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Integrated Pest Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Metric) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Fields in Egypt.

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  • Russell IPM Ltd

Abstract and Figures

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) is universally one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. In Egypt, the crop is cultivated annually in 2-3 plantations. The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the recent devastating pests attacking tomato crop in several countries. It is a new exotic pest in Egypt. A study to evaluate the efficacy of integrated control methods against the pest was carried out at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the tomato Nili plantation (September - December) of 2014. Based on the infestation reduction rate, release of the egg parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae + mass trapping (plot B) showed best results, followed by the application with Biotrine and Fytomax + mass trapping (plot A) and lastly use of insecticides (control) (plot C): Respective seasonal rate of infestation was 9.2, 11.1 and 29.3%. Highest yield production and cost benefits were recorded in plot (B).
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Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 25(3), 2015, 655-661
Proceeding of 4th International Conference, ESPCP2015, Cairo, Egypt, 19-22 October 2015
Integrated Pest Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Fields in Egypt
Goda*, N. F.; A. H. El-Heneidy*; K. Djelouah** and N. Hassan***
*Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, nizarfahmi78@ymail.com.
**Instituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari, Ciheam, Italy.
***Russell IPM Ltd, England.
(Received: October 4, 2015 and Accepted: December 5, 2015)
ABSTRACT
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) is universally one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. In Egypt, the
crop is cultivated annually in 2-3 plantations. The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
is one of the recent devastating pests attacking tomato crop in several countries. It is a new exotic pest in Egypt. A study
to evaluate the efficacy of integrated control methods against the pest was carried out at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in
the tomato Nili plantation (September December) of 2014. Based on the infestation reduction rate, release of the egg
parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae + mass trapping (plot B) showed best results, followed by the application with
Biotrine and Fytomax + mass trapping (plot A) and lastly use of insecticides (control) (plot C). Respective seasonal rate
of infestation was 9.2, 11.1 and 29.3%. Highest yield production and cost benefits were recorded in plot (B).
Key words: Tomato, Tuta absoluta, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae, IPM, Cost benefit, Egypt.
INTRODUCTION
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is universally considered one of the most important vegetable crops
worldwide. This crop is subject to attack with scores of insect pests and diseases that affect its production. The
tomato leaf minor (TLM), Tuta (Scrobipalpuloides) absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of
the major devastating insect pests attacking tomato in many of the tomato-producing regions worldwide. It is
originated from south America, rapidly invaded various European countries and spread very fast along the
Mediterranean Basin including Egypt (Desneux et al., 2010). It is considered a key agriculture threat to
European and North Africa tomato production (Germain et al., 2009). Tomato is known as the main host of T.
absoluta, but it also feeds, develops and reproduces on other solanaceous plants such as potato, tobacco,
eggplant, pepper, aubergines, black nightshade and several related weeds such as jimson weed (Pereyra and
Sanchez, 2006). Severe infestation with T. absoluta can potentially result in significant damage by feeding on
all aerial parts of tomato plant, causing economic losses of up to 80-100%, if the pest is not properly managed
(Desneux et al., 2010). However, the main damage is usually observed on the leaves and fruits, but
inflorescences and stems can also be affected. Eggs of T. absoluta are deposited chiefly on the leaves, singly
or in small groups, and the larvae attack leaves, stems and fruits. Larvae of T. absoluta feed on the mesophyll
of the leaf leaving only the epidermis intact with its feces, which subsequently widens and then the damaged
tissue dries. Under intense attack, the damaged leaves turn yellow, wither, and senescence; the fruits are
destroyed; and the plant is ultimately die (Maluf et al., 1997).
At present, depending on the cropping system and infestation intensity, the main control tools used against
TLM rely too heavily on conventional insecticides that have led to the development of insecticide resistance
(Haddi, 2012). In addition, the problems of using chemical control are further exacerbated by awareness of
environmental pollution, toxicity to natural enemies and increasing risks to human and mammals (Tillman et
al., 2000). Therefore, the use of insecticides has become subordinated to other control methods, such as
biological control singly and/or in integrated with other methods as use of aggregation pheromones and
biopesticides that have gained more credibility in the last decades (Senior et al., 2001; Agamy, 2003 and
Mandour et al., 2012). Biological control using natural enemies would be the concerted use as a major
component of any integrated pest management (IPM) program for controlling TLM. Egg parasitoid species
of family Trichogrammatidae are considered efficient biological control agents and are widely used
commercially for the suppression and control of lepidopterous pests on many crops (Agamy, 2003). More
than 32 million hectares are treated worldwide using different species of Trichogramma (Mills, 2010). They
are easy to rear and release either in open fields or protected crops (Chailleux et al., 2012)mostly through
innudative releases (Mills, 2010). Selection of the appropriate Trichogramma species for controlling a given
insect pest is a crucial factor to the success of biological control program (Desneux et al., 2010; Mills, 2010
and Chailleux et al., 2012).
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The present study aimed to monitoring of T. absoluta population in tomato fields using pheromone traps,
estimate natural rate of infestation of the pest in tomato fields at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt, testing an IPM
package based on use of sex pheromone aggregation traps + use of biorational solutions or a biocontrol agent
comparing with use of conventional pesticides. Cost-benefit of the package was also estimated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Biorational solutions
The tested biorational solutions used in this study were Fytomax N and Biotrine produced by Russell IPM
Company, UK. These two products are highly recommended for controlling T. absoluta in vegetables crops.
1- Fytomax N: is a bio-rational solution based on Azadirachtin 1% (10000 ppm) extracted from the neem tree
seeds Azadirachta indica in ULV formulation. Fytomax N prevents or interferes with an insect’s
development. It has an ovicidal effect and controls target pests by contact as well as by ingestion. It acts as
repellent, antifeedant, and interference with the molting process of insect pest. Treated insects stop feeding
and growing.
2- Biotrine: is a bio-rational solution based on a natural fermentation of the soil bacterium Streptomyces
avermitilis. It is a broad spectrum in its action, killing insects through contact and as they feed on treated
plants. Biotrine works by paralyzing the insect, contact, ingestion and by suffocation. It acts as an
antifeedant product with residual protection for the crop.
Soapy water traps
Pheromone lures used in this study were obtained from Russell IPM Company, UK. Rubber septa dispenser
of 120 days was used. Water traps were used for monitoring and mass- trapping program. Trap designs vary
and can be as simple as deep plastic trays filled with soapy water and with the pheromone lure suspended over
the center of the tray just above the water line attracted moths become trapped when they touch the soapy
water.
Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti
The egg parasitoid species T. bactrae was recommended to be used against the pest. Parasitoid cards,
included parasitized Sitotroga cerallela eggs, provided by Dr. ElHeneidy (Dept. of Biological Control,
Agriculture Research Centre, Giza, Egypt), were kindly hanged directly in the field on the tomato plants.
Methodology and experimental design
An experimental area of one hectare (equal 2.5 feddan) (feddan = 4200 m2) located at Fayoum governorate
Egypt, cultivated with tomato plants, variety Gold stone (planted in the nursery on 20th of June and transplanted
to the permanent field by early August), was subdivided into three experimental plots. The experiment was
carried out at the tomato plantation (September- January), which is so-called Nili plantation. Plot A (one
feddan) was subdivided into 4 subplots (A1 A4) as replicates and treated with Bio-rational solutions. Plot B
(one feddan) was subdivided into 4 subplots (B1 B4) as replicates and was treated by releasing T. bactrae
(at two release rates; 60000 and 100000 parasitoids per feddan). Plot C (control) feddan) was subdivided
into 2 subplots (C1 and C2) as replicates and left for regular practices carried out by the grower himself,
depends mainly on use of pesticides. The pheromone-soapy water basin traps were placed at all the
experimental plots. Metrological data (minimum, maximum temperature and relative humidity (RH) in the
region of the experiment throughout the experimental period was obtained from the metrological station of
Fayoum, located in the Agricultural Research Station, Fayoum, Egypt.
Monitoring of pest population
A total of 10 pheromone traps per hectare (4 per feddan), obtained and recommended by Russell IPM, UK
were placed as 4, 4 and 2 traps in plots A, B and C, respectively as mass-trapping. Trap catches were examined
and counted twice a week throughout the tomato growing season that extended from early September 2014 to
early January 2015.
Estimation of the rate of infestation with T. absoluta
A total of 100 plants (25 plants/ replicate)/ plot was examined weekly and rate of infestation (no. of mines
in the leaves, stems and fruits/plant) was counted and recorded at the three experimental plots A, B and C,
starting early September until harvesting.
Experimental plot A (Biorational solutions’ trial)
Four pheromonesoapy water traps were placed, one trap/ replicate, at each of the subplots A1, A2, A3 and
A4. By catching the first T. absoluta moth in any of the plot traps, the plot was treated weekly by one of the
two tested compounds; Biotrine and Fytomax N, alternatively until harvesting.
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Experimental plot B (Parasitoid’s trial)
Four pheromonesoapy water traps were placed, one trap/ replicate, at each of the subplots B1, B2, B3 and
B4. By catching the first T. absoluta moth in the plot traps, the plot was treated bi-weekly by releasing the egg
parasitoid T. bactrae at two release rates; 60000 and 100000 parasitoids per feddan. The first rate (15000
parasitoids per subplot) was applied in subplots B1 and B2, while the second rate (25000 parasitoids per
subplot) was applied in subplots B3 and B4. Each was considered as a replicate. Releases were applied until
harvesting.
Experimental plot C (Control)
Half feddan (2100 m2) was subdivided into 2 subplots (2 replicates) (C1 and C2), each replicate (about
1000 m2). Two pheromone soapy water traps were placed, one trap/ replicate at the subplots C1 and C2. The
plot was sprayed by the grower himself using recommended pesticides in the region, without any interference.
Pesticides names, rates and dates of application were recorded.
Cost-benefits of IPM packages
At the end of harvesting, cost-benefits of using each of the IPM packages; bio-rational solutions, biological
control and pesticides application (control) were estimated. The costs included the costs of purchasing the
traps, materials and labor cost at each plot.
Statistical analysis
Obtained date was subject to statistical analysis using the computer program one way ANOVA and T test.
Means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Trap catches
Data of the trap catches of T. absoluta moths in the pheromone traps placed in the experimental field at
Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in tomato Nili plantation of 2014 was summarized in table (1). By early
September 2014, the beginning of the study in the permanent field, 2 pheromone traps were placed in plot C
(control plot) for monitoring the pest population. The first catches (7 moths/ trap) were found on September
9th. Accordingly, other traps were placed in plots A and B (treatments) (4 traps/ plot = a rate of 10/ hectare) to
serve for monitoring as well as mass-trapping control method. The first records 3.75 and 7.75 moths/ trap in
plots A and B, respectively were recorded on September 12th. Occurrence of the moths continued throughout
the whole study period September 2014 January 2015. The month of October represented the highest mean
numbers of moth catches/ traps (46.8 moths), followed by November (27.6 moths), while the months of
September and December were the lowest (16 moths) (Table, 1 and Fig. 1).
The technique of mass trapping with pheromone has been widely used for the control of different insect species
(Rodriguez-Saona and Stelinski, 2009).These findings agree with those reported earlier by Ltd (2009b) who
mentioned that mass trapping can be used to reduce T. absoluta populations and it is particularly useful in
production of greenhouse tomatoes. Also, Salas (2004) reported that water traps were the most common
pheromone traps used for mass trapping of T. absoluta, as they are easier to maintain and less sensitive to dust
than Delta or light traps and also have a larger trapping capacity than Delta traps. Cocco et al. (2012) stated
that use of mass trapping alone for controlling male T. absoluta populations was not effective in reducing leaf
and fruit damage.
Seasonal general mean of trap catches in plot C (control) was 23 and 27% higher than that in plots A and
B, respectively. Total catch difference between plots A and B was 8% in favor of plot A. Number of moth
catches in plot C was lower than that in plots A and B in September, while it was higher in the other three
months, especially in December. Peak numbers of the moth catches (60, 82 and 84 moths/ trap) was recorded
on October 27th, 19th and 19th in plots A, B and C, respectively. As well, the month of October represented the
highest mean numbers of moth catches/ trap (43.6, 42.5 and 54.5 moths/ trap) in plots A, B and C, respectively
(Table.1 and Fig. 2).
Percentages of infestation
Percentages of infestation with T. absoluta at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the tomato Nili plantation of
2014 were summarized in tables 2, 3 and 4.
Plot A: treated weekly by each of Biotrine and Fytomax N alternatively, started September 21st and ended
November 23rd. Each compound was treated 5 times; Biotrine on 21/9, 5/10, 19/10, 2/11 and 16/11/2014 and
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Table (1): Monthly mean numbers of T. absoluta moth catches/ trap in pheromone traps placed in different
experimental plots at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the tomato Nili plantation of 2014
Date of
Inspection
Trap Catches (No. of moths/trap) Mean
/trap
Plot A (Plant extracts) Plot B (Release of T. bactrae) Plot C (Control)
A1 A2 A3 A4 Mean B1 B2 B3 B4 Mean C1 C2 Mean
September 16.5 14.5 18.5 17.16 16.66 14.66 13.66 21.16 36 21.37 9.7 10.4 10.05 16.03
October 49.5 68 40.6 46.3 51.1 40.12 40.3 42.5 47.1 42.5 50.5 58.5 54.5 49.37
November 32.2 26.1 21.8 21.7 25.5 23.7 26.4 19.3 38.2 26.9 34.4 32.2 33.33 28.57
December 6.5 7.6 8.5 9 7.9 4.8 5.3 10.8 6.5 6.9 34.7 38 36.35 17.05
Grand mean 23.48 22.63 22.61 23.94 25.3 21.35 22.13 23.48 32.53 24.4 33.14 35.46 32.1
Fig. (1): Monthly mean no. of T. absoluta
moths/trap/plot at Fayoum Governorate,
Egypt in the tomato Nili plantation of 2014.
Fig. (2): Monthly mean percentages of infestation
with T. absoluta in different treated plots at
Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the tomato
plantation of 2014.
Table (2): Monthly mean rates of infestation with
T. absoluta (no. of mines/ plant) at Plot (A)
(sprayed with biorational solution) at Fayoum
Governorate, Egypt in the tomato Nili
plantation of 2014
Date of
inspection Mean
A1 A2 A3 A4 Mean
September 9.3 9.3 5.3 5.3 7.3
October 9.6 10.4 8 7.2 8.2
November 19 23 13 10 16.3
December 10 18 13 7 12
Grand mean 12 15.2 9.8 7.4 11.1
Table (3): Monthly mean rates of infestation with T.
absolutaat Plot (B) (release of T. bactrae) at
Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the tomato Nili
plantation of 2014
Date of
inspection Mean
B1 B2 B3 B4 Mean
September 8 1.3 5.3 5.3 5
October 7.2 7.2 13.6 6.4 8.6
November 11 17 13 7 12
December 10 10 17 7 11
Grand mean 9.1 8.9 12.2 6.4 9.2
Table (4): Monthly mean rates of infestation with
T. absoluta at Plot (C) (control -sprayed with
pesticides) at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the
tomato Nili plantation of 2014
Date of
inspection
Mean
C1 C2 Mean
I II I II
September 18.7 0 8 0 13.3
October 24 0 29.6 0 26.8
November 60 0 61 0 60.5
December 46 10 47 14 20
Grand mean 37.2 10 36.4 14 29.3
I = > 3 mines/plant II = 4 -10 mines/plant
III = < 11 mines/plan
Table (5): Estimated yield production of tomato,
control costs and cost benefits in the experimental
plots of different control methods at Fayoum
Governorate, Egypt during the tomato Nili
plantation, 2014
Plot Yield
production
Ton/feddan
Price of
production
L.E./feddan
Control
costs
L.E./feddan
Cost
benefit
(L.E.)
A 14.36 21540 873.8 20666
B 15.2 22800 505.2 22295
C 13.4 20100 1180 18920
Feddan = 0.4 hectare
One US $ = 7.5 L.E.
659
Fytomax N on 28/9,12/10, 26/10, 9/11 and 23/11/2014. Monthly rate of infestation started with (7.3%)
in September, increased in the following months to reach (8.2%) in October, (16.3%) in November and then
reduced to (12%) in December (Table 2 and Fig. 2). Rates of infestation were always less, following
the application with Biotrine than that following Fytomax, except the application practiced by early November
(Table 2). Seasonal rate of infestation at plot A was 70% less than the control (pesticides’ treatments).
Statistical analysis showed highly significant difference between the use of Bio-rational solutions
(t= 0.00111**) and the control.
Current management of TLM in Egypt as a part of Mediterranean Basin is mainly based on treatment with
chemical insecticides (González-Cabrera et al., 2011). Nevertheless, few bio-rational solutions are effective
against TLM and selective to beneficial insects at the same time. Obtained results revealed that it is possible
to reduce the tomato leaf miner impact by applying Biotrine and Fytomax N alternatively + mass trapping
combination which showed promising results in controlling the pest. The Azadirachtin based-bio-rational
solution Fytomax N had great efficacy towards T. absoluta. These findings agree with those reported earlier
by To et al. (2013) who found that Azadirachtin caused high mortality in insect larvae allowing only
2.53.5% survival. Also, Servicio de Sanidad (2008) who recommended use of Azadirachtin as a preventive
spray and for light infestations (< 30 adult catches per week) of T. absoluta in Spain. Abamectin based bio-
rational solution Biotrine efficiency was also confirmed under field conditions. These findings are in agreement
with those reported earlier by Zalom et al. (208)who recommended abamectin for controlling the tomato
pinworm in IPM programs. Salvo and Valladares (2007) stated that abamectin is primarily a stomach poison
and has some contact activity, therefore it is used against mites and leaf miners Also, it had a good translaminar
action, penetrating the leaf surfaces of the host plant. Moussa et al. (2013) mentioned that abamectin provided
excellent control against T. absoluta in Egypt. Mass trapping and using of Biotrine alternatively with Ftyomax
N induced showed a better control of the pest. Rates of infestation were always less, following the application
with Biotrine than that following Fytomax N and this is maybe an evidence of the efficacy of the Biotrine.
Generally, seasonal rate of infestation was much less than the control (pesticides’ treatments).
Plot B: treated biweekly by 2 rates of the egg parasitoid, T. bactrae; 60000 (in subplots B1 and B2) and
100000 (in subplots B3 and B4) parasitoids/ feddan. Dates of releases were on25/9, 9/10, 23/10, 6/11 and
20/11/2014. Releases started on September 25th and ended November 20th. Both release rates were applied
5 times. Monthly rate of infestation started with (5%) in September, increased in the following months to reach
(8.6%) in October, (12%) in November and continued around the same level (11%) in December (Table 3 and
Fig. 2). Rates of infestation were almost similar at the 2 different rates of releases in September, increased
slightly in October at the high rate of release and then a vice versa was recorded in November (Table 3 and
Fig. 2). Total seasonal mean rate of infestation with T. absoluta at Fayoum in the Nili tomato plantation of
2014 was nearly equivalent in plots A and B (11.1 and 9.2%, respectively). Seasonal rate of infestation at plot
B was 75% less than the control (pesticides’ treatments) and 17% less than applying Biotrine or Fytomax.
Statistical analysis showed highly significant difference between the use of T. bactrae(t=0.003587**) and the
control. Also, insignificant difference was found between the two rates of releasing T. bactrae (t= 0.086433)
in plot B.
T. bactrae is one of the most effective parasitoid against TLM as indicated by the higher percentages of
parasitism (Abd El-Hady, 2014). In the present study, obtained results revealed that these oophagous parasitoid
would play crucial role for management of TLM. Abd El-Hady (2014) stated that increasing the number of
released parasitoids caused significant increase of parasitization and the seasonal rate of infestation was
obviously less than the control (pesticides’ treatments) and relatively than the bio-rational solutions. Such
result is evidence of the efficacy of the combining of mass trapping technique and release of T. bactrae in
management of TLM. Abbes et al. (2012)recorded 20% infestation of leaves in the IPM cropping system (mass
trapping + release of Nesidiocoris tenuis) versus 98% in the conventional cropping system and the infestation
rate of fruits was 18.2% in the IPM cropping system versus 46.8% in the conventional one.
Plot C: (control plot), treated 7 times by the grower, using three different pesticides; Nomolt 15% SC (2 times),
Pleo 50% EC (2 times) and Oshin 20% SG (3 times). Dates of application were as follow: Nomolt 15% SC on
18/10 and 22/11/2014 & Pleo 50% EC on 7 and 13/11/2014 & Oshin 20% SG on 22/10, 28/11 and 2/12/2014.
Monthly mean rate of infestation with the pest increased from 13.3% in September to 26.8% in October, to
60.5% in November and then decreased to 29.3% in December (Table 4 and Fig. 2). Seasonal mean rate of
infestation was obviously higher in plot C (29.3%) than in the other 2 plots, 11.1 and 9.2% at plots A and B,
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respectively. This indicates that application of either Biotrine or Fytomax or release of parasitoid achieved
about 70-75% less rates of infestation than using pesticides.
Fig. (3): General mean percentages of infestaion
with T. absoluta in different treated plots at
Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in the tomato
Nili plantation of 2014.
.
Although plot C was treated 7 times by the pesticides (Nomolt 15% SC, Pleo 50% EC and Oshin 20% SG),
highest total rate of infestation (36.8%) was recorded in it (Fig. 2). Percentages of infestation did not exceed
level one (> 3 mines/ plant) in plots A and B throughout the experimental period. Level 2 (4-10 mines/ plant)
was recorded twice in the pesticide plot (C) by late December (Table 4). Highest monthly mean percentage of
infestation (60.5%) was recorded in plot C (control) in November, while it was 16.3 and 12% in plots A and
B, respectively in the same month (Fig. 3). Generally, the peak number of moths/ trap, recorded in the
pheromone traps in October (46.8 moths), led to an increase in the pest’s rates of infestation in the all
experimental plots in November (Fig. 2).
Treatment with the parasitoid releases in plot B (5 times) showed least mean percentages of infestation
(9.2%) compared with (11.1%) in the bio-rational solutions treatment (plot A) (treated 10 times) (Fig. 3).
In conclusion, applying an IPM packages depended upon mass trapping plus either release of the parasitoid,
T. bactrae or applying Biotrine or Fytomax achieved best rates of reduction of T. absoluta infestation at
Fayoum in the Nili tomato plantation of 2014. Further studies are needed for other tomato plantations as
different rates of the pest population are expected.
Cost Benefits
Cost benefit = costs of yield production control costs. Data shown in table (5) demonstrated that the
highest yield production, production costs and cost benefit in the experimental plots of the tomato Nili
plantation, 2014 was recorded in plot B, where the egg parasitoid T. bactrae was released five times combined
with mass-trapping, followed by plot A (using bio-rational solution integrated with mass trapping). On other
hand, using insecticides in plot C (control) gave the lowest yield production and highest costs. Plot B showed
11.8 and 5.3% higher in yield production (ton/feddan) than plot C and A, respectively and correspondent less
control costs 57.19 and 42.18%. Seasonal cost benefit achieved in the experimental plots was 15.14 and 7.31%
higher in plot B than that in plot C and A, respectively. Besides, the other advantages of using the safe
biocontrol method directly on the crop and indirectly on the environment.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Thanks are due to the Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari (IAMB), Italy for funding and supervising
this study as part of a M. Sc. in Integrated Pest Management Program.
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... Because it is a dangerous pest of tomato, it has been the subject of several studies in the countries where it is spread. (Estay, 2000;Siqueira et al., 2000;Lietti et al., 2005;Desneux et al., 2010;Kılıç, 2010;Mamay and Yanık, 2012;Goda et al., 2015;Erdoğan, 2016;Biondi et al., 2018;Adly and Gehan, 2019). ...
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ABSTRACT Tomato Leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] is a pest of great economic importance in tomato production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the population development and the infestation rate of Tomato Leafminer in the tomato and eggplant greenhouses in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The study was conducted for the first time in the greenhouses located in Absheron economic region of Azerbaijan during 2019. Adult population dynamics of T. absoluta were monitored using sexual pheromone traps. According to the results obtained from the study, the pest formed the peaks of adult population on March 12th, March 26th and April 9th with 197, 91 and 76 adults/trap respectively. The pest population with respect to the eggplant greenhouse was lower compared with the tomato greenhouse. The results showed that T. absoluta was able to complete 2-3 generations in tomato and eggplant greenhouses during March and April in Absheron region of Azerbaijan. The infestation rate of T. absoluta in tomato greenhouse interpreted increasing trend staring from the beginning of March till April 12th. Thus so, the infestation rate caused by the pest was 30% at the beginning of March and reached 66.7% in the middle of the March. It reached its maximal level (100%) on April 12th. Interestingly, T. absoluta reached its significant infestation rate (96.7%) in eggplant in late April. The harmful effects of the pest recorded in the greenhouses was also described in this report. Consequently, this study reveals that T. absoluta population development should be monitored in greenhouses in Azerbaijan and control measures should be taken against the pest with appropriate management programs. Key Words: Tuta absoluta, Tomato, Eggplant, Population, Infestation rate
... Various IPM protocols for T. absoluta were worked out in other parts of the world (Goda et al., 2015) and needs to be standardised for indian conditions. The management options for T. absoluta should start from raising of healthy seedlings, as the pest causes the damage to the crop from seedling stage to final harvest of the crop. ...
... Also, Goda et al. (2015) recorded a high reduction of infestation with T. absoluta on tomato crop in Egypt when used pheromone traps for monitoring mass trapping and release of the egg parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). Awad et al. (2018) reported that the population of T. absoluta moths in pheromone traps increased in warm climates in winter evergreen tomato during October and November (19-22°C) and in the summer evergreen during May and June (23-26°C). ...
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Abstract In greenhouses, tomato plants are subject to attack by several pest species. The present study aimed to investigate the compatibility of releasing the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, strain HP88 against the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in commercial tomato greenhouses (Cherry and Bushra varieties) at winter plantation of 2018–2019 in Egypt. Three commercial plastic greenhouses were used. The first plastic greenhouses were treated by the two tested biological control agents (BCG), the second sprayed by certain recommended pesticides (PG), and the third used for control. Pheromone traps were used for monitoring the appearance of T. absoluta moths. The combined use of T. euproctidis and H. bacteriophora resulted to reduce the population density of the T. absoluta gradually until the end of the season in BCG. In the 17th week of treatments by T. euproctidis and H. bacteriophora, the population density of T. absoluta was estimated as leaf mines/plant (0.8 and 1.26 mines/leaf, in Cherry and Bushra varieties, respectively) in BCG. Also, in the 17th week of treatments by recommended pesticides, the population density of T. absoluta reached 12.73 mines/leaf and 18.33 mines/leaf, in CG. Early use of pesticides, by the appearance of T. absoluta infestation, could not suppress its population density that continued to increase until the end of the season in PG. Results revealed that the combination of the tested biological control agents against T. absoluta is recommended to be a main part in pest management practices in tomato greenhouses.
... Biological control based on the use of trichogrammatids can, therefore, be a viable option (van Lenteren 2012). The possible use of Trichogramma spp. as biological control agents of T. absoluta is currently considered all over the world because of the natural parasitism on the pest by different Trichogramma species (Zappala et al. 2012 andGoda et al. 2015). The effectiveness of a bio-control agent is directly related to its fitness. ...
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Abstract Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), one of the most destructive pests of tomato, has recently invaded India. Before recommending any bio-control agent for its control, it is important to study the demographic parameters of the bio-agent on the pest. The present study evaluates the demographic parameters of indigenous trichogrammatids namely Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, T. pretiosum Riley, T. chilonis (Ishii), and T. pieridis Nagaraja and Prashanth against this pest, aiming to select the most effective egg parasitoid species. Significant differences were observed among the demographic parameters of different Trichogramma spp. Parasitization potential of a thelytokous strain of T. pretiosum was the highest, followed by T. achaeae, T. chilonis, and T. pieridis. Population growth parameters net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of increase, and weekly multiplication rate were highest, and generation time and doubling period were shortest for T. pretiosum, followed by T. achaeae, T. chilonis, and T. pieridis. The study concluded that T. pretiosum could be considered a potential candidate for biological control of T. absoluta; however, field evaluation is required before final recommendation.
... Tomato is subject to attack with scores of insect pests and diseases that affect its production [4]. Thrips and whiteflies, belonging to the piercing sucking insects, cause severe damage to tomato crop by transmitting virus disease rather than direct feeding. ...
... A study carried out in Egypt to evaluate the efficacy of integrated control methods against T. absoluta in tomato variety Nili in year 2014 showed the highest yield production, production costs and cost benefit in the plot using egg parasitoid Trichogramma bactrae Nagaraja released five times combined with mass-trapping, followed by plot using bio-rational solution along with mass trapping. On other hand, plot using insecticides gave the lowest yield production with the highest costs (Goda et al., 2015). This indicates that IPM technique apart from being eco-friendly and sustainable, is also cost effective. ...
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Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is one of the newly introduced insect pest of tomato in Nepal, which was first detected by Entomology Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council from a commercial tomato grower of Balaju, Kathmandu on 16 th May 2016. The pest occurs all-round the year within the temperature range of 20-27 ° C, and therefore, the environment of mid hills and plains of Nepal is suitable for sustaining the pest except during the winter season. T. absoluta pest mainly attacks Solanaceous crops, especially evident in tomato, however, it is also found in non-solanaceous crops. Larva of the pest is devastating causing damage in fruit, leaves and stem, and reducing tomato production by 80-100% in open field as well as in plastic house, if no control measures are carried out. Chemicals, like Spinosad, Chlorantraniliprole and Novaluron are recommended in Nepal for controlling this pest, but studies have revealed the inefficacy of chemical control measures due to wide host range, faster reproducing ability and development of pesticide resistance. Therefore, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with mass trapping of the pest using pheromone trap, biological control by predator, parasitoid, entomopathogenic microbes, including cultural practices are imperative for the effective control of this pest.
... kurstaki + release of the parasitoid T. evanescens Westwood (70-75 adults/m 2 ) + pheromone mass trapping" significantly decreased densities of T. absoluta larvae and related damages in tomatoes (Khidr et al. 2013). Moreover, either combination "biweekly releases of Trichogramma bactrae Nagaraja + mass trapping" or "releases of T. evanescens + bioinsecticide treatment (Protecto and Spinosad bait)" significantly reduced infestation levels by T. absoluta in Egyptian open-field tomatoes (Goda et al. 2015, Rizk 2016. ...
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The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating invasive pest of tomato crops in several areas around the world including Africa. Here, we comprehensively review and discuss the relevant scientific knowledge on its occurrence, biological and ecological aspects, fortuitous insect natural enemies, and potential advantages and constraints of pest management scenarios adopted against this pest in tomato crops in both Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa. We conclude the manuscript with a comprehensive research agenda providing future priorities towards sustainable control of this important tomato pest.
Chapter
Widespread insecticide resistance has been a major problem in a sustainable agriculture such as the resistance of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in tomato crops to some insecticides. Also, the increasing public concern over pesticide safety and possible damage to the environment has resulted in increasing attention being given to safety products for the control of agricultural pests. Integrated pest management (IPM) has become one of the major restricting factors for protected crop and vegetable cultivations in Egypt. The protections of human health, environment, ecosystems, and biodiversity have recently been considered as important elements in the application of agricultural practices. Integrated Pest management is carried out in a sustainable manner by combination of biological, cultural, mechanical, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks.
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The lesser tómalo leaf mlner Tula (=Scrobipalpula) absoluta (Myerick), is a pest insect of primary importance in the insect complex that attacks tomato in Venezuela. Several control The strategies for its control with an IPM program nave been: cultural strategies, such as the destruction of post-harvest residues and rotation with non-solanaceous crops, biological control with the egg parasitoid Trichogramma sp. and the use of biological and organosynthetic insecticides. Its synthetic sex pheromone [(3E, 8Z, HZ)-3,8,ll-tetradecatrienyl acétate (95%) + (3E, 8Z)-3,8-tetradecadienyl acétate (5%)], dispensed in rubber septa, was evaluated in experimental tomato plots in 1997 and in commercials plantings in 1999, using water traps (TA) and Delta sticky traps (TDA) as capture devices. Resulte showed that TA captures ranged from 1,25 and 4,33 adults per trap per night (a/t/n), and TDA between 0,52 and 2,75 a/t/n during the flrst five weeks which could indícate that populations were low. After placing out new lures (19-0997), captures increase substantially, ranging from 4,11 and 17,58 a/t/n and 2,11 and 15,42 a/t/n, respectively. In 1999 capture in both traps was low, ranging from 0,46 and 8,18 a/t/n and 0,59 and 2,48 a/t/n, respectively. TA had a greater number of captures with differences (p<0,05) compared to TDA. These resulte suggest that this pheromone can detect this insect pest even in low populations and represente a new alternative to monitor and/or control ite populations in an IFM program.
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A survey of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), infestation on tomato plants was carried out in twelve governorates across Egypt during flowering stage of summer plantation of 2010 and 2011 seasons. The pest causes severe damage to the foliage and fruit. The survey shows that the degree of infestation was 21%, 48% and 28% in Behara, Dommiette and Aswan governorates, respectively. The corresponding values in 2011 were 50% in Benisweef governorate to 100% in El-Gharbia, El-Monifia, El-Dakahleia, Domitt, El-Qalubia, El-Sharkia and El-Isamlia governorates. Also, the number of larvae per 10 plants in 2010 season ranged from 5 to 125 larvae in Banisweef and El-Monifia governorates. Whereas in 2011 season, the corresponding values in Banisweef and El-Monifia governorates ranged from 3 to 380 larvae. The pest was also found to infest newly cultivated area like Tushka at Aswan governorate during the harvesting period of winter planting in 2010 season. Analysis of chemical and biopesticide control methods shows that chemical pesticides such as Chlorantraniliprole 20% SC, Chlorfenapyr 36% SC, Indoxcarb 15%EC, Chlofenapyr 36% SC mixed with Indicarb 15%EC, Spinosad 24%SC, Spinosad 24% SC mixed with Abamectin 1.8%, Emamectin benzoate 50% SG and Imidacloprid 20% SC provide excellent control against T. absoluta, while a biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis provides moderate control. These pesticides offer tomato growers the tools to control the pest and judicious use of these pesticides will prolong the efficacy and reduce resistance development in the pest.
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The effectiveness of mass trapping using light and pheromone water traps to control tomato infestations of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was investigated in Southwestern Sardinia. Trials were carried out in commercial plastic greenhouses equipped with insect-proof nets in both winter – summer and summer – winter tomato growing seasons. Light traps were tested at the density of 1 trap/1000m 2 , 1/700m 2 , 1/500m 2 , or 1/350m 2 while pheromone traps were evaluated at the density of 1 trap/350m 2 , 1/250m 2 or 1/100m 2 . The efficacy of mass trapping was evaluated by comparing weekly the damage on leaves and fruits in treated and untreated greenhouses. Pheromone traps at the tested densities were not effective in reducing leaf and fruit damage in both seasons. On the other hand, light traps reduced significantly the leaf damage at low/moderate T. absoluta population density during the summer – winter season, while they were ineffective in winter – summer, when the tomato leafminer density soared at the end of the tomato cultivation.
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A comparative study of 2 protection strategies against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in open field tomato crops was performed. The first strategy used Integrated Pest Management (IPM) through mass trapping, release of Nesidiocoris tenuis and rational use of compatible insecticides. The second strategy was based on conventional use of synthetic insecticides (9 treatments). This study revealed at the end of the culture a 20% infestation rate of leaves in the IPM cropping system versus 98% in the conventional cropping system. The infestation rate of fruit was 18.2% in the IPM cropping system versus 46.8% with the conventional one. Étude comparative de deux stratégies de protection contre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) dans des cultures tardives de tomates de plein champ en Tunisie Une étude comparative de deux stratégies de protection contre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) dans les cultures de tomates de plein champ a été réalisée. La première était de la protection intégrée à travers le piégeage de masse, le lâcher de Nesidiocoris tenuis et l'utilisation rationnelle d'insecticides compatibles. La deuxième était basée sur l'utilisation classique d'insecticides de synthèse (neuf traitements). Cette étude a révélé à la fin de la culture un taux d'infestation de 20% des feuilles en protection intégrée par rapport à 98% dans le système conventionnel. Le taux d'infestation des fruits était de 18,2% en protection intégrée par rapport à 46,8% en conventionnel.
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The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.