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Race matters for women leaders: Intersectional effects on agentic deficiencies and penalties

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... The existing literature on Asian Americans in the workplace describes the discrimination that this group faces, including: facing stereotypes for being quiet, passive, submissive (Kiang et al., 2017;Rosette et al. 2016;Tinkler et al. 2019); the "bamboo ceiling" to describe the barriers to advancing to senior roles (Yu 2020, Huang 2020Hyun 2005); and racial mistreatment (Huang, 2020). Xu and Davidhizar (2014) wrote a non-empirical article describing how cultural differences influence how Asian American nurses navigate their workplace. ...
... The literature on Asian Americans in the workplace discusses a few key areas: stereotypes, the "bamboo ceiling," and racial inequity in the workplace. Asian Americans are less likely to be leaders of an organization due to the stereotypes of being passive, submissive, deferential and quiet (Kiang et al., 2017;Rosette et al. 2016;Tinkler et al. 2019). Huang (2020) notes that these stereotypical characteristics "are antithetical to leadership and workplace success." ...
... Tinkler et al (2019) also discuss the backlash that Asian American women receive when they are socially deviant and appear too dominant, concluding that Asian American women were also the least fit for leadership regardless of behavioral style. The tension created by stereotypes contributes to the challenges related to attaining managerial roles (Rosette et al., 2016). ...
Article
There is limited empirical research on how Asian American women interpret situations with workplace authority and how those conceptualizations of authority came to be. This qualitative study examines how Asian American women experience authority in the workplace. I draw from 15 semi-structured interviews with Asian American women to identify the cultural underpinnings that show how this group experiences authority in the workplace. The themes suggest that early experiences of authority affect how Asian American women respond to authority in the workplace. The results show how Asian American women in the study were influenced by parents, respected authority, and experienced conflict with authority figures. Moreover, the interviews show that understandings of authority influence how participants in the study interacted with authority in the workplace. By investigating negative and positive experiences with authority in the workplace, I draw themes on how Asian American women in this study interpret the actions of authority figures. Lastly, I identify how this group makes meaning of their own authority in the workplace to reveal findings about their confidence and decision-making process. This study highlights the lived experiences of Asian American women in the workplace. Overall, the findings offer another perspective of authority in the workplace from the vantage points of Asian American women. Acknowledging cultural differences will contribute to the development of a more diverse and inclusive workforce.
... For instance, because Black women do not represent the prototypical Black individual (i.e., a Black man) or woman (i.e., a White woman), they experience a form of invisibility bias (Coles & Pasek, 2020;Purdie-Vaughns et al., 2008), whereby they go unseen and unheard, and have their ideas misattributed to others (Sesko & Biernat, 2010). Moreover, Black women face unique stereotypes that are not attributed to White women nor Black men (Galinsky et al., 2013;Rosette et al., 2016). Specifically, Black women are often perceived as overly dominant and "angry," but not competent, which is perceived as incompatible with prestigious positions, such as leadership Rosette et al., 2016). ...
... Moreover, Black women face unique stereotypes that are not attributed to White women nor Black men (Galinsky et al., 2013;Rosette et al., 2016). Specifically, Black women are often perceived as overly dominant and "angry," but not competent, which is perceived as incompatible with prestigious positions, such as leadership Rosette et al., 2016). ...
... When Black women have been in an organization for a while, they may struggle to believe the message when it does not align with their own experiences (Wilton et al., 2020). Future studies also might test the effects of in-group organizational endorsement for Black women at higher levels in their career, such as leadership positions, who face additional mistreatment and biases because of their high-status positions Rosette et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Black women face unique and harmful biases because of their intersecting and multiple marginalized identities, which are different from those experienced by Black men and White women (Crenshaw in s. Cal. l. Rev., 65, 1467., 1991). As organizations work to create more inclusive environments for minoritized employees, it is important to test effective messaging and identity-safe cues (i.e., cues that enhance feelings of identity acceptance) for Black women. In the current research, we investigate a new identity-safe cue — in-group organizational endorsement. This technique involves two components: (a) learning about the successful experiences of a former Black female employee and (b) a persuasive message asserting that out-group employees can be supportive role models and mentors within the organization. In a pilot experiment (N = 182) and Study 1 (N = 236), Black female participants were more likely to believe role models and mentors can have different identities, to anticipate more identity-safety, and to have higher attraction to an organization that was endorsed by a former Black female employee compared to a White woman employee. Study 2 (N = 214) further demonstrated that in-group organizational endorsement was effective among Black female students early in their college career. Relative to a control group, Black female students in their 1st – 3rd year who received the in-group endorsement intervention indicated higher identity-safety at their university and were more likely to pursue professional interactions with out-group members. For institutions that are actively working to promote inclusivity and pro-diversity norms among their employees, in-group organizational endorsement is one effective identity-safety signal for communicating such environments.
... In contrast to White women, research shows that African American women are expected to be dominant and strong, although the prominent stereotype for all women is communality (Pratt, 2012;Rosette et al., 2016). To put it bluntly, in the United States, there are long-standing, persistent, and bruising stereotypes of African American women as domineering and officious (Pratt, 2012). ...
... Although the historical experiences of African American women as leaders may seem trivial, it is crucial in terms of the concern of society's portrayal of these women and their perception of them as leaders. Actually, the perception that African American female leaders have dominant personalities may also be interpreted as them possessing the leadership freedom of men (Rosette et al., 2016). Interestingly, the perception of incompetence and ineptitude, due only to their race, compared to White women, may also accompany the leadership traits of agency, dominance, and assertiveness that some African American women possess (Rosette et al., 2016). ...
... Actually, the perception that African American female leaders have dominant personalities may also be interpreted as them possessing the leadership freedom of men (Rosette et al., 2016). Interestingly, the perception of incompetence and ineptitude, due only to their race, compared to White women, may also accompany the leadership traits of agency, dominance, and assertiveness that some African American women possess (Rosette et al., 2016). According to Galinsky et al. (2003), African American women are more likely than women from other racial groups to be selected for leadership roles, which may speak to their ferocity and competitive spirit (Rosette et al., 2016). ...
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Leadership is a sacred stewardship. Women leaders bring collaboration to this stewardship, and African American women leaders bring a certain savoir faire to their hallowed leadership responsibilities. However, research is needed to appreciate the unique stresses that female African American leaders experience in their leadership roles. Stress is harmful to overall health, well-being, and leadership effectiveness. This dissertation investigated the distinctive stresses and coping resources that empower African American women to manage individual discrimination, gendered racial discrimination, institutional racism, and encounters with white privilege in the workplace. This dissertation also investigated if hope, separate from religion and spirituality, is a coping resource that these leaders use to protect themselves in sexist and racist contaminated work environments. This research study utilized a qualitative phenomenological research design with a narrative methodology, interviewing 20 female African American senior and executive healthcare leaders to understand how they described their experiences with discrimination at work. The results revealed that African American female healthcare leaders encountered daily multilayered discrimination at work. The results also revealed that the participants engaged in coping resources daily to manage their emotions, work relationships and work environments to successfully navigate working in White space. The participants in the study specifically depended on the coping toolset of faith, punctuated with hope to circumnavigate their toxic work environments.
... Diversity interventions for gender are intended to tackle gendered barriers and stereotypes. For women, these stereotypes are generally seen to involve being viewed as communal and not agentic, competent, or dominant (Rosette et al., 2016). However, stereotypes related to White women generally overlap highly with those associated with the superordinate category of "women, " and not as much with stereotypes generated for other racialized groups of women (Ghavami and Peplau, 2013;Rosette et al., 2016). ...
... For women, these stereotypes are generally seen to involve being viewed as communal and not agentic, competent, or dominant (Rosette et al., 2016). However, stereotypes related to White women generally overlap highly with those associated with the superordinate category of "women, " and not as much with stereotypes generated for other racialized groups of women (Ghavami and Peplau, 2013;Rosette et al., 2016). ...
... Even though no significant differences were found in Study 1 for challenges to authority, in this study, Asian and White women ranked tackling challenges to authority significantly higher than Black women. Challenges to authority and insufficient agency may, in hindsight, tap into similar theoretical issues, such that the stereotypes for Black women are more similar to stereotypes of men, and that Asian women and White women are perceived as relatively less assertive and assured (Ghavami and Peplau, 2013;Rosette et al., 2016Rosette et al., , 2018Hall et al., 2019). In fact, tackling challenges to authority may be more reflective of the stereotypes that others have of Asian women than their own sense of agency. ...
Article
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Many diversity interventions for women are ineffective. One reason for this may be that the field that diversity interventions are usually based on, the social sciences, often do not consider intra-group differences among women. Specifically, differences by racialization may be excluded from such diversity interventions. The present research examines whether racially marginalized women have different diversity interventions needs than White women, and whether organizations are less likely to represent those needs (i.e., intersectional invisibility). Across an open-ended coding ( n = 293) and a ranking study ( n = 489), Black women noted a need to incorporate intersectional differences, Asian women prioritized methods to address challenges to their authority, and White women indicated a need to address agency perceptions. Improving work-life balance and networks was a shared concern among participants, though we theorized different racially gendered reasons for why these intervention needs are relevant to each group. In Study 3 ( n = 92 organizations), we analyzed organizations’ websites using word count and textual analysis. Organizations— including the Education, Science, and Research sector— most readily advocated for women through enhancing agency. They were also less likely to mention dealing with perceptions of excessive agency or addressing intersectional considerations. The organizations broadly mentioned other marginalized groups besides women, but rarely did they do so intersectionality. Taken together, our findings demonstrate different intervention priorities across differently racialized groups. We found evidence of intersectional invisibility where organizations were more likely to address agency-enhancing intervention needs while failing to include other intervention needs relevant for Black women and Asian women. We discuss the implications of these findings for organizations, in general, as well as potential implications for the field of academic social sciences.
... As Rosette et al. (2016) and others have argued, leadership theory is based on male samples and male experiences of leadership, which limits our under standing of other forms of leadership. For example, Ayman and Korabik (2010) argue that theories of situ ational leadership are gender neutral in that they assume that there are similarities among situations men and women face in leadership. ...
... Gender stereotypes lead to beliefs associating competence with men rather than women, which Burgoon (1993) labels as expectancy violation. This backlash is worse for women of color (Rosette et al., 2016). As Ridgeway (2001) writes, "leadership is based on both the assertive, taskrelated behavior of the wouldbe leader and the shared, socially constructed evaluation of that behavior in the situation" (p. ...
... Black women are often perceived as dominant and strong, whereas Asian American women are perceived as competent and passive. Rosette et al. (2016) write that, "the extent to which these two targeted subgroups will be recognized as possessing leadership potential is con tingent on the extent to which their characteristics are perceived to match existing representations of lead ers" (p. 9, emphasis in original). They hypothesize that these stereotypes make Asian American women appear to have more leadership potential than other women. ...
Article
The article discusses the history of leadership studies and its more recent interdisciplinary integration with the communication field. It also provides an overview of relevant issues for leaders and communicators in the twenty-first century. Topics discussed relevant to communication and leadership contexts include the development of leadership theories, leadership and communication, gender research in leadership and communication, intersectionality, media representations, mindfulness research and application, digital communication, social movements, protest leadership, women and protest leadership, social media and crisis management, and social media and public health.
... A promising but underexplored avenue for overcoming harmful gender stereotypes is to change the way that organizations express these stereotypes in the language they use to describe women. An organization's use of language can both reflect and perpetuate gender stereotypes, such as the stereotype that women are less agentic than men (2,(12)(13)(14). Research has shown that this gendering of language can be a major roadblock on the path to greater gender parity in organizations (2). ...
... To explore whether the association of the semantic meaning of female and agency words changed equally across the positive and negative aspects of agency, we divided the agency dictionary along two relevant dimensions: 1) positive versus negative words (e.g., analytical versus aggressive) and 2) competence-related versus dominance-related words (e.g., capability versus power) (see SI Appendix for the rating and validation procedure). Competence and dominance are two widely theorized facets of agency that differ in terms of their associated valence (14). While competence has clear positive connotations, dominance is oftentimes also associated with negative characteristics (14). ...
... Competence and dominance are two widely theorized facets of agency that differ in terms of their associated valence (14). While competence has clear positive connotations, dominance is oftentimes also associated with negative characteristics (14). Splitting the dictionary into subdictionaries allowed us to explore whether the changes to the female-agency association were driven by greater positive agency being conferred to women or backlash women faced due to organizations hiring a female leader who did not conform to people's prototypes of leaders (6). ...
Article
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Significance Gender inequality has been deemed the “greatest human rights challenge of our time” by the United Nations, and scholars across numerous disciplines agree that gender stereotypes represent a primary way by which this inequality is maintained. Yet changing stereotypes in a systemic, enduring way is extremely difficult. This is at least in part because stereotypes are transmitted and perpetuated through the language societies and organizations use to describe women, especially those in leadership roles. Here, we show that hiring women into leadership positions is associated with organizations characterizing women in more leadership-congruent, agentic ways. This shift mitigates a critical barrier to women’s progression in organizations and society: the incongruence of what it means to be a woman and a leader.
... Importantly, the majority of management scholarship captures the perceptions of hypothetical women of color in leadership roles based on factors in their environment that these women may encounter (e.g., Rosette, Koval, Ma, & Livingston, 2016). Yet little scholarship examines how women of color leaders subjectively experience their marginality in leadership, and whether or how their use of marginality affects the institutions in which they lead. ...
... The limited body of scholarship that interrogates race, gender, and power in leadership contexts indicates that Black women leaders encounter complex experiences in organizational contexts that are distinct from White women (Sanchez-Hucles & Davis, 2010) and other women of color leaders (Rosette et al., 2016). Black women leaders are sanctioned more severely for demonstrating incompetence compared to White women and Black men . ...
... Purdie-Vaughns & R. P. Eibach, 2008). The few empirical studies of Black women's leadership that do exist, rely heavily on theoretical models that tend to emphasize their deviance from the normative White male centered ideal leader (e.g., stereotypecontent model;Rosette et al., 2016;Rosette et al., 2012; Livingston et al., 2010) rather than accounting for the unique leadership styles and experiences of Black women. These previous studies tend to compare Black women's experiences to other social identity groups (e.g., White men) treating identity categories as equal ...
Thesis
Although a vast body of research on social identity considers marginalized individuals (e.g., women of color) as disadvantaged in the workplace, extant scholarship provides little support for ways in which their ‘marginality’ positively impacts their work experiences, particularly in leadership. Marginality refers to (1) a structural condition in which individuals lack resources and access to achieve status in society, (2) a psychological orientation derived from existing at the nexus of two opposing cultures or entities, and (3) a lived experience where individuals criticize social institutions and cultivate resources for survival. Given the emerging focus of positive, generative processes embedded in and among underrepresented populations (Roberts, Wooten, & Davidson, 2016), I examined how Black women extract meaning from their marginality to construct positive work identities, and used their marginality to shape institutional structures and processes. Specifically, I capturing Black clergywomen’s sensemaking of their underrepresentation and marginalization as church leaders to deepen our insight for how marginality is experienced in the workplace. To address my research questions, I conducted an interpretive phenomenological analysis of Black clergywomen (n =28) practicing in Protestant churches across the United States. I critically examined their life narratives and found that Black clergywomen notice structural marginality, recognize their own psychological experiences of marginality in leadership roles, and embrace marginality through as a tool to effectively navigate their organizations. Additionally, I find that the persistence of institutional barriers position Black clergywomen as critical lovers of their institutions which they reshape through their everyday identity and institutional work. Based on my findings, I propose a conceptual model of Black clergywomen using their marginality to extract meaning and develop behaviors that facilitate the construction of positive work identities and organizations.
... Thus, research on conformity also often examines how prevailing role expectations tied to certain social groups (e.g., those related to gender or race) shape outcomes when group members occupy a functional role (e.g., leader, entrepreneur). For instance, leadership roles are often viewed as White and male, creating a "double jeopardy" for Black women in the workplace because they appear inconsistent with leader role expectations on two fronts (e.g., Berdahl & Moore, 2006;Rosette, Koval, Ma, & Livingston, 2016). As another example, cultures that require strong conformity with gender roles often experience lower rates of entrepreneurship, generally considered a "masculine" endeavor (Shinnar, Giacomin, & Janssen, 2012). ...
... Still, management research drawing on this theory has remained focused on gender roles. A notable exception is Rosette et al. (2016), who add an intersectionality lens and note that prevailing gender stereotypes for women may be altered once race is considered with gender. ...
... Although the intersection of functional and gender roles dominates the bias literature, some studies examine how role expectations tied to other social roles influence individuals in functional roles. Rosette et al. (2016) show that Black, Asian American, and White women were associated with distinct stereotypes in leadership roles. Black women were perceived as dominant but not competent, Asian American women as competent but not dominant, and White women as primarily communal but not viewed as particularly dominant or competent. ...
Article
Role theories examine how individual behavior is shaped by prevailing social roles and provide insights into how behavior is perceived by others in light of such roles. Current movements for police reform as well as the landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the employment rights of LGBTQIA individuals have brought conversations concerning roles and their potential impact to the forefront of public discourse. Academic perspectives in management research have aided in building knowledge concerning how roles impact individuals and organizations in a variety of research domains, including entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, and strategic management. While the utilization of role theory has gained tremendous momentum over the past two decades, its central tenets are often blurred given that several related but unique perspectives surrounding roles exist in the literature. We trace the origins and development of specific role theories by defining central constructs to bring clarity to the conceptual ambiguities between various role theories and key concepts. Next, we provide an integrative review of empirical role research in management journals over the past 20 years. Here, we identify the five most prominent research themes in the management literature: roles and identity, work–nonwork interface, biases and stereotypes, career life cycles, and ethics and other-oriented behavior. Finally, we provide an agenda for future research that highlights missed opportunities in management research that draws from the key themes identified in our review.
... For example, women who are perceived as having more masculine personalities are more targeted with sexual harassment in male-dominated domains than women who are perceived as being more feminine (Berdahl, 2007). In addition, research with Black and Asian American women reveals that backlash toward women for expressing counterstereotypic qualities, such as agency, depends on the dimension of agency: competence or dominance (Rosette et al., 2016). It is possible that lesbian women experience more backlash for dominant displays than competent displays of agency in STEM (Rosette et al., 2016). ...
... In addition, research with Black and Asian American women reveals that backlash toward women for expressing counterstereotypic qualities, such as agency, depends on the dimension of agency: competence or dominance (Rosette et al., 2016). It is possible that lesbian women experience more backlash for dominant displays than competent displays of agency in STEM (Rosette et al., 2016). As done previously at the intersection of gender and race (Rosette et al., 2016), future research may benefit from reconceptualizing how particular dimensions of agency (and communality) differently align with stereotypes about LGBTQ+ people versus heterosexual women and men and, in turn, penalize individuals through backlash. ...
... It is possible that lesbian women experience more backlash for dominant displays than competent displays of agency in STEM (Rosette et al., 2016). As done previously at the intersection of gender and race (Rosette et al., 2016), future research may benefit from reconceptualizing how particular dimensions of agency (and communality) differently align with stereotypes about LGBTQ+ people versus heterosexual women and men and, in turn, penalize individuals through backlash. ...
Article
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) represent a highly valued academic discipline and career path in the 21st century; yet some individuals are excluded or discouraged from pursuing STEM because of their social group membership. Despite decades of research on social identity and fit within STEM (e.g., by gender and race), the psychological literature on issues within STEM based on sexual orientation is scant. We draw on notions of false dichotomies (i.e., social versus technical, personal versus professional, and subjectivity and interpretivism versus objectivity and positivism) to theorize how gender and sexual orientation influence perceived congruity with STEM as well as the Humanities. In the current study, we randomly assigned heterosexual participants (N = 318, Mage = 40, 52% women, 74% White) to rate one of five target groups (lesbian women, gay men, heterosexual women, heterosexual men, scientists) in terms of their perceived overlap with STEM and Humanities. We also assessed differences between target groups in terms of being rated as communal, agentic, and scientific. Results indicated that participants perceived lesbian women and gay men as less close to STEM than heterosexual men because they perceived lesbian and gay people as less agentic. In contrast, participants perceived lesbian women and gay men as closer to the Humanities than heterosexual men because they perceived lesbian and gay people as more communal. Drawing from these findings, we emphasize the profound implications of academic exclusion for lesbian and gay individuals.
... Social dominance theory can also be applied at identity intersections and explain intersectional inequalities (for a review, see Sidanius et al., 2018). For example, Black women, who are stereotyped as more dominant and confident than White women, do not violate intersectional gender norms when they behave assertively in the workplace, and are not as likely to receive the same backlash from expressing system-defending ideologies, when compared to White women (Livingston et al., 2012;Rosette et al., 2016). However, because Black women are seen as generally low in competence compared to Asian and White women (Rosette et al., 2016), they may be seen as ill-suited for positions requiring intellect, like STEM jobs, and penalized for ambitious agency in which they seek power, which is nonprototypical for their group. ...
... For example, Black women, who are stereotyped as more dominant and confident than White women, do not violate intersectional gender norms when they behave assertively in the workplace, and are not as likely to receive the same backlash from expressing system-defending ideologies, when compared to White women (Livingston et al., 2012;Rosette et al., 2016). However, because Black women are seen as generally low in competence compared to Asian and White women (Rosette et al., 2016), they may be seen as ill-suited for positions requiring intellect, like STEM jobs, and penalized for ambitious agency in which they seek power, which is nonprototypical for their group. ...
Article
We draw from ecological systems and social psychological theories to elucidate macrosystem- and microsystem-level variables that promote and maintain gender inequities in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Because gender-STEM stereotypes undermine girls’ (and women's), but boosts boys’ (and men's), STEM interest and success, we review how they operate in STEM learning environments to differentially socialize girls and boys and undermine gender integroup relations. We propose seven practice recommendations to improve STEM K-12 education: (1) design relational classrooms, (2) teach the history of gender inequality and bias, (3) foster collaborative and cooperative classrooms, (4) promote active learning and growth mindset strategies, (5) reframing STEM as inclusive, (6) create near-peer mentorship programs, and (7) re-imagine evaluation metrics. To support these practice recommendations, three policy recommendations are posited: (1) increase teacher autonomy, training, and representation, (2) re-evaluate standardized testing, and (3) reallocate and increase government funding for public schools.
... Although this choice was made to isolate the effect of race, we cannot speak to possible intersectional effects between race and gender on the activation of ideal leader and follower traits and downstream leadership perceptions. Prior research suggests that race and gender may interact to influence leadership outcomes differently than when examining race or gender separately (Rosette et al., 2016). In particular, women of color may be judged differently from men of color due to having double subordinate identities (i.e., a woman and a person of color). ...
... In a similar vein, Asian American women may also experience poorer evaluations than Asian American men and White women because of their double identity with groups that are stereotyped as non-dominant (i.e., Asian Americans and women, Rosette et al., 2016). As such, perceptions that Asian American women may be especially unassertive may further harm others' views of their leadership ability compared to Asian American men or White women, respectively. ...
Article
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Despite demonstrating high levels of academic and professional competence, Asians are underrepresented in leadership roles in North America. The limited research on this topic has found that Asian Americans are perceived by others as poorer leaders than White Americans due to perceptions that Asians lack the ideal traits of a Western leader (i.e., agentic) relative to White Americans. However, we contend that, in addition to poorly activating ideal leader traits, Asian Americans may strongly activate ideal follower traits (e.g., industrious and reliable), and being seen as a good follower may pigeonhole Asian Americans in non-managerial roles. Across 4 studies, our findings generally supported our arguments regarding the activation of ideal follower traits and lack of activation of ideal leader traits for Asian American workers. However, compared to their majority group counterparts, we found some unexpected evidence for a more favorable view of Asian Americans as leaders, which was primarily driven by the greater activation of ideal follower traits (i.e., industry and good citizen) among Asian American workers. Yet, we uncover an important boundary condition in that these "good follower" advantages did not accrue when observers experienced threat-revealing how the benefits of so-called positive stereotypes of Asian American workers are context dependent. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10869-022-09794-3.
... Ultimately, writing differently seeks to destabilize the orthodoxy of conventional writing practices, which, among other things, is predicated on the assumption that knowledge is separatable from experience (Phillips, Pullen, & Rhodes, 2014;Segarra & Prasad, 2018). workplace suggest, different minority groups will be affected by different magnitudes of bias and exclusion in organizations (Auster & Prasad, 2016;Rosette et al., 2008;Rosette et al. 2016). ...
... 3 As suggested in the earlier discussion on who qualifies as the 'model minority', those who fit the category hold high levels of ethnic capital as compared to members of other racially disenfranchised groups. While this discussion points to the fact that the model minority and other racially disenfranchised groups encounter different forms of organizational discrimination (see Rosette et al., 2016), it is equally worth underscoring that the two groups also possess certain overlapping experiences with discrimination as an outcome of their loosely shared condition of occupying spaces that privilege whiteness. As such, some of the tools available to the model minority and other racially disenfranchised groups by which to counteract workplace discrimination that they encounter will be similar. ...
Article
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Although management scholars have devoted considerable attention in conceptualizing how diversity manifests in various organizational outcomes, several aspects of diversity remain undertheorized. In this article, I examine the model minority—a specific, understudied racialized other. To make sense of the position of the model minority in the contemporary workplace, I analyze the protagonist in the series, The Chair. Juxtaposing The Chair against germane discourses related to the model minority, I consider some of the salient, though not fully understood, challenges to inclusion at work. I develop theoretical insights on how the model minority encounters specific forms of institutional racism that encumber their inclusion in organizations. Namely, I contend that the construction of an organizational member of color as the model minority effectively positions them in: (1) double consciousness, and, (2) the leadership conundrum. Double consciousness refers to the phenomenon wherein the model minority is subjected to latent or overt forms of institutional racism while, at the same time, pressured to remain within the restrictive parameters of the model minority stereotype. The leadership conundrum refers to how the model minority is cast with expectations to behave in ways not expected of their white colleagues who occupy the same role, which ultimately sets the model minority leader for failure. This article contributes to ongoing debates in critical diversity studies on the limits of workplace inclusion.
... A significant amount of research has been conducted on the superimposing or intersectional effects of gender and ethnicity outside of medicine. 4 Organisations have been shown to play a key role in generating and perpetuating inequality in bonus pay outcomes. 4 There is a paucity of information and research on the intersectional effects and associations of gender and ethnicity within NHS leadership. ...
... 4 Organisations have been shown to play a key role in generating and perpetuating inequality in bonus pay outcomes. 4 There is a paucity of information and research on the intersectional effects and associations of gender and ethnicity within NHS leadership. ...
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Background Male hospital consultants earn 13% more than their female counterparts. The intersectional effects of ethnicity and gender are not known. Objective To describe and analyse the mean bonus pay gap in terms of gender and ethnicity for consultants across the Shelford Group. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hospitals in the Shelford Group. Participants Shelford Group hospitals. Main outcome measures Mean bonus pay gap for male vs female and White vs Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic (BAME) consultants. Results Seven of the 10 Shelford Group hospitals provided data for financial year 2018/2019. The average mean bonus gender pay gap was in favour of male consultants (30%; range 12%–48%), and also favoured White consultants compared with BAME consultants (17%; range 7%–31%). The average mean bonus pay gap between White male and BAME male consultants was 20% (range 7%–34%) in favour of White male consultants, while that for White male and BAME female consultants was 46% (range 26%–60%) in favour of White male consultants. Conclusions Our data show for the first time that there may be an intersectional effect of gender and ethnicity associated with mean bonus pay for consultants. Action is needed to address this imbalance.
... High-status jobs, especially leadership positions, are also generally seen as requiring dominant, typically masculine behavior. Thus, women applying for such jobs are considered to be less suitable (Heilman, 1983;Eagly and Karau, 2002), unless these women have other characteristics besides their gender that are stereotypically associated with dominance, such as being Black (Rosette et al., 2016) or being lesbian . ...
... Only with an increasing proportion of men in the respective occupational field were Black women slightly less discriminated against. We propose that this could be due to the stereotype of Black women as being more masculine and dominant than White women (Rosette et al., 2016;Ball, unpublished) and thus more apt for typically male jobs. When a working context was given in a German study (Niedlich and Steffens, 2017) the results were different: Here, it was varied whether the job was typically male (police officer) or female (primary school teacher) with both jobs requiring higher education. ...
Article
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Concerning race and its intertwinements with gender, sexual orientation, class, accents, or ability there is a scarcity of social psychological research in Europe. With an intersectional approach studying racism in Europe it is possible to detect specific experiences of discrimination. The prevalent understanding of European racism is connected to migration from the former colonies to the European metropoles and the post-Second-World-War immigration of 'guest workers.' Thus, the focus of this research is on work-related discrimination. Against the background of a short historical review, we present the results of the few existing studies on intersectional discrimination within the labor market in Europe and discuss their implications. The pattern of findings is more complex than the assumption that individuals belonging to two or more marginalized social categories are always the most discriminated ones. Gender, sexual orientation, and origin rather interact with the specific job context. These interactions determine whether minority individuals are discriminated against or even preferred over individuals belonging to the majority group. We argue that considering the stereotype content model and social-identity theory helps to structure the sometimes contradictory results of intersectionality research. Therefore, the review presents new perspectives on racism in Europe based on current research, develops hypotheses on the interplay of intersecting identities, and identifies four novel research questions based on racist attributions considering situational variables: These are the role of concrete job contexts in explaining (no) discrimination, the influence of different stereotypes regarding marginalized groups, the explanatory value of sexual orientation as well as class or socioeconomic-status and age in terms of some patterns of results.
... Research examining how being a woman and/or a racial minority affects leadership success examines how the content of the stereotypes of these groups matches the stereotype of a leader (as competent, dominant, and caring). This research shows that White women are stereotyped as emotional and caring (Rosette et al., 2016), East-Asians are stereotyped as shy and submissive (Oguntoyinbo, 2014), East-Asian women are portrayed as cold, Black men are stereotyped as masculine and aggressive (Wilson et al., 2017) while Black women are stereotyped as dominant (strong, angry) but not competent (Livingston et al., 2012;Rosette et al., 2016). South-Asians are stereotyped as competent and dominant (Lu, et al., 2020) but little is known about how South-Asian women are characterized. ...
... Research examining how being a woman and/or a racial minority affects leadership success examines how the content of the stereotypes of these groups matches the stereotype of a leader (as competent, dominant, and caring). This research shows that White women are stereotyped as emotional and caring (Rosette et al., 2016), East-Asians are stereotyped as shy and submissive (Oguntoyinbo, 2014), East-Asian women are portrayed as cold, Black men are stereotyped as masculine and aggressive (Wilson et al., 2017) while Black women are stereotyped as dominant (strong, angry) but not competent (Livingston et al., 2012;Rosette et al., 2016). South-Asians are stereotyped as competent and dominant (Lu, et al., 2020) but little is known about how South-Asian women are characterized. ...
Technical Report
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We examine how the underlying cues that team members use to rate each other's leadership are influenced by team member's race and gender. Using data (N=967) from 287 South Asians, 35 Blacks, 568 East Asians and 77 Whites who rated 3-6 team members (N= 27,840) we show that gender and race bias judgments of team member's personality as conscientious, neurotic, agreeable and extraverted but not their judgements of openness. Gender and race also bias judgments of leadership. Further, we show that members of different racial and gender groups are penalized for violating some of these stereotypes whereas they are not penalized for violating others. Men are penalized for violating the gender stereotype of being emotional suggesting the role of "toxic masculinity. While most women are penalized for being dominating in general, White and South Asian women are penalized for dominance for task leadership, whereas East Asians like Black women (Livingston et al., 2012; Steele-Johnson & Leas, 2013) benefit from being dominant in task leadership. We demonstrate that using the stereotype content approach to evaluate the biases inherent in personality and leadership measures helps in understanding how women and racial minorities develop as leaders.
... Additionally, scholars have examined black female leaders, who have dual-subordinate identities (e.g., Rosette et al., 2016). The limited findings so far suggest black female leaders tend to suffer a double stigma penalization, where they are viewed even more unfavorably because they fall into more than one marginalized group (i.e., female and black). ...
... The pattern of our results was in stark contrast with major findings of prior research on the intersectionality of leaders' visible subordinate characteristics (e.g., black women leaders, . For instance, several studies have shown that being female results in worse outcomes for racial minority leaders (e.g., Key et al., 2012;Littrell & Nkomo, 2005;Lynch, 2019;Rosette et al., 2016). We suspect that the different patterns of intersectionality might be due to the concealability of leaders' same-sex sexual orientation. ...
Article
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Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States (U.S.) and an increasing number of out gay and lesbian business leaders, we have little knowledge of the role played by leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation in the leadership process. To fill this important research void, we drew from a recent theoretical model on leaders’ sexual orientation and conducted four experimental studies designed to test and retest whether leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation affects followers’ leadership perceptions and conformity to influence attempts, and how the intersectionality of leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation with leaders’ gender orientation and follower characteristics may modify the influences of leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation on the follower outcomes. Based on over 2,100 working adults in the U.S., the results of the four studies, where leaders were depicted as charismatic, indicate that leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation could have negative impacts on the follower outcomes. However, same-sex sexual orientation leaders did not suffer double stigma penalization by having additional marginalized identities (e.g., also being women). Female followers were more supportive of same-sex sexual orientation leaders than male followers. Our research advances knowledge of and responds to calls for more research attention to leader sexual orientation in the leadership process. Research and practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... Minority women are faced with barriers that may prevent them from been considered for leadership positions (Hoyt & Murphy, 2016;Rosette, Koval, Ma, & Livingston, 2016;Trinidad & Normore, 2005). If they do achieve a leadership position, they continuously need to assert themselves and work harder than their white female counterparts (Luciana). ...
... Hoyt & Murphy (2016) argue that stereotyping affects academic performance in Latino/as, in particular in those populations that are vulnerable. These disadvantages contribute to intersectional invisibility, creating a social system of oppression and forms of social inequity (Rosette, Koval, Ma, & Livingston, 2016). ...
Article
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The absence of Latin American women in positions of authority and power is indicative of the career limitations they face. This paper examines the leadership experiences of Latin American women who are leaders and reside in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). I apply a decolonial feminism approach and the concept of intersectionality to examine the intersection of race, gender, and class. Also, I employ qualitative research using 10 in-depth semi-structured, individual interviews. I find that current Latin American women leaders still face barriers that prevent them from continuing their advancement in leadership positions. These barriers include racial and gender discrimination, negative stereotypes, scarcity of networks and mentors, and the struggle to achieve a work-life balance.
... Women suffer backlash for being agentic [8]. Additionally, since stereotypes about competence deficiency are even stronger for Black than for White women, the agentic penalty may be even harsher for them [9]. Clearly, gender and ethnicity as well as other intersecting demographic factors, such as age and class, may be strongly restrictive of agentic opportunities for large groups in any society. ...
Article
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Debates on human agency, especially female and sexual agency, have permeated the social scientific literature and health educational practice for multiple decades now. This article provides a review of recent agency debates illustrating how criticisms of traditional conceptions of (sexual) agency have led to a notable diversification of the concept. A comprehensive, inclusive description of sexual agency is proposed, focusing on the navigation of goals and desires in the wider structural context, and acknowledging the many forms sexual agency may take. We argue there is no simple relation between sexual agency and sexual health. Next, we describe the implications of such an understanding of sexual agency for Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) and for sexual health and rights (SHR) programming more generally. We put forward validation of agentic variety, gender transformative approaches, meaningful youth participation, and multicomponent strategies as essential in building young peoples’ sexual agency and their role as agents of wider societal change. We also show that these essential conditions, wherever they have been studied, are far from being realized. With this review and connected recommendations, we hope to set the stage for ongoing, well-focused research and development in the area.
... This split in masculine traits is mirrored in work on descriptive stereotypes of women of different races. Black women, who are also seen as more masculine are seen as agentic from a dominance perspective but not from a competence perspective (Rosette et al., 2016). ...
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There is substantial research on the nature and impact of gender prescriptive stereotypes. However, there has been relatively little work on whether these stereotypes are equally applicable to men and women of different identities. Across two studies (total N = 1074), we assessed gender prescriptive stereotypes intersectionality in an American context, for men and women of different sexual orientations (Study 1) and races (Study 2). Results show strong evidence of a straight-centric bias, as prescriptive stereotypes of men and women most closely aligned with those of straight men and women, but limited evidence for a White-centric bias. Furthermore, observed gender differences in prescriptive stereotypes were smaller or non-existent for sexual and ethnic minority targets compared to straight and White targets, suggesting that theories around the dyadic nature of gender stereotypes between men and women might be restricted to straight and White men and women.
... This would suggest that our propositions would apply primarily to relatively economically and socially privileged men (e.g., White educated men in the United States and Europe). For instance, research on intersecting gender and racial stereotypes suggests that it may be more socially acceptable for black female negotiators to express anger than black male negotiators (Rosette, Koval, Ma, & Livingston, 2016;Wingfield, 2007Wingfield, , 2010. Toosi et al. (2019) found that Asian-American men, who are stereotypically less assertive than White American men, made lower first offers than White men because they anticipated backlash if they made a more aggressive first offer. ...
... Secondly, based on the ascription mechanism of creative leader emergence, future research could more explicitly analyse the role of social identities, such as gender, social class, race, religion and intersectional identities in creative leader emergence and effectiveness (Rosette et al., 2016). Andy Warhol, through the creation of his artistic persona, managed to overcome some of the social barriers associated with his queer identity (Gopnik, 2020). ...
Article
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The creative leadership literature has identified personality traits, skills, states and behaviours which are effective within creative contexts and organisations, but it is yet to address how creative leaders emerge from social networks. This conceptual paper delineates the processes of creative leader emergence within the context of contemporary visual arts. Using a relational view of creative leader emergence, this paper incorporates the leader emergence processes of achievement and ascription, and then adjusts them to the context of the art world. We argue that both competence and identity contribute to the status construction of creative leaders by enabling their emergence within social networks. In addition to the processes of leader prototypicality through which leaders emerge within groups, we also identify processes of leader atypicality through which creative leaders emerge within network structures. Finally, our conceptual analysis is illustrated by the case of Pop artist Andy Warhol, focusing on his emergence as a creative leader within the art world of New York and his art studio, the Factory.
... Yet because this stereotype does not carry over in the same way to Black women, the ways and conditions under which Black women are evaluated relatively positively or negatively differ. For instance, evidence indicates that Black women may experience less backlash for being assertive, but also be less likely to receive positive evaluations or promotions compared to white women (for a more detailed discussion, see Hall et al., 2019; also see Livingston et al., 2012;Opara et al., 2020;Rosette et al., 2016Rosette et al., , 2018. ...
Chapter
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Leaders exist in myriad types of groups. Yet in many of them—including in organizational, political, and educational domains—leadership roles are disproportionately occupied by individuals of certain social categories (e.g., men, white individuals). Speaking to this imbalance in representation, there is a wealth of theory and research indicating that gender and race are key to understanding: (a) who tends to get placed in leadership roles, and (b) what an individual’s experience will be like while in that role or on the path to it. In part, this is because there are commonly held stereotypes that make certain individuals—often those of socially dominant racial and gender groups—seem better suited for leadership. By comparison, individuals of other genders and races are often perceived and evaluated as less suitable and treated as such (e.g., deprived of opportunities to become leaders or develop leadership skills). These stereotypes can also elicit disparate internal states (e.g., stereotype threat, internalized negative self-perceptions) that affect individuals’ likelihood of pursuing or obtaining such roles (e.g., by affecting their motivation or performance). In this way, leadership dynamics are intimately connected to the study of gender and race. Overall, these dynamics involve several psychological processes. This includes myriad forms of gender and racial bias—discrimination in evaluations, pay, hiring, promotions, and in access to role models, mentorship, and support; backlash effects, queen bee effects (self-group distancing), glass cliff effects, motherhood penalties, and fatherhood bonuses. It also involves multiple lines of theorizing—role congruity theory, lack of fit, masculine defaults and ambient belonging, modern sexism, aversive racism, social identity threat, and others. Looking ahead, there are several critical directions for advancing research on gender, race, and leadership. This includes examining leadership processes from a more precise, intersectional lens rather than studying the implications of one’s gender or race in isolation (e.g., by integrating work on intersectionality theory, gendered races, and intersectional invisibility). Future study of these processes will also need to consider other relevant social identities (e.g., reflecting class, religion, age, sexuality, ability and neurodiversity, nationality, and immigration status), along with a more thorough consideration of gender—going beyond the study of (cisgender) men and women to consider how transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals are perceived and treated in leadership roles or on the path to such roles. Additionally, and ultimately, it will be critical to develop effective strategies for addressing the underrepresentation of women, racial and ethnic minorities, and other social groups in leadership. In part this will mean carefully evaluating strategies now being employed (e.g., organizational diversity messages, quotas and affirmative action, mentorship programs)—including those that may be largely ineffective, if not causing harm (e.g., implicit bias training, campaigning for women to “lean in”). Addressing the lack of diversity in leadership will be a crucial step toward tackling broader issues of social inequity.
... This study confirmed that the participant's leadership experiences are impacted by their race and gender, supporting recent literature. Whether implicitly or explicitly, every participant in this study shared their race and gender impacted their leadership experiences, which coincides with existing research (Hague & Okpala, 2017;Rosette et al., 2016;Diehl & Dzubinski, 2016;West, 2015;Beckwith et al., 2016;Davis, 2016). This supports that participant's narratives to be valid and beneficial to answer the research questions. ...
Article
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In recent years, black women have begun to take more prominent university leadership roles at predominantly white institutions. Unfortunately, their progress is relatively slow, and their experiences have not garnered much historical attention in the university leadership literature. Hence, this study described the leadership resilience experiences of black women before becoming a university dean. The conceptual framework includes Black Feminist Thought and Constructivist Self-Development Theory which guide the two central research questions, how do black women describe their leadership resilience experiences before becoming a dean? And how do black women describe their leadership resilience experiences after becoming a dean? A qualitative methodology with a narrative study design encouraged eight black women university deans in the Southern United States to describe their experiences. Two data collection techniques, semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups increased the validity of the results. The study found that most participants described their leadership resilience experiences as opportunities to engage in introspection, speak up, strive for personal growth, and utilize feedback. Participants also shared their definitions of leadership resilience.
... We expect that the marginalization related to non-binary and transgender identities may experience even greater reputational costs and potential backlash for researchers with those identities when faced with a failed replication, due to threat they elicit among perceivers (Morgenroth and Ryan, 2021). Additionally, there is reason to predict that people of color would experience a replication failure harshly (Matthew, 2016), but how this might interact with their gender identity is hard to say, given the unique stereotypes associated with intersectional identities (e.g., Ghavami and Peplau, 2013;Rosette et al., 2016). These are important avenues for future research. ...
Article
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The reproducibility movement in psychology has resulted in numerous highly publicized instances of replication failures. The goal of the present work was to investigate people’s reactions to a psychology replication failure vs. success, and to test whether a failure elicits harsher reactions when the researcher is a woman vs. a man. We examined these questions in a pre-registered experiment with a working adult sample, a conceptual replication of that experiment with a student sample, and an analysis of data compiled and posted by a psychology researcher on their public weblog with the stated goal to improve research replicability by rank-ordering psychology researchers by their “estimated false discovery risk.” Participants in the experiments were randomly assigned to read a news article describing a successful vs. failed replication attempt of original work from a male vs. female psychological scientist, and then completed measures of researcher competence, likability, integrity, perceptions of the research, and behavioral intentions for future interactions with the researcher. In both working adult and student samples, analyses consistently yielded large main effects of replication outcome, but no interaction with researcher gender. Likewise, the coding of weblog data posted in July 2021 indicated that 66.3% of the researchers scrutinized were men and 33.8% were women, and their rank-ordering was not correlated with researcher gender. The lack of support for our pre-registered gender-replication hypothesis is, at first glance, encouraging for women researchers’ careers; however, the substantial effect sizes we observed for replication outcome underscore the tremendous negative impact the reproducibility movement can have on psychologists’ careers. We discuss the implications of such negative perceptions and the possible downstream consequences for women in the field that are essential for future study.
... Finally, research shows that when specific racial and gendered stereotypes are aligned with a specific dimension of agency (e.g., competence vs. dominance), differential effects of the enactment of that agency emerge. Specifically, as Black women are perceived as dominant (though not competent), they are less likely targets of agentic penalties than White women or Black men for whom dominance is proscribed Rosette et al., 2016). As much research on the Black experience centers heterosexual men, and most examinations of the female experience are conducted on White women (Ghavami & Peplau, 2013), additional insights centering Black women employees' intersectional experiences could provide useful insights for how Black women leaders may wield their agency in advantageous ways. ...
Article
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In the wake of recent, highly publicized examples of anti-Black racism, scholars and practitioners are seeking ways to use their skills, resources, and platforms to better understand and address this phenomenon. Naming, examining, and countering anti-Black racism are critical steps toward fostering antiracist science and practice. To support those efforts, this paper details key insights from past research on anti-Black racism in organizations, draws from critical race perspectives to highlight specific topics that warrant consideration in future research, and offers considerations for how scholars should approach anti-Black racism research. Future research ideas include: specific manifestations of anti-Black racism within organizations, the double-bind of authenticity for Black employees, intersectionality among Black employees, and means of redressing anti-Black racism in organizations. Suggested research considerations include: understanding the history of anti-Black racism within research and integrating anti-Black racism research insights across organizational science. Research insights, ideas, and considerations are outlined to provide context for past and current experiences and guidance for future scholarship concerning anti-Black racism in organizations.
... Although there is research on barriers to leadership faced by women in terms of their race, culture, and social norms (Chin, 2010;Johns, 2013;Rosette et al., 2016), less is known about the role of family in shaping subjective experiences of women in the workplace. To our knowledge, no study has explicitly examined experiences of women leaders and of their family members in shaping and contesting gender ideologies regarding the workplace. ...
Article
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Despite a growing focus on processes to promote gender equity, women remain significantly underrepresented in leadership positions in the Global South. In the present study we focus on the role of familial experiences in shaping and contesting gender ideologies of Pakistani women in the workplace. We specifically examine the reciprocal ways in which women leaders and their family members shape each other’s gender ideologies regarding the workplace. Data collected and analyzed for this study were semi-structured interviews with eight women in positions of leadership in Lahore, Pakistan, and interviews with one family members of each of the women leaders (thus 16 interviews total). Using thematic narrative analysis, we identified three thematic phases: learning gender expectations, resistance, and familial transformation. These phases reflect the progression of developing, resisting, and influencing individual and familial gender ideologies. We document the manifestation of these phases in three specific domains: education, marriage and motherhood, and the workplace. We then discuss how these findings contribute to understanding the experiences of women leaders and perceptions of their family members regarding women’s role in the workplace. Findings from our research provide novel insights into the ways globalization and capitalism continue to shape the socio-cultural context for women leaders in the Global South.
... Furthermore, research has shown that when women and ethnic minorities show counterstereotypically agentic behaviours, they are likely to be perceived as disagreeable and receive social punishment or backlash (Rosette et al., 2016;Rudman et al., 2012). They also have less chances to develop alternative pathways ('waypower'), which is postulated to be a crucial strategy to develop psychological capital . ...
Article
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In this paper, we argue that psychological capital is unequally distributed among people from different social classes, ethnic backgrounds and genders. Confronting the limitations of the current, individualistic perspective on psychological capital, we offer a re‐conceptualization of the construct from a critical, interdisciplinary perspective, placing it at the intersection of sociology and psychology. We discuss the various mechanisms through which social inequalities may cause differential access to psychological capital for members of low‐ and high‐status social groups and show how this differential access to psychological capital results in and exacerbates social inequalities. By doing this, we postulate a recursive theory on psychological capital that both recognizes the formative effect of socio‐organizational structures on one’s psychology and vice versa.
Article
Research suggests that White women often experience more gender backlash than women of color in response to expressions of agency. We consider whether this differential in backlash is driven by the match or mismatch of the race of both perceivers and targets. Much of the existing work in this space examines the perspective of White perceivers, which might underestimate racial minority women’s susceptibility to backlash if backlash occurs primarily in same-race interactions. We examine how the racial group memberships of targets and perceivers jointly affect backlash against gender-norm violating women. In analyses of Dr. Christine Blasey-Ford’s accusations of sexual assault against Brett Kavanaugh and Anita Hill’s accusations against Clarence Thomas during their respective U.S. Supreme Court confirmation hearings, an archival analysis of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and two experiments, we find that perceivers of different races tend to express more backlash toward racial in-group than out-group women.
Article
Black people engage in a variety of behaviors to avoid stereotyping and promote a professional image in the workplace. Racial codeswitching is one impression management strategy where Black people adjust their self-presentation to receive desirable outcomes (e.g., perceived professionalism) through mirroring the norms, behaviors, and attributes of the dominant group (i.e., White people) in specific contexts. In this study, we examine whether racial codeswitching enhances perceived professionalism for Black employees. We investigate Black and White participants' perceptions of racial codeswitching and subsequent evaluations of professionalism through manipulating three behaviors (e.g., adjusting style of speech, name selection, hairstyle) of a fictitious Black coworker in two, between-subjects experimental studies using audio and written stimuli. Results indicate that employees who engage in racial codeswitching are consistently perceived as more professional by both Black and White participants compared to employees who do not codeswitch (Studies 1 & 2). We also found that Black participants perceive the non-codeswitching employee as more professional than White participants (Studies 2a & 2b). Black and White participants' evaluation of specific codeswitching behaviors varied with both groups supporting adjustment of speech, opposing adjusting one's name, and diverging on wearing natural hairstyles (Studies 1 & 2). Although racial codeswitching is presented as an impression management strategy, it may reinforce White professional standards and generate social and psychological costs for Black employees. Implications of our work for impression management and impression formation are further discussed.
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This paper examined whether Black women political candidates face double jeopardy in voter perceptions of electability due to Black women being perceived as having fewer traditional leader traits compared to White male, White female, and Black male candidates. Due to increasing political polarization in the United States, concerns over electability are at the forefront of many voters’ minds when casting their ballots. Traditional conceptions of electability are built upon racialized and gendered notions of what traits connote an effective leader; thus, women and racial minority candidates are often perceived as less electable compared to White men. However, research has not adequately examined the intersectional aspect of electability bias. The current study proposed a double jeopardy effect: we expected that participants (n = 454) would perceive Black women, compared to White men, White women, and Black men, as lower in competence and leadership ability, which would lead to lower electability perceptions and voting intentions. Unexpectedly, there were mixed findings for the effects of race/gender on competence and leadership ability, and we did not find any evidence that candidate race/gender related to electability or voting intentions. We discuss potential explanations for these null findings and suggest avenues for future research.
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Scant attention has been paid to the differences in fundraising for social versus commercial ventures. We adopt a role congruity theory perspective to argue that because women and people of color are more congruent with role expectations attributed to social entrepreneurs, they experience better fundraising performance when raising crowdfunded capital for social ventures compared to commercial ventures. We then argue entrepreneur race heightens fundraising differences for men and women. Results indicate women experience better funding performance when funding a social versus commercial venture—an effect that is larger for women of color. Men of color experience worse performance when funding a social venture. We find no differences for White men.
Article
Women of color (vs. White women) are underrepresented in the United States government. Identifying factors that affect evaluations of these women is important to understand their underrepresentation. Deviating from communal expectations contributes to backlash against women. Being perceived as prioritizing communality thus appears key for women to receive support. Little work, however, has examined this relation in actual politicians and how perceiver political ideology may affect it. We examined how gendered trait inferences and political ideology affected evaluations of Kamala Harris, the first woman of color elected to the executive branch, before the 2020 election. People perceived Harris as more agentic than communal (Studies 1–2). Communal trait inferences and having a more liberal political ideology each positively related to evaluations of Harris. More liberal relative to more conservative perceivers had weaker positive communality effects when evaluating her expected success (Studies 1–2) and when a description conveyed Harris’s communality (vs. agency; Study 2). These findings highlight communality effects on evaluations of Harris and suggest a context under which she was likely more supported by co-partisans. Moreover, these studies identify potential sources of bias toward female candidates of color, illustrating a need for gendered trait inferences to be thoroughly considered in campaign strategies. Additional online materials for this article are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/03616843221104383 .
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Globally, women are underrepresented in politics. We propose developmental psychology offers an important, yet underused, theoretical lens for understanding and counteracting the gender gap in political leadership. In making this proposal, we harness insight from research on women’s underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), where developmental psychology has revealed that cultural beliefs and attitudes about STEM are transmitted early in life and begin undermining girls’ interest and confidence in STEM long before adulthood. Leveraging developmental research from STEM as inspiration, we identify five areas of inquiry that are critical to a developmentally informed perspective on the origins of the gender gap in politics. Although studying children to understand political inequities among adults may be playing the “long game,” we argue this will be a necessary step to advance gender equity in political leadership.
Article
Compared to their representation in the workforce, women are significantly underrepresented in leadership roles in the United States. Whereas substantial research attention has been paid to the role of bias and discrimination in perpetuating this gap, less has been devoted to exploring the gender difference in aspirations for these roles. We draw from social role theory to hypothesize that men have higher leadership aspirations than women and test our hypothesis using a meta-analysis of 174 U.S. published and unpublished samples (N = 138,557) spanning six decades. The results reveal that there is a small but significant gender difference in the predicted direction (Hedge's g = 0.22). Notably, the gender difference has not narrowed significantly over time, and appears to widen at college age and among working adults within male-dominated industries. Our results also suggest that the process and dissemination of research in this domain exhibits bias. We discuss the implications of our conclusions for future research.
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Current scholarship analyzes how gender influences the character-based traits and belief-based traits that women candidates are attributed. Yet little is known about the effect of the intersection of candidate sex and ethnicity on stereotyping. Thus, I explore whether candidate stereotyping functions similarly for Latina candidates as it does for white women. I also test if the race or ethnicity of the voter plays any role in how Latina women candidates are stereotyped. Given that we know that race/ethnicity matter for voters, particularly voters of color, I assess what occurs when candidate sex is also included. With the use of original survey data and through the use of difference of means tests I analyze how a Latina candidate compares with three other candidate types on feminine, masculine, and belief-based traits. I also compare how stereotyping varies based on the race and ethnicity of the voter. On the one hand my results are mixed regarding how Latina candidates are stereotyped, while on the other I do find that Latina/o respondents assess Latina candidates in a more favorable manner relative to white respondents.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is investigating the influence of leadership on work engagement. The definition of leadership is primarily couched in culturally masculine terms (and known as an agentic leadership style) that disfavours women, who are often perceived as being communal leaders who are compassionate and humble. The research gap addressed is whether communal and agentic leadership styles of female leaders have positive associations with work engagement. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative study was undertaken by applying purposive non-probability sampling and using an online survey with screening questions to ensure the respondent reported to a senior female manager. The survey consisted of reliable and valid Likert scales: agentic and communal leadership styles were assessed using the Agency-Communion-Inventory (AC-IN) scale with 20 questions and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) with three sub-scales: vigour, dedication and absorption. The 153 usable responses in this study were used to conduct validity and reliability tests and to apply multiple regression to test associations. Findings Both agentic and communal leadership have a positive impact on work engagement when exhibited by a female. Although agentic leadership had an influence on all the elements of work engagement, communal leadership had a far stronger impact. Originality/value Female managers with communal leadership styles need to realise that they have more influence on their employees’ emotional, physical and cognitive connections to their work than female managers with agentic leadership styles. Those with agentic leadership styles need to exhibit a communal style as well, so as to enhance the influence they have on their employees’ work engagement.
Article
Minoritized women remain underrepresented in leadership positions, especially within higher education (HE). A key barrier to advancement for women of color is their susceptibility to impostor phenomenon (IP). A developmental network where the minoritized woman receives developmental support from multiple individuals is a potentially powerful intervention that can help them advance their careers, but there is a general lack of research on IP in the context of minoritized women’s leadership development and the role of developmental support, especially with regards to multiple diversified developmental relationships. Therefore, this paper integrates various literature streams (leader development for minoritized women in higher education, IP, mentoring) and offers a conceptual framework that utilizes a developmental network perspective. The propositions offered explain how multiple developers can help minoritized women address IP and develop positive leader identities, as well as how both parties can better anticipate and handle challenges related to diversified developmental relationships in HE.
Article
Purpose Existing research on social inequalities in leadership seeks to explain how perceptions of marginalized followers as deficient leaders contribute to their underrepresentation. However, research must also address how current leaders restrict these followers' access to leadership opportunities. This conceptual paper offers the perspective that deficiencies in leaders' behaviors perpetuate social inequalities in leadership through an illustrative application to research on gender and leadership. Design/methodology/approach The authors situate existing research on gender and leadership within broader leadership theory to highlight the importance of inclusivity in defining destructive and constructive leadership. Findings Previous scholarship on gender inequalities in leadership has focused on perceptions of women as deficient leaders. The authors advocate that researchers reconceptualize leaders' failures to advance women in the workplace as a form of destructive leadership that harms women and organizations. Viewing leaders' discriminatory behavior as destructive compels a broader definition of constructive leadership, in which leaders' allyship against sexism, and any other form of prejudice, is not a rare behavior to glorify, but rather a defining component of constructive leadership. Practical implications This paper highlights the important role of high-status individuals in increasing diversity in leadership. The authors suggest that leader inclusivity should be used as a metric of leader effectiveness. Originality/value The authors refocus conversations on gender inequality in leadership by emphasizing leaders' power in making constructive or destructive behavioral choices. The authors’ perspective offers a novel approach to research on social inequalities in leadership that centers current leaders' roles (instead of marginalized followers' perceived deficits) in perpetuating inequalities.
Article
Purpose We sought to evaluate hand surgery applicants’ letters of recommendations to understand whether applicant and letter writer demographics contribute to racial and gender bias. Methods All applications submitted through the American Society for Surgery of the Hand match to a single institution fellowship program for the 2017 to 2019 application cycles were analyzed using validated text analysis software. Race/ethnicity information was derived from an analysis of applicant photos using the Face Secret Pro software. Primary outcome measures were differences in communal and agentic language used in letters of recommendation, stratified by both race/ethnicity and gender. Results A total of 912 letters of recommendation were analyzed for 233 applicants (51 female and 172 male). Of these, 88 were written by female letter writers and 824 were written by male letter writers. There were 8 Black, 12 Hispanic, 36 Asian, and 167 White applicants. Letter writers used more agentic language with Asian applicants and non-White applicants overall. Female letter writers used more communal terms and were not associated with applicant race or gender. Conclusions Letters of recommendation in hand surgery demonstrate disparities in language based on race and gender. Clinical relevance Alerting letter writers to the role of implicit bias will hopefully spur a discussion on tools to mitigate the use of biased language and provide a foundation for an equitable selection process. Efforts to improve policies and procedures pertaining to diversity and inclusion are paramount to ensuring that fellows more completely represent the population hand surgeons wish to serve.
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We summarize and integrate a large body of research showing that agency and communion constitute two fundamental dimensions of content in social cognition. Agentic content refers to goal-achievement and task functioning (competence, assertiveness, decisiveness), whereas communal content refers to the maintenance of relationships and social functioning (benevolence, trustworthiness,morality).Wepresent a Dual Perspective Model of Agency and Communion (DPM-AC) developed to show that the two dimensions are differently linked to the basic perspectives in social interaction, that is, the actor versus the observer/recipient perspectives. We review numerous research confirming three general hypotheses of the DPM. First, communal content is primary among the fundamental dimensions. Second, in the observer/recipient perspective (perception of others), communal content receives more weight than agentic content. Third, in the actor perspective (self-perception), agentic content receives more weight than communal content. Wethen discuss the complex issues of relations of agency and communion to valence as well as associations between agency and communion. Although they are logically independent and their inferences are based on different cues, the two content dimensions of meaning frequently function as psychological alternatives in social cognition.
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Asian-Americans are a growth market. Their affluence, high education, and work ethic position them as a “model minority.” However complimentary that term may seem, it nonetheless represents a stereotype whose prevalence must be documented to examine the intersection of minority status and gender in mass media portrayals. The authors report a content analysis of more than 1300 prime time television advertisements conducted to assess the frequency and nature of Asian-American representation. They found that Asian male and female models are overrepresented in terms of proportion of the population (3.6%), appearing in 8.4% of the commercials. However, Asian models are more likely than members of other minority groups to appear in background roles, and Asian women are rarely depicted in major roles. Further, the findings indicate that portrayals of Asian-Americans put so much emphasis on the work ethic that other aspects of life seldom appear. For example, Asian models are overrepresented in business settings and relationships and underrepresented in home settings and family or social relationships. The findings suggest opportunities for advertisers who depict Asian-Americans in nonstereotypical ways.
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We compared perceived cultural stereotypes of diverse groups varying by gender and ethnicity. Using a free-response procedure, we asked 627 U.S. undergraduates to generate 10 attributes for 1 of 17 groups: Asian Americans, Blacks, Latinos, Middle Eastern Americans, or Whites; men or women; or 10 gender-by-ethnic groups (e.g., Black men or Latina women). Based on intersectionality theory and social dominance theory, we developed and tested three hypotheses. First, consistent with the intersectionality hypothesis, gender-by-ethnic stereotypes contained unique elements that were not the result of adding gender stereotypes to ethnic stereotypes. Second, in support of an ethnicity hypothesis, stereotypes of ethnic groups were generally more similar to stereotypes of the men than of the women in each group. Third, a gender hypothesis postulated that stereotypes of men and women will be most similar to stereotypes of White men and White women, less similar to ethnic minority men and ethnic minority women, and least similar to Black men and Black women. This hypothesis was confirmed for target women, but results for target men were mixed. Collectively, our results contribute to research, theory, and practice by demonstrating that ethnic and gender stereotypes are complex and that the intersections of these social categories produce meaningful differences in the way groups are perceived.
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While the presence of women in law school and the legal profession has improved greatly, the uncomfortable reality is that women tend to occupy positions in the legal profession that subordinate them to men. This reality is even more glaring when the position of black women is examined. Black women carry the burden of multiple consciousness which influences every aspect of their professional lives. Multiple consciousness means that black women must be mindful of their professional identity, their gender and their race in navigating the pipeline to power. This paper will explore the multiple consciousness that intersecting identities invoke and offer modest suggestions for the advancement of black women that may prove useful for all women seeking to advance in the legal profession.
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Research exploring the perspectives of stigmatized people has examined general processes related to experiencing prejudice. Past work, however, has invoked the assumption that prejudices against different group memberships are experienced in a similar manner. Across three studies we directly compare experiences of racism and sexism among female minorities and show, in contrast, that people respond to different forms of prejudice in distinct ways. In Study 1 we examined the attributions invoked by Asian women to explain prejudice and discovered that participants made stronger internal attributions to explain racism than sexism. In Study 2 we investigated emotional reactions to prejudice and found that Asian women report experiencing more depression following a race-based rejection than a gender-based rejection. In Study 3 we observed that Asian women reported perceiving more racism than sexism in their environments. Implications for advancing theories of prejudice experiences are discussed.
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Jezebel's sexual lasciviousness, Mammy's devotion, and Sapphire's outspoken anger-these are among the most persistent stereotypes that black women encounter in contemporary American life. Hurtful and dishonest, such representations force African American women to navigate a virtual crooked room that shames them and shapes their experiences as citizens. Many respond by assuming a mantle of strength that may convince others, and even themselves, that they do not need help. But as a result, the unique political issues of black women are often ignored and marginalized. In this groundbreaking book, Melissa V. Harris-Perry uses multiple methods of inquiry, including literary analysis, political theory, focus groups, surveys, and experimental research, to understand more deeply black women's political and emotional responses to pervasive negative race and gender images. Not a traditional political science work concerned with office-seeking, voting, or ideology, Sister Citizen instead explores how African American women understand themselves as citizens and what they expect from political organizing. Harris-Perry shows that the shared struggle to preserve an authentic self and secure recognition as a citizen links together black women in America, from the anonymous survivors of Hurricane Katrina to the current First Lady of the United States.
Book
Part I. From There to Here - Theoretical Background: 1. From visiousness to viciousness: theories of intergroup relations 2. Social dominance theory as a new synthesis Part II. Oppression and its Psycho-Ideological Elements: 3. The psychology of group dominance: social dominance orientation 4. Let's both agree that you're really stupid: the power of consensual ideology Part III. The Circle of Oppression - The Myriad Expressions of Institutional Discrimination: 5. You stay in your part of town and I'll stay in mine: discrimination in the housing and retail markets 6. They're just too lazy to work: discrimination in the labor market 7. They're just mentally and physically unfit: discrimination in education and health care 8. The more of 'them' in prison, the better: institutional terror, social control and the dynamics of the criminal justice system Part IV. Oppression as a Cooperative Game: 9. Social hierarchy and asymmetrical group behavior: social hierarchy and group difference in behavior 10. Sex and power: the intersecting political psychologies of patriarchy and empty-set hierarchy 11. Epilogue.
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Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
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This paper examines the impact of women's proportional representation in the upper echelons of organizations on hierarchical and peer relationships among professional women at work. I propose that social identity is the principal mechanism through which the representation of women influences their relationships. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of interview and questionnaire data are used to compare women's same-sex relationships in firms with relatively low and high proportions of senior women. Compared with women in firms with many senior women, women in firms with few senior women were less likely to experience common gender as a positive basis for identification with women, less likely to perceive senior women as role models with legitimate authority, more likely to perceive competition in relationships with women peers, and less likely to find support in these relationships. These results challenge person-centered views about the psychology of women's same-sex work relationships and suggest that social identity may link an organization's demographic composition with individuals' workplace experiences.
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We assess evidence for gender differences across a range of relationships and consider whether the form and quality of these relationships affect the psychological functioning of men and women differently. Data from a national panel survey provide consistent evidence that men's and women's relationships differ. However, we find little evidence for the theoretical argument that women are more psychologically reactive than men to the quality of their relationships: Supportive relationships are associated with low levels of psychological distress, while strained relationships are associated with high levels of distress for women and for men. However, if women did not have higher levels of social involvement than men, they would exhibit even higher levels of distress relative to men than they currently do. We find little evidence for the assertion that men and women react to strained relationships in gender-specific ways--for example, with alcohol consumption versus depression.
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Drawing on macro and micro domains in gender research, we meta-analytically test whether occupational, industry, and job-level factors mitigate or exacerbate differences in performance evaluations (k = 93; n = 95,882) and rewards (k = 97; n = 378,850) between men and women. Based on studies conducted across a variety of work settings and spanning nearly thirty years, we found that the sex differences in rewards (d = .56) (including salary, bonuses, and promotions) were fourteen times larger than sex differences in performance evaluations (d = .04) and that differences in performance evaluations did not explain reward differences between men and women. The percentage of men in an occupation and the complexity of jobs performed by employees enhanced the male-female gap in performance and rewards. In highly prestigious occupations women performed equally but were rewarded significantly lower than men. Only a higher representation of female executives at the industry level enabled women to reverse the gender gap in rewards and performance evaluations. Our configurational analysis also revealed that some occupational, job, and industry level attributes of the work context are jointly associated with higher differences in rewards and performance evaluations.
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In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This article presents a four-category framework to characterize the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. The framework distinguishes between prescriptions and proscriptions that are intensified by virtue of one's gender, and those that are relaxed by virtue of one's gender. Two studies examined the utility of this framework for characterizing prescriptive gender stereotypes in American society (Study 1) and in the highly masculine context of Princeton University (Study 2). The results demonstrated the persistence of traditional gender prescriptions in both contexts, but also revealed distinct areas of societal vigilance and leeway for each gender. In addition, they showed that women are seen more positively, relative to societal standards, than are men. We consider the implications of this framework for research on reactions to gender stereotype deviants and sex discrimination.
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The figure of the Mammy dominated American television in the 1940s and 1950s. As we transitioned into the twenty-first century, this imagery re-emerged as a result of the Black male in drag. Tracing the development of this figure from the 1950s to the specific case of Eddie Murphy in drag, this paper examines how Black Motherhood and the Mammy continues to be a part of the African American cinematic experience.
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We contribute to a current debate that focuses on whether individuals with more than one subordinate identity (i.e., Black women) experience more negative leader perceptions than do leaders with single-subordinate identities (i.e., Black men and White women). Results confirmed that Black women leaders suffered double jeopardy, and were evaluated more negatively than Black men and White women, but only under conditions of organizational failure. Under conditions of organizational success, the three groups were evaluated comparably to each other, but each group was evaluated less favorably than White men. Further, leader typicality, the extent to which individuals possess characteristics usually associated with a leader role, mediated the indirect effect of leader race, leader gender, and organizational performance on leader effectiveness. Taken together, these results suggest that Black women leaders may carry a burden of being disproportionately sanctioned for making mistakes on the job.
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Dynamic stereotypes characterize social groups that are thought to have changed from the attributes they manifested in the past and even to continue to change in the future. According to social role theory’s assumption that the role behavior of group members shapes their stereotype, groups should have dynamic stereotypes to the extent that their typical social roles are perceived to change over time. Applied to men and women, this theory makes two predictions about perceived change: (a) perceivers should think that sex differences are eroding because of increasing similarity of the roles of men and women and (b) the female stereotype should be particularly dynamic because of greater change in the roles of women than of men. This theory was tested and confirmed in five experiments that examined perceptions of the roles and the personality, cognitive, and physical attributes of men and women of the past, present, and future.
Article
Although past research has noted the importance of both power and gender for understanding volubility—the total amount of time spent talking—in organizations, to date, identifying the unique contributions of power and gender to volubility has been somewhat elusive. Using both naturalistic data sets and experiments, the present studies indicate that while power has a strong, positive effect on volubility for men, no such effect exists for women. Study 1 uses archival data to examine the relationship between the relative power of United States senators and their talking behavior on the Senate floor. Results indicate a strong positive relationship between power and volubility for male senators, but a non-significant relationship for female senators. Study 2 replicates this effect in an experimental setting by priming the concept of power and shows that though men primed with power talk more, women show no effect of power on volubility. Mediation analyses indicate that this difference is explained by women’s concern that being highly voluble will result in negative consequences (i.e., backlash). Study 3 shows that powerful women are in fact correct in assuming that they will incur backlash as a result of talking more than others—an effect that is observed among both male and female perceivers. Implications for the literatures on volubility, power, and previous studies of backlash are discussed.
Article
Backlash effects are defined as social and economic reprisals for behaving counterstereotypically (Rudman, L. A. (1998). Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 629–645). The present chapter outlines an impression-management dilemma that women face and describes the literature on backlash effects in organizations. Because women are perceived to be less competent, ambitious, and competitive (i.e., less agentic) than men, they may be overlooked for leadership positions unless they present themselves as atypical women. However, the prescriptive nature of gender stereotypes can result in negative reactions to female agency and authority (i.e., backlash). This dilemma has serious consequences for gender parity, as it undermines women at every stage of their careers. It also has consequences for organizations, as it likely contributes to female managers’ higher rates of job disaffection and turnover, relative to male counterparts. In addition to specifying the consequences of backlash for women and organizations, we consider potential moderators of backlash effects and the role that backlash plays in maintaining cultural stereotypes. Finally, we outline potential avenues for future research.
Article
In this article, the authors identify three methodological short-comings of the classic Princeton trilogy studies: (a) ambiguity of the instructions given to respondents, (b) no assessment of respondents' level of prejudice, and (c) use of an outdated list of adjectives. These shortcomings are addressed in the authors' assessment of the stereotype and personal beliefs of a sample of University of Wisconsin students. In contrast to the commonly espoused fading stereotype proposition, data suggest that there exists a consistent and negative contemporary stereotype of Blacks. Comparing the data from the Princeton trilogy studies with those of the present study, the authors conclude that the Princeton trilogy studies actually measured respondents' personal beliefs, not (as typically assumed) their knowledge of the Black stereotype. Consistent with Devine's model, high- and low-prejudiced individuals did not differ in their knowledge of the stereotype of Blacks but diverged sharply in their endorsement of the stereotype.
Article
A two-part study contrasted the utility of free-response and checklist methodologies for ascertaining ethnic and gender stereotypes. Descriptions of data collection, organization, and cluster and entropy analyses are provided. Results indicate that important differences emerge between data resulting from free-response methodology and those obtained with traditionally employed adjective checklists. These differences include the generation of a large percentage of physical descriptors and within-ethnic-group gender differences in stereotype content. A major finding is the generation of a large number of distinct responses coupled with low-frequency use of any particular response. Study 2 specifically examined whether free-response data are more schematic than checklist data. Results indicate that free-response data have a greater dependency and may thus be indicative of schematic response. This schematic response may, in turn, indicate more automatic processing than is evident with data from checklist methodologies.
Article
This study examines the structural validity of scores from the Bem Sex Role Inventory using a maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Six hundred and sixty-five graduate and undergraduate students participate in the study. A seven firstorder factor model almost identical to the model reported in a previous CFA study is used as the baseline comparison model. The data for testing these models are obtained from an exploratory sample randomly selected from the whole sample. A hierarchical factor structure model with seven first-order factors (compassionate, interpersonal affect, shy, dominant, decisive, athletic, and self-sufficient) and two second-order factors (masculinity and femininity) fit the data quite well. The fit indices based on the validation sample collectively indicate a very good fit. The results of this study are notably consistent with the hierarchical factor models suggested in two previous CFA studies.
Article
The study sought to examine the degree to which Chicano and Anglo students agree on the sex roles as presented in the literature characterizing the traditional Mexican family. Results of a family, sex role questionnaire yielded significant differences for sex and ethnicity. A factor analysis identified the underlying variables of the questionnaire to be highly loaded on sex-role stereotypes. Although there was disagreement with the questionnaire for both the Chicano and Anglo participants, Chicano males agreed more with stereotypic sex roles than Chicano females, Anglo males, and Anglo females. Implications of the findings and directions for further research are discussed.
Article
Abstract—Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report that implicit activation of a social identity can facilitate as well as impede performance on a quantitative task. When a particular social identity was made salient at an implicit level, performance was altered in the direction predicted by the stereotype associated with the identity. Common cultural stereotypes hold that Asians have superior quantitative skills compared with other ethnic groups and that women have inferior quantitative skills compared with men. We found that Asian-American women performed better on a mathematics test when their ethnic identity was activated, but worse when their gender identity was activated, compared with a control group who had neither identity activated. Cross-cultural investigation indicated that it was the stereotype, and not the identity per se, that influenced performance.