ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Vegetative production techniques, of which cutting method widely used in propagation of ornamental plants, have a crucial role for conserving the plant genetic sources. On rooting development of stem cuttings, cutting position, rooting medium and rooting hormone are some of the critical factors that affect the success. The primary objective of this study is to determine the best hormone doses and ideal rooting medium on Ficus benjamina L. stem cuttings. Conventionally, the most frequently vegetative propagation method is the rooting of the stem cuttings in various media such as, pearlite, peat, sand, through exposure to high-concentration rooting hormones (IBA, IAA, NAA, etc.). But, this conventional technique requires wide areas in the rooting stage of mass production, prevents monitoring the course of rooting, and necessitates large amount of materials used as hormones and rooting media. In this study, a new method that may be preferable in mass production of plants was tested. 39 different treatments were carried out, and their results were evaluated. Sand, and perlite were used as solid rooting media. Stem cuttings were kept in low-concentration hormones permanently after cutting (liquid medium). In this way, their rooting capability were examined. Rooting trials were conducted before stem cuttings were taken to solid rooting media. As conclusions, the highest rooting ratio were obtained for 10 ppm of NAA (94.43%) and 100 ppm of IBA (93.9%) in liquid media. Moreover, the highest root length and the average root length were quite low in liquid media.
1Assist.Prof.Dr.OsmanTopaçog˘lu,Assist.Prof.Dr.KerimGuney,Assoc.Prof.Dr.ErolAkkuzu,Assoc.Prof.Dr.AhmetSivacioglu,KastamonuUniversity,Facultyof
Forestry,37150,Kastamonu,Turkey.Correspondingauthor:otopacoglu@kastamonu.edu.tr
2Assist.Prof.Dr.HakanSevik,KastamonuUniversity,FacultyofEngineeringandArchitecture,37150,Kastamonu,Turkey
3CananUnal,ForestTreeSeedsandTreeBreedingResearchDirectorate,Gazi,Ankara,Turkey
UDK 630* 181.5 (001) Izvorni znanstveni članci – Original scientific papers
Šumarski list, 1–2 (2016): 39–44
EFFECT OF ROOTING HORMONES ON
THE ROOTING CAPABILITY OF Ficus benjamina L.
CUTTINGS
UTJECAJ FITOHORMONA NA SPOSOBNOST ZAKORJENJIVANJA
REZNICA VRSTE Ficus benjamina L.
Osman TOPACOGLU1, Hakan SEVIK2, Kerim GUNEY1, Canan UNAL3, Erol AKKUZU1, Ahmet SIVACIOGLU1
Summary
Vegetative production techniques, of which cutting method widely used in propagation of ornamental plants, have
a crucial role for conserving the plant genetic sources. On rooting development of stem cuttings, cutting position,
rooting medium and rooting hormone are some of the critical factors that aect the success. e primary objec-
tive of this study is to determine the best hormone doses and ideal rooting medium on Ficus benjamina L. stem
cuttings. Conventionally, the most frequently vegetative propagation method is the rooting of the stem cuttings
in various media such as, pearlite, peat, sand, through exposure to high-concentration rooting hormones (IBA,
IAA, NAA, etc.). But, this conventional technique requires wide areas in the rooting stage of mass production,
prevents monitoring the course of rooting, and necessitates large amount of materials used as hormones and root-
ing media. In this study, a new method that may be preferable in mass production of plants was tested. 39 dier-
ent treatments were carried out, and their results were evaluated. Sand, and perlite were used as solid rooting me-
dia. Stem cuttings were kept in low-concentration hormones permanently aer cutting (liquid medium). In this
way, their rooting capability were examined. Rooting trials were conducted before stem cuttings were taken to
solid rooting media. As conclusions, the highest rooting ratio were obtained for 10 ppm of NAA (94.43%) and
100 ppm of IBA (93.9%) in liquid media. Moreover, the highest root length and the average root length were quite
low in liquid media.
KEY WORDS: Fitohormones, vegetative propagation, auxins, rooting
INTRODUCTION
UVOD
Millions of plants are vegetatively produced every year to
be used in dierent elds. If the genetic structure of an in-
dividual is intended to be conserved, its production is based
on cutting. In this way, the genetic structure of rootstock is
conserved exactly. Millions of plants are produced by use
of this method every year to be used in various elds such
as landscaping, forestry, and agriculture.
Since auxin had been begin to use as plant growth regula-
tors, lots of researches have been conducted and lots of met-
hods have been developed and applied on various plant
40 Šumarski list, 1–2, CXXXX (2016), 39–44
species. Although these researches conducted, auxin appli-
cation-related researches are needed to grow more quality
and productive plants (Chhun et al., 2003).
Rooting of cutting varies from species to species. Various
pre-treatments are carried out in order to facilitate the ro-
oting of cutting and increase success. Hormone applications
are one of the most common pre-treatments. Research evi-
dence suggests that auxins play a central role in the deter-
mination of rooting capacity, by enabling the faster produc-
tion of rooted cutting material which is essential for
vegetative propagation (Fogaça and Fett-Neto, 2005).
Auxins are known to increase rooting percentage and roo-
ting time together with uniformity of rooting (Hartmann
et al., 2002).
In these applications, the cross section of a plant is exposed
to the rooting hormones prepared in high concentrations
for a short time. en cuttings are taken to such rooting
media as peat, sand, and pearlite, and root formation is wa-
ited. e cuttings taken to rooting media cover extensive
areas. So, the rooting media cannot be used for other pur-
poses until this application, which is usually carried out in
greenhouses, ends.
e rooting period of plants following the hormone appli-
cation varies from species to species. It may take from a co-
uple of weeks to twelve weeks or longer (Zencirkıran, 2013).
e plant’s root development cannot be monitored visually
in this period. Rooting percentages may be too low aer the
applications that take many months. at causes big losses
of labor and very high costs.
is study aims to conduct production through cuttings by
use of a dierent method. To this end, contrary to classic
applications, cuttings were not exposed to short-time high
hormone doses, but they were kept in low-concentration
hormones permanently. To compare the research results
with the results of conventional applications, common ro-
oting methods were also employed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIJALI I METODE
In this study, species Ficus benjamina L. cuttings, which
were in a height of 8 to 10 cm and prepared from last-year
shoots, were used. In the cutting preparation, to keep two
buds on each cutting was ensured. e cuttings were kept
in pure water to dry and were used in rooting trials in less
than 24 hours.
Two dierent rooting methods were tried in this study. In
the rst one, the concentrations of IAA, IBA, GA3, and NAA
hormones were prepared in doses of 100, 50 and 10 ppm.
Cardboard cups having a volume of nearly 150 mm were
lled with these hormones up to half. en 20 of prepared
cuttings were put in each of these media. Aer putting the
cuttings, the hormone level in the cup was marked. In case
of any decrease of hormone level in the cup as to daily
check, such cups were completed with pure water. By this
means, it was tried to prevent any change in hormone con-
centration that might occur as a result of surface evapora-
tion. e concentrations of IAA, IBA, GA3, and NAA hor-
mones prepared in the doses of 100, 50 and 10 ppm were
kept in a +4 °C refrigerator in the study period. e cups
and the hormones inside them were changed once every
ve days. In this stage of the study, 12 applications were
carried out (3 doses from each hormone). Also, a control
group was used. e rooting of cuttings in pure water was
monitored in the control group.
Rooting trials were conducted also in solid rooting media
in order to compare the results of the applications focused
on in the study with those of classic applications. 1000, 3000
and 5000 ppm concentrations of IAA, IBA, GA3, and NAA
hormones were tried. e cross sections of the prepared
cuttings were made to contact with these hormones for 4
to 5 seconds, and the cuttings were planted in rooting me-
dia. Sand, peat, and perlite were used as rooting media. e
rooting media were irrigated once every three days, thereby
keeping the media humid continuously. In this way, the cu-
ttings exposed to 13 applications (3 doses from each one of
4 hormones and one control group application) were taken
to 3 dierent rooting media. us, 39 dierent application
results were compared.
e cuttings subjected to 13 dierent applications in liquid
rooting media and 39 dierent applications in solid rooting
media were kept in rooting media for 45 days. At the end
of this period, measurements were carried out on cuttings
to determine rooting percentage (%) (RP), the number of
roots (RN), the biggest root length value (mm) (RB), the
average root length value (mm) (RA) and the average root
thickness value (mm) (RT).
All data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Firstly, a
one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on
the data. en Duncans test was set at the 0.05 condence
level to separate treatment means.
RESULTS
REZULTATI
Dierent doses of hormones may have dierent eects on
traits. us, more reliable results may be obtained if evalu-
ation is made by regarding each dose of each hormone as a
separate treatment, that is, a separate treatment. e appli-
cations were eective in terms of all the characters (P<0.05).
ere was no rooting in 10 ppm doses of IAA and IBA, and
there was rooting only in 100 ppm of GA3 and in 10 ppm
of NAA. e highest rooting percentage was in 10 ppm of
NAA (94.43%) and in 100 ppm of IBA (93.9%). ese va-
41
TOPACOGLU, O. ET AL: EFFECT OF ROOTING HORMONES ON THE ROOTING CAPABILITY OF Ficus benjamina L. CUTTINGS
lues were almost threefold of the rooting percentage obta-
ined in the control group (37.56%). When other characters
were examined, the control group was in the rst homoge-
neous group in terms of all traits. at indicates that hor-
mone applications have positive eects on all traits. e hi-
ghest values were obtained in 100 ppm IBA, in terms of RB
and RT; in 100 ppm GA3 and 100 ppm IBA in terms of RB;
and in 100 ppm IAA in terms of RN (Table 1).
To compare the obtained values with classic rooting trials,
the rooting values of the cuttings in the solid rooting media
were examined. ere were signicant dierences in RP,
RN, RB, and RT of species Ficus benjamina L. cuttings
(P<0.05). e highest RP (70.51%) was obtained in the per-
lite; whereas 53.19% and 39.17% of RP were obtained for
peat and sand media, respectively. e highest RB and RT
values were obtained in the sand medium (Table 2).
ere were signicant dierences among the ve groups
(IAA, IBA, GA3, NAA, and control) in RP, RN, RB, RA, and
RT (P<0.05). e highest RP were obtained in 5000 ppm
IAA (80.15%) and 3000 ppm IAA (77.21%) applications.
e highest two values in terms of the number of roots were
obtained in 3000 ppm NAA (9 pcs) and 5000 ppm NAA
(7.7 pcs) applications. While the biggest root length values
were obtained in 3000 ppm IBA (51.77 mm), 3000 ppm IAA
Table 1. Effect of different concentration of fitohormones (IAA, IBA, GA3 and NAA) on rooting traits of Ficus benjamina L. in liquid rooting media
Tablica 1. Utjecajrazličitihkoncentracijafitohormona(IAA,IBA,GA3iNAA)naznačajkezakorjenjivanjareznicavrsteFicus benjamina L.utekućimmedijima
Fitohormone
Fitohormon
Concentration
(ppm)
Koncentracija
(ppm)
Rooting percentage
(%) RP
Postotak
ukorjenjivanja
(%) RP
Number
of roots RN
Broj
korijena RN
Biggest root length
value (mm) RB
Najveća vrijednost
dužine korijena
(mm) RB
Average root length
value (mm) RA
Prosječna
vrijednost dužine
korijena (mm) RA
Average root thickness
value (mm) RT
Prosječna vrijednost
debljine korijena (mm)
RT
IAA
IAA
100 71,43d 10,8d 22,86b 16,686b 0,866b
50 14,29a 7c 13,02ab 9,505ab 0,890b
IBA
IBA
100 93,9e 1,57a 43,25c 31,571c 0,934b
50 57,14c 5,75b 25,41b 18,549b 0,610a
GA3
GA3
100 57,14c 1,75a 48,00c 35,038c 0,788b
NAA
NAA 10 94,43e 5,57bc 10,22ab 7,460ab 0,636a
Control
Kontrola 037,56b 3,33ab 4,83a 3,523a 0,493a
F Value
Vrijednost F 300,949*** 14,049*** 14,178*** 14,178*** 13,914***
Means followed by the same letter in a column are not significantly different at P<0.05, based on Duncan’s Test.
*** The mean difference is significant at the 0.01 level.
Prosječne vrijednosti s istim slovom u koloni nisu signifikantne pri P<0.05, na temelju Duncan’s Testa.
*** Značajno kod 0.01.
Table 2. Rooting traits of Ficus benjamina L. in three different solid rooting media
Tablica 2. ZnačajkezakorjenjivanjavrsteFicus benjaminaL.utrirazličitakrutasupstrata
Media
Medij
Rooting percentage
(%) RP
Postotak ukorjenjivanja
(%) RP
Number of roots RN
Broj korijena RN
Biggest root length
value (mm) RB
Najveća vrijednost
dužine korijena (mm) RB
Average root length
value (mm) RA
Prosječna vrijednost
dužine korijena (mm) RA
Average root thickness value
(mm) RT
Prosječna vrijednost debljine
korijena (mm) RT
Sand
Pijesak 39,167a 5,43b 54,2836b 29,1821a ,885b
Peat
Treset 53,194b 2,85a 34,7875a 24,8208a ,860b
Pearlite
Perlit 70,506c 5,27b 40,1427a 26,0459a ,679a
F Value
Vrijednost F 41,680*** 11,257*** 11,884*** 1,390 18,627***
Means followed by the same letter in a column are not significantly different at P<0.05, based on Duncan’s Test.
*** Značajno kod 0.01 level.
Prosječne vrijednosti s istim slovom u koloni nisu signifikantne pri P<0.05, na temelju Duncan’s Testa.
*** Značajno kod 0.01.
42 Šumarski list, 1–2, CXXXX (2016), 39–44
(50.05 mm), and 5000 ppm IBA (50.01) applications, the
biggest RA values were obtained in 3000 ppm IBA (32.3
mm), 5000 ppm IAA (31.5 mm), and 5000 ppm IBA (30.1)
applications. e highest RT value was obtained in 5000
ppm NAA application (Table 3).
e results of low-concentration hormone applications in
solid and liquid rooting media are shown on Table 4. Re-
garding, rooting percentage, the number of roots, and root
thickness, it is clear that these values were quite close to one
another, but the biggest root height value and the average
root height value were quite low in liquid rooting media.
Although there were no signicant dierences between ro-
oting media in RN and RT, there were signicant dieren-
ces in RP, RB, and RA (Table 4). e biggest root height va-
lue and the average root height value were found to be
higher in solid rooting media, while rooting percentage was
found to be higher in liquid rooting media.
It is seen that liquid rooting media are more advantageous
than solid rooting media in terms of many characters (Ta-
ble 4). e highest rooting percentage in solid rooting me-
dia was 80.15% (5000 ppm IBA (Table 3), while the highest
rooting percentage in liquid rooting media was over 90%
(94.43% for 10 ppm NAA; 93.9% for 100 ppm IBA) (Table
1). While the biggest number of roots was 9 in solid roo-
ting media (Table 3), it was up to 10.8 in liquid rooting
media (Table 1). Similar results were obtained in terms of
other characters, too. e biggest root height value was fo-
und to be 50.05 mm for 3000 ppm IAA in solid rooting
media (Table 3) and was found to be 48 mm for 100 ppm
GA3 in liquid rooting media (Table 1). While the highest
RB value was found to be 31.5 mm in 5000 ppm IAA in
solid rooting media (Table 3), it was found to be 35.04 mm
in 100 ppm GA3 in liquid rooting media (Table 1). e bi-
ggest root thickness value was found to be 1.04 mm in so-
lid rooting media (Table 3), but it was 0.934 mm in liquid
rooting media (Table 1).
DISCUSSION
RASPRAVA
Various studies on the propagation of Ficus species via cu-
tting have examined the eects of dierent cutting extrac-
ting periods, rooting media, hormone applications, etc. on
the rooting of cuttings. Küden et al. (1993) found out that
cutting extracting periods, rooting media, and IBA appli-
cations aected rooting rates in cuttings, and the rooting
percentages varied between 0-90% in their applications. Te-
kintaş and Seferoglu (1998) conducted rooting trials on Fi-
cus carica in dierent media and obtained the highest roo-
ting rate in the sand medium (71%). It was followed by peat
(31%), pearlite (27%), and soil (25%) respectively. Antunes
Table 3. Effect of different concentration of Auxins (IAA, IBA, GA3 and NAA) on rooting traits of Ficus benjamina L. in different solid substrates
Tablica 3. Utjecajrazličitihkoncentracijaauksina(IAA,IBA,GA3iNAA)naznačajkezakorjenjivanjavrsteFicus benjaminaL.urazličitimkrutimsupstratima
Fitohormone
Fitohormon
Concentration
(ppm)
Koncentracija
(ppm)
Rooting percentage
(%) RP
Postotak ukorjenjivanja
(%) RP
Number of roots RN
Broj korijena RN
Biggest root length
value (mm) RB
Najveća vrijednost
dužine korijena
(mm) RB
Average root length
value (mm) RA
Prosječna vrijednost
dužine korijena
(mm) RA
Average root thickness
value (mm) RT
Prosječna vrijednost
debljine korijena (mm)
RT
IAA
IAA
5000 80,15e 3,0ab 50,01d 31,5e 0,71bc
3000 77,21e 6,5cde 50,05d 30,1de 0,79bc
1000 41,67bc 2,0a 35,71bcd 27,2cde 0,59ab
IBA
IBA
5000 39,29bc 4,8abcd 38,29bcd 21,0bcde 0,70bc
3000 68,75de 5,6bcd 51,77d 32,3e 0,78bc
1000 68,06de 2,1a 23,36ab 20,3bcde 0,73bc
GA3
GA3
5000 12,5a 4,0abc 22,04ab 16,1abc 0,61ab
3000 42,5bc 2,8ab 15,36a 12,5ab 0,44a
1000 37,5bc 2,0a 15,52a 4,8a 0,54ab
NAA
NAA
5000 52,08cd 7,7de 41,76bcd 28,1cde 1,04d
3000 25ab 9,0e 44,67cd 22,6bcde 0,87cd
1000 46,88c 3,0ab 28,73abc 18,2bcd 0,67abc
Control
Kontrola 0 49,9c 2,2ab 22,42ab 14,0ab 0,64abc
F Value
Vrijednost F 19,155*** 9,369*** 8,363*** 6,040*** 7,792***
Means followed by the same letter in a column are not significantly different at P<0.05, based on Duncan’s Test.
*** The mean difference is significant at the 0.01 level.
Prosječne vrijednosti s istim slovom u koloni nisu signifikantne pri P<0.05, na temelju Duncan’s Testa.
*** Značajno kod0.01.
43
TOPACOGLU, O. ET AL: EFFECT OF ROOTING HORMONES ON THE ROOTING CAPABILITY OF Ficus benjamina L. CUTTINGS
et al. (1996) examined the eects of dierent stratication
periods, IBA concentrations, and rooting media on the ro-
oting of Ficus carica cuttings and determined that the best
root and shoot development was obtained in the cuttings
subjected to a dose of 100 ppm of the IBA hormone and
planted in sand: soil mixture in the ratio of 1:1 without any
stratication. A study was conducted on the propagation of
Ficus carica via green cutting. Green cuttings with 2 to 3
leaves exposed to a dose of 1000 to 4000 ppm of the IBA
hormone were planted in stream sand, and a rooting of 85%
to 100% was obtained (Kai et al., 1997). In addition, some
studies on the propagation of Ficus carica via tissue culture
conducted in recent years have yielded favorable results
(Demiralay et al., 1998; Günver and Ertan; 1998; Kumar et
al., 1998; Nobre and Romano, 1998). However, all of these
studies have required more time, labor, materials, and hor-
mones in comparison to the method employed in the pre-
sent study and do not have success rates higher than the one
obtained in the present study.
Many studies have focused on the eects of auxin group
hormones on rooting and plant development. Alvarez et al.
(1989) examined the eects of IAA and IBA in Malus pu-
mila; Şevik and Güney (2013a, 2013b) examined the eects
of IAA, IBA, NAA and GA3 in Melissa ocinalis; Stefancic
et al. (2005) examined the eects of IAA and IBA in Prunus
spp., and Chhun et al. (2003) examined the eects of IAA,
IBA, and NAA in Oryza sativa. e previous studies mostly
show that auxin group hormones are inuential on rooting.
at is consistent with the results of the present study.
Gibberellins are the third most commonly used plant hor-
mones with a share of 17%. e most commonly used co-
mmercial gibberellin is GA3. It is mostly used for increasing
the height of a plant or ower yield (Kumlay and Eryiğit,
2011). e present study demonstrated that rooting percen-
tage, root height, and root thickness values were 1.5 to 9.9
times higher among cuttings exposed to a dose of 100 ppm
of the GA3 hormone in comparison to the control group
(Table 1). at is consistent with the results provided in the
literature, too (Sevik and Guney, 2013a, 2013b).
CONCLUSIONS
ZAKLJUČCI
Liquid rooting media provide bigger advantages in compa-
rison to the conventional applications. ey allow monito-
ring the course of rooting of plants and prevent occupying
solid rooting media in vain because plants whose roots have
grown enough are taken to solid rooting media. Liquid roo-
ting media also allow producing many plants in a limited ro-
oting area. For example, in the present study, cuttings were
placed in solid rooting media at the intervals of 2 cm, and an
area of approximately 400 cm2 was used for 100 cuttings. On
the other hand, 20 cuttings were placed in each cardboard
cup which had a diameter of almost 6.5 cm in liquid rooting
media. An area of nearly 43 cm2 was used for 100 cuttings.
Accordingly, liquid rooting media allow the rooting of the
same amount of cuttings as solid rooting media in an area of
almost 1/10 of the area used by solid rooting media. Another
advantage of the employed method is fewness of the number
of materials used. While classic methods require owerpots
and rooting platforms covering wide areas as well as such
materials as sand, pearlite, or peat as a rooting medium, the
method employed in the present study uses only cardboard
cups and pure water and requires smaller amount of hormo-
nes. Since the individuals whose root formation has reached
the adequate level in liquid rooting media are placed in
owerpots, success rate is close to 100%. erefore, this met-
hod, which is easier and cheaper, can be eectively used in
the elds where many individuals such as medical plants,
aromatic plants, ornamental plants, and eld crops need to
be rooted. However, further studies should be carried out to
determine the hormone and the concentration that yield the
best result for each plant.
Table 4. Oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) for effects of solid and liquid rooting media on rooting traits of Ficus benjamina L.
Tablica 4. Jednostrukaanalizavarijance(ANOVA)zautjecajkrutihitekućihmedijazazakorjenjivanjenaznačajkezakorjenjivanjavrsteFicus benjaminaL.
Substrat
Supstrat
Rooting percentage (%)
RP
Postotak ukorjenjivanja
(%) RP
Number of roots RN
Broj korijena RN
Biggest root length value
(mm) RB
Najveća vrijednost
dužine korijena (mm) RB
Average root length
value (mm) RA
Prosječna vrijednost
dužine korijena (mm) RA
Average root thickness
value (mm) RT
Prosječna vrijednost
debljine korijena (mm) RT
Solid
Kruti 60,68 4,72 41,23 26,28 0,76
Liquid
Tekući 61,62 4,87 26,12 19,07 0,75
F Value
Vrijednost F 5,763*0,106 33,853*** 16,490*** 0,037
*The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
***The mean difference is significant at the 0.01 level.
* Značajno kod 0.05
*** Značajno kod 0.01
44 Šumarski list, 1–2, CXXXX (2016), 39–44
According to the results of the present study, dierent hor-
mones and dierent concentrations have dierent eects on
rooting percentage and morphological characters. us, hor-
mones should be selected based on the primary character.
For instance, 10 ppm NAA should be preferred when high
rooting rate is requested; 100 ppm IAA should be preferred
when a big amount of root formation is requested; and 100
ppm GA3 should be preferred when long root is requested.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ZAHVALA
is study is funded by the Scientic Research Projects Co-
mmittee of Kastamonu University with the project number
KUBAP-01/2013-45.
REFERENCES
LITERATURA
• Alvarez, R., S.J. Nissen, E.G. Sutter, 1989: Relationship between
Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) root-
stocRN cultured in vitro and adventitious root formation in the
presence of lndole-3-Butyric Acid. Plant Physiol.89:439-443.
• Antunes, L.E.C., N.N.J. Chalfun, J.D.Ramos, M. Pasqual, R.D.
Veiga, 1996: Inuence of dierent periods of stratication, in-
dolebutyric acid concentration and substrate on rooting of g
cuttings. Ciência e Agrotecnologia. 20(3):307-314.
• Chhun, T., S. Taketa, S. Tsurumi, M. Ichii, 2003: e eects of
auxin on lateral root initiation and root gravitropism in a lateral
rootless mutant Lrt1 of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth.
Regul.39:161-170.
• Demiralay, A., Y. Yalçin-Mendi, Y. Aka-Kaçar,S. Çetiner, 1998:
In vitro propagation of Ficuscarica L. var. Bursa Siyahi through
meristem culture. ActaHortic.480:165-167.
• Fogaça, C.M., A.G. Fett-Neto, 2005: Role of auxin and its mod-
ulators in the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus species dier-
ing in recalcitrance. Plant Growth.Regul.45:1-10.
• Günver, G., E. Ertan, 1998: A study on the propagation of gs
by tissue culture techniques. ActaHortic.480:169-172.
• Hartmann, H.T., D.E. Kester, F.T. Davies, R.L. Geneve, 2002:
Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices (7th edition). Pren-
tice-Hall, 880p. New Jersey.
• Kai, M., L. Zhifen, T. Yan, J. WeiBing, 1997: e green cutting
propagation techniques for g trees. China Fruits.3:32-38.
• Küden, A.B., N. Kaska, M. Yilmaz, A. Küden, 1993: Bursa Siya-
hive 01-IN-10 incirçesitlerindefarkliçelikalmazamanlariilekök-
lendirmeortamlarive IBA uygulamalarininkarsilastirilmasi.
Ç.Ü.Z.F. Dergisi. 8(4):181-188.
• Kumar, V., A.Radha, S. Kumar Chitta, 1998: In vitro plant re-
generation of g (Ficuscarica L. cv. gular) using apical buds from
mature trees. Plant Cell Rep.17:717-720.
• Kumlay, A.M., T. Er yiğit, 2011. Growth and development regu-
lators in plants: plant hormones. Iğdır Univ. J. Inst. Sci. & Tech.1
(2):47-56.
• Nobre, J., A. Romano,1998: In vitro cloning of Ficuscarica L.
adult trees. ActaHortic.480:161-164.
• Sevik, H., K. Guney, 2013a: Eects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3
on rooting and morphological features of Melissa ocinalis L.
stem cuttings. e Scientic World J., Article ID 909507, 5
pages.
• Sevik, H., K. Guney, 2013b: Eects of some hormone applica-
tions on morphological features of Melissa ocinalis L. root cut-
tings. Soil-Water J. 2(2):16471652.
• Stefancic, M., F. Stampar,G. Osterc,2005: Inuence of IAA and
IBA on root development and quality of Prunus „GiSelA 5” leafy
cuttings. Hort. Science. 40(7):2052-2055.
• Tekintas, F.E., G. Seferoglu, 1998: Propagation of g by hard-
wood cuttings in the eld conditions (Ficuscarica L.). ActaHor-
tic.480:119-120.
• Zencirkıran, M., 2013: PeyzajBitkileri 1. Nobel AkademikYayın-
cılık, 475 s., Ankara.
Sažetak
Tehnike vegetativne proizvodnje od kojih se metoda reznica uvelike koristi u razmnožavanju ukrasnog bilja,
imaju ključnu ulogu za očuvanje genetskih izvora biljaka. Mjesto uzimanja reznice na biljci, medij ukorjen-
jivanja i tohormon ukorjenjivanja neki su od ključnih čimbenika koji utječu na uspjeh razvoja zakorjen-
jivanja reznica od stabljike. Primarni cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi najbolje koncentracije tohormona
i idealni medij zakorjenjivanja za reznice od stabljike vrste Ficus benjamina L. Konvencionalno, najčešća me-
toda vegetativnog razmnožavanja je zakorjenjivanja pupova u različitim supstratima kao što su perlit, treset,
pijesak do izloženosti visoko koncentriranim hormonima zakorjenjivanja (IBA, IAA, NAA, itd.). Ali ta kon-
vencionalna tehnika zahtijeva široka područja u fazi zakorjenjivanja masovne produkcije, sprječava nadzor
tijeka zakorjenjivanja i traži visoku količinu materijala koji se koriste kao hormoni i mediji zakorjenjivanja.
U ovom istraživanju, ispitana je nova metoda koja bi mogla biti poželjnijom u masovnoj proizvodnji biljaka.
Izvršeno je 39 različitih tretiranja i prikazani su njihovi rezultati. Pijesak i perlit korišteni su kao kruti medij
zakorjenjivanja. Pupovi su se trajno čuvali u hormonima niske koncentracije nakon rezanja (tekući medij).
Na taj način je ispitana njihova sposobnost zakorjenjivanja. Ispitivanja zakorjenjivanja provedena su prije
nego su pupovi odnijeti u kruti medij zakorjenjivanja. Kao zaključak, dobiveni su najviši omjeri zakorjen-
jivanja za 10 ppm NAA (94.43%) te 100 ppm IBA (93.9%) u tekućim medijima. Najveća duljina korijena i
prosječna duljina korijena bile su prilično male u tekućim medijima.
KLJUČNE RIJEČI: Fitohormoni, autovegetativno razmnožavanje, auksini, zakorjenjivanje
... Efek hormon auksin pada pengakaran dan pengembangan tanaman diteliti dalam studi spesies lain seperti Rosemary, Sage dan Elderberry (Gudeva et al., 2017), Ficus benjamina L. (Topacoglu et al., 2016) dengan mengaplikasikan IBA, NAA dan campuran dari masing-masing auksin dilaporkan efektif. ...
... Yusnita et al. (2018) perlakuan campuran NAA dan IBA masing-masing 1000 ppm lebih efektif karena menghasilkan panjang akar yang lebih besar, akar lebih baik secara morfologi, persentase bertunas lebih tinggi dan waktu untuk pembentukan akar lebih cepat pada jambu jamaika. Perlakuan kombinasi NAA dan IBA juga efektif pada Ficus benjamina L. menurut Topacoglu et. al. (2016), setek lada varietas Natar 1 (Artha et. al., 2015) dan Piper crocatum Ruizan Pav. (Maulida et. al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai jenis auksin terhadap beberapa konsentrasi terhadap pengakaran Piper colubrinum. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung dari bulan Mei 2018 sampai Desember 2018. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. perlakuan yang mengaplikasikan: kontrol, IBA 1500 ppm, IBA 2000 ppm, NAA 2000 ppm, NAA 750 ppm + IBA 750 ppm, NAA 1000 ppm + IBA 1000 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada variabel jumlah akar primer di buku pada perlakuan NAA 750 ppm + IBA 750 ppm nilai rata-rata meningkat yaitu 21 helai dibandingkan kontrol 2,5 helai. Pada perlakuan NAA 750 ppm + IBA 750 ppm berpengaruh pada peningkatan jumlah akar primer di penampang batang yaitu 14 dibandingkan dengan kontrol 11 helai. Demikian perlakuan NAA 750 ppm + IBA 750 ppm berpengaruh pada peningkatan jumlah akar primer yaitu 34,3 helai dibandingkan dengan kontrol 13,5 helai. Untuk variabel bobot basah akar nilai rata-rata NAA 750 ppm + IBA 750 ppm yaitu 11,8 g, nilai rata-rata ini lebih tinggi dibandingkan semua perlakuan.
... Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) also belong to the auxin family, and they are commonly used for root initiating [12]. Studies have shown that auxin is essential to plant propagation using cuttings [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. However, too high auxin concentration will lead to reverse inhibition, and auxin will become inhibitors then [23][24][25][26]. ...
... Studies have demonstrated that vegetative propagation through stem cuttings is a popular tool for large-scale propagation of threatened plant species which have suffered from abnormal flowering and fruiting behaviors, poor abilities to germinate, formulate seedlings or regenerate [20,27]. Auxin is known to play an important role in stimulating rapid root formation from cuttings of plants [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. In this study, the auxins-treated cuttings (IAA, IBA and NAA) with different concentrations showed different rooting and sprouting behaviors of S. procumbens (Table 2). ...
Article
Solanum procumbens Lour. is a precious medicinal plant with plenty applications in medicine and pharmacy. Auxin is a plant hormone which is critical to the induction and growth of roots of cuttings. In this study, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of indole acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on the rooting and sprouting of S. procumbens stem cuttings. The experiment involved four distinctive concentrations of IAA (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm), IBA (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm) and IBA + NAA (250 + 250, 500 + 500, 750 + 750 and 1000 + 1000 ppm) along with the control group used to treat S. procumbens cuttings. The experiment applied the randomized complete block (RCB) method with 3 replications. The results showed that IAA, IBA and NAA had a remarkable influence on rooting and sprouting abilities of S. procumbens cuttings. The best records of sprouting rate (92.34%), root number (32.25), root length (6.8 cm), root weight (0.574 g), sprout length (11.7 cm) and leaf-pair number (7.5) were obtained in cuttings treated with IBA at 500 ppm. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of auxins wore off as their concentrations increased. In general, this study emphasizes that IBA at 500 ppm is the most effective auxin in terms of stimulating rooting and sprouting in S. procumbens cuttings. The results of the study also promise to create a supply of high-quality S. procumbens seedlings for gardeners.
... The auxins promoted cell division and their elongation led to differentiation of cambial initials into root primordia and in the mobilization of reserve food material to sites of root initiation there by giving higher number of roots per cutting. According to Topacoglu et al. (2016) different hormones and different concentrations have different effects on rooting percentage and morphological characters. Thus, hormones should be selected based on the primary character. ...
... Similarly, Koleva et al., (2017) reported best response for rooting with IBA followed by IAA and NAA in Sage, Rosemary, and Elderberry. Similarly, the treatments of auxins (IBA, IAA, and NAA) on the root development were studied in species like Melissa officinalis (Sevik & Guney, 2013), Ficus Benjamina (Topacoglu et al., 2016), and Oryza sativa (Chhun et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) is one of the most important medicinal plant species for cancer treatment. The tree contains anticancer drug 'Taxol' which is mainly used for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and AIDS-related cancers. However, Himalayan yew is an endangered tree species and requires high conservation attention due to declining population. This study was therefore conducted for the propagation of Himalayan yew by the regeneration of fresh stem cuttings using hormone treatments of Indole Butyric acid (IBA) and Indole acetic acid (IAA) at 2000 to 7000 ppm concentrations. A total of 3840 stem cuttings were treated with IBA and IAA and grown in polythene bags containing soil at Lalku valley, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The influence of IBA treatment at 7000 ppm concentration showed survival of 85.22% (average number of roots=10.4, average length of roots=15.5 cm, average number of leaves=92.4 and average number of sprouts=3.3) while IAA showed survival of 81.11% (average number of roots=9.1, average length of roots=14.6 cm, average number of leaves=84.0 and average number of sprout=3.0) at the same concentration. The lowest survival of 40-45 % (average number of roots=4.2, average length of roots=8.0 cm, average number of leaves=32.2, average number of sprouts=1.7) was observed for the control stem cuttings. This study recommends the application of IBA (7000 ppm) as a better hormone for the conservation and propagation of Himalayan yew.
... The application of IAA and other phytohormons was recorded to be influential in germination percentage of Lilium martagon seeds (Guney et al., 2016b). Similarly, auxin has been found to enhance rooting effect in Ficus benjamina L. (Topacoglu et al., 2016) and Schefflera arboricola (Sevik et al., 2015). Therefore, IAA has been quantified from tobacco flowers (Liu et al., 2002), aerial parts of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (ecotype Columbia) plants, leaves of Triticum aestivum L., cv. ...
Article
Full-text available
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important plant growth regulator. As the very first endeavor, the study is aimed at extracting and quantifying IAA from seedlings of Bambusa tulda and evaluating its bioactivity. The extraction of IAA was performed in organic solvent followed by sample evaporation and TLC with a mobile phase composed of chloroform, methanol and formic acid (77:22:1 v/v) in isocratic mode. The extract obtained from preparatory TLC was subjected to HPLC with acetic acid and methanol (75:25 v/v) as the mobile phase in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and operation pressure of 54 MPa at 30°C, and detection was monitored at 280 nm. Bioassay of the extracted IAA was carried out in Abelmoschus esculentus seedlings. The similar Rf value (0.412) of the extract during TLC analysis and similar peak of HPLC chromatogram with retention time 28.71 min to that of standard IAA indicated the presence of IAA in B. tulda seedling extract. The extracted IAA was quantified to be 10.28 µg/ml. In bioassay experiment, the extracted IAA significantly enhanced root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and significant increase of total chlorophyll and protein in A. esculentus leaves. Therefore, B. tulda seedlings could be a potential source of IAA, and it can be utilized for production of bio-fertilizer at a commercial scale. Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, Bamboo, High performance liquid chromatography, indole-3 acetic acid
... Therefore, with abundant endogenous free IAA and conjugated IAA, it is possible to induce AR without the exogenous IAA contribution to the pool. Ahkami et al. [48] reported several AR experiments with a high level of IAA-asp in the base of the stem cuttings, resulting in significant rooting without treating with auxin. Auxin can be produced by developing and expanding leaves [49,50] in addition to the apical buds and young leaves. ...
Article
Full-text available
Heritage trees carry both botanical and historical value for a city’s resilience and sustainability and hence are precious and unique. Their transplant is costly and very rare due to tremendous cost and 100% survival requirement by law. Rootless transplant is even more detrimental to the heritage tree due to removal of roots infected by brown root rot (BRR) before transplanting. This study examined the adventitious roots (AR) induction ability of the Ficus elastica Roxb. heritage tree infected with BRR. The experimental design considered three factors: root diameter (RD), wounding method (WM), and auxin solution on aerial roots under fractional factorial experiment in completely randomized design (CRD). There were four RD groups: RDI (RD < 2 cm), RDII (2 ≤ RD ≤ 4.3 cm), RDIII (4.3 < RD ≤ 22), and RDIV (RD > 22); three WMs: cutting off (CF), girdling (GD), and rectangular shape peeling (RP) of aerial roots; and three auxin solutions: 2000 mg·L−1 IBA(Indole-3-butyric acid) (2B), 2000 mg·L−1 IBA + 2000 mg·L−1 NAA(1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) (2NB), and 4000 mg·L−1 IBA (4B) plus water as control (C). The number of rooting wounds, number of roots, and the mean length of the three longest adventitious roots in each wound were recorded to evaluate the AR rooting performance. Twenty four treatment combinations including 328 wounds were tested. The results showed that rooting ability was significantly correlated with RD and WM. Smaller RDs had better rooting and declined with increased RDs. CF had the best rooting followed by GD and then RP. Auxin solution did not significantly affect the rooting ability. It may be due to the abundant endogenous auxin in the heritage tree, which mitigated the effect of exogenous auxin for AR induction. We conclude that cutting off small-diameter aerial roots is the best approach to induce ARs from rootless F. elastica heritage trees to enhance transplantation success.
... In numerous related studies on a range of terrestrial plants, single or joint effects of heavy metals on plant system were investigated and the results showed that sensitive plants developed visible symptom of phytotoxicity due to high concentrations of heavy metal [28,29]. The growth performance, physiological characters and biochemical processes of plants were affected due to heavy metal exposure [30,31,8]. There is very much study about the plant growth regulators [32,33,34,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oilseed plant, Brassica napus L. seedlings grown in hydroponic condition with different concentrations of Pb were treated with salicylic acid (SA) to investigate the role of exogenous salicylic acid in alleviating lead toxicity on biochemical and physiological activities of the plant. The results showed that application of different concentrations of Pb increased soluble sugars and reduced carbohydrate levels significantly in roots and shoots of the plants. The stress induced by application of Pb triggered significant inhibitory effects on growth and chlorophyll synthesis induced on the production of protein and proline and enhanced the levels of antioxidant activity. Salicylic acid (SA) treated plants showed alleviation increasing total dry mass, leaf area, shoot and root length as well as leaf total chlorophyll content in responses to Pb stress. Results revealed the importance of salicylic acid (SA) activity in enabling plants to reduce the soluble sugars and increase of insoluble sugar in heavy -metal-stressed plants. The content of proline and proteins were also reduced in plants were treated with salicylic acid. Our data provide evidence that salicylic acid treatment decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants were exposed to different levels of Pb.
Article
Full-text available
Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. Ex Munro (giant bamboo) is one of the most economically important bamboo species globally. However, propagation of Dendrocalamus giganteus from seed is hampered by the duration it takes to flower – making the large-scale production of planting stock for this valuable species untenable. This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to determine the optimal doses of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and culm cutting position to propagate D. giganteus. Cuttings from the top, middle and basal culm positions were treated with different concentrations of Indole-3-Butyric Acid (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0%) and a control with distilled water. A mixture of top forest soil and sand in a ratio of 2:1 was used as a growth medium. The experiment was set up in a Complete Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD). Cuttings were monitored for the number of bud sprouts over 18 weeks. Results indicated that cuttings’ position and concentration of IBA greatly influenced the sprouting of D. giganteus. The highest bud sprouts were obtained for 0.6% IBA and cuttings from the basal position. Bud sprouting was lowest in the control and cuttings from the top position. We conclude that while propagating D. giganteus by culm cuttings, basal cuttings and 0.6% IBA should be encouraged.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) is one of the endangered medicinal plants species having great importance due to the presence of anticancer drug Taxol. This metabolite is mainly used for the treatment of ovarian, breast, AIDS-related cancers, and other indications. The study being reported here was conducted for the propagation of Himalayan yew by using two different trials of Indole Butyric acid (IBA) and Indole acetic acid (IAA) hormones treatments (2000–7000 ppm) through stem cuttings (140 each). In the same way, 3840 cuttings were treated with IBA and IAA from November 2016 to November 2017 at Lalku valley, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Results The influence of IBA treatment (7000 ppm) showed a survival of 85.22% (average number of roots = 10.4, average length of roots = 15.5 cm, average number of leaves = 92.4 and average number of sprouts = 3.3) while that of IAA treatment (7000 ppm) the survival of 81.11% (average number of roots = 9.1, average length of roots = 14.6 cm, average number of leaves = 84.0 and average number of sprout = 3.0) were more significant followed by 2000–6000 ppm (IBA and IAA). Lowest survival 40–45% (average number of roots = 4.2, average length of roots = 8.0 cm, average number of leaves = 32.2, average number of sprouts = 1.7) was noticed for controlled cuttings. Conclusion The present study enhanced the potential of conservation and propagation of T. wallichiana. Hence our study suggests and recommends the application of IBA (7000 ppm) as a better hormone for the conservation and propagation of Himalayan yew.
Article
Full-text available
The level of pollution has reached the dimensions that threaten human health, with the rapid urbanization and the increase of energy consumption especially in developing countries. Every year in the world, millions of people lose their lives because of air pollution. Heavy metals have a separate precaution in pollutants, especially in terms of human health, because they can remain intact in nature for long periods of time, they tend to bioaccumulate and some are toxic or carcinogenic even at low concentrations. Therefore, monitoring of heavy metal pollution and determination of risky areas is very important. Biomonitors are the most commonly used methods for monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, determining which organelles are more suitable for monitoring the metal is essential in order to ensure that the monitoring is reliable. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variations of the concentration of Ba, Na, Al, B, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Mn elements depending on the traffic density in leaves, seeds and branches of Tilia tomentosa which are grown in areas with heavy, low dense and non traffic areas. As a result of the study, it was determined that the heavy metal concentrations in leaves and seeds except Fe were increased due to traffic density. This situation can cause serious problems for human health, especially since the leaves and seeds of linden individuals grown in traffic-intensive areas are consumed as tea.
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.
Article
Full-text available
A plant growth regulator is an organic compound, either natural or synthetic, that modifies or controls one ore more specific processes within a plant. Some hormones are produced in one tissue and transported to another tissue, where they produce specific physiological responses; others act within the same tissues where they are produced. While some hormones have stimulator effects, the others have inhibitory effects on plants. Therefore, rather than thinking of hormones as stimulators, it is more useful to regard them as chemical regulators. The same hormone can elicit different responses in different tissues or at different times of development in the same tissue. In this regard, we categorized the hormones into two different classes; one group is plant growth stimulators (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, tuberonic acid, indol butyric acid, ethylene derivatives, napthalene acetic acid, acetyl salicylic acid), the other group is plant growth inhibitors (ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, chlormequat chlorur, daminozid, ancymidol, maleic hydrazid, phosphon-d, paclobutrazol).
Article
Full-text available
A reliable procedure for multiple-shoot induction and plantlet regeneration was developed with apical buds collected from 7- to 8-year-old trees of Ficus carica L. using Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.2 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. The in-vitro-regenerated shoots were further multiplied on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.2 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and an average multiplication rate of four per subculture was established with 90% success. Excised shoots were rooted in liquid half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid and 0.2% activated charcoal. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil, with a success rate of 68%.
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that auxins play a central role in the determination of rooting capacity, which is essential for vegetative propagation. Recent studies with apple trees have pointed to significant effects of auxin stability, wound related phenolics and ethylene production in the control of adventitious rooting. In the present study, a comparative analysis of the adventitious rooting of microcuttings of Eucalyptus saligna (easy-to-root species) and Eucalyptus globulus (difficult-to-root species) was carried out with different types of auxins, light intensities, presence or absence of apical meristem, different concentrations of phenolic compounds and presence or absence of an ethylene action inhibitor. Parameters evaluated were the percent rooting, number of roots per rooted cutting, length of longest root and mean rooting time. Results showed that auxins of intermediate stability are more favorable to rooting (particularly for the recalcitrant species), higher light intensities in the presence of exogenous auxins promote the rooting response, the absence of meristematic apex or externally supplied phenolics are not limiting for the rooting induced by exogenous auxins, and ethylene appears to play a minor role in the development of adventitious roots in microcuttings of Eucalyptus, indicating that the rhizogenic response results from direct effect of auxins.
Article
Full-text available
In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using (13)[C(6)]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 +/- 6.5 versus 166.6 +/- 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 +/- 4.4 versus 263.7 +/- 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base.
Article
This research was carried out to investigate the possibilities of propagating Bursa Siyahi fig cultivar, which is one of the most important table figs in Turkey, by the meristem culture. Meristems have several advantages, including their greater genetic stability, the possibility of producing virus-free plants and the relative ease of in vitro propagation of many species. Meristematic cells are small, thin walled, highly cytoplasmic and nonvacuolated. In this study, excised meristems from 10-year-old trees were kept on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium containing 7 g agar, 30 g sucrose, 100 mg myoinositol, 1.5 mg thiamine, 2 mg pyridoxine, 0.5 mg nicotinic acid and 2 mg glycine per litre for one week in the dark to avoid oxidation. The hormone added to the basic medium (mg/1) included benzyladenine (BA) 1 mg and naphthylacetic acid (NAA) 1 mg. The medium pH was adjusted to 5.8. After 6 weeks of culture, 3 mg/1 gibberellic acid (GA) was added in the nutrient medium. Meristems grew, but shoots did not, except one.
Article
The influence of two exogenously applied auxins (IAA and IBA) on the root and shoot development of leafy cuttings was analyzed at 'GiSeLA 5', the dwarfing cherry rootstock. IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) hindered the callus formation in the early period of root development and it was more successful than IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) in promoting earlier root development. IBA also influenced the stronger shoot growth and the development of acrobasal type of the rooting system, and induced higher number of roots. Those parameters are very important for the quality and survival of the new plants and they are not the consequence of the higher IAA content in the rooting zones of cuttings in the first days of root development. Both auxin treatments had no effect on the final percent of the rooted cuttings neither on the survival of cuttings, but they increased the percent of rooted cuttings without callus. The root system with callus proved less qualitative, because the cuttings with such root system developed significantly less roots per rooted cutting and their shoot length was shorter than those of the cuttings without callus at both auxin treatments. Exogenously applied auxins were not crucial for root formation, however their application resulted in higher percent of more qualitative 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings. IBA proved as the most efficient treatment and it additionally induced earlier root formation.
Article
Bursa Siyahi is a well-adapted fig cultivar under Qukurova conditions. However, almost all trees are infected with the fig mosaic virus. In vitro propagation of this cultivar through meristem culture was carried out in order to obtain virus-free plant propagation. The meristems were isolated during the growing seasons and cultured on Linsmair and Skoog (1965) medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg/1 Benzyladenine (BA), 0.1 mg/1 Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic Acid (GA3) + 89 mg/1 Phloroglucinol (PG) and + 2 g/1 active charcoal (AC). Then, growing shoots were transferred to a shoot proliferation medium including 89 mg/1 PG, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/1 BAP. In order to induce rooting, propagated shoots were subcultured onto a rooting medium with 0, 1 and 2 mg/1 IBA. In the meristem phase, survival and shoot formation rate of meristems was investigated, in the proliferation phase, the rate of proliferation and the effect of subculture number on the proliferation rate and in the rooting phase, the rate of rooted explants and the number of roots per explant. At the end of the meristem phase, the meristems which were isolated from shoot tips taken in spring or autumn times and cultured on a medium with phloroglucinol or active charcoal showed the highest shoot formation rate (50.1 %). The propagation rate was found to be higher (4.43 plantlet/plant) in the medium containing 1.0 mg/1 BAP than 0.5 mg/1 BAP (3.52). At the end of the rooting experiments, differences between the auxin treatments were not found to be statistically significant; however, the highest rooting (75.0 %) was obtained in medium without auxin. This was followed by 1 mg/1 and 2 mg/1 IBA containing media having 68.33 and 58.33 % rooting, respectively.
Article
Auxins control growth and development in plants, including lateral root initiation and root gravity response. However, how endogenous auxin regulates these processes is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of auxins on lateral root initiation and root gravity response in rice were investigated using a lateral rootless mutant Lrt1, which fails to form lateral roots and shows a reduced root gravity response. Exogenous application of IBA to the Lrt1 mutant restored both lateral root initiation and root gravitropism. However, application of IAA, a major form of natural auxin, restored only root gravitropic response but not lateral root initiation. These results suggest that IBA is more effective than IAA in lateral root formation and that IBA also plays an important role in root gravitropic response in rice. The application of NAA restored lateral root initiation, but did not completely restore root gravitropism. Root elongation assays of Lrt1 displayed resistance to 2,4-D, NAA, IBA, and IAA. This result suggests that the reduced sensitivity to exogenous auxins may be due to the altered auxin activity in the root, thereby affecting root morphology in Lrt1.
Influence of different periods of stratification, indolebutyric acid concentration and substrate on rooting of fig cuttings
  • L E C Antunes
  • N N J Chalfun
  • J D Ramos
  • M Pasqual
  • R D Veiga
• Antunes, L.E.C., N.N.J. Chalfun, J.D.Ramos, M. Pasqual, R.D. Veiga, 1996: Influence of different periods of stratification, indolebutyric acid concentration and substrate on rooting of fig cuttings. Ciência e Agrotecnologia. 20(3):307-314.