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The effects of perfectionism on innovative behavior and job burnout: Team workplace friendship as a moderator

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Abstract

Perfectionists are known as high-end goal pursuers. In this study, we utilize the concept of personal initiative (PI) to verify that perfectionists who go beyond their assigned tasks, and develop and initiate the accomplishment of their own goals also promote innovative behavior however, they may also encounter job burnout. To extend research on perfectionism, we distinguish between the effects of healthy perfectionism (perfectionistic strivings) and unhealthy perfectionism (perfectionistic concerns) on innovative behavior as well as job burnout, and test the moderating effect of team workplace friendship utilizing valid matching samples of 112 team sets (112 supervisors and 437 members). The results reveal that healthy perfectionism is positively associated with innovative behavior, while unhealthy perfectionism is positively associated with job burnout; moreover, high team workplace friendship strengthens the positive relationship between healthy perfectionism and innovative behavior, but weakens the positive relationship between unhealthy perfectionism and job burnout. Our findings provide managers with insights into perfectionism to optimize human resource utilization, and highlight the need to initiate a team workplace friendship context to promote innovative behavior and decrease job burnout.

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... One of the personality models that are most studied with regard to worker wellbeing is the Big Five [28]. Studies done on personality in specifically healthcare personnel have identified neuroticism as a factor, which has a strong association with burnout [16,18,29,30]. ...
... Even just in common tasks, perfectionist individuals are not usually completely satisfied with the results, so exhaustion in these professionals is not only due to the task itself, but how they relate to it [34]. Within the study of personality and burnout, differences have been found in this syndrome based on the presence of maladaptive or healthy perfectionist personality traits [28]. People who have high maladaptive perfectionism tend to select coping strategies that are focused on emotions, which has been associated with the presence of burnout in healthcare workers [39]. ...
... People who have high maladaptive perfectionism tend to select coping strategies that are focused on emotions, which has been associated with the presence of burnout in healthcare workers [39]. In contrast, healthy perfectionism, which refers to employees who make an effort to reach these standards through initiative and motivation, show more innovation, which leads to lessening burnout [28]. ...
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The burnout syndrome, which affects many healthcare workers, has recently attracted wide interest due to the severe repercussions related to its effects. Although job factors determine its development, not all individuals exposed to the same work conditions show burnout, which demonstrates the importance of individual variables, such as personality. The purpose of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of a sample of nursing professionals based on the Big Five model. After having determined the personality profiles, we aimed to analyze the differences in burnout and engagement based on those profiles. The sample was made up of 1236 nurses. An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to collect the sociodemographic data and the Brief Burnout Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Big Five Inventory-10 were used. The results showed that the existence of burnout in this group of workers is associated negatively with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience, and it is associated positively with the neuroticism personality trait. These personality factors showed the opposite patterns with regard to engagement. Three different personality profiles were also found in nursing personnel, in which professionals who had a profile marked by strong neuroticism and low scores on the rest of the personality traits were the most affected by burnout.
... Friendship at work is an important element to counter workplace bullying and related aggressions, also helping individuals to counter work-related stress and depression (Rai & Agarwal, 2018b). However, friendship at work is not very natural and requires some rationalization and strategies to inject this spirit among employees (Chang, Chou, Liou, & Tu, 2016). When employees become friends, their friendship can counter bullying and aggression and also strengthens their commitment to the company (Chao, 2018). ...
... Friendship at work has the potential to enhance job involvement and excitement about the work among employees (Song & Olshfski, 2008). This is because a strong emotional connection among peers at work has the potential to counter negative effects such as burnout, resulting from high pressure jobs (Chang et al., 2016). The positive outcomes of friendship at work are important for employees working in healthcare organizations, where jobs are stressful and employees are always required to (Mawritz et al., 2014). ...
... Studying compassion to influence organizational elements and commitment is important for service firms where jobs are challenging, anxiety is the norm, and employees often switch organizations (Spanuth & Wald, 2017). Even when leadership behaviours are positive and employees have friendly relationships with each other, job burnout among employees is still common (Chang et al., 2016), which impedes commitment at work. Low commitment levels hinder positive displays of socially desirable emotions at work (Kashif et al., 2017a;Krannitz et al., 2015). ...
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Abstract Purpose This study aims to empirically demonstrate the positive effects of resonant leadership, workplace friendship and serving culture on organizational commitment through a mediating role of compassion at work. Design/methodology/approach The data are collected from 442 front line employees (FLEs) working in Pakistani healthcare organizations by employing a cross-sectional survey. The collected data are analysed through the structural equation modelling (SEM) technique, using SmartPLS 3.0. Findings All the proposed relationships are statistically supported. We found that resonant leadership, serving culture and workplace friendship predict normative commitment among healthcare frontliners through a mediating role of compassion at work. The results demonstrate an excellent model fit, where all the direct as well as indirect hypotheses are supported by the data. Originality/value The analysis of the positive effects of resonant leadership, workplace friendship and serving culture as a unified framework to predict organizational commitment via the mediating role of compassion in a healthcare setting is unique to this study. Keywords – Compassion at Work, Resonant Leadership, Workplace Friendship, Serving Culture, Organizational Commitment
... A survey of R & D teams in the top 100 scientific firms in Taiwan shows that workplace friendships can promote innovative behaviour and discourage job burnout [26]. Team leaders should allow teammates to have social activities. ...
... Team leaders should allow teammates to have social activities. Moreover, interdepartmental events that encourage casual interactions may facilitate information sharing [26]. ...
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Hong Kong is an international city where almost all the companies did not have a WFH policy before the pandemic since it is a very small place. During the pandemic period, Hong Kong governments, major banks and large private organizations have adopted WFH policy. The purpose of this article is to examine impact of work from home (WFH) practice on work engagement with the company during the pandemic period in Hong Kong. According to a stimulus-organism-response model, this study explores the dark side the WFH arrangement during the pandemic period. Convenience sampling method was used to collect 206 valid responses from individuals who were working from home in Hong Kong. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used in the analysis of data. It was found that teamwork climate is negatively associated with physical isolation and sense of belonging is negatively associated with psychological isolation. Work engagement was impaired. Affective social presence may not be so easily established through virtual ways. Virtual informal gatherings, such as virtual breakfasts, lunch or tea breaks where work-related matters are not discussed, could be arranged.
... However, the effect of workplace friendship on well-being at work is stronger than its impact on general well-being (Craig & Kuykendall, 2019). In addition, workplace friendship has been identified as a buffer for negative workplace behaviors or factors such as bullying (Rai & Agarwal, 2018) or job stress and exhaustion (Caillier, 2017;Chang et al., 2016). Furthermore, instrumental support, a behavioral process of workplace friendship, is connected to increased job embeddedness (e.g., one's perceived attachment, affiliation, and obligation to their organization; Yang & Wong, 2020), while received instrumental, emotional, and informational support positively influence job satisfaction (Cranmer et al., 2017;Yang & Wong, 2020). ...
... For the organization, innovation could be affected by age-diverse workplace friendships (Chang et al., 2016;Okoe et al., 2018). While multiplex networks of rich ties (i.e., overlapping relationships in formal and informal networks, such as friendships), generally show a stronger effect on knowledge transfer in organizational networks (Aalbers et al., 2014), innovation could additionally benefit from non-redundant ties outside the group (Rietzschel & Zacher, 2015), which may be facilitated by age diversity ( Joshi & Jackson, 2003). ...
Article
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Friendship may help to bridge differences between people, such as between age-diverse employees. Oftentimes, age diversity in employee interactions cultivates interpersonal tensions. Age-diverse workplace friendship—a relationship between coworkers of different ages, who like each other and who are engaged in a balanced social exchange—may help to overcome these interpersonal tensions because having something in common can de-escalate age-related difficulties and reduce negative feelings between diverse individuals. Despite the relevance of the topic, literature focusing on age-diverse workplace friendship is rare. To address this gap and direct future research, we aim to integrate research on related topics such as workplace friendship and (age) diversity at work into a systematic literature review. Concentrating primarily on the formation and maintenance of age-diverse workplace friendship, we identified similarity-attraction theory, social identity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory as the three dominant theories referenced in the literature and utilize them to embed and connect our findings into existing theory. More specifically, we review and summarize the findings of our systematic literature review into an integrated framework depicting the antecedents, formation and maintenance processes, and outcomes of age-diverse workplace friendship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and point out directions for future research.
... Participant P3SLE's ideas indicate a shared behavioural characteristic. According to Chang et al. (2016), this characteristic defines individuals who struggle for faultlessness and set unreasonable performance values that at times end up causing dangerous reactions. Academicians with interests in being creative and producing original work, such as lecturers, researchers, and professors, are examples of such individuals (Wagner and Upton 2017, 64). ...
Article
The focus of this study was to examine the causes of burnout among teaching staff and, based on the findings, to suggest a framework to manage burnout among teaching staff at private universities in Uganda. A qualitative research approach with a multiple case study design was adopted in the study. Individual and focus group interviews as well as document analysis aided data collection from 50 lecturers, 40 senior lecturers, 20 faculty deans and five registrars across five chartered private universities in the Central Region in Uganda. Empirical data revealed that burnout was mainly due to institutional causes specifically from their workplaces such as conflicting directives, teaching staff's need to accomplish tasks by a known deadline, delays in the issuance of teaching staff contracts, job insecurity, teaching staff's incompetence due to skills gaps, limited teaching staff support, students' disruptive behaviour, and workload. In a second classification, interpersonal causes such as unresolved family challenges, being overly ambitious, failing to progress academically, financial obligations and limited resources also caused burnout among teaching staff. The recommendations that were made include mandatory workouts to boost morale and mood through continuous aerobic exercises, mandatory rest and repair of the lost resources through a paid annual leave, identification of alternative sources of income to supplement salaries, open communication channels, and employee assistance programmes, among others. The study suggests a framework to manage burnout among teaching staff at private universities in Uganda.
... La personalidad comprende un conjunto de atributos y cualidades individuales que caracterizan la forma en que una persona piensa, siente o actúa (Freiberg et al., 2014). Uno de los modelos más relevantes en el estudio de la personalidad en diferentes contextos es el Modelo de los Cinco Grandes Factores (John, Donahue, y Kentle, 1991;John, Naumann y Soto, 2008;Chang et al., 2016;Deniz y Satici, 2017;Amorós et al., 2019, entre otros). John, Naumann y Soto (2008) resumen los cinco factores de la personalidad del siguiente modo: (1) Neuroticismo, incluye desde la estabilidad emocional a la afectividad negativa (ansiedad, nerviosismo, tristeza, tensión) (2) Extraversión, hace referencia al hecho de enfrentarse al mundo social y material con gran energía, es decir, con sociabilidad, actividad, asertividad y afectividad posi- ...
Article
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Personality is made up of a set of individual attributes, which in interaction with both endogenous and exogenous factors, characterize how one thinks, feels and acts. From this perspective, in the work context, personality can be related with the perception of creativity and with engagement acquired on the job. The purpose of this study was to analyze the involvement of personality and perception of creativity on the job in engagement of nursing professionals. The sample evaluated was made up of 1268 nurses aged 22 to 63, of whom 85.3% were women and 14.7% men, with a mean age of 32.24 years (SD = 6.68) and 32.79 years (SD=6.27), respectively. The instruments used to collect the data were the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), the Creative Environment Perceptions Scale (CEP) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The mediation model confirmed that perception of creativity in the work context exerted a mediating role in the relationship between personality and engagement. In particular, the data confirmed that having a personality profile with high scores in all the personality dimensions except neuroticism, in addition to providing adequate characteristics for the job, favors creativity, which in turn, has a positive repercussion on engagement. This study presents important implications for professional practice, emphasizing the strong relationship between engagement and perception of creativity, a relationship which points toward improved engagement of nurses with their work, improving emotional stability and reinforcing the enthusiasm and inspiration for being more creative and competent with the institutional organization they are part of.
... In recent years, studies on employee burnout have been conducted rather extensively and across multiple working disciplines (Chang, Chou, Liou, & Tu, 2016). Even so, there is a rather limited number of literature in this field of study conducted to investigate the burnout dimensions (disengagement and exhaustion), J. Mgt. ...
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Objective – It is a known fact that hotel employees are constantly working in a demanding work environment. The grueling demand of the day-to-day operations and stress will eventually lead to the burnout dimensions (exhaustion and disengagement). This may have adverse effects to their relationship with their family members. Interestingly, Malaysian’s cultural dimension – collectivism; may explain this in a rather interesting discussion. Previous studies had revealed fascinating findings of a relationship between the burnout dimensions with work-family conflict (WFC) and how flow mediates the relationship between burnout dimensions with WFC Methodology/Technique – A primary survey of 233 hotel employees in Kuching, Malaysia revealed that indeed there is a correlation between the relationships and that flow mediates the variables. Findings – The results obtained from this study suggest the importance of hotel organizations in utilizing some proactive actions to promote flow experience among their employees. This article also discloses the practical implications and provides suggestions for future research in the similar field of study. Novelty – The research provides supported suggestions for proactive action to eliminate burnout at workplace. Type of Paper: Empirical
... Striving for perfection may give the future occupational therapists from this study or Occupational science students current occupational therapists, unrealistic expectations of their own abilities and may also impact how they experience time spent in non-productive tasks such as leisure. Because perfectionism has been linked to job burnout, students who meet criteria to be classified as perfectionists may be more prone to experience burnout later in their Occupational Therapy careers (Huo-Tsan et al., 2016). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to categorize perfectionism and determine how perfectionism impacts the occupations and perceived health of students in a Bachelor of Science in Occupational Science program. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive study with a survey component was conducted. Participants were categorized as perfectionists or non-perfectionists using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R). Time logs were collected to compare categories of time-use between groups over a one-week period. An online survey was conducted with a sub-sample of the perfectionists. Findings More students were categorized as perfectionists (N = 41) than non-perfectionists (N = 3). Both groups spent similar amounts of time engaged in productive, pleasurable and restorative occupations. Some perfectionists reported that perfectionism supported health, but others reported negative impacts on well-being. Research limitations/implications This study included a small sample size limited to one Occupational Science program in the USA. Originality/value Results demonstrated positive and negative health impacts because of perfectionism. The majority of participants were identified as perfectionists; rigorous academic programs may attract students with perfectionistic qualities. Findings are relevant for Occupational Therapy, as these students will become future occupational therapists after completing a Master’s program in Occupational Therapy and may be susceptible to negative outcomes associated with perfectionism such as workaholism and poor health.
... Putting the constructs of security and privacy together, earlier studies have shown that addressing the major concerns of security and privacy on a website increases the level of etrust (Chang, Chou, Liou, & Tu, 2016;Martin, 2018;Wu, Huang, Yen, & Popova, 2012). That is to say, e-retailers who perform due diligence to ensure that any e-payments are secure and successfully completed by consumers with a proper authorisation policy will ultimately contribute to e-consumer trust. ...
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Ubiquity of technology in present day living is reflected by the increasing number of savvy consumers worldwide, who can now shop online from the convenience of their homes. This study, therefore, endeavored to: (1) investigate the relationship between technology trust (security and privacy), trustworthiness, and customer e-loyalty in the context of Malaysia, as a leading developing country, and (2) determine the mediating effect of trustworthiness on the relationship between technology trust and e-loyalty. It employed a quantitative research method using a survey with 395 respondents, who had conducted at least one online transaction in the past three months. SmartPLS, which runs a variance-based structural equation modeling was used as the analytical tool to test the research model. Findings revealed that security, privacy, and trustworthiness are positively related to customers' e-loyalty. This study also highlighted the critical role of trustworthiness as mediator of the relationships. Further discussions on theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are presented.
... Perfectionistic concerns have been strongly related to negative job attitudes such as dissatisfaction, burnout, reduced commitment, and detachment from work (Bousman, 2007;Fairlie & Flett, 2003;Gluschkoff et al., 2017). Perfectionistic strivings have been linked to desirable outcomes such as research productivity, innovative behavior, efficacy, and lower burnout (Chang, Chou, Liou, & Tu, 2016;Childs & Stoeber, 2010;Sherry, Hewitt, Sherry, Flett, & Graham, 2010). However, perfectionistic strivings have not always been linked to positive outcomes, as some studies have reported the opposite pattern such as association with heightened burnout, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, (Childs & Stoeber, 2010;Kobori, Yoshie, Kudo, & Ohtsuki, 2011;Li, Hou, Chi, Liu, & Hager, 2014). ...
Article
The current study examined how teachers’ perfectionism (personal standards [PS] and concern over mistakes [COM]) relates to their achievement goals for teaching, instructional practices (creation of mastery vs. performance classroom goal structures), job satisfaction, and flow experience during teaching. The data were collected from teachers (N = 143; mean age = 43.5; 70% female; 100% European American) practicing in the Midwestern U.S. Path analyses indicated that teachers’ high personal standards predicted endorsement of mastery goals for teaching, creation of mastery goal structure emphasizing personal progress and learning, high job satisfaction, and frequent flow experience during teaching. On the contrary, teachers’ high concern over mistakes predicted endorsement of performance‐approach and ‐avoidance goals, creation of classroom performance goal structure emphasizing competition among students, low job satisfaction, and infrequent flow experience during teaching. A significant interaction between PS and COM was found for fluency (subscale of flow) experience, indicating that PS can buffer the harmful effects of COM. Therefore, the study evidenced the benefits of PS and the drawbacks of COM.
... Vienas pagrindinių neigiamas darboholizmo pasekmes aiškinančių aspektų -aukšti reikalavimai sau [10,[47][48][49]. Skatinamas tam tikrų darboholikams būdingų savybių (pavyzdžiui, perfekcionizmo) asmuo remiasi tobulybei artimais standartais [50]. Itin aukšti lūkesčiai savo paties atžvilgiu ir sunkiai įgyvendinamų tikslų siekimas kelia rimtų iššūkių psichoemocinei darboholizmu pasižyminčio asmens būklei [4,28]. ...
Article
Tikslas – išanalizuoti ir susisteminti mokslinėje literatūroje aprašomas psichosocialines darboholizmo pasekmes. Tyrimo medžiaga ir metodai. Mokslinių straipsnių paieška vykdyta trijose internetinėse mokslinių duomenų bazėse. Sisteminei analizei ieškota nuo 2013 m. paskelbtų mokslinių straipsnių. Jų tinkamumas analizei vertintas peržiūrint pavadinimus, santraukas ir visus tekstus. Sisteminei analizei tinkamomis laikytos publikacijos, kuriose pristatomi empiriniai kiekybiniai tyrimai ir pateikiami rezultatai, atskleidžiantys darboholizmo ir jo pasekmių ryšį. Rezultatai ir išvados. Paieškos metu rastos 1 679 publikacijos. Į sisteminę analizę įtraukta 13 straipsnių. Apibendrinus darboholizmo pasekmės gali būti skirstomos į keturias pagrindines grupes: 1) pasekmės asmeniui, 2) jo darbinei veiklai, 3) šeiminiam gyvenimui, 4) organizacijai. Dažniausiai nagrinėjamos darboholizmo pasekmės pačiam darbuotojui arba jo atliekamai darbinei veiklai. Nustatyta, jog darboholizmas didina darbo ir šeimos konflikto, ketinimo palikti darbą, su darbu susijusio streso, profesinio pervargimo tikimybę. Taip pat nustatyta, jog dėl darboholizmo eikvojami asmens psichologiniai ištekliai, mažėja darbuotojo našumas darbe ir pasitenkinimas gyvenimu. Gauti rezultatai ir išskirtų pasekmių pobūdis patvirtina, jog darboholizmas yra neigiamas konstruktas, ir kartu teikia argumentų, leidžiančių pagrįstai abejoti dėl darboholizmo kaip teigiamo reiškinio interpretavimo. Reikšminiai žodžiai: darboholizmas, priklausomybė nuo darbo, psichosocialinės pasekmės.
... Nekoie-Moghadam et al. (2012) focus on positive perfectionism is one of the main determinants of creativity and innovative behaviors. Chang et al. (2016) indicate that positive perfectionism positively related to the innovative behaviors. Innovative behavior defined as an complex behaviour consisting of some activities such as "generation of new ideas and the realization or implementation of new ideas". ...
... With respect to the first hypothesis, all three perfectionist groups performed almost the same on the initiative self-efficacy subscale. This unique finding is in contrast to findings reported by Chang et al. (2016), Mills and Blankstein (2000), and Beauregard (2012), which conclude that adaptive perfectionists tend to be more prepared, more willing to initiate the tasks, and utilize more productive learning strategies. This contradictory result in our study is partly due to the fact that perfectionism can influence self-efficacy to various degrees depending on context in which the individual has to deal with different learning tasks (O'Sullivan and Strauser 2009). ...
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The present investigation examined the effect of perfectionism on metacognitive listening strategy (MLS) use through the components of self-efficacy (initiative, effort, and persistence) among a sample of 117 Iranian English as a Foreign Language university students. Cluster analysis was utilized to identify the perfectionistic clusters. The resulting analysis yielded a three-cluster solution (adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionist). Multicategorical multiple mediation analysis was then used to explore the relative direct, indirect, and total effects and to test the postulated hypotheses of the study. Results indicated that adaptive perfectionism was associated with higher levels of effort and persistence, leading to greater MLS use. Regarding the initiative subscale, no significant differences were observed among the three perfectionist groups. Maladaptive perfectionists showed high levels of effort investment but not persistence. Mediation analysis did not support self-efficacy components as the mediators of the relationship between perfectionism and MLS use. Among self-efficacy components, only effort exerted a positive effect on MLS use. Results are discussed in terms of implications for future research and classroom practice.
... La personalidad comprende un conjunto de atributos y cualidades individuales que caracterizan la forma en que una persona piensa, siente o actúa (Freiberg et al., 2014). Uno de los modelos más relevantes en el estudio de la personalidad en diferentes contextos es el Modelo de los Cinco Grandes Factores (John, Donahue, y Kentle, 1991;John, Naumann y Soto, 2008;Chang et al., 2016;Deniz y Satici, 2017;Amorós et al., 2019, entre otros). John, Naumann y Soto (2008) resumen los cinco factores de la personalidad del siguiente modo: (1) Neuroticismo, incluye desde la estabilidad emocional a la afectividad negativa (ansiedad, nerviosismo, tristeza, tensión) (2) Extraversión, hace referencia al hecho de enfrentarse al mundo social y material con gran energía, es decir, con sociabilidad, actividad, asertividad y afectividad posi- ...
... Employees with high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism were more likely to report worsened relationships with their coworkers and supervisors (Fairlie and Flett, 2003) and avoid relationships and coworkers' support (Mandel et al., 2018). On the contrary, a higher level of team friendship in the workplace weakened the positive association between perfectionistic concerns and job burnout (Chang et al., 2016). Other results showed an association between perceived justice in the workplace and perfectionism, highlighting that workers with low levels of justice perceptions and high perfectionistic concerns displayed counterproductive work behaviors (Beauregard, 2014). ...
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Background The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Big Three Perfectionism Scale–Short Form (BTPS-SF) using Rasch and Mokken item response theory (IRT) analyses, which have not previously been applied to the BTPS-SF. Materials and methods A total of 401 Italian workers ( M age = 46.78; SD = 10.1; male = 48.9%; female = 51.1%) completed the BTPS-SF questionnaire. We conducted confirmatory factor analyses of the BTPS-SF and IRT analyses using the generalized partial credit model (GPCM) and Mokken scale analysis. Discrimination and difficulty parameters were calculated. The Loevinger coefficient of scalability was computed. Item characteristic curves (ICC), test information function (TIF), and differential item functioning (DIF) for gender were calculated. Results A three-factor solution revealed the best fit. Thus, IRT analyses were performed for each BTPS-SF factor: rigid perfectionism (RP), self-critical perfectionism (SP), and narcissistic perfectionism (NP). All the items showed Loevinger coefficients from medium to strong and discrimination parameters from medium to very high. No DIF for gender was found. Conclusion The Big BTPS-SF shows good psychometric properties for Italian workers. Future research is warranted to examine the findings in workers from different countries.
... La personalidad comprende un conjunto de atributos y cualidades individuales que caracterizan la forma en que una persona piensa, siente o actúa (Freiberg et al., 2014). Uno de los modelos más relevantes en el estudio de la personalidad en diferentes contextos es el Modelo de los Cinco Grandes Factores (John, Donahue, y Kentle, 1991;John, Naumann y Soto, 2008;Chang et al., 2016;Deniz y Satici, 2017;Amorós et al., 2019, entre otros). John, Naumann y Soto (2008) resumen los cinco factores de la personalidad del siguiente modo: (1) Neuroticismo, incluye desde la estabilidad emocional a la afectividad negativa (ansiedad, nerviosismo, tristeza, tensión) (2) Extraversión, hace referencia al hecho de enfrentarse al mundo social y material con gran energía, es decir, con sociabilidad, actividad, asertividad y afectividad posi- ...
... n societies and linked to a growth mindset, greater happiness and life satisfaction in gifted children in China (Chan, 2012). Comparatively, those with unhealthy perfectionism fare less well, with research linking it to greater selfcriticism, increased procrastination, higher levels of burnout and poorer academic performance (Ashby & Kottman, 1996;H. T. Chang et al., 2016;Grzegorek et al., 2004;Rice & Slaney, 2002;Stoeber & Otto, 2006). The link between unhealthy perfectionism and the experience of mental health difficulties has also been welldocumented (see for a review), which is discussed in greater detail later in this review. Such research therefore further underscores the notion that perfectionism c ...
Conference Paper
Aims. Clinical psychology training is demanding, and the multiple competing demands can negatively affect trainees’ wellbeing. This study explored trainees’ levels of wellbeing, maladaptive perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation, and explored the relationship between perfectionism and wellbeing. It evaluated the effectiveness of a brief CBT-based perfectionism workshop in reducing unhealthy perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation, and altering trainees’ likelihood of, and comfort with, disclosing mental health problems and personal difficulties to others. It also examined whether these changes persisted over time. Methods. The workshop was delivered at four UK clinical psychology doctoral programmes. At the start of the workshop, 117 trainees completed an online survey examining wellbeing, maladaptive perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and their likelihood of, and comfort with talking about mental health problems and personal difficulties with three recipients: placement supervisor, a member of course staff and a fellow trainee. The survey was repeated immediately after the workshop, and at 11-weeks follow-up (n = 35). Results. Wellbeing deteriorated over time and was negatively correlated with maladaptive perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation. The workshop reduced maladaptive perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation and, excluding comfort with disclosing mental health problems to course staff, increased trainees’ likelihood and comfort with disclosing mental health problems to all recipients. Conversely, the intervention had no effect on disclosure of personal difficulties. At follow-up, only changes in perfectionism were maintained. Conclusions. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the workshop at reducing perfectionism and breaking down barriers to disclosure in the training environment. Future research should therefore seek to evaluate the effectiveness of this workshop with larger and more diverse trainee cohorts.
... Second, most studies have explored the antecedent variables of innovative behavior [29][30][31][32], verified the mediating roles in inducing innovative behavior [33][34][35][36][37], or focused on moderator variables that moderate innovation behavior level [38][39][40][41][42]. However, the challenges of exploring a framework that includes moderating and mediating roles are considerable. ...
Article
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Organizations increasingly emphasize and require their members to engage in innovative behavior because it is directly associated with organizational sustainability and survival. This study aims to address whether ethical leadership enhances subordinates’ innovative behavior and investigates the mediating role of voice behavior in promoting innovative behavior. Psychological safety was tested to moderate the mediating effect of voice behavior on the relationship between ethical leadership and innovative behavior. We collected data from 296 full-time employees from small and medium-sized enterprises in China. The results suggest that ethical leadership positively influences innovative behavior through the mediating role of voice behavior. Furthermore, psychological leadership significantly moderates the mediating effect of voice behavior on the relationship between ethical leadership and innovative behavior. This study expands the scope of research on improving innovative behavior and provides a theoretical basis for related research.
... Second, perfectionist leaders tend to take all responsibility into their own hands. When team members provide no or little feedback, perfectionist leaders feel that the uncertainty of the subordinate's work results increases (Guo, Chiang, Mao, & Chien, 2020) and then constantly check their work or impose demanding requirements (Chang, Chou, Liu, & Tu, 2016). This behavior can reduce the self-esteem of subordinates and cause anxiety, depression and other negative emotions (Guo, Chiang, Mao, & Chien, 2020). ...
Article
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Based on leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the social exchange perspective, the study investigates the association between leader perfectionism and team decision-making performance and tests the moderating effect of team members' task performance. By adding team level LMX (TLMX) as a mediator, we construct a moderated mediation model. Data were gathered from a multisource and multiphase survey of Chinese organizations. The results indicate that leader perfectionism has a negative, indirect effect on team decision-making performance via TLMX. As a boundary condition, team members' task performance can moderate this mediated relationship. Specifically, the lower team members' task performance is, the lower TLMX and team decision-making performance is. Unexpectedly, when TLMX is controlled for, leader perfectionism has a positive and direct effect on team decision-making performance.
... They are the "positive aspects" in the work, and the examples of job resources include work autonomy, feedback relating to performance, and social support (Ingusci et al., 2021). The R&D employees with a high level of workplace friendship can obtain support and help from their colleagues to promote the achievement of work goals and reduce the psychological and physiological costs associated with job demands (Chang et al., 2016). Therefore, we regard workplace friendship as a kind of job resource. ...
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... Individual with high proactive personality tends to achieve their desired result by doing new and creative means and by understanding themselves and others at workplace better (Chang et al., 2016) than people who do not possess much of this personality type. Number of studies shows that proactive personality affects both emotional intelligence and creativity positively. ...
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The standards that a person pursue in life can be set in a rigid or flexible way. The recent literature has emphasized a distinction between high and realistic standards of excellence, from high and unrealistic standards of perfection. In two studies, we investigated the role of striving toward excellence (i.e., excellencism) and striving toward perfection (i.e., perfectionism) in relation to divergent thinking, associative thinking, and openness to experience, general self-efficacy, and creative self-beliefs. In Study 1, 279 university students completed three divergent thinking items which called for creative uses of two common objects and original things which make noise. A measure of openness to experience was included. Results from multiple regression indicated that participants pursuing excellence tended to generate more answers and more original ones compared to those pursuing perfection. Openness to experience was positively associated to excellencism and negatively associated to perfectionism. In Study 2 (n = 401 university students), we replicated these findings and extended them to non-creative associative tasks requiring participants to generate chains of unrelated words. Additional individual differences measures included general self-efficacy, creative self-efficacy, and creative personal identity. The results suggested that excellencism was associated with better performance on divergent thinking and associative tasks, compared to perfectionism. Excellencism was positively associated with all four personality variables, whereas perfectionism was significantly and negatively associated with openness to experience only. Implications for the distinction between perfectionism and excellencism with respect to creative indicators are discussed. In addition, the paradoxical finding that perfection strivers had high creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity but lower openness to experience and poorer performance on objective indicators of creative abilities is discussed.
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This study examines how work motivation, specifically intrinsic motivation, identified motivation, introjected motivation, and external motivation, influences service employees’ job performance. The explicit purpose of this study was to reveal the mechanism through which work motivation affects the job performance of service employees. Working with a sample of 281 hotel employees in South Korea, structural equation modeling was employed to test research hypotheses that the four types of work motivation influence service employees’ job performance by incorporating the mediating variables of service employees’ job creativity and customer orientation. The results of this research suggest that intrinsic motivation and identified motivation are positively related to service employees’ job creativity, while external motivation is negatively related to service employees’ job creativity; service employees’ job creativity is positively related to customer orientation; customer orientation is positively related to job performance. Furthermore, the relationship between intrinsic motivation/identified motivation and job performance are sequentially and fully mediated by service employees’ job creativity and customer orientation. This study attempts to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanism through which work motivation affects service employees’ job performance through job creativity and customer orientation.
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AbstractLeaders play a vital role in encouraging and supporting the initiatives of individual employees to explore new opportunities, to develop new products or to improve work procedures for the benefit of the organization. Entrepreneurial behavior is imperative for innovation, growth, and organizational success. Transformational leadership, in contrast to transactional leadership, has been argued to be particularly effective in engendering entrepreneurial behavior. However, empirical evidence for this relationship is scarce and inconsistent. Addressing this issue, the current study examines the moderating role of psychological empowerment on the relationship among transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and entrepreneurial behavior. Data were gathered from a cross-industry sample of 557 employees and 64 leaders from eight different knowledge-intensive organizations. The results show that transformational leadership is positively related to entrepreneurial behavior, whereas transactiona
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Addressing the challenges faced by team leaders in fostering both individual and team creativity, this research developed and tested a multilevel model connecting dual-focused transformational leadership (TFL) and creativity and incorporating intervening mechanisms at the two levels. Using multilevel, multisource survey data from individual members, team leaders, and direct supervisors in high-technology firms, we found that individual-focused TFL had a positive indirect effect on individual creativity via individual skill development, whereas team-focused TFL impacted team creativity partially through its influence on team knowledge sharing. We also found that knowledge sharing constituted a cross-level contextual factor that moderated the relationship among individual-focused TFL, skill development, and individual creativity. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this research and offer suggestions for future research. Copyright
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From a Service-Dominant Logic (S-DL) perspective, employees constitute operant resources that firms can draw to enhance the outcomes of innovation efforts. While research acknowledges that frontline employees (FLEs) constitute, through service encounters, a key interface for the transfer of valuable external knowledge into the firm, the range of potential benefits derived from FLE-driven innovation deserves more investigation. Using a sample of knowledge intensive business services firms (KIBS), this study examines how the collaboration with FLEs along the new service development(NSD) process, namely FLE co-creation, impacts on service innovation performance following two routes of different effects. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) results indicate that FLE co-creation benefits the NS success among FLEs and firm’s customers, the constituents of the resources route. FLE co-creation also has a positive effect on the NSD speed, which in turn enhances the NS quality. NSD speed and NS quality integrate the operational route, which proves to be the most effective path to impact the NS market performance. Accordingly, KIBS managers must value their FLEs as essential partners to achieve successful innovation from an internal and external perspective, and develop the appropriate mechanisms to guarantee their effective involvement along the NSD process.
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Organizational researchers are increasingly interested in model ing the multilevel nature of organizational data. Although most organi zational researchers have chosen to investigate these models using traditional Ordinary Least Squares approaches, hierarchical linear models (i.e., random coefficient models) recently have been receiving increased attention. One of the key questions in using hierarchical linear models is how a researcher chooses to scale the Level-1 indepen dent variables (e.g., raw metric, grand mean centering, group mean centering), because it directly influences the interpretation of both the level-1 and level-2 parameters. Several scaling options are reviewed and discussed in light of four paradigms of multilevellcross-level research in organizational science: incremental (i.e., group variables add incremental prediction to individual level outcomes over and above individual level predictors), mediational (i.e., the influence of group level variables on individual outcomes are mediated by individual perceptions), moderational (i.e., the relationship between two individ ual level variables is moderated by a group level variable), and sepa rate (i.e., separate within group and between group models). The paper concludes with modeling recommendations for each of these paradigms and discusses the importance of matching the paradigm under which one is operating to the appropriate modeling strategy.
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For many years culture has been claimed as an important element of organizational successful in the business world. Organizations take very different approaches to build quality work culture. For some organizations, quality work culture has never mattered most. But in some organizations, quality work culture is crucial to ensure the employees served a better service to the customers. The purpose of this study is to identify which leadership style creates quality work culture at financial institution. Data collected through survey and direct interviews with several executives in order to gain accurate information. The respondents were chosen among employees from first line managers up to top management. Bass and Avolio's (1995), Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X) was used to measure leadership styles and questions on quality work culture adopted from Geri McKeown. In addition, IFE matrix was applied to determine current work culture in the financial institutions. Findings revealed that transactional leadership had greatest influence towards quality work culture. A strong quality work culture may due to number of years the financial institutions existed in the industry. This statement was supported by a strong correlation between quality work culture and leadership styles. The strong significant relationship between leadership style and quality work culture clearly shows that transactional leadership style possessed by majority of leaders influence the level of quality work culture. The paper is hoped to contribute towards improving the quality work culture by identifying the prominent leadership style practiced by financial institutions.
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Several individuals from top management seem to be confused about the difference between creativity and innovativeness. Amabile (1997) suggests that while innovation begins with creative ideas, creativity by individuals and teams is only a starting point for innovation. Individual creativity is necessary but not sufficient to yield breakthrough innovation in organizations. This can sometimes cause confusion in employee development efforts and actions taken by management. Companies often look for ways to hire and retain creative employees and at the same time they are also interested in establishing a creative environment for knowledge workers… but should creativity be the primary focus? These firms hope that creativity enhancing steps will eventually lead to greater innovation and therefore help it to achieve sustained competitive advantage. This paper attempts to demonstrate that there are potentially other dimensions beyond creativity related to innovativeness, which should be considered at the individual level in order to foster innovation in firms. Empirical results in this study support the idea that intrinsic motivational orientation, sociability and political astuteness are enhancers to employee innovativeness while perfection seeking behavior detracts employee innovativeness. These findings may serve to extend Amabile’s (1997) componential framework to center on the “innovativeness” construct versus creativity to help explain how firms need to hire, cultivate and retain the right talent.
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Perfectionism has been receiving attention in personality psychology for many years, but only a handful of studies have investigated the effects of perfectionism in normal workplace. Perfectionism is considered a stable pattern of thinking and behavior that changes relatively little over time. The distinction between positive and negative perfectionism is grounded in behavioral theory, where a similar behavior might be associated with different emotional responses depending on whether it is a function of positive or negative reinforcement. In the professional and corporate world, perfectionism is regularly thought of by managers and employees alike as a positive trait which enables an employee to strive toward a perfect performance/product. However, there is a " dark side " of perfectionism, typically explored in and attributed to clinical populations. The " dark side " could lead to behaviors typically associated with clinical disorders, such as depression, health problems and severe stress. Although, there is not yet a model of perfectionism in the workplace, the results will help to managers and human resource management practices.
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Purpose: This research aims at exploring the relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity. In addition, we intend to study moderating role played by learning orientation between transformational leadership and employee creativity relationship. Design/Methodology: The data has been collected from employees working in Airtel and Aircel call centres in J&K (India). A two step approach to structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied. CFA was conducted to assess the proposed measurement model fit and construct validity. The structural model was generated for testing the significance of theoretical relationships. Findings: The results revealed that there is positive relation between transformational leadership and employee creativity, which is being moderated by learning orientation. Research Limitations: Although this study expands our knowledge about the role of learning orientation between transformational leadership and employee creativity yet the prospects for further research are still there. The cross-sectional design of study might not have been able to extract the true essence of the cause and effect relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity. Practical Implications: Transformational leaders promote followers’ creativity so, the management may find it valuable to invest in transformational leadership training for supervisors, team leaders or use personality test to screen for high calibre candidates, who have high potentials for being a transformational leader. The characteristics of transformational leader when coupled with learning orientation of employees yield positive results in the form of employee creativity, which the managers can use to generate sustainable competitive advantage for their organizations. Originality: The paper is original as it contributes to theory by establishing the moderating role played by learning orientation in between transformational leadership and employee creativity. The moderation has been proved through structural equation modeling with the help of latent constructs, which is seldom done.
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Determinants of creative or innovative behavior among frontline employees have been examined rarely in the literature, which is unfortunate as such information may help managers to benefit from their employees’ potentials. This study first identifies conceptually transformational leadership and employee-perceived creativity as two salient determinants of innovative behavior, and then tests this using data collected from a sample of 345 hospitality frontline employees. Moreover, it is then examined whether the relationship between these two determinants and innovative behavior may be moderated by the employees’ length of time at the workplace. The results of the study indicate that both transformational leadership and employee service creativity influence innovative behavior significantly. However, as this study proposes, these effects are indeed moderated by time in that despite initially different magnitudes, they approach each other over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also provided.
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The author provides comments on the contributions to this special issue on perfectionism in sport and dance focusing on how they provide further support for the view that perfectionism is a “double-edged sword.” In addition, the author gives his personal view on using the tripartite model versus the 2 x 2 model of perfectionism as an analytic framework and, in conclusion, outlines future research on perfectionism in sport and dance that he thinks is needed to further advance our knowledge.
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The influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on creativity was examined. Initially, six measures of creativity were administered, including creative self-perceptions, behavior, and performance measures. Adaptive perfectionism was weakly positively related to creativity, whereas maladaptive perfectionism was unrelated to creativity across five of the six measures. A follow-up study assessed whether initial findings could be generalized to an everyday problem-solving task. Results indicated that adaptive perfectionism was related to higher quality but not originality of solutions. Further, a curvilinear relationship in the shape of an inverted “U” occurred between adaptive perfectionism and four of eight creativity measures. Overall, adaptive perfectionism was consistently, albeit weakly, related to creativity across various types of measures, whereas maladaptive perfectionism was not related to creativity.
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We develop a framework of service-unit behavior that begins with a unit's leader's service-focused behavior and progresses through intermediate links (service climate and customer-focused organizational citizenship behavior) to customer satisfaction and then unit sales. Data from a sample of 56 supermarket departments provide at least moderate support for our mediational hypotheses. We discuss findings with a particular focus on the relationship between internal organization functioning and external effectiveness in service settings. In addition, several issues related to testing for mediation using quantitative analysis are identified and discussed.
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Whether Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) is a unidimensional or a multidimensional construct was assessed through the development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Item analysis involving 302 working students, followed by construct and criterion-related validation using 249 employees representing two organizations resulted in a multidimensional LMX scale. The results provided support for the affect, loyalty, and contribution dimensions identified by Dienesch and Liden (1986), as well as a fourth dimension, professional respect.
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This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work engagement into proactivity when job strain is low. Under conditions of high job strain, work engagement is less likely to translate into proactive behaviours. In contrast, for core task-related job performance, we expect work engagement to be positively related to core job performance regardless of job strain. The hypotheses were tested in a multisource field study among 148 employee–colleague dyads. Focal employees self-rated their work engagement, job strain, and their supervisor’s transformational leadership. Employee proactivity (personal initiative and voice behaviour) and core job performance were rated by colleagues. The findings support the moderated mediation model. Transformational leadership related positively to work engagement and in turn to proactivity in terms of both personal initiative and voice. Low job strain formed a necessary precondition for work engagement to translate into higher proactivity, whereas the relationship between work engagement and core job performance was independent from job strain.
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Recent research suggests that validation-seeking and dimensions of perfectionism may be antecedents of athlete burnout. The present investigation examined whether validation and growth-seeking mediate the relationship between selforiented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. One-hundred and fifty canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes recruited from the top two divisions in the UK completed measures of validation and growth-seeking (GOI), perfectionism (HMPS), and athlete burnout (ABQ). Analyses supported the mediating role of validation-seeking in the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. However, while bivariate correlations indicated that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to both validation and growth-seeking, neither mediated the self-oriented perfectionism-burnout relationship. The findings suggest that validation-seeking may be an important psychological factor in the development of burnout for athletes exhibiting high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout remains unclear because of its association with multiple motives and with socially prescribed perfectionism.
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The present study integrated a number of streams of research on the antecedents of innovation to develop and test a model of individual innovative behavior. Hypothesizing that leadership, individual problem-solving style, and work group relations affect innovative behavior directly and indirectly through their influence on perceptions of the climate for innovation, we used structural equation analysis to test the parameters of the proposed model simultaneously and also explored the moderating effect of task characteristics. The model explained approximately 37 percent of the variance in innovative behavior. Tasktype moderated the relationship between leader role expectations and innovative behavior.
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Highlighting the implications of transformational leadership, the study examines the role of transformational leadership in predicting employee creativity. The study also investigates the mediating role of innovation climate and moderating role of creative self-efficacy. A study was carried out on a sample included a dyad of 372 employees and their immediate supervisors. The findings indicate that transformational leaders can foster a climate for innovation that promotes employee creativity. Further, a significant moderating role of creative self-efficacy was found in the relationship between innovation climate and employee creativity. The findings reveal that employees with high creative-self-efficacy resort to creative behavior when they receive a supportive innovation climate.
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Transformational leadership is associated with a range of positive outcomes. Yet, according to substitutes for leadership theory, there may be circumstances under which it is difficult, if not impossible, for leaders to inspire and challenge their employees. Therefore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors as well as employee self-leadership strategies contribute to employee work engagement and job performance. Furthermore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors are more effective when employees have a high need for leadership, whereas self-leadership strategies are more effective when employees have a low need for leadership. A sample of 57 unique leader–employee dyads filled out a quantitative diary survey at the end of each week, for a period of five weeks. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling showed that employees were more engaged in their work and received higher performance ratings from their leader when leaders used more transformational leadership behaviors, and when employees used more self-leadership strategies. Furthermore, we showed that transformational leadership behaviors were more effective when employees had a high (vs. low) need for leadership and that the opposite was true for employee self-leadership. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of employees in the transformational leadership process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The authors used measures of leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation to predict the consolidated-unit performance of 78 managers. Results revealed that 3 transformational-leadership measures were associated with a higher internal locus of control and significantly and positively predicted business-unit performance over a 1-year interval. Transactional measures of leadership, including contingent reward and management by exception (active and passive), were each negatively related to business-unit performance. Causal relationships between the transformational-leadership behaviors and unit performance were moderated by the level of support for innovation in the business unit.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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Whether Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) is a unidimensional or a multidimensional construct was assesed through the development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Item analysis involving 302 working students, followed by construct and criterion-related validation using 249 employees representing two organizations resulted in a multidimensional LMX scale. The results provided support for the affect, loyalty, and contribution dimensions identified by Dienesch and Liden (1986), as well as a fourth dimension, professional respect.
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Purpose The paper aims at investigating the processes underlying the relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity. We hypothesized that promotion focus mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity and that creative process engagement mediates the relationship between promotion focus and employee creativity. Design/Methodology/Approach We conducted a three-wave longitudinal study with 279 employees and used a path-modeling approach to test our hypotheses. Findings Our results provide support for a sequential mediation model. Promotion focus mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity. Creative process engagement partially mediated the relationship between promotion focus and employee creativity. Implications Findings of this study help to understand how transformational leadership fosters creativity by highlighting the role of promotion focus and creative process engagement. Understanding the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity helps supervisors to create a work environment that fosters employee creativity. Originality/Value This study contributes to the literature by identifying the mediating mechanism for the relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity and providing a comprehensive model that illustrates the importance of the different stages within the creative process as antecedents of employee creativity.
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The average growth in international tourist arrivals was 4.5 per cent in 2006, which is substantially above long-term expectations and is a very positive sign for the hotel industry. Hotel chains are rapidly expanding and developing in key markets and the outlook for 2007 is good. The results, however, throw up some interesting pointers on how the global hotel market is changing and how the world's emerging markets are generating increased travellers year on year. The three emerging markets of China, India and the Gulf States are seeing the largest growth opportunities of the industry. It is predicted that between India and China, a total of 1.4 million additional branded hotel rooms will soon be required. The world's largest tourism spend market in the USA still has some room for growth, which is predicted in both domestic and outbound terms to double from 830bn to 1.6tn by 2015. Interestingly, this growth is predicted to be mostly at the luxury end of the market. Increased travel by this silver segment will keep Europe as the number one tourism exporting region, delivering some 730 million travellers by 2020. Education and training establishments will be needed at an international standard to retain good quality hotel staff. The industry must also not lose touch with its local roots and like many industries it must ‘think globally and act locally’. Hoteliers need to define the brand persona including operations, sales, marketing and service delivery so they are adapted to the different needs of their target generational segment. Customer loyalty will depend on a hotel operator's ability to deliver the brand promise consistently throughout their hotel experience so creating a brand premium.Journal of Retail and Leisure Property (2007) 6, 189–193. doi:10.1057/palgrave.rlp.5100061
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This study examines a comprehensive model comprising of various relationships between transformational and transactional leadership, knowledge management (KM) process, and organizational performance. Data are collected from human resource managers and general managers working in 119 service firms. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical regression analysis are used to analyze the proposed hypotheses. The results indicate that transformational leadership has strong and positive effects on KM process and organizational performance after controlling for the effects of transactional leadership. Further, KM process partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational performance after controlling for the effects of transactional leadership. Implications and directions for future research are also discussed.
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This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on the work environment to examine how these leadership behaviours influence followers' daily work engagement. While travelling by sail ship, 61 naval cadets filled out a diary questionnaire for 34 days. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for followers' work engagement the previous day, cadets were more engaged on days that their leader showed more transformational leadership and provided contingent reward. MBE active was unrelated to followers' work engagement. As predicted, transformational leadership and contingent reward contributed to a more favourable work environment (more autonomy and support), while MBE active resulted in a less favourable work environment (less autonomy) for the cadets. This study highlights the importance of daily leadership for followers' daily work engagement. Practitioner pointsLeaders' daily behaviour influences followers' daily work engagement.Leaders' daily behaviour shapes the daily work environment.
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Cartoon interpretation and production are teaching strategies that can assist students in a deeper understanding of concepts and practice of higher level thinking skills while motivating them through humor. This article presents an extended example of graduate students in an introductory course in gifted education creating humorous cartoons to explore major ideas and different types of perfectionism. General concepts of adaptive (positive) and maladaptive (negative) perfectionism, along with causes and mitigations, are discussed and illustrated with student-made cartoons. Students reported that creating cartoons was intrinsically motivating, promoted deeper levels of content learning, facilitated application of concepts, and aided self- and overall reflection on the topic. The process of the cartoon project and examples of student-generated cartoons are provided to promote practicing educators and teacher educators with ways of adapting this teaching strategy.
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High-contact service industries are characterized by close interaction between service employees and customers, and diverse customer needs. Such characteristics pose a great challenge to the delivery of services of superior quality. In this research we conceptually explore and empirically examine several attitudinal and motivational factors of customer-contact employees, and the management style of managers as antecedents to service quality in high-contact service sectors. Based on dyadic data collected from 230 service firms in Hong Kong, we examine the relationships among transformational leadership, transactional leadership, affective organizational commitment, learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation, and service quality. We find that learning goal orientation is more effective than performance goal orientation in fostering service quality in the high-contact service context. We also observe that transformational leadership tends to be more effective than transactional leadership in influencing employee attitude in high-contact service firms. This research pioneers theory-driven examination of service quality in high-contact service firms using data collected from service employees and shop managers for hypothesis testing.
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Many studies show a general connection between perfectionism and depressive symptoms. However, despite increasing evidence that significant disruptions in interpersonal relationships are an important consequence of perfectionism, few studies have specifically examined the role of interpersonal disharmony in generating depressive symptoms among persons with high levels of perfectionism. To begin filling this void, the present study conducted a preliminary test of the social disconnection model (SDM; see Hewitt, Flett, Sherry, & Caelian, 2006). This model asserts that interpersonal dimensions of perfectionism, such as socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving that others are demanding perfection of oneself), generate disconnection from the social environment that contributes to depressive symptoms. The current study tested and supported the SDM by showing that perceived social support significantly mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and depressive symptoms. No association was found between socially prescribed perfectionism and received social support. The present study thus provides preliminary support for the SDM and suggests that a subjective sense of disconnection from other people represents one reason why persons with high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism are vulnerable to depressive symptoms.
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This article reports on the development of a concept of personal initiative (PI). Personal initiative is a work behavior defined as self-starting and proactive that overcomes barriers to achieve a goal. It is argued that future workplaces will require people to show more PI than before, and that current concepts of performance and organizational behavior are more reactive than desirable. The facets of PI are developed along the lines of goals, information collection, plans, and feedback. Personal initiative enables people to deal with job difficulties more actively, for example, with stressors, unemployment, career changes, or becoming an entrepreneur. High PI changes the work situation of employees and relates to success as an entrepreneur. Personal initiative is seen to sharpen and partly modify the concepts of reciprocal determinism, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation, entrepreneurship, work performance, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulation.
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A possible “dark side” of goal setting, namely perfectionism and its relationship with employee performance, was investigated. A study of police officers (n = 235) revealed that perfectionists' predisposition to (1) set goals that they perceive to be extremely high, and (2) base evaluations of self-worth on the attainment of those goals were positively related to maximum performance, namely promotional exam scores. The mediating variable was perceived effort. In the second study involving police officers (n = 242), however, perfectionism displayed a complex relationship with typical performance. The two dimensions of perfectionism, perceived high goals and contingent self-worth, were negative predictors of this criterion through their relationship with emotional exhaustion. Nevertheless, the goal difficulty dimension was a positive predictor of typical performance.
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This article examines orientations toward workplace friendship. Based on a survey of senior managers in cities with populations over 50,000, it addresses the following questions: Do senior managers promote, condone, or discourage workplace friendship? What risks and benefits of workplace friendships do these managers perceive? What policies and strategies that affect workplace friendship are found in organizations? How do these organizational efforts affect perceptions of employee performance? This article finds that, despite the risks, orientations in favor of workplace friendships are widespread, and many jurisdictions engage in efforts to promote them.
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This empirical study examines the relationship between job standardisation and service quality. Data used herein comes from service contact-employees and customers at 105 branches of 35 service-oriented firms in Taiwan. Results obtained from three different levels of data, i.e. service contact-employees, customers and branches, indicate that job standardisation is positively related to the perception of service quality. This finding corresponds to a conceptual model of service quality developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry 1985:45. In addition, we speculate that service contact-employees meet with situations involving task uncertainty that moderate the relation between job standardisation and service quality as perceived by customers; however, this hypothesis is not supported by our empirical results. Furthermore, results of this study indicate that customers who are unacquainted with a service or product believe job standardisation influences.