wealth. As our analysis shows, publicans who bear only a small part of the total investment in a pub will face a higher wholesale price since their own outside options are limited, the brewer’s opportunity costs are higher, and the brewer has more bargaining power. The implication of our analysis for current policy debates is that credit constraints need to be taken into account in analyzing price differentials, and that it is important to distinguish between opportunity costs and bargaining power as determinants of the wholesale price. Chapter 6, “How Beer Created Belgium: The Contribution of Beer Taxes to Dutch War Finance During the Dutch Revolt,” illustrates the development of public finance and state power by analyzing the contribution of beer taxes to war finance during the Dutch Revolt (1566-1648). Specifically, we show that fiscal revenues from beer taxes gave the present-day Netherlands the military power to break away from the Spanish-occupied Low Countries in the course of the Dutch Revolt (1566-1648), leaving the territory of present-day Belgium behind as the remainder of the Spanish Low Countries. The border established by this separation still forms the division between Belgium and the Netherlands. The outcome of the Revolt was unusual, in that a small rebellious region eventually prevailed over the mighty Spanish Empire. The explanation for this remarkable outcome lies in a combination of developments in war technology and the extraordinary capacity of the Dutch to finance the war. Because of technological developments and innovations in strategy and tactics, warfare during the Dutch Revolt was an increasingly capital-intensive undertaking. The capacity to finance war expenditures therefore became of paramount importance. The Spanish army in the Low Countries was constantly short on funds, which led to frequent payment arrears among its troops. As a result, demoralization, desertion and mutinies undermined the Spanish position. The Dutch, on the other hand, could count on a superior system of public finance to finance war expenditures. As we document in this chapter, a substantial part of the Dutch taxation system consisted of taxes on beer. In fact, the excise tax on beer was the single largest component of government revenues in Holland, the leading province in the Dutch Republic. Hence, beer taxes played a crucial role in financing the Dutch Revolt, and thus in the separation of the Low Countries and the determination of the present-day border between Belgium and the Netherlands. The surprisingly large contribution of beer taxes can be explained by the combination of the importance of beer in daily consumption patterns in early modern times and an efficient enforcement of the beer tax.
... Archaeological findings show that Chinese villagers brewed fermented alcoholic drinks as far back as 7000 BC on a small individual scale, with a production process and methods similar to those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia [3]. Throughout human history, products, ingredients, procedures, and techniques have evolved due to technological advances and the implementation of industrialized processes [4] further enhancing the long history of beer as a part of the human diet. ...
Article
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Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms. The effect of polyphenol intake on vasomotor symptoms in menopause may be driven by the direct interaction of the phenolic compounds present in beer, such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, with intracellular estrogen receptors that leads to the modulation of gene expression, increase in sex hormone plasma concentrations, and thus modulation of physiological hormone imbalance in menopausal women. Since traditional hormone replacement therapies increase health risks, alternative, safer treatment options are needed to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The present work aims to review the current data on this subject.
... While ales are brewed from malt and yeast, beers have hops. Hops, which originated in Egypt in the first century, were cultivated in Belgium and Holland and were introduced to England in the early 15th century (14). The first reference use of hops in beers is from the 9 th century (15). ...
Conference Paper
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Archaeological digs have found many types of knives, with varying quality of steel and microstructure. Typically these steels are carbon steels with carbon contents on the order of 0.60%. Historically, there have been many myths concerning the quenchants used by ancient blacksmiths in the heat treatment of swords and knifes. Various liquids have been cited in the archaeometallurgical literature as quenchants. Each of these quenchants is supposed to extend to the knife special and even mythical properties. However, none have been examined for cooling curve behavior. In this paper, various quenchants are examined for typical heat transfer, and microstructure is predicted for simple steels commonly used in ancient knife making.
... Alcoholic beverages were an important source of the much needed caloric intake (Sournia, 1990) and a popular medicine (Aymard, 1979). We assumed an average annual consumption of 300 l of beer and distillates per person per year, which consumed 4.8 kg of wood per litre of beverage (Unger, 2004). Drinks but also food were prepared, served, consumed, processed, 15 stored and transported in ceramics consuming 360 kg wood per person per year for producing 45 kg ceramics per person per year (Petrie, 2012;Sinopoli, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
European forest use for fuel, timber and food dates back to pre-Roman times. Century-scale ecological processes and their legacy effects require accounting for forest management when studying today's forest carbon sink. Forest management reconstructions that are used to drive land surface models are one way to quantify the impact of both historical and today's large scale application of forest management on today's forest-related carbon sink and surface climate. In this study we reconstruct European forest management from 1600 to 2010 making use of diverse approaches, data sources and assumptions. Between 1600 and 1828, a demand-supply approach was used in which wood supply was reconstructed based on estimates of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. For the same period demand estimates accounted for the fuelwood needed in households, wood used in food processing, charcoal used in metal smelting and salt production, timber for construction and population estimates. Comparing estimated demand and supply resulted in a spatially explicit reconstruction of the share of forests under coppice, high stand management and forest left unmanaged. For the reconstruction between 1829 and 2010 a supply-driven back-casting method was used. The method used age reconstructions from the years 1950 to 2010 as its starting point. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2), (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest, (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management, (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high stand management, and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking which at its peak in 1853 removed 50 Tg dry litter per year.
... Eftersom ordet humle -såväl i latin som i andra europeiska språk -har ett slaviskt ursprung, så menar en del forskare att växten ursprungligen kom österifrån. Endast lite är känt om humlens migrationsvägar inom Europa (Neve 1991, Behre 1999, Hornsey 2003, Unger 2004. ...
... Organized beer brewing in the Netherlands emerged in the early Middle Ages (8 th and 9 th century) when monasteries, associated with Carolingian authority, began to brew beer for their communities (Unger, 2001;Hornsey, 2003;Unger, 2004). Until then, beer brewing had been a cottage industry occurring exclusively in rural households. ...
... Organized beer brewing in the Netherlands emerged in the early Middle Ages (8 th and 9 th century) when monasteries, associated with Carolingian authority, began to brew beer for their communities (Unger, 2001;Hornsey, 2003;Unger, 2004). Until then, beer brewing had been a cottage industry occurring exclusively in rural households. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we describe and attempt to explain the rise of craft brewing in the Netherlands through a qualitative study of the industry’s evolution. Similar to other countries, the Dutch beer brewing industry experienced unprecedented concentration followed by a remarkable revival of craft brewing. Our study describes the historical evolution of the industry and subsequently traces the chain of events that led to the proliferation of craft brewing. We then compare our observations to relevant theories on resource partitioning and social movements to identify factors on both the demand and supply side that may explain the successful renewal. On the demand side, we point to the role of consumer resistance and broader changes in consumer preferences for food. On the supply side, we point to hobby brewing associations, the emergence of online communities, new forms of financing, and recyclable remnants of old breweries.
... See Nelson (2005),Poelmans and Swinnen (2011) andUnger (2004) for a more elaborate analysis of the economic history of beer. ...
Article
We analyse the evolution of beer consumption between countries and over time. Historically, there have been major changes in beer consumption in the world. In recent times, per capita consumption has decreased in traditional beer drinking countries while it increased strongly in emerging economies. Recently, China has overtaken the US as the largest beer economy. A quantitative empirical analysis studies the relationships among economic growth, globalisation and beer consumption. The relationship between income and beer consumption has an inverse U-shape. Beer consumption initially increases with rising incomes; but at higher levels of income beer consumption falls. Increased globalisation has contributed to a convergence in alcohol consumption patterns across countries. In countries that were originally beer drinking countries, the share of beer in total alcohol consumption reduced, while this is not the case in countries which traditionally drank mostly wine or spirits.
... Es cierto que la cerveza era y es una infusión de grano germinado, hecho para fermentar después de ser enfriado, y luego por algunos medios clarificados antes de su consumo (Unger, 2004), sin embargo hoy existe una variedad de recetas y combinaciones de ingredientes para distintos paladares, que se pueden reunir en una base de cereal malteado, preferentemente cebada, levaduras, lúpulo y agua (Ibáñez, 2013). El término "artesanal" se utiliza para referirse a la actividad de consumo en la que el producto es esencialmente hecho y diseñado por la misma persona y por el cual el consumidor se siente motivado e identificado (Campbell, 2005). ...
Article
Este estudio tiene por objetivo determinar los atributos más importantes al momento de consumir cerveza artesanal. Para esto se realiza una investigación descriptiva con una fase exploratoria buscando definir atributos importantes en la elección y en una posterior fase concluyente se determina el peso de cada variable mediante el análisis de cuestionarios aplicado a consumidores de cerveza. El método utilizado para establecer la importancia de los atributos es la Best Worst Scaling. Los resultados indican que existen dos segmentos, el primero de ellos llamado los Stout son personas más maduras y con una mejor percepción de productos artesanales, el segundo de ellos llamados los Lagers son en su mayoría estudiantes y muestran una menor frecuencia de consumo de cerveza. Al momento de consumir una cerveza artesanal los atributos más importantes para los Stout son la calidad del producto, seguido del tipo de cerveza, y la recomendación de algún cercano o referente. Los atributos mas importantes para los Lagers son la calidad y el tipo de envase, seguido de el hecho de que alguien la haya recomendado y el precio. En base a estos resultados se generan recomendaciones enfocadas en estrategias comunicacionales para emprendedores dedicados a la producción de cerveza artesanal.
... Alcoholic beverages were an important source of the much needed caloric intake (Sournia, 1990) and a popular medicine (Aymard, 1979). We assumed an average annual consumption of 300 l of beer and distillates per person per year, which consumed 4.8 kg of wood per litre of beverage (Unger, 2004). Drinks but also food were prepared, served, consumed, processed, 15 stored and transported in ceramics consuming 360 kg wood per person per year for producing 45 kg ceramics per person per year (Petrie, 2012;Sinopoli, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover–climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600–1828, we took a supply–demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829–2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.
... by the sixteenth century in England, it was widows who dominated in the operation of small alehouses." 17 Here again, Quickly's work in the tavern after the death of her husband corresponds to Unger's claim. Alewife appearances in comic literature of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries reveal their tremendous power over the living conditions of the community. ...
Article
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Using William Shakespeare’s character Mistress Nell Quickly as an example, this article contends that familiarity with both the literary tradition of alewives and the historical conditions in which said literary tradition brewed aids in revising our interpretation of working-class women on the early modern stage. Mistress Quickly, the multi-faceted comic character in three history plays and a city-comedy, resembles closely those women with whom Shakespeare and his contemporaries would have lived and worked in their day-to-day lives. Rather than dismissing her role as minor or merely comic, as previous criticism largely has, scholarship can embrace this character type and her narrative as an example to complicate teleological progressions for women.
... However, monasteries require resources in order to operate, to both sustain the day-today needs of the monastics and to maintain the physical assets of the monastery. Throughout history, monasteries have engaged in business activities such as brewing beer, farming, and running milling operations (Poelmans & Swinnen;Schwartz, 1982;Unger, 2004). Modern monasteries are similar to their predecessors in this regard, obtaining revenue through a range of business activities (Krindatch, 2014). ...
Research
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This paper explores commercial activities among Eastern Orthodox monasteries located in the United States. In addition to donations, many monasteries rely on some sort of business activity to fund their operations. These include retailing of products as well as production of religious goods (such as candles, incense and icons.) and non-religious goods (such as honey and soap.). This paper makes use of data contained in the Orthodox monastic communities in the United States report (Krindatch, 2014). Using binary logistic regression, the age of the monastery, the size of the monastery, and the local population densities are used to predict commercial activity as well as non-religious commercial activity among the monasteries in the sample. It was found that the larger a monastery was, the more likely it was to engage in commercial activities as a source of income. However, the age of the monastery and the population density of the local area were not statistically significant predictors of engagement in commercial activities.
... It has been assumed that during the late thirteenth and into the fourteenth century, beer replaced wine as the preferred beverage in the areas around the Low Countries and Germany. Authors like Raymond van Uytven (1996Uytven ( , 2001, Susan Rose (2011), Max Nelson (2005, 2014, Richard Unger (2001Unger ( , 2004 and Richard Yntema (1992) have all demonstrated how this change is reflected in the historical records. The focus of this article is to study whether and how this change from wine to beer consumption may be reflected in the material record. ...
Article
It has been assumed that during the late fourteenth and into the fifteenth century, beer replaced wine as the preferred beverage in the areas around the Low Countries and Germany. Authors like Raymond van Uytven, Susan Rose, Max Nelson and Richard Yntema have all demonstrated how this change is reflected in the historical records. The focus of this article is to study how this change from wine to beer consumption may be reflected in the material record. To study this, research has been conducted on the most common material from the fourteenth to seventeenth century: stoneware. A use-function approach was used to gather information about characteristics of drinking vessels, with further information gathered from historical illustrations. Once gathered, these characteristics work as guidelines to apply the specific use-function of either wine or beer consumption to individual vessels. This catalogue of characteristics can then be applied to datasets of stonewares. These characteristics were applied to a dataset of stoneware assemblages from Nijmegen, Dordrecht and Deventer reported in Cities in Sherds (Bartels 1997). These assemblages were classified based upon use. The results from this data indicate an increase in wine vessels after the fourteenth century, contrary to what the historical record has indicated. Future studies in the field could focus on developing more accurate methods to identify vessels. This research could potentially be used as a starting point for future enquiries into the nuances of beverage preferences in the late medieval period.
... These two herbs are of special importance to European beer brewing in general. They constitute two of the principal herbs in medieval 'gruit,' which was used as the bittering agent for beers and other fermented beverages until it was displaced by hops in the sixteenth century AD throughout Europe (Unger 2007). ...
Article
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The combined archaeological, biomolecular, and archaeobotanical evidence from four sites in Denmark (Nandrup, Kostræde, and Juellinge) and Sweden (Havor on the island of Gotland) provide key reference points for reconstructing ‘Nordic grog’ from ca. 1500 BC to the first century AD. In general, Nordic peoples preferred a hybrid beverage or ‘grog,’ in which many ingredients were fermented together, including locally available honey, local fruit (e.g., bog cranberry, and lingonberry) and cereals (wheat, rye, and/or barley), and sometimes grape wine imported from farther south in Europe. Local herbs/spices, such as bog myrtle, yarrow and juniper, and birch tree resin rounded out the concoction and provide the earliest chemical attestations for their use in Nordic fermented beverages. The aggregate ingredients probably served medicinal purposes, as well as contributing special flavors and aromas. They continued to be important ingredients for many kinds of beverages throughout medieval times and up to the present.
... Hops not only added flavor to the beer but also had preservative effects from substances produced by glands in the cone. Consequently, for more than 1,000 years hop was an indispensable crop in Northern Europe (Unger 2004). ...
Article
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Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is a perennial plant cultivated for its use in beer production. The plant is dioecious, and the female plants produce cones containing substances that enhance the taste and durability of beer. Beer was long an essential part of food supply in Northern Europe, and hop has thus been a very important crop during the last 1,000 years. In Sweden, hop cultivation was, by law, mandatory for farmers from 1414 till 1860. Today, Swedish hop cultivation is negligible, but historical remnant hop plants can still be found as feral populations. Using historical maps and documents, we have located ten historical hop yards from the 15(th) to 18(th) century where hop plants still persist as now feral populations. Some fifteen plants of each population were sampled and genotyped with ten SSR markers and one marker diagnostic for sex type. In addition, 25 genebank preserved clones of older landraces and cultivars from Europe were genotyped. Genotyping results show abundant clonality and low rates of sexual reproduction within the feral populations. Two of the populations had markedly higher genetic diversity and a higher number of haplotypes, and in these populations a mix of female and male plants was also found. The populations were all clearly differentiated, with no haplotypes shared between populations and little evidence of exchange of genetic material. These results indicate that natural spread and genetic recombination is uncommon or slow in Sweden, and that the feral plants could be remnants of the original historical cultivations. In the assembly of European genebank clones, several clones showed identical genotypes and overall limited genetic diversity. The Swedish populations were in most cases genetically clearly different from the genebank clones. This contrasts with historical records of massive introductions of hop clones from continental Europe during the 19(th) century and shows that these imports did not replace the original hops being cultivated. A possible better adaption of the Swedish hops and primitive historical breeding are discussed.
... Human history is woven with brewing activity ever since the beginning of civilization in the Neolithic period [1][2][3]. Since then, the main ingredients are not significantly changed: water, yeast, cereals and hops. Nowadays, productive process includes basically the phases of malting, in which cereals (mainly barley) are converted in malt; mashing, that permits to obtain wort; and fermentation, that finally generates beer. ...
Preprint
Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization and its productive process has been spread all around the world becoming unique in every country and iconic of entire populations. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, the combination of raw materials, manufacture techniques and aroma profiles are almost infinite, so it is not surprising to notice that there is a large amount of different beer styles, each of them with unique characteristics. Nowadays, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending the already wide range of products, especially in craft brewery. One of the major components that can have a deep impact on the final product is yeast, since it is able to convert carbohydrates in wort, especially maltose and maltotriose, into ethanol, carbon dioxide and other minor aroma-active compounds. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (top‐fermenting yeasts used to produce ales) and Saccharomyces pastorianus (cryotolerant bottom‐fermenting hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus responsible for the fermentation of lagers) are most used in breweries. However, an increasing number of different yeast starter cultures are commercially available, to improve the production efficiency also at relative low temperatures and to obtain desirable and diversified aroma profiles avoiding undesired compounds. Four main genetic engineering-free trends are becoming popular in craft brewing yeast development: 1) the research for novel reservoirs as source of new performant S. cerevisiae yeasts; 2) the creation of synthetic hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae in order to mimic lager yeasts by expanding their genetic background; 3) the exploitation of evolutionary engineering approaches; 4) the usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts either in co-coculture or in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae. In the present work we summarized pro and contra of these approaches and provided an overview on the most recent advances on how brewing yeast genome evolved and domestication took place. Finally, we delineated how the correlations maps between genotypes and relevant brewing phenotypes can assist and further improve the search for novel craft beer starter yeasts.
... Human history is woven with brewing activity ever since the beginning of civilization in the Neolithic period [1][2][3]. Nowadays, the productive process includes basically the phases of malting, in which cereals (mainly barley) are converted in malt; mashing, that permits to obtain wort; and fermentation, that finally generates beer. Looking at the productive process, beer appears to be a highly consolidated and sufficiently known product. ...
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Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending the range of products, especially in the craft brewery sector. Fermentation is one of the widest spaces for innovation in the brewing process. Besides Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale and Saccharomyces pastorianus lager strains conventionally used in macro-breweries, there is an increasing demand for novel yeast starter cultures tailored for producing beer styles with diversified aroma profiles. Recently, four genetic engineering-free approaches expanded the genetic background and the phenotypic biodiversity of brewing yeasts and allowed novel costumed-designed starter cultures to be developed: (1) the research for new performant S. cerevisiae yeasts from fermented foods alternative to beer; (2) the creation of synthetic hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae in order to mimic lager yeasts; (3) the exploitation of evolutionary engineering approaches; (4) the usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Here, we summarized the pro and contra of these approaches and provided an overview on the most recent advances on how brewing yeast genome evolved and domestication took place. The resulting correlation maps between genotypes and relevant brewing phenotypes can assist and further improve the search for novel craft beer starter yeasts, enhancing the portfolio of diversified products offered to the final customer.
... Only by the end of the fifteenth century had hops replaced gruut in the brewing process in the Southern Low countries (Aerts, 1996). In the UK, it would be the early 1600s before hops took over (Unger, 2004). The slow diffusion of the new technology was related to the efforts of the hopped brewers and the Northern German cities to limit the adoption of hops in the brewing process in other areas in order to protect their innovation and dominant position in beer trade. ...
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Today the hops industry seems to be enjoying rising popularity. After decades of consolidation in the beer industry, the recent craft beer movement has resulted in a higher demand for hops. Historically used to increase the preservation and shelf life of beers, hops are nowadays essential for the more diverse tastes of certain craft beers. On the supply side, hop farmers have increased their production in recent years in response to the higher interest in their products. However, specialization of hop farmers in hops that are in demand by the craft beer sector can lead to higher price fluctuations in more segmented markets, where hop consumers and hop producers are tied to each other by longer future contracts and sunk costs of investment in cultivated areas. This might create problems were craft beers to lose their appeal to consumers.
... However, monasteries require resources in order to operate, to both sustain the day-today needs of the monastics and to maintain the physical assets of the monastery. Throughout history, monasteries have engaged in business activities such as brewing beer, farming, and running milling operations (Poelmans & Swinnen;Schwartz, 1982;Unger, 2004). Modern monasteries are similar to their predecessors in this regard, obtaining revenue through a range of business activities (Krindatch, 2014). ...
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ABSTRACT Purpose: The present study attempts to explore the trend of women entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh. It also finds the opportunities and challenges the women entrepreneurs generally face for setting their businesses in the country. Study Design: Considering the nature of the study, a few qualitative approaches were used to gather necessary data from the sample population. The qualitative approaches include: Focus Group Discussion (FGD), face-to-face interview, round-table discussion and content analysis. The key questions focused on the challenges of the women entrepreneurs in operating their businesses, types of businesses by the women and opportunities of the development of entrepreneurs from Bangladeshi women. Findings: The study findings reveal some major bottlenecks in women entrepreneurship development including possessing low business skill, lack of knowledge on sources of bank loan, low communication skill, inadequate supports from the family members, lack of feasibility study on the businesses, poor technological knowledge, leadership networking skill, etc. On the contrary, some pragmatic opportunities prevail in Bangladesh currently to develop the women entrepreneurs. The enabling factors include emphasis on women education, gradually changing of mindset and stereotypical social perception, favorable government rules and regulations, enhancing education on entrepreneurship, and rapid growth of social media. Practical Implications: The practical implication of the study assumes that it will facilitate Government of Bangladesh (GOB) to formulate favorable policy and support to develop women entrepreneurs. Similarly, the individual entrepreneur, private organizations, and NGOs can plan and arrange their own programs on the issue while the development partners can initiate pragmatic supports for the development of the sector.
... Hanseatic port towns like Bremen, Hamburg, Lubeck, Wismar and Rostock, became the first centres of large-scale beer production. 11 To supply sufficient raw materials the commercial cultivation of hops sprang up on the outskirts of beer producing towns, as well as in villages in the countryside. The territories of Mecklenburg, the Altmark, Brandenburg and Pomerania became important hop producing areas in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. ...
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In this article it is proposed that Zatec might be the oldest region of continuous commercial hop production. This assumption is based mainly on English and German literature devoted to brewing history and on scientific research concerning the qualities and DNA fingerprint of hop cultivars.
... Only by the end of the fifteenth century had hops replaced gruut in the brewing process in the Southern Low countries (Aerts, 1996). In the UK, it would be the early 1600s before hops took over (Unger, 2004). The slow diffusion of the new technology was related to the efforts of the hopped brewers and the Northern German cities to limit the adoption of hops in the brewing process in other areas in order to protect their innovation and dominant position in beer trade. ...
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In some recent scholarship it has been suggested that ancient Greeks commonly drank beer. However, a careful examination of ancient sources, both for negative evidence (the lack of references to beer-making and beer-drinking among Greeks) as well as for positive evidence (the mentions of beer as a foreign product), supports the commonly held belief that Greeks in the archaic and classical periods did not regularly drink beer. There is also no evidence that kykeon was a type of beer.
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Working hypotheses, which draw upon as many relevant disciplines as possible to derive the maximum information from a very limited database, are key to the highly interdisciplinary field of organic residue analysis in archaeology, a branch of biomolecular archaeology. Archaeology and chemistry are most important for effectively developing and testing such hypotheses, but botany, zoology, geology, etc. also need to be taken into account. Archaeologically, the goal is to obtain as many relevant samples as possible from the best preserved and dated contexts, which have been subjected to the least degradation and disturbance by later natural processes and human handling, including washing and conservation treatment. Chemically, molecular biomarkers of natural products need to be defined and identified by the best and most appropriate techniques, together with bioinformatics searches and assessment of degradation. With ever-improving techniques and new data, previously analyzed samples need to be retested and hypotheses possibly reformulated. Consideration of three case studies illustrates this holistic approach to inductive hypothesis generation and deductive testing: (1) new chemical findings that attest to grape wine in amphoras on board the 14th c. B.C. Uluburun ship, the earliest recorded Mediterranean wreck; (2) recently published research on beeswax/mead in Chalcolithic Israel and Neolithic China and Poland; and (3) recent articles on milk products from 2nd millennium B.C. Central Asia and Neolithic Poland. Potential pitfalls leading to weak hypotheses and mistaken conclusions are described, and a more productive approach is proposed.
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Scholars have recognized for some time that a prolific 13th century scribe had a tremor. He has become known as ‘the Tremulous Hand of Worcester’, or simply ‘the Tremulous Hand’, ‘hand’ being a metonym for ‘scribe’. He is important as the only widely-known medieval writer with a tremor, and for his unusual interest in translating documents written centuries earlier. This is the first time his writing has been investigated from a joint neurological and historical perspective. Certain or possible evidence of the writing of this man—likely a monk at Worcester Cathedral Priory—appears in at least 20 books (Franzen, 1991 p. 1). As he never wrote about his tremor, or dated his work, the only sources of information for this study are the handwriting itself and limited clues in its subject matter. The central question is: ‘what type of tremor did he have?’. We discuss evidence for essential tremor as the diagnosis by tracing the tremor through a series of handwriting samples, charting progression in tremor severity from ‘fine’ to ‘fine–moderate’ and as a correlate, present handwriting from a modern-day individual with essential tremor using a calligraphy pen. We scrutinize literary scholar Christine Franzen’s seminal monograph, reveal new information she has shared with us in personal correspondence, and offer the first analysis of essential tremor in a medieval context. To our knowledge, this is the first time medieval handwriting has been analysed by a neurologist with a specialist interest in movement disorders. Finally, we examine the lifestyle of a scribe in relation to the symptoms of essential tremor, making special consideration of alcohol consumption.
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A university-level course on science, history, and culture of beer and brewing offers students from a wide range of disciplines a unique opportunity to learn from each other. They gain an appreciation for STEAM and the interaction of a number of disciplines while examining a subject of growing interest. This paper provides a brief description of such a course and includes specific examples of ways in which students explore science, engineering, humanities and the arts, as these areas of research come together in the study of beer and brewing.
Chapter
This chapter first discusses the prevalence of alcohol use and the patterns of alcohol use in different countries worldwide. Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUDs; alcohol abuse and dependence) are described. The acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the human peripheral and central nervous system are outlined. Unintentional and intentional injuries due to alcohol use are a considerable part of the disease burden of alcohol use, and comprise traffic accidents, alcohol poisoning, cancer, and liver disorders. Chronic heavy alcohol use is associated with negative health effects such as gastrointestinal abnormalities, and with structural and functional brain abnormalities. These negative health effects are higher when heavier alcohol use is present. Negative effects on cognitive functions have been reported for heavy alcohol use, but results are less evident for moderate alcohol use. The potential beneficial effects of light alcohol use (mostly defined as a maximum of 7 drinks per week, spread evenly) are suggested to have some health benefits. Risk factors associated with AUDs are discussed at the genetic, psychological, and environmental level. Effective -psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for AUDs are outlined. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved.
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This editorial introduces the eight articles in the special issue on ‘Beer, brewing and business history’. Following the BEERONOMICS conference held at the University of York, 2013, and the subsequent approval of the editorial board of Business History, we received many submissions discussing beer, brewing, and their importance to business history (broadly defined). In this editorial we provide a brief overview of the historical development of beer and brewing; explain the appeal to business historians of the principal themes which have emerged in the historiography of this industry, and provide a short introduction to the articles accepted for publication in this special issue.
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This collection of works explores how Societies and Styles changed over the course of Early Modern Europe (1500-1800) from the time of the advent of printing on paper to the Industrial Revolution and beyond through little-seen printed masterpieces from the Sheldon Museum of Art’s collection. Today, “print” continues to endure even as new forms of digital publications transform our world in previously unimaginable ways, just as printing did centuries ago. This exhibition offers a view into the ways printed works of art on paper (mostly woodcuts, engravings, and etchings) showcase society and its various aspects, ranging from one Christian martyrdom of a saint to secular works focusing on fashion and death, portraits, and views of a sea serpent, Rome, and Monte Carlo. Half the prints feature William Hogarth’s satires of contemporary social practices surrounding election politics, beer drinking, and relations between the sexes. Although other notable artists designed prints here—Anthony Van Dyck, Hans Holbein the Younger, Giovanni Piranesi, and Alphonse Mucha—the exhibition’s organization was determined by the prints selected by the sixteen students in Prof. Alison Stewart’s “History of Prints: New Media of the Renaissance” class during fall 2013 in the Department of Art and Art History at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. An expression repeatedly heard throughout the class was “times change, people don’t.” We leave it to the viewer to determine the ways in which this expression still holds sway for universal values, truths, and experiences seen in the prints shown here.
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Modern chemistry provides us with a deeper understanding of fermentation, but that does not necessarily translate into an easier interpretation of medieval recipes. Our modern brewing methods and sanitary measures have evolved, and the language and terminology used in brewing has changed over the years. The arcane language of early medieval recipes often makes modern interpretations approximations at best, and modern brewers with their own interpretation of the same recipe make variations which sometimes differ slightly and sometimes substantially. This article takes an in-depth look at two 14th century English mead recipes and discusses alternate interpretations of specific cooking terminology as applied in medieval brewing. https://exarc.net/issue-2018-4/ea/boyling-and-seething-re-evaluation-common-cooking-terms-connection-brewing
Article
Some types of beer are enduringly connected with their place of origin, even though they have for many years been produced and consumed far beyond their birthplace. Thus, beer drinkers presumably have at least a vague idea that, for instance, a beer like ‘pilsener’ originally stems from the Bohemian town of this name. A comparable case is English ale. Yet while historians of beer have investigated the semantics of ale and how it was retailed and consumed, little is known about the internals of its production in early times. How, specifically, ale was made? The present paper introduces a text from 1556 by the celebrated English physician, John Caius, which describes this process.
Chapter
Micro- and craft breweries have registered a significant growth across Europe in the last two decades, but the EU beer market presents a high level of variation mainly associated with different regulatory frameworks and consumers’ preferences in each EU country. By addressing the variety of breweries, fiscal systems and consumers’ attitudes across the continent, this chapter examines the diversity of EU national beer markets, providing an overview of a wide range of issues affecting the development of micro- and craft breweries within the EU beer and brewing industry.
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In 1600 the word ‘consumption’ was a term of medical pathology describing the ‘wasting, petrification of things’. By 1700 it was also a term of economic discourse: ‘In commodities, the value rises as its quantity is less and vent greater, which depends upon it being preferred in its consumption’. The article traces the emergence of this key category of economic analysis to debates over the economy in the 1620s and subsequent disputes over the excise tax, showing how ‘consumption’ was an early term in the developing lexicon of political economy. In so doing the article demonstrates the important role of ‘intoxicants’ – i.e. addictive and intoxicating commodities like alcohols and tobaccos – in shaping these early meanings and uses of ‘consumption’. It outlines the discursive importance of intoxicants, both as the foci for discussions of ‘superfluous’ and ‘necessary’ consumption and the target of legislation on consumption. And it argues that while these discussions had an ideological dimension, or dimensions, they were also responses to material increases in the volume and diversity of intoxicants in early seventeenth-century England. By way of conclusion the article suggests the significance of the Low Countries as a point of reference for English writers, as well as a more capacious and semantically sensitive approach to changes in early-modern consumption practices.
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The general climate and topography of medieval Scandinavia, with high levels of rainfall and snow on a yearly basis, combined with an abundance of lakes, rivers, and smaller streams, meant that freshwater was easily available for most people. In this paper, we present an overview of how people interacted with water—both freshwater and salt water—in medieval (ca. 1050–ca. 1500) Scandinavia's towns. By describing how the supply of freshwater was organized and what it was used for, how shipping and fishing was regulated, and the use and impact of watermills, we are able to identify some actors and attempt to discern their motivation when they engaged in a wide range of activities involving both fresh and salt water in medieval Scandinavia. We argue that understanding water and water management in medieval Scandinavia necessitates a different approach compared to more arid regions, an approach which considers water as simply one resource among many, deeply embedded in a wider economic web. This article is categorized under: • Engineering Water > Planning Water • Human Water > Water Governance • Human Water > Water as Imagined and Represented
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Około połowy XV wieku rozpoczyna się „złoty wiek piwa”, trwający do początków XVII wieku. W ten obraz znakomicie wpisuje się piwowarstwo Rzeczpospolitej, w XVI wieku przeżywające szczyt swojego rozwoju. Wiodącą rolę posiadał Kraków. Choć nigdy nie stał się on ponadregionalnym ośrodkiem piwowarskim (piwa tu produkowane spożywano w samym Krakowie i najbliższej okolicy), skalą produkcji dorównywał największym europejskim ośrodkom piwowarskim tego okresu. W poł. XVI w. w Krakowie funkcjonowało około 140 browarów. Piwowarzy krakowscy obciążeni byli szeregiem danin, na rzecz skarbu królewskiego raz miasta. O ile czopowe nie miało charakteru stałego (podatek pobierano jednorazowo po uchwaleniu poboru), zaś wysokość stawki podatkowej w kolejnych latach była zróżnicowana, o tyle opłaty na rzecz miasta miały stały charakter. Zmiany w wysokości czopowego miały więc zasadniczy wpływ na wysokość obciążeń piwowarów. Znaczący wpływ na kondycję piwowarstwa krakowskiego miała reforma czopowego z czasów panowania Stefana Batorego (r. 1578). Skokowo wzrosły wówczas obciążenia podatkowe związane z produkcją piwa. Choć na krótką metę skarb królewski zyskał, to stało się to kosztem dochodów miasta i samych piwowarów. Znacząco zmalała bowiem produkcja (początkowo o około 25%), zamknięto też część zakładów. Na przełomie XVI i XVII funkcjonowało ich już tylko około stu, w latach dwudziestych XVII w. ich liczba zmalała do około 50. Reforma czopowego z czasów Stefana Batorego nie wywołała kryzysu piwowarstwa krakowskiego i nie jest zapewne główną przyczyną tego zjawiska. Pierwsze symptomy obserwujemy już wcześniej. Warto jednak zauważyć, że kryzys piwowarstwa krakowskiego rozpoczął się wcześniej, niż w innych krajach europejskich. Wyprzedził też kryzys gospodarczy, w jaki popadła Rzeczpospolita w XVII wieku. Musimy jednak poważnie rozważyć tezę, iż nadmierny fiskalizm królewski stał się rodzajem katalizatora, który przyspieszył i spotęgował ten proces.
Thesis
The wide variety of Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewing strains today available is the result of distinct artificial selective pressures exert by different brewing schools and their specific procedures to ferment beer. Unfortunately, little is known about how the transcriptomic mechanisms regulate gene expression on those brewing strains, especially stress-related genes in different fermentation temperatures employed on brewery. In this sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the expression of stress-responsive genes PMA1, HSP30 and UBI4 in the WLP565 (Saison-associated yeast) and WLP036 (Altbierassociated yeast) in different fermentation temperatures using a laboratory microfermenter. Moreover, yeast viability and beer apparent attenuation were evaluated. The data gathered indicated that yeast strains WLP565 and WLP036 performed differently with regard to apparent attenuation, viability and stress-gene expression data. Yeast strain WLP565 displayed a wide PMA1-associated expression values at 25 °C when compared to 15 °C. On the other hand, HSP30 was expressed only at 25 °C, while UBI4 exhibited higher expression values at 25 °C. Viability analysis for WLP565 did not showed differences between 15 °C and 25 °C, while apparent attenuation data for WLP565 indicated a better yeast performance at 25 °C. Gene expression data for yeast strain WLP036 indicated that PMA1 expression values was highly variable at 15 °C. Likewise, HSP30 was expressed only in 25 °C, whereas UBI4 showed almost similar expression values in 25 °C and 15 °C. The attenuation ability of WLP036 was better at 25 °C when compared to 15 °C. The data indicated that the gene expression of PMA1, HSP30 and UBI4 are strain-dependent, which indicates the presence of yeast strainspecific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Finally, the selected stressgenes used in this work can be potential stress biomarkers in studies with S. cerevisiae during beer fermentation.
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Belgium has to some extent always been a “craft beer nation”. As in other countries, the industrial revolution and scale economies in advertising caused a dramatic consolidation in the beer industry in the twentieth century: The number of breweries declined from more than 3000 in 1900 to around 150 in 1980. However, a wide variety of different types of beer survived to a greater extent in Belgium than elsewhere. The famous beer writer Michael Jackson noted that “The great beers of Belgium offer an extraordinary variety … and represent some of the oldest traditions of brewing in the Western world.” This made the country and its surviving small brewers a source of inspiration for the world’s craft brewers. Since the 1980s, Belgian craft beers have recovered and rapidly gained market share, not just domestically but globally. The dramatic export growth of Belgian craft beers, especially since 2000, is the result of a remarkably symbiotic interaction between large multinational brewing companies and small-scale crafts. With many small-scale craft brewers being taken over by large international brewing companies in recent years, the question what is “craft” and what is “Belgian” in today’s globally sold “Belgian craft beers” is an important question.
Experiment Findings
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Een korte studie inzake het alcoholbeleid in het vijftiende-eeuwse Leuven.
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Today there is a great proliferation of beer styles, most of which were developed in Europe in the modern era, but some evidence exists for a simpler geography of beer in ancient Europe. Barley was the common cereal used by beer-makers (those outside of southern Italy and Greece), while wheat was also used in much of western Europe as a secondary cereal while millet instead was used in the east. Although many types of plant additives were no doubt used in beer, two main ones became popular: sweet gale, first attested in the region of the Rhine estuary around the first century BC, and hops, first widely popularized in the Ile de France area in the ninth AD. Honey too was often used in beer throughout western Europe, except perhaps for the Iberian peninsula and Ireland. It must be stressed that this picture is based on highly fragmentary evidence, and it may be incorrect in many particulars. It may be hoped that future archaeological discoveries will add much to our knowledge.
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The sea both separates and connects land. Efficient shipping increases trade and specialization of production, and makes cultural contacts between people easier. Maritime lines of communication are, however, also vulnerable to violence, and they can be used for transportation of military forces. Sea power, the ability to control the sea with armed force, is therefore important for rulers and societies connected with the sea.
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Ale has been known in Britain for ages. The Celts produced a porridge-like concoction with various herbs added. The Anglo-Saxons brewed a variety of ales and many of the English terms used in brewing are of Anglo-Saxon origin. Ale played a vital role in the life of Norman Britain up to the Tudor times when it started to compete with beer. Ale together with beer was the most commonly consumed beverage in the Middle Ages and in early modern times. They were drunk by the affluent and the poor, by adults and also by children. In nobleman’s household brewing was a home based activity and a brewhouse was essential part of his house. Both beverages were brewed in the same way, the only exception being hops added to beer. At first hops were looked at with suspicion because their bitter flavour was disliked by many. Ale and beer were drunk with all meals, they were served at feasts and on special occasions. In towns ale and beer were mostly purchased and the large number of brewers suggests high levels of their consumption.