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Understanding Resilience: From Negative Life Events to Everyday Stressors

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Abstract

Resilience is typically conceptualized as successful adaptation to serious negative life events. Even relatively mundane stressors, however, require coping. Therefore, we argue that resilience should reflect managing well with stressors in general. To support the argument that resilience is relevant for social psychology and that social psychology can inform our understanding of resilience, we first discuss a program of research that links prior life adversity exposure to resilience to everyday stressors. We next review a psychophysiological approach-the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat-to assessing resilience as it occurs and tie this approach to research on coping resources. Finally, we highlight two central research areas within social psychology-romantic relationships and stigma and prejudice-for which resilience is highly relevant. This demonstrates the merits of applying the concept of resilience to a range of stressors and the potential for experimental social psychology to inform understudied aspects of resilience.

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... Bouncing back, recovery, protective factors, individual traits, and positive outcomes have all been used to describe resilience (Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Resilience, and more specifically, psychological resilience, refers to the ability to adapt to stress and adversity (American Psychological Association, 2016). ...
... Resilience, and more specifically, psychological resilience, refers to the ability to adapt to stress and adversity (American Psychological Association, 2016). Resilience has traditionally been understood as a trajectory of coping that defies the expectation of negative outcomes (Rutter, 1990;Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Its use in traumatic and stressful contexts highlights the utility and importance of this construct to the individual. ...
... However, each approach has a distinct emphasis. The variability of these approaches has been the subject of much debate within the literature (Seery & Quinton, 2016;Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000). The following section will offer a brief conceptual overview to popular approaches in understanding resilience. ...
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In this paper, we examine the dynamic nature of the resilience process as an interaction between individuals and their larger socio-ecological context. We introduce a novel, multi-systems model of resilience that addresses limitations within existing models, clarifies ambiguity brought on by heterogeneous definitions of resilience, and recognizes resilience as a process across the lifespan. This model includes intra-individual, interpersonal, and socio-ecological variables, and highlights the interactive process of resilience that is dynamic and multi-dimensional in nature.
... The BPSC/T (Blascovich, 2008;Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996;Seery, 2011Seery, , 2013Seery & Quinton, 2016) applies to motivated performance situations in which individuals actively perform instrumental responses to reach self-relevant goals (e.g., making a personally relevant decision). In this context, individuals' level of task engagement represents the degree to which the goal is perceived to be subjectively valuable or selfrelevant, with greater task engagement corresponding to perceiving a goal as more subjectively valuable or self-relevant. ...
... High task engagement is consistent with evaluating the decision as highly self-relevant, which supports the hypothesis that choice overload may lead to decisions seeming more self-expressive or self-revealing (see Schwartz & Cheek, 2017). Threat is consistent with evaluating low resources and high demands (Blascovich, 2008;Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996;Seery, 2011Seery, , 2013Seery & Quinton, 2016), and given the similarity in results across profile and decision periods, this supports the hypothesis that individuals do not actually feel capable of making a good, reasoned decision throughout the choice overload experience (despite past work arguing that they should hold positive expectations at the outset; Diehl & Poyner, 2011). Theoretically, this threat should follow from individuals perceiving that they do not possess the time or ability to reasonably consider all of their choice options. ...
... Theoretically, this threat should follow from individuals perceiving that they do not possess the time or ability to reasonably consider all of their choice options. Seery and Quinton (2016) argued that evaluations of likelihood of success or likely degree of success is a core influence on the balance of resources/ demands. Inadequate time and ability to consider all options should thus lead to evaluating relatively low resources/high demands. ...
Article
Evidence supports that being overwhelmed by many choice options predicts negative consequences. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of choice overload on two key motivational dimensions: (1) the extent to which people view their decision as subjectively valuable (versus not), and (2) the extent to which people view themselves as capable (versus incapable) of reaching a good decision. While evaluating their options and while deciding, we assessed theory-based cardiovascular responses reflecting these dimensions. A meta-analysis across two experiments found that participants who made a final selection from many options—relative to those who chose from few or rated many—exhibited cardiovascular responses consistent with greater task engagement (i.e., perceiving greater subjective value), as well as greater threat (i.e., perceiving fewer resources to manage situational demands). The current work suggests a novel motivational account of choice overload, providing insight into the nature and timing of this experience as it occurs.
... Additionally, resilience inquiry has mainly focused on reactions to specific, acute and impermanent events, or the ability to adapt and develop a response to a "significant threat to an individual's life or function" (Masten & Wright, 2010, p. 215). Prolonged conditionsthose which continue over years or decades, and which can cause interminable and chronic stresshave been largely ignored (Seery & Quinton, 2016;Yates, Tyrell, & Masten, 2015). However, more current and expanded definitions of resilience suggest that daily life can present sufficient adversity, and even mundane stressors require coping (Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
... Prolonged conditionsthose which continue over years or decades, and which can cause interminable and chronic stresshave been largely ignored (Seery & Quinton, 2016;Yates, Tyrell, & Masten, 2015). However, more current and expanded definitions of resilience suggest that daily life can present sufficient adversity, and even mundane stressors require coping (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Late-life aging in place is most certainly a challenging context, drawing on individual abilities which either facilitate or inhibit resilience-promoting processes (Ungar, 2012). ...
... In sum, many human beings may suffer pain, hardship and personal difficulty, but also demonstrate a dynamic ability to actively respond and adapt to adversity (Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005;Greitens, 2015;Luthar et al., 2000;Van Kessel, 2013;Yates et al., 2015). Although resilience was first regarded as a trait, then as an outcome of successful adaptation, and finally as a dynamic process of utilizing assets and resources to maintain physical and psychological equilibrium, it has yet to be wholly defined and measured (Lock & Janas, 2002;Masten & Wright, 2010;Rutter, 2012;Seery & Quinton, 2016;Southwick, Bonanno, Masten, Panter-Brick, & Yehuda, 2014;Van Kessel, 2013;Yates et al., 2015). Additionally, its links to P-E transactions and their effectiveness remain to be explored. ...
Article
Many late-life older adults prefer remaining in one’s home among familiar and comforting surroundings until life’s end. However, this may be a challenging pursuit due to accelerating physical and cognitive declines. Researchers, designers, and care providers grapple to identify strategies which best support aging in place. Resilience theory offers a new lens which has not been explored by previous researchers. Through observations and interviews, we explored to understand what adaptive qualities and actions ten late-life older adults utilized to age in place. Results show that the interviewees apply personal resilience across a range of challenges. We discuss vignettes within a framework of established theories which address successful alignment of person-environment (P-E) transactions and situate our findings within foundational and nascent explorations of resilience theory. We explore the need to investigate resilience as a distinguishable personal factor which greatly impacts late-life aging in place. Because resilience includes protective factors as well as adaptive processes, it adds to the current discourse of how resilient late-life older adults utilize personal agency and goal direction to proactively sustain daily living at home. Finally, we propose the term habitational resilience to encompass the connection between personal adaptiveness and resulting effective interactions within the home environment.
... Definitions of resilience in adults exposed to a PTE There is little or no consensus around the terminology used to define resilience. Rutter describes resilience as a positive pole of the response to adversity [20], Glantz and Johnson [21], Masten [22], Fergus and Zimmerman [23], and Seery and Quinton consider resilience as an outcome [24], and Fraser attributes resilience as an ability [25]. Most authors, however, define resilience as a process [26][27][28]. ...
... Comparing the definitions proposed in the reviewed publications (presented as Supplementary material) [2,12,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] the following elements repeatedly arise: ...
... Resilience is a dynamic process that can be developed or learned [36,38,[40][41][42]. Resilience starts from exposure to a PTE (e.g., adversity, threat, stressful event or adverse life event) and is related to the experience [2,12,24,[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]41]. During a resilient trajectory, positive adaptation to a PTE is achieved despite experienced difficulties or disruptive events [12,24,33,38]. ...
Article
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Background Despite the risk for developing mental disorders, most of advanced cancer patients’ family caregivers undergo a resilient process throughout the caregiving period. Research on resilience in caregivers of advanced cancer patients is scarce and further hindered by the lack of a univocal definition and a theoretical framework. Objectives To provide clarity on the concept of resilience by proposing an integrative view that can support health care professionals and researchers in conducting and interpreting research on resilience. Methods The review process was inspired by the hermeneutic methodology: a cyclic review process, consisting of repeated searching and analysing until data saturation is reached and focussed on achieving a deeper understanding of ill-defined concepts. The definitions from eighteen reviews on resilience and the theoretical frameworks from eight concept analyses were analysed. The composing elements of resilience were listed and compared. Results The American Psychological Association’s definition of resilience and Bonanno’s theoretical framework are suggested to guide further research on resilience. Moreover, four knowledge gaps were uncovered: (1) How do resilience resources interact? (2) What are the key predictors for a resilient trajectory? (3) How do the resilient trajectories evolve across the caregiving period? And (4) how does the patient’s nearing death influence the caregiver’s resilience? Conclusion To address flaws in conceptualisation and the resulting gaps in knowledge, we suggest a definition and a theoretical framework that are suited to allow heterogeneity in the field, but enables the development of sound interventions, as well as facilitate the interpretation of intervention effectiveness.
... Nonetheless, there are points of ambiguity in this literature. In particular, past work examining momentary responses to stressors has relied on physiological markers that can lack specificity in their psychological interpretation (Seery & Quinton, 2016). For instance, work using cortisol reactivity to assess mindfulness' effects has drawn similarly positive conclusions from effects in opposite directions. ...
... The current research thus relied on momentary stress responses capable of capturing the nature and valence of individuals' experiences during active stressors more precisely. Specifically, we used noninvasive cardiovascular responses from the perspective of the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat (BPSC/T; Blascovich, 2008;Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996;Seery, 2011Seery, , 2013Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
... Conversely, threat occurs when individuals evaluate low resources and high demands. Despite these discrete labels, challenge and threat represent two anchors of a single bipolar continuum, such that relative differences in challenge/threat (i.e., greater vs. lesser challenge) are meaningful and reflect the basis for hypotheses (for additional discussion, see Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness has been associated with enhanced coping with stress. However, it remains unclear how dispositional mindfulness impacts the nature and valence of experiences during active stressors. Across 1,001 total participants, we used cardiovascular responses from the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat to assess the degree to which individuals cared about a stressor in the moment and had a positive versus negative psychological experience. Although we found a small association between mindfulness—particularly the acting with awareness facet—and responses consistent with caring more about the stressor (i.e., greater task engagement), we found no evidence that mindfulness was associated with exhibiting a more positive psychological response (i.e., greater challenge) during the stressor. Despite no differences in the valence of momentary experiences as a function of mindfulness, individuals higher in mindfulness self-reported more positive experiences afterward. These findings suggest that dispositional mindfulness may benefit responses to active stressors only after they have passed.
... However, it is also possible that satisficers may view themselves as less capable of reaching a good decision compared to maximizers, searching less exhaustively to avoid the onerous duty of deciding. To test these distinct possibilities, we used cardiovascular measures from the perspective of the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat (BPSC/T; for reviews, see Blascovich, 2008;Seery, 2011Seery, , 2013Seery & Quinton, 2016), which monitored these two motivational dimensions during a decision-making task. In doing so, the current work is a novel investigation of differences in maximizers' and satisficers' experiences in the moment of choice overload, providing possible insight into why they engage in such distinct search behaviors. ...
... Whereas the challenge occurs when individuals evaluate high personal resources relative to situational demands, threat occurs when individuals evaluate low resources relative to demands. Despite discrete labels, challenge and threat represent two anchors of a single bipolar continuum (for additional discussion, see Seery & Quinton, 2016). Notably, divergences along this bipolar continuum indicate how one's evaluated resources compare to evaluated demands at the moment and do not necessarily provide information about resources or demands in isolation. ...
... Rather than equating to challenge/threat itself, these cardiovascular responses represent measures of the underlying psychological states. Dozens of published studies support the validity of these cardiovascular markers (for reviews, see Blascovich, 2008;Seery, 2013;Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
Article
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When selecting from too many options (i.e., choice overload), maximizers (people who search exhaustively to make decisions that are optimal) report more negative post‐decisional evaluations of their choices than do satisficers (people who search minimally to make decisions that are sufficient). Although ample evidence exists for differences in responses after‐the‐fact, little is known about possible divergences in maximizers’ and satisficers’ experiences during choice overload. Thus, using the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat, we examined 128 participants’ cardiovascular responses as they actively made a selection from many options. Specifically, we focused on cardiovascular responses assessing the degree to which individuals (a) viewed their decisions as valuable/important and (b) viewed themselves as capable (vs. incapable) of making a good choice. Although we found no differences in terms of the value individuals placed on their decisions (i.e., cardiovascular responses of task engagement), satisficers—compared to maximizers—exhibited cardiovascular responses consistent with feeling less capable of making their choice (i.e., greater relative threat). The current work provides a novel investigation of the nature of differences in maximizers’/satisficers’ momentary choice overload experiences, suggesting insight into why they engage in such distinct search behaviors.
... The relationship between stressor exposure and CR ability has recently been described as an inverted U-shaped function (cf. Hypothesis 1 in Crane et al., 2019;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Accordingly, moderate prior stressor exposure in contrast to no stressor exposure would enhance the ability to reappraise current stressful situations as individuals have had various opportunities to reflect and practice CR. ...
... We argue that most of the previous studies did not find enhancing effects of stressor exposure on CR due to a focus on extreme groups (e.g., traumatised vs. non-traumatised) or linear detrimental effects only. Based on theoretical considerations (Crane et al., 2019;Seery & Quinton, 2016) and the promising results provided by Schweizer et al. (2016), we propose that the investigation of potential stressor-related benefits would require various degrees of stressor exposure and the inclusion of non-linear analyses. Furthermore, dynamic resilience theories (Crane et al., 2019;Seery & Quinton, 2016) suggest that the improvement of emotion regulation strategies would not be limited to childhood but also occur as a reaction to more recent mundane stress experiences, often referred to as daily hassles (Kanner et al., 1981). ...
... Based on theoretical considerations (Crane et al., 2019;Seery & Quinton, 2016) and the promising results provided by Schweizer et al. (2016), we propose that the investigation of potential stressor-related benefits would require various degrees of stressor exposure and the inclusion of non-linear analyses. Furthermore, dynamic resilience theories (Crane et al., 2019;Seery & Quinton, 2016) suggest that the improvement of emotion regulation strategies would not be limited to childhood but also occur as a reaction to more recent mundane stress experiences, often referred to as daily hassles (Kanner et al., 1981). Consequently, we expect moderate exposure to daily hassles, compared to minimal exposure, to enhance CR ability by offering more opportunities to practice. ...
Article
Recent theories propose moderate (compared to high or no) stressor exposure to promote emotion regulation capacities. More precisely, stressful situations are expected to serve as practice opportunities for cognitive reappraisal, i.e. the reinterpretation of a situation to alter its emotional impact. Accordingly, in this study we expect an inverted U‐shaped relationship between exposure to daily hassles and performance in a cognitive reappraisal task, i.e., best reappraisal ability in individuals with a history of moderate stressor exposure. Participants (N = 165) reported the number of daily hassles during the last week as indicator of stressor exposure and completed the Script‐based Reappraisal Test (SRT). In the SRT, participants are presented with fear‐eliciting scripts and instructed to either downregulate negative affect via reappraisal (reappraisal‐trials) or react naturally (control‐trials). Two measures indicate cognitive reappraisal ability: (1) reappraisal effectiveness, i.e., the difference between affective ratings in reappraisal‐ and control‐trials and (2) reappraisal inventiveness, i.e., the number of valid and categorically different reappraisal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive linear, but not quadratic, relationships of exposure to daily hassles and both indicators of cognitive reappraisal ability. Potential benefits of stressor exposure for emotion regulation processes are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Resilience is the ability to successfully adapt to internal and external stress (Connor & Davidson, 2003;Wagnild & Young, 1993). It enables individuals to cope with adversity and accomplish positive adjustment and development in circumstances (Bajaj & Pande, 2016;Rutter, 2006;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Mindfulness is a state of consciousness that incorporates purposeful awareness and attention and non-judgmental reaction to the present moment (Kabat-Zinn, 2003). ...
... One potential explanation is individuals' disadvantaged characteristics. Cumulative disadvantaged characteristics may produce heightened life stress, which impede mindfulness and resilience (Bonanno, Galea, Bucciarelli, & Vlahov, 2007;Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
Article
This study assessed the association between disadvantaged characteristics and resilience and the role of mindfulness among Chinese vocational school students. We hypothesized that disadvantaged characteristics negatively associated with mindfulness, which subsequently inhibited resilience. The data was collected from 875 senior students from a vocational school in China. The results from the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were aligned with our hypotheses that disadvantaged characteristics were negatively associated with mindfulness, and the lowered mindfulness reduced individual resilience. Furthermore, disadvantaged characteristics had negative associations with both mindfulness and resilience for males; whereas, the associations were not significant for females. Although the study has certain limitations, the findings shed light on implications for research and practice.
... Performance stressors-such as taking a test or giving a speech-require active instrumental responses to reach valued goals. Individuals' psychological responses to such stressors should be shaped by their evaluations of their own capabilities (i.e., resources) and personal obstacles presented by the stressor (i.e., demands; Blascovich, 2008;Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996;Seery & Quinton, 2016). This is where awe potentially has opposing effects, depending on exactly what aspect of the self seems small relative to the vastness of the awe-inspiring stimulus. ...
... The BPSC/T (Blascovich, 2008;Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996;Seery, 2011Seery, , 2013Seery & Quinton, 2016) is particularly well suited for testing the moderated effects of awe on responses to a subsequent performance stressor, as it holds that cardiovascular measures reveal psychological experience during performance stressors. Unlike self-report measures, cardiovascular measures do not require self-reflection, prospection or recollection, or the interruption of stressor-focused attention, and can thereby be sensitive to effects not captured by selfreport (Weisbuch, Seery, Ambady, & Blascovich, 2009;Blascovich, Mendes, & Seery, 2002). ...
Article
The emotion of awe occurs when one feels small relative to something vaster than the self; it leads to benefits such as care for others. However, because awe elicits the experience of a “small self,” it is unclear to what extent awe positively versus negatively affects responses to subsequent stressors. If personal obstacles seem trivial in comparison to awe-inspiring stimuli, stressors should seem either manageable or unimportant, but if one's capabilities seem comparatively insignificant, stressors should seem unmanageable. We hypothesized that awe would have a generally positive effect on responses during a subsequent performance stressor, but that this would further depend on whether people tended to spontaneously take on a self-distanced versus self-immersed perspective. In the face of awe, focusing less on the self (self-distanced perspective) should make obstacles in particular seem trivial, whereas focusing more on the self (self-immersed) should lead one's capabilities to seem insignificant. Using the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat, we found that spontaneous self-distancing significantly moderated awe's effects on responses during a subsequent performance stressor (speech task): For participants who self-distanced, the awe condition led to cardiovascular responses consistent with greater challenge than the neutral control condition (reflecting evaluating the stressor as more manageable); for participants who self-immersed, awe predicted relative threat (less manageable stressor). There was no support for awe making people care less about the stressor (as reflected in cardiovascular responses consistent with task engagement). This offers insight into how awe can have divergent effects on people's experiences during performance stressors.
... Though too much exposure to stressors can have debilitating effects on toughness just as overtraining can for physical fitness (Seery, Leo, Lupien, Kondrak, & Almonte, 2013). This developed toughness is also proposed to be transferable to other domains, both familiar and novel, which has positive implications for resilience to future adversity (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Toughening may occur via self-reflection, whereby exposure to adversity offers the opportunity to reflect on one's initial response to a stressor and develop resilient capacities (e.g., coping resources) that maximise the likelihood of resilience to future events (Crane, Searle, Kangas, & Nwiran, 2018). ...
... The observed differences may have emerged due to the nature of the samples within the two studies, with the first consisting of students (Mage = 22.09) and the second an older community sample (Mage = 52.77). One might think that with a higher age the older participants have had more time to experience adversities than their younger counterparts, though the adversities faced by younger people may have occurred in more recent memory and are thus more easily recalled (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Indeed, when age has been controlled for as a covariate in past research, it has no effect on outcomes across student and community samples (e.g., Seery et al., 2013;Seery, Leo et al., 2010). ...
Article
Adversities refer to events that are characterised by perceived or actual threat to human functioning. Often considered deleterious for health and well-being, recent work supports an alternative picture of the effects of adversity on human functioning, such that a moderate amount of adversity – when compared with none or high levels – can be beneficial. We extend this body of work in the current study by considering the breadth or type of adversities experienced simultaneously (referred to as polyadversity), with a focus on individual profiles of lifetime adversities. Latent class analysis was employed to explore different configurations of lifetime adversity experiences in two independent samples, and examine how these latent classes differed with regard to resilience resources (i.e., optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and bounce-back ability). University students (N=348) and members from the broader community (N=1506) completed measures of lifetime adversity exposure and resilience resources. Three polyadversity classes were revealed in each sample, with both producing a high and a low polyadverstiy class. The third class differed between samples; in the student sample this class represented experiences of vicarious adversity, whereas in the community sample it represented moderate levels of exposure to adversity. Support for the adaptive nature of a moderate amount of adversity exposure was found in the community sample but not in the student sample. This study produces initial evidence of how lifetime adversity experiences group together and how class membership is related to resilience resources.
... Whether viewed as a trait or as a trajectory, resilience should also be reflected in daily life when individuals try to cope with stressful experiences. In particular, it has been argued that resilience not only pertains to disturbances after major life events, but also to reactions to relatively minor stressors or hassles in daily life (e.g., Almeida, 2005;Montpetit et al., 2010;Ong et al., 2006;Seery & Quinton, 2016). In addition to stress processes per se, the use of coping strategies has been highlighted to be associated with resilience (e.g., Shallcross et al., 2015). ...
... These resources should not only be relevant in the presence of critical life events, but should become visible in individuals' daily lives. Specifically, it was proposed that not only managing major life events, but also managing smaller stressors (or hassles) well in daily life could be considered indicative of resilience (e.g., Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience describes successful adaptation in the face of adversity, commonly inferred from trajectories of well‐being following major life events. Alternatively, resilience was conceptualized as a psychological trait, facilitating adaptation through stable individual characteristics. Both perspectives may relate to individual differences in how stress is regulated in daily life. In the present study, we combined these perspectives on resilience. Our sample consisted of N = 132 middle‐aged adults, who experienced major life events in between two waves of a longitudinal study. We implemented latent change regression models to predict change in affective distress. As predictors, we investigated trait resilience and correlates of resilience in daily life (stressor occurrence, stress reactivity, positive reappraisal, mindful attention, and acceptance), measured using experience sampling (T = 70 occasions). Unexpectedly, trait resilience was not associated with change in distress. In contrast, resilience correlates in daily life, most notably lower stress reactivity, were associated with more favorable change. Higher trait resilience related to higher average mindfulness, higher reappraisal, and lower negative affect. Overall, while trait resilience translated into everyday correlates of resilience, it was not predictive of changes in affective distress. Instead, precursors of changes in well‐being may be found in correlates of resilience in daily life. (200/200) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... communities, and considers factors such as life satisfaction, grit and perseverance, and/or thriving under challenging circumstances (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Indeed, ample studies have linked the presence of "resiliency" with positive health outcomes. ...
... At a theoretical level, these variabilities represent the complex and often interrelated components that are associated with the process of resilience. Developments in the advancement of resilience have generally reached a consensus highlighting resiliency as a multidimensional process related to facilitating capacities across various domains in order to better respond to challenges and trauma (Fletcher & Sarkar, 2013;Liu et al., 2017;Luthar et al., 2000;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Along these analogies, heterogeneities in resilience research may in fact, be represented as isolated components that feed into a larger picture of the pathways to resilience (Luthar et al., 2000). ...
Article
Background/Rationale There is no current consensus on operational definitions of resilience. Instead, researchers often debate the optimal approach to understanding resilience, while continuing to explore ways to enhance and/or promote its qualities in various populations. The goal of the current meta-analysis is to substantiate existing evidence examining the promotion of resilience through various interventions. Particular emphasis was placed upon the factors that contribute to variability across interventions, such as age, gender, duration of intervention, intervention approaches and risk exposure of targeted population. Method The literature search was conducted on May 28, 2019. Search terms included “resilience intervention” OR “promoting resilience” OR “promoting resiliency” OR “resilience-based intervention”. A total of 268 studies, with 1584 independent samples, were included in the meta-analysis. In addition to overall efficacy, outcome-based analyses were conducted for intervention outcomes based on action, biophysical, coping, emotion, resilience, symptoms, and well-being. Finally, moderators of age, gender, length of intervention, intervention approach, intervention target, and the level of risk exposure of the sampled population were examined as moderators. Results The multi-level meta-analysis indicated that resilience-promoting interventions yielded a small, but statistically significant overall effect, Hedges's g = 0.48 (SE = 0.04, 95% CI = [0.40, 0.56]. The variability in study effect sizes within and between studies was significant, p < .001, with many falling short of the threshold for practical significance. Discussion Findings lend some support for the overall efficacy of resilience interventions. However, empirical results should be cautiously interpreted in tandem with their theoretical relevance and potential advancements to the construct of resilience. Variabilities across findings reflect the current ambiguities surrounding the conceptualization and operationalization of resilience. Directions for future research on resilience as well as practical considerations are discussed.
... Situasi yang penuh tekanan dalam kehidupan menjadi sumber stresor yang berpotensi menciptakan stres (Didymus, 2017). Stresor dari peristiwa negatif dalam kehidupan yang tidak tertangani akan berpotensi menciptakan pengalaman traumatis pada yang mengalaminya (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Disisi lain, perempuan suku Dayak Ma'anyan yang menjalani adat Ipilah mendapatkan stigma ngampang. ...
... Peristiwa negatif yang bertumpang tindih meningkatan kemungkinan pengalaman yang dialami membentuk sebuah pengalaman traumatis. Pengalaman traumatis yang dialami ini memiliki potensi terjadinya post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pada individu yang mengalaminya (Kemppainen et al, 2016;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Selain itu, potensi PTSD terjadi jika paparan dari pengalaman traumatis terjadi terus menerus sehingga memberikan pengaruh negatif pada kesehatan mental individu yang mengalaminya (Aziz, Thabet, & Vostanis, 2017;Sadeh et al, 2015). ...
Article
Adat Ipilah is a mandatory customary sanction given to women who are pregnant out of wedlock by the Dayak Ma'anyan tribe in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia as a form of sanction for social violations. Carried out on pregnant women in the first trimester, generally in the first pregnancy. Pregnant women will demonstrate in front of traditional and community elders. The implementation of Ipilah can be a stressor and affect the psychological health of pregnant women. The research was to explore the impact of the implementation of the Ipilah custom on the psychology of Dayak Ma'anyan women. Using qualitative methods with an interpretive phenomenology approach. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data collection by in-depth interviews. Analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Get 6 themes; Disappointed with adat, forced to follow Ipilah, afraid of the sanctions that will be received, ashamed to interact with the community, pressured because cannot forget Ipilah, helpless with the situation. Ipilah sanction was a traumatic experience that had a negative psychological impact. Ipilah is a source of stressors that affect the lives of women who experience it. Whether it's psychological or social relations in society.
... Chronic stress and repeated adverse life experiences of the kind often encountered by those in poverty, ranging from daily nuisances, such as 'kids got into trouble at school', 'problems with my supervisor' and 'car wouldn't start', to traumatic events, such as life-threatening accidents, physical and sexual abuse or being a witness to another person being killed or assaulted, do not buffer against future such negative events. On the contrary, they can exacerbate their impact (Caspi et al., 1987;Seery et al., 2013;Seery & Quinton, 2016;Gerber et al., 2018). Like other biases, the thick skin bias is predicated on some true relationship between past and future experience, but it harbors systematic and important errors. ...
... Besides the ample literature documenting an increase, rather than a diminishing, of frailty and sensitivity due to repeated exposure (see, e.g., Bucchianeri et al., 2014;Evans & Cassels, 2014;Seery & Quinton, 2016;Barwood et al., 2017), a glimpse at our own items further highlights the occasional absurdity of the thick skin bias. The events we described, such as the heating system breaking in winter, a flooded apartment, tap water that needs to be filtered or being stranded without a ride in the rain, were all rated as less intolerable or inconvenient to the poor than the rich. ...
Article
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We present a series of studies documenting what we call a ‘thick skin bias’ in people's perceptions of those living in poverty. Across a wide range of life events, from major to minor, people of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are systematically perceived as being less harmed by negative experiences than higher-SES people, even when this is patently false. In 18 studies, including a pre-registered survey of a nationally representative sample, we find that laypeople and professionals show the thick skin bias. We distinguish the bias from a tendency to dehumanize those in poverty and argue it cannot be attributed to the belief that the mere expectation that bad things will happen buffers people in poverty from suffering. The thick skin bias has potentially profound implications for the institutional and interpersonal neglect of those most in need of greater care and resources.
... However, how risk, adversity or trauma are operationalised remains contentious -can resilience be considered applicable only in the face of a major negative life event, such as a death or a natural disaster (Garmezy, 1991)? Or is resilience and adversity applicable to the every-day build-up of general life stressors (Seery & Quinton, 2016)? What is clear is that, for a variety of complex and interweaving reasons (see Zubrick et al., 2014 for a comprehensive overview of determinants of wellbeing among Aboriginal peoples) young Aboriginal people are at a heightened risk of experiencing adversity in varied forms, compared to their non-Aboriginal peers. ...
Article
Objective: There is a paucity of quantitative measures of resilience specifically validated for young Aboriginal people in Australia. We undertook the first investigation of validity and reliability of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a sample of Australian Aboriginal people, with a focus on youth. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study of resilience among a sample of 122 Aboriginal youth (15–25 years old) in New South Wales and Western Australia, featuring self-completes of the 10-item CD-RISC in online (N = 22) and face-to-face (N = 100) settings. A Rasch analysis using the 122 CD-RISC responses determined item independence, response category adequacy, differential item functioning, unidimensional measurement, person and item reliability, and item fit. Confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted, complementary to the Rasch analysis. Results: Four problematic items from the original instrument were removed, due to item dependence (items 2, 6 and 9; Q 3,* > 0.30) and differential item functioning (item 4; > 0.43 logits between males and females). The final 6-item instrument exhibited improved item separation (ISI = 2.14) and reliability index values (IRI =.82) – suggesting an improved structure – however several limitations such as a prominent ceiling effect were evident (i.e., positive measure targeting coefficient of 0.99 logits). Conclusion: Findings suggest the CD-RISC instrument should be applied in Aboriginal contexts with caution. Further psychometric examination of the CD-RISC with Aboriginal youth is warranted before it can be used with confidence by researchers and clinicians. KEY POINTS What is already known about this topic: • Resilience is generally thought of as positive outcomes despite exposure to risk. This can be a particularly important concept to consider in the period of youth and adolescence, when young people are experiencing wide ranging physical, emotional, and social changes and challenges. • Aboriginal youth face unique circumstances that are necessary to consider when considering resilience relevant to an Aboriginal perspective. There is currently a lack in the literature in regards to defining and conceptualising resilience from an Aboriginal perspective, particularly relevant to young people. • There is a dearth of instruments available that have been rigorously examined for their appropriateness and psychometric properties relating to resilience in Aboriginal youth. What this paper adds: • This paper provides not only a first investigation of this version of the CD-RISC using Rasch analysis, but also the first time the CD-RISC’s validity and reliability has been assessed for an Aboriginal sample in Australia. • Analyses results illustrated a ceiling effect, highlighting the fact that for the instrument to be accessing the full range of resilience in the sample, new items need to be developed to tap into higher levels of resilience. • With the findings of this paper as a foundation, further investigation and adaptation of the CD-RISC could potentially lead to a useful screening tool for assessing resilience and identifying Aboriginal youth who may require further support.
... Emerging research in resilience science discusses the beneficial cognitive and psychological effects of exposure to moderate stress levels (Dienstbier, 2015b;R. T. Liu, 2015;Meichenbaum, 2008;Rutter, 2006;Seery, Leo, Lupien, Kondrak, & Almonte, 2013;Seery & Quinton, 2016). The theoretical basis for the salutary effects of low-to-moderate stress is mainly drawn from experimental work in toxicology and is referred to as hormesis (Calabrese, 2008a). ...
Article
Extensive research documents the impact of psychosocial stress on risk for the development of psychiatric symptoms across one's lifespan. Further, evidence exists that cognitive functioning mediates this link. However, a growing body of research suggests that limited stress can result in cognitive benefits that may contribute to resilience. The hypothesis that low-to-moderate levels of stress are linked to more adaptive outcomes has been referred to as hormesis. Using a sample of young adults from the Human Connectome Project (N = 1,206, 54.4% female, Mage = 28.84), the present study aims to test the hormetic effect between low-to-moderate perceived stress and psychopathological symptoms (internalizing and externalizing symptoms), as well as to cross-sectionally explore the intermediate role of cognitive functioning in this effect. Results showed cognitive functioning as a potential intermediating mechanism underlying the curvilinear associations between perceived stress and externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors. This study provides preliminary support for the benefits of limited stress to the process of human resilience.
... According to Exner et al. (2016), resilience has become a prominent concept to understand system vulnerabilities and flexible ways of adapting to crises. Resilience is typically conceptualized as successful adaptation to serious negative life events (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Slepian, Ankawi, Himawan, and France (2016) also view resilience as the ability to maintain positive emotional and physical functioning despite physical or psychological adversity. ...
Article
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This study investigated the moderating effect of resilience between work demand and psychological distress among preschool pupils" caregivers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted with a sample of 605 caregivers was chosen through stratified random sampling technique participating. Data were collected using: (i) Demographic Data Form, (ii) Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, (iii) Perceived Work Demand Scale, and (iv) Connor-Davison Resilience Scale. Data were analyzed using Regression Analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with result tested for significant at .05 level. Findings revealed, that there is a significant positive relationship between psychological distress and resilience (r = .263; p <.001), but not between psychological distress and work demand (r = .071; p >.05). There was a moderating effect of resilience in the relationship between work demand and psychological distress of caregivers. Based on the findings, recommendations were made for research and practice.
... Resilience is traditionally understood as "a trajectory of coping that defies the expectation of negative outcomes" (Liu, Reed, & Girard, 2017, p. 111). It is considered a protective factor that interacts with stressors to reduce the likelihood of negative outcomes (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Resilience is associated with positive social and personal wellbeing together with enhanced mental health and adjustment to (and through) life (McGillivray & Pidgeon, 2015). ...
Chapter
While resilience theory has its roots in studies of individual mental dysfunction, it has evolved to focus beyond the individual to recognise the impact of social and environmental influences. King et al. (J Organ Behav 37:782–786, 2016) described how there have been four waves of development in resilience theory. The first wave focused on the factors and characteristics that enable individuals to overcome adversity through self-esteem, self-efficacy, and optimism. This evolved into a second wave whereby the investigation turned to how certain factors contribute to resilience, with a third wave focusing on the development of interventions to build resilience. The final wave highlighted genetic, neurological, and developmental factors relevant to resilience capability. Studies to date have looked at at-risk youth, management of athletes and military personnel, with limited focus on resilience in the workplace or on how to develop resilience in new graduates to function effectively, not least within a complex workplace. While resilience is acknowledged as a complex construct (and difficult to assess), universities are recognising its importance and are beginning to invest in research and services aimed at building student resilience. In focusing on the question of developing student resilience as an employability capability, this chapter takes a systems approach to explore the various layers that contribute towards student resilience. The research provided identifies two pivotal transition points in a student’s life - entry into university life, and departure from university into the workplace (Turner et al. in High Educ Res Develop 36:386–400, 2017a). Whilst these pivotal points relate to two distinct time periods of a student experience, the interrelationship between the two requires attention by universities to graduate students as employable scholars.
... Physiological indicators of psychological responses make it possible to tap into a person's psychological state while they are actively engaged in a task, thus eliminating the disadvantages of interrupting participants to assess how they feel during the task, or relying on potentially inaccurate reflection upon completion. The biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat (BPSC/T; Blascovich, 2008;Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996;Seery, 2011Seery, , 2013Seery & Quinton, 2016) allows for insight into people's evaluations of personal coping resources and situational demands by assessing cardiovascular responses during motivated performance situations, in which they are actively working to pursue a self-relevant goal (e.g., completing an intelligence test that will be evaluated). The evaluations of resources and demands do not necessarily happen through deliberative or conscious processes. ...
Article
Benevolent sexism is a double-edged sword that uses praise to maintain gender inequality, which consequently makes women feel less efficacious, agentic and competent. This study investigated whether benevolently sexist feedback that was supportive could result in cardiovascular responses indicative of threat (lower cardiac output/higher total peripheral resistance). Women received either supportive non-sexist or supportive yet benevolent sexist feedback from a male evaluator following practice trials on a verbal reasoning test. As expected, women receiving benevolent sexist feedback exhibited cardiovascular threat during a subsequent test, relative to women receiving non-sexist feedback. There was no support for an alternative hypothesis that benevolent sexist feedback would lead to cardiovascular responses consistent with disengaging from the task altogether (i.e., lower heart rate and ventricular contractility). These findings illustrate that the consequences of benevolent sexism can occur spontaneously, while women are engaged with a task, and when the sexist feedback is intended as supportive.
... exposure may mean that an individual is functioning at a non-optimal level for a period, with some initial cost in the form of reduced resources, and yet, there is also the downstream potential for stressors to have a resilience-strengthening effect (see Seery, 2011;Seery & Quinton, 2016 for comprehensive reviews of this research; Oken, Chamine, & Wakeland, 2015). The implication of this research is that engaging with stressors may have positive consequences for longer-term healthy emotional development (e.g., Dienstbier, 1989;Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996) and to a possible resilience-strengthening capacity for stressors whereby stressor events allow changes in personal capacities that enhance resilience in the future (Oken et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Background: Exposure to demands is normally considered to drain resources and threaten wellbeing. However, studies have indicated a resilience-strengthening role for stressors. Objectives: This paper introduces a unifying model, including five testable hypotheses regarding how resilience can be strengthened progressively via exposure to life-stressors. Methods: We review and synthesize relevant scholarship that underpins the Systematic Self-Reflection model of resilience-strengthening. Results: The model highlights the importance of a specific meta-cognitive skill (self-reflection on one’s initial stressor response) as a mechanism for strengthening resilience. The Systematic Self-Reflection model uniquely proposes five self-reflective practices critical in the on-going adaptation of three resilient capacities: (1) coping resources, (2) usage of coping and emotional regulatory repertoire, and (3) resilient beliefs. The self-reflective process is proposed to strengthen a person’s resilience by developing insight into their already-present capacities, the limitations of these capacities, and by stimulating the search for person-driven alternative approaches. Conclusion: This model extends the existing scholarship by proposing how the experience of stressors and adversity may have resilience-strengthening opportunities. The implication of this model is that engaging with stressors can have positive consequences for longer-term healthy emotional development if scaffolded in adaptive reflective practices.
... Psychological resilience occurs when a person can "recover, re-bound, bounceback, adjust or even thrive" in the face of adversity (Garcia-Dia, DiNapoli, Garcia-Ona, Jakubowski, & O' aherty, 2013, p. 264). There has been much debate over the last few decades over what resilience is, whether it is a state, a trait, or a process, and how it can be enhanced in response to stressful events (Kossek & Perrigino, 2016;Seery & Quinton, 2016). Most recently, researchers have proposed that resilience is a dynamic process by which individuals use protective factors (internal and external) to positively adapt to stress over time (Bryan, O'Shea, & MacIntyre, 2018;Hill, Den Hartigh, Meijer, De Jonge, & Van Yperen, 2018). ...
Article
Interest in psychological resilience has grown rapidly in the last couple of decades (Britt, Sinclair, & McFadden, 2016; King & Rothstein, 2010; Youssef & Luthans, 2007). Psychological resilience occurs when a person can “recover, re-bound, bounce-back, adjust or even thrive” in the face of adversity (GarciaDia, DiNapoli, Garcia-Ona, Jakubowski, & O’!aherty, 2013, p. 264). As such, resilience can be conceptualized as a state-like and malleable construct that can be enhanced in response to stressful events (Kossek & Perrigino, 2016). It incorporates a dynamic process by which individuals use protective factors (internal and external) to positively adapt to stress over time (Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000; Rutter, 1987). Building on the dual-pathway model of resilience, we integrate adaptive and proactive coping to the resilience development process and add a heretofore unexamined perspective to the ways in which resilience changes over time. We propose that resilience development trajectories differ depending on the type of adversity or stress experienced in combination with the use of adaptive and proactive coping. We outline the need for future longitudinal studies to examine these relationships and the implications for developing resilience interventions in the workplace. Keywords: Resilience; coping; proactive; adaptive; adversity; trait versus state
... exposure may mean that an individual is functioning at a non-optimal level for a period, with some initial cost in the form of reduced resources, and yet, there is also the downstream potential for stressors to have a resilience-strengthening effect (see Seery, 2011;Seery & Quinton, 2016 for comprehensive reviews of this research; Oken, Chamine, & Wakeland, 2015). The implication of this research is that engaging with stressors may have positive consequences for longer-term healthy emotional development (e.g., Dienstbier, 1989;Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996) and to a possible resilience-strengthening capacity for stressors whereby stressor events allow changes in personal capacities that enhance resilience in the future (Oken et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Background: To date, little attention has been paid to the processes by which resilience is developed, and how the likelihood of a resilient outcome may be enhanced over the life course. Objective: This study investigates the potential for adaptive systematic self-reflection to support the development of situation resilience via stressor exposure. Design: An experimental randomized controlled design was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Systematic Self-reflection intervention (n = 61) or disengagement control group (n = 60). Method: Participants were 121 university students (female = 68%) ranging in age from 18 to 56 years. Participants experienced two psychosocial stressors and completed a baseline survey, a second survey occurred post-stressor 1, and a third post-stressor 2. Salivary cortisol was taken pre stressor 2, immediately post stressor 2, and at 10 min intervals until 30 min. Results: The intervention was associated with greater reductions in negative affect, than a disengagement control task, and prevented the continued reduction in positive affect observed in the disengagement control condition. Moreover, the intervention promoted a steeper cortisol recovery trajectory, than the control condition for those with higher pre-stressor cortisol. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that certain self-reflective practices may be involved in the development of resilience from stressor exposure.
... If an individual evaluates that their resources match or exceed situational demands, they enter a challenge state, whereas if they evaluate that the demands exceed their resources, they enter a threat state (Seery, 2011). Challenge and threat states are viewed as outcomes of this demand and resource evaluation process (Seery, 2011), and, despite their discrete labels, are conceptualized as two ends of a single bipolar continuum, rather than a dichotomy (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Therefore, relative rather than absolute differences are often examined (e.g., cardiovascular reactivity more consistent with a challenge or threat state; Seery, 2011). ...
Article
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Background and Objectives: Individuals evaluate the demands and resources associated with a pressurized situation, which leads to distinct patterns of cardiovascular responses. While it is accepted that cognitive evaluations are updated throughout a pressurized situation, to date, cardiovascular markers have only been recorded immediately before, or averaged across, these situations. Thus, this study examined the influence of in-task performance-related feedback on cardiovascular markers of challenge and threat to explore fluctuations in these markers. Methods and Design: Forty participants completed a pressurized visual search task while cardiovascular markers of challenge and threat were recorded. During the task, participants received either positive or negative feedback via distinct auditory tones to induce a challenge or threat state. Following task completion, cardiovascular markers were recorded during a recovery phase. Results: Participants’ cardiovascular responses changed across the experimental protocol. Specifically, while participants displayed a cardiovascular response more reflective of a challenge state following in-task performance-related feedback, participants exhibited a response more akin to a threat state later during the recovery phase. Conclusions: In-task auditory performance-related feedback promoted cardiovascular markers of a challenge state. These markers fluctuated over the experiment, suggesting that they, and presumably underlying demand and resource evaluations, are relatively dynamic in nature.
... In earlier studies scholars regarded ER as an unchangeable psychological trait (e.g., Zhang & Lu, 2011), so that it has mostly been studied as a moderating variable. However, as more researchers have recognized the variability of ER (e.g., Seery & Quinton, 2016), its mediating effect in the relationship between NLE and mood state has received increasing attention (e.g., Xiu & Ji, 2018). Our results in the current study showed that ER had a significant mediating effect in the relationship between NLE and college students' mood states, which aligns with the disadvantaged-protective factors-resilience-good development model (Song, Ma, & Zhang, 2016;Zeng, 2010;Zhu, Wang, Liu, & Peng, 2013) as summarized by relevant Chinese scholars in the study of the psychological development of disadvantaged children. ...
Article
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We conducted a survey with 608 Chinese college students to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of emotional resilience in the relationship between negative life events and mood state. Researchers have previously examined either the moderating or mediating effect of emotional resilience in this relationship, and there has been disagreement about whether emotional resilience is idiosyncratic or state-driven. Our results showed that college students' level of emotional resilience and mood state were significant predictors for the effect of negative life events; emotional resilience had a significant positive effect on college students' mood state, and emotional resilience had a significant mediating and moderating effect in the relationship of negative life events and college students' mood state. These findings not only further support the theory that emotional resilience is statedriven, but also highlight the important role of emotional resilience in maintaining the emotional health of college students.
... Investigating the psychophysiological and neuropsychological mechanisms of resilience is particularly relevant for young people because they frequently encounter new challenges in their life, and cumulative lifetime adversity exposure predicts resilience in response to a range of subsequent stressors (Seery & Quinton, 2016). Young women specifically have lower scores on resilience measures (Consedine, Magai, & Krivoshekova, 2005;Stratta et al., 2013), and they are more vulnerable to developing stress disorders after serious stressors or trauma (Bangasser & Valentino, 2014;Donner & Lowry, 2013;Hegadoren, Lasiuk, & Coupland, 2006). ...
Article
Resilience is a protective health variable that contributes to successful adaptation to stressful experiences. However, in spite of its relevance, few studies have examined the psychophysiological and neuropsychological mechanisms involved in resilience. The present study analyzes, in a sample of 54 young women, the relationships between high‐ and low‐resilience, measured with the Spanish versions of Connor‐ Davidson Resilience Scale questionnaire and the Resilience Scale, and two indices of psychophysiological and neuropsychological adaptability, the cardiac defense response (CDR) and cognitive flexibility. The CDR is a specific reaction to an unexpected intense noise characterized by two acceleration‐deceleration heart rate components. Cognitive flexibility, defined as the ability to adapt our behavior to changing environmental demands, is measured in this study with the CAMBIOS neuropsychological test. The results showed that the more resilient people, in addition to having better scores on mental health questionnaires, had a larger initial acceleration‐deceleration of the CDR‐indicative of greater vagal control, obtained better scores in cognitive flexibility, and evaluated the intense noise as less unpleasant than the less resilient people. No group differences were found in the second acceleration‐deceleration of the CDR‐indicative of sympathetic cardiac control, in the skin conductance response, or in subjective intensity of the noise. The present findings broaden the understanding of how resilient people change their adaptable responses to address environmental demands.
... For validation of these markers of challenge and threat, see work by Tomaka et al. (1993Tomaka et al. ( , 1997 and for a fuller overview of this theorising, see work by Seery et al. (e.g. Seery, 2011, 2013, Seery & Quinton, 2016. ...
... These findings offer novel empirical support for recent literature in which researchers have argued for the potentially adaptive role of stress (e.g., Crane et al., 2019). Indeed, Seery and Quinton (2016) reported that stressors may have a resilience-strengthening effect, with the findings of our research providing a similar contention for the disposition of hardiness. That is, engaging with stressors may have positive consequences for the long-term development of hardiness and its sub-components (i.e., control, challenge, and commitment). ...
Article
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Hardiness has been identified as a key personal characteristic that may moderate the ill-effects of stress on health and performance. However, little is known about how hardiness might be developed, particularly in sport coaches. To systematically address this gap, we present two linked studies. First, interviews were conducted with pre-determined high-hardy, elite coaches (n = 13) to explore how they had developed their hardy dispositions through the associated attitudinal sub-components of control, commitment, and challenge. Utilizing thematic analysis, we identified that hardiness was developed through experiential learning, external support, and the use of specific coping mechanisms. Key to all of these themes was the concept of reflective practice, which was thought to facilitate more meaningful learning from the participants’ experiences and, subsequently, enhance the self-awareness and insight required to augment hardiness and its sub-components. To investigate further the potential relationship between coaches’ reflective practices and their level of hardiness, we conducted a follow-up study. Specifically, a sample of 402 sports coaches completed the Dispositional Resilience Scale-15, the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, and the Questionnaire for Reflective Thinking. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), we clustered participants into groups based on their reflective profiles (e.g., type of engagement, level of reflective thinking). We then examined differences in hardiness between the five latent sub-groups using multinomial regression. Findings revealed that the sub-group of highly engaged, intentionally critical reflective thinkers reported significantly higher levels of all three hardiness sub-components than all other sub-groups; these effect sizes were typically moderate-to-large in magnitude (standardized mean differences = −1.50 to −0.10). Conversely, the profile of highly disengaged, non-reflective, habitual actors reported the lowest level of all three dimensions. Collectively, our findings offer novel insights into the potential factors that may influence a coaches’ level of hardiness. We provide particular support for the importance of reflective practice as a meta-cognitive strategy that helps coaches to develop hardy dispositions through augmenting its attitudinal sub-components. Consequently, our research makes a significant contribution by providing a comprehensive insight into how we might better train and support coaches to demonstrate the adaptive qualities required to thrive in demanding situations.
... The factors from the RRB showed significant effects on an individual's outcome, even in the absence of known or reported childhood adversity. It is likely these factors have important influence over how individuals deal and cope with everyday stressors or less severe adversity [12,50]. In the current set of findings, the ability to regulate emotions and the presence of positive close relationships in youth's lives tended to promote broad positive outcomes irrespective of early adversity. ...
Article
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Childhood adversity places youth at risk for multiple negative outcomes. The current study aimed to understand how a constellation of risk and resilience factors influenced mental health outcomes as a function of adversities: socioeconomic status (SES) and traumatic stressful events (TSEs). Specifically, we examined outcomes related to psychosis and mood disorders, as well as global clinical functioning. The current study is a longitudinal follow up of 140 participants from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) assessed for adversities at Time 1 (Mean age: 14.11 years) and risk, resilience, and clinical outcomes at Time 2 (mean age: 21.54 years). In the context of TSE, a limited set of predictors emerged as important; a more diverse set of moderators emerged in the context of SES. Across adversities, social support was a unique predictor of psychosis spectrum diagnoses and global functioning; emotion dysregulation was an important predictor for mood diagnoses. The current findings underscore the importance of understanding effects of childhood adversity on maladaptive outcomes within a resilience framework.
... Given different conceptualizations of the resilience construct in the literature (as a trait, a process, and/or outcome; see Luthar et al., 2000;Fletcher and Sarkar, 2013; for reviews), varying methods have been used for its assessment. Common methods for the assessment of resilience include: (1) self-report scales and situational judgment tests (e.g., Windle et al., 2011;Pangallo et al., 2015;Teng et al., 2020), (2) indirect based on the presence of risk and positive adaptation (e.g., Luthar and Zelazo, 2003), and (3) measuring resistance or adaptation to negative life events, everyday stressors, or experimentally created stressors (e.g., Hildebrandt et al., 2016;Seery and Quinton, 2016). Despite the wide range of assessment formats, they are all evaluated against fundamental reliability and validity criteria. ...
Article
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Modern technologies have enabled the development of dynamic game- and simulation-based assessments to measure psychological constructs. This has highlighted their potential for supplementing other assessment modalities, such as self-report. This study describes the development, design, and preliminary validation of a simulation-based assessment methodology to measure psychological resilience—an important construct for multiple life domains. The design was guided by theories of resilience, and principles of evidence-centered design and stealth assessment. The system analysed log files from a simulated task to derive individual trajectories in response to stressors. Using slope analyses, these trajectories were indicative of four types of responses to stressors: thriving, recovery, surviving, and succumbing. Using Machine Learning, the trajectories were predictive of self-reported resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Connor & Davidson, 2003) with high accuracy, supporting construct validity of the simulation-based assessment. These findings add to the growing evidence supporting the utility of gamification in assessment. Importantly, these findings address theoretical debates about the construct of resilience, adding to its theory, supporting the combination of the ‘trait’ and ‘process’ approaches to its operationalization.
... Across the life course, the experience of resilience will vary". There are number of terms like protective factors, recovery are used for defining resilience (Seery& Quinton, 2016). Resilience is ancapacity of an individual to successfully cope with stressors and changes of environment and is able to keep psychological well-being despite of adverse situation. ...
Article
Storytelling is a unique human experience that enables us to convey through words and gestures,real and imagined world and our place in it.“Stories” provide a wide range of engaging, exciting, and emotional experiences.It opens unlimited possibilities of exploration and learning for children. Stories help to develop listening, speaking, and problem-solving skills.Current article illustrates use of storytelling as a pedagogy in two classrooms of an early childhood education centre, which have been selected using purposive sampling technique. The article aims to explore concepts delivered; methods used to narrate stories and techniques used to maintain the interest of children. The Paper also examines age-graded differences within two classrooms while using storytelling pedagogy.Using a qualitative design, two weeks of observations were conducted in two age-graded classrooms. Results showed that the concepts of stories centred on science concepts, self-awareness, and individual differences amongst humans. Various methods were used for story narration ranging from freestyle; to using puppets and books. Diverse ways were adopted to sustain children’s interest in form of voice modulation, eye contact, frequent questioning, or seating arrangement. Each storytelling session was accompanied by post activities for further expansion of concepts learned in stories.
... For example, some scholars have argued that enduring trials can have a compounding and protective effect against future adversity and that resilience is a by-product of having endured other trials (Liu et al., 2017). However, this approach has not been fully supported by research as resilience scores differ between people who experience similar types and degrees of adversity (Seery & Quinton, 2016). ...
Thesis
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People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suffer from a rare, progressive, untreatable, and fatal neuromuscular disease. Their decision-making for life-sustaining treatments may not be fully self-deterministic. While researchers have examined resilience and self-determination in people with mental health problems and chronic illness, none have researched these variables in ALS patients from a socioecological framework. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between people with ALS’ socioecological resilience, self-determination, and decision-making for life-sustaining treatments. A cross-sectional concurrent mixed-methods design was used, with online surveys completed by 197 people with ALS who were solicited through the National ALS Registry. Qualitative content and thematic analysis revealed that people with ALS’ perceived burdens, disease progression, functional abilities, profound loss, quality of life, adaptability, resources, relationships, and environmental and supernatural forces contributed to their decision-making for life-sustaining treatments. Quantitative data were analyzed using binary logistic regressions, showing no significant relationships between socioecological resilience, self-determination, and decisions for life-sustaining treatments. Significant relationships were found between covariates (i.e., age, gender, military veteran status, and disease progression) and decisions for life-sustaining treatments. The positive social change implications include establishing an ecological decision-making model to improve social work services and empower decision-making. The findings also provide empirical rationales for increased socioeconomic resources to support people with ALS’ decisions for life-sustaining treatments.
... 13 Although this measure does not assess the severity or timing of each adverse event, it has been used in previous research to examine the relationship between negative life events and important outcomes such as psychological well-being. 21 ...
Article
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Research suggests that experiencing a moderate number of adverse life events can benefit future stress responses. This study explored the relationship between adverse life (i.e., non-sport) events and cardiovascular responses to, and performance during, a pressurized sporting task. One hundred participants (64 men, 36 women; Mage = 21.94 years, SDage = 4.98) reported the number of adverse life events (e.g., serious accident or injury) they had encountered before completing a pressurized dart-throwing task during which performance was recorded. Before the task, participants' demand and resource evaluations and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. Adverse life events did not impact demand and resource evaluations. However, participants who reported 4-7 adverse life events displayed cardiovascular responses more reflective of a challenge state (relatively lower total peripheral resistance and/or higher cardiac output) compared to those who reported a lower (<4) or higher (>7) number of events. Furthermore, participants who reported 3-13 adverse life events outperformed those who reported a lower (<3) or higher (>13) number of events. Supplementary analyses suggested that this relationship might be due to a small number of extreme values. However, after outlier analyses, a significant linear relationship remained suggesting that a higher number of adverse life events facilitated performance. The results suggest that experiencing a moderate to high number of adverse life events might have beneficial effects on subsequent cardiovascular responses and performance under pressure. Practitioners should therefore consider prior brushes with adversity when identifying athletes who are likely to excel during stressful competition.
... Cumulating research demonstrates that stressors may serve an adaptive function by strengthening a person's capacity for resilience (Crane & Searle, 2016;Seery & Quinton, 2016). However, the mechanisms by which stressors may support the capacities for resilience have been under-theorized. ...
Article
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Background Recent theoretical work suggests that self-reflection on daily stressors and the efficacy of coping strategies and resources is beneficial for the enhancement of resilient capacities. However, coping insights emerging from self-reflection, and their relationship to resilient capacities, is an existing gap in our understanding. Objectives Given that insights come in many forms, the objective of this paper is to delineate exemplar coping insights that strengthen the capacity for resilience. Methods After providing an overview of self-reflection and insight, we extend the Systematic Self-Reflection model of resilience strengthening by introducing the Self-Reflection and Coping Insight Framework to articulate how the emergence of coping insights may mediate the relationship between five self-reflective practices and the enhancement of resilient capacities. Results We explore the potential for coping insights to convey complex ideas about the self in the context of stressor exposure, an awareness of response patterns to stressors, and principles about the nature of stress and coping across time and contexts. Conclusions This framework adds to existing scholarship by providing a characterization of how coping insight may strengthen resilient capacities, allowing for a guided exploration of coping insight during future research.
... Even common life stressors may require coping. Consequently, this study is based on the idea that resilience should reflect with the successful management of stressors in general (Seery and Quinton, 2016). As resilience implies the ability to recover from undesirable circumstances, it can protect one's positive psychological functioning against stressors. ...
Article
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Existing literature provides evidence of the connection between emotional intelligence and resilience, both concepts being adversely related to perceived stress. Nevertheless, there is little evidence from cross-cultural and/or cross-country studies of the simultaneous relationship between these psychological variables. The objective of this study was to address this lack of research, examining the associations between emotional intelligence, resilience and perceived stress in a cross-country context. A total sample of 696 undergraduate students from two universities in the United States and the Basque Country (an autonomous community in northern Spain) participated in the study. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of emotional intelligence and resilience that may affect students’ perceived stress. The results revealed that emotional intelligence functions as a negative predictor of perceived stress through the mediating variable resilience for the American and Basque students. The findings suggest that university students with better emotional intelligence and resilience present lower perceived stress. Thus, improving emotional intelligence and resilience could prevent students from suffering perceived stress in higher education. Implications and directions for further research are discussed; in particular, it is highlighted that intervention programs that improve both EI and resilience could be helpful in reducing perceived stress.
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Resilience is a helpful construct when considering how to support clergy well-being. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about clergy resilience, specifically those resources that clergy perceived had supported their professional resilience. The study gave attention to aspects of preservice training and professional development that helped to foster clergy resilience and initiatives that clergy desired to further support their resilience. Clergy reported multiple resources that supported their resilience including supports for spiritual life, relational supports, personal aspects, and organizational practices. Spiritual dimensions of support for resilience were prominent for clergy, especially the centrality of calling to ministry, theological meaning-making, and relationship with God. Participants also revealed helpful aspects of preservice training and professional development. Aspects of preservice training included rigorous discernment and screening of their callings and the inclusion of required practices, such as spiritual direction or mentorship. Aspects of professional development included a variety of skill development opportunities, lifelong learning, conferences, and networking with peers. Participants reported their desire for initiatives that included more wellness opportunities and an increased organizational prioritization of clergy wellness.
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Research has demonstrated that adaptive forms of self‐reflection on stressor events and insight may strengthen resilient capacities. However, the coping insights that emerge during self‐reflection are notoriously under‐researched. In this research, we sought to explore the evidence for the self‐reflective activities and coping insights drawn from the Self‐Reflection and Coping Insight Framework (Falon, Kangas, & Crane, 2021) and find evidence of new reflections or insights not captured within the framework. Qualitative analysis was used to examine weekly, written self‐reflective journals completed by Officer Cadets involved in a randomized‐controlled trial of Self‐Reflection Resilience Training (Falon, Karin, et al., 2021). Sixty‐eight Officer Cadets who submitted their journals for analysis were included. Journals were analyzed using a deductive thematic approach. Findings revealed that self‐reflective activities occurred frequently over the course of the intervention. Coping insights were comparatively less frequent, but conveyed complex ideas about the self in the context of stressor exposure, broad principles about stress and coping, and nuanced interpretations regarding the interaction between the efficacy of coping approaches and broader contextual and intrapersonal factors. These findings demonstrate the critical role of coping insight during Self‐Reflection Resilience Training, with implications for developing a validated self‐report measure of self‐reflective activity and coping insight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Psikolojik sağlamlık, çok boyutlu bir olgudur. Sabit ve değişmez bir yapıdan ziyade, çevre ile etkileşimle şekillenen ve değişken bir yapıya sahip olduğu düşünülmektedir. Psikolojik sağlamlığın çocuklarda ve yetişkinlerde nasıl işlediğini, nasıl şekillendiğini ve nasıl desteklenebileceğini açıklayabilmek amacıyla literatürde çeşitli kuramlar bulunmaktadır. Psikolojik sağlamlığı açıklamak için, riskler ve koruyucu faktörlerin de hesaba katılması ile Bronfenbrenner’ın ekolojik sistem teorisinin yardımcı olabileceği görülmüştür. Buna istinaden bu çalışmada, bu savununun temelleri ve gerekçeleri tartışılmıştır. Sırasıyla, riskler ve stres, psikolojik sağlamlık tanımları, koruyucu faktörler, ekolojik sistem yaklaşımının psikolojik sağlamlığa bakış açısı ve sağlamlığa dair son çıkarımlara yer verilmiştir. Tartışma kısmında ise, literatürde sağlamlığın neden ekolojik perspektifle açıklanabileceğine dair gerekçelere yer verilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, ekolojik perspektifin, sağlamlığı anlama ve sağlamlığa katkıda bulunmak adına önemli çıkarımlara rehberlik edebileceği öngörülmüştür. /// Psychological resilience is a multidimensional phenomenon. Rather than being a fixed and unchangeable structure, it is thought to have a variable structure shaped by interaction with the environment. There are several theories in the literature to explain how resilience functions in children and adults, how it is shaped and how it can be supported. It has been seen that Bronfenbrenner's ecological system theory can help explain psychological resilience, taking into account the risks and protective factors. Based on this, the foundations and rationales of this argument are discussed in this study. Risks and stress, definitions of psychological resilience, protective factors, perspective of the ecological system approach to psychological resilience and final conclusions about resilience are given, respectively. In the discussion part, the reasons for why resilience can be explained from an ecological perspective in the literature are given. As a result, it is predicted that the ecological perspective can guide important inferences for understanding and contributing resilience.
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From past to present, silver has existed available in many treatments in the field of health including dentistry. In the 1800s, antimicrobial and antirheumatic properties were discovered. Silver components were used in medicine for tetanus and rheumatic drugs as well as for the treatment of cold and gonorrhea. In the following years, with the discovery of antibiotics, studies on the use of silver in medicine were suspended. However, with the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inability to prevent it, the interest in silver and its compunds has increased and studies on combined use have become the focus of attention. Silver compounds including silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver sulfadiazine have been utilized as topical antibacterial agents with the aim of controlling skin infections which are confronted in incidents such as burns and chronic ulcers. Using silver compounds in the field of dentistry dates back to previous times owing to their antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Silver amalgam and dental casting alloys are utilized in dentistry for a long time. In this respect, silver nitrate, being a silver compound, was used as an anti- caries, cavity sterilizing and dentin desensitizing agent. In the 1960s, combined agent studies were carried out, which put forward that compounds with fluoride would be more effective. AgNO3, AgF and Ag (NH3)2F as well as other silver particulate additives were investigated and utilized for management of caries. Various clinical studies have been conducted upon silver in caries management. Applying silver fluoride (AgF) compounds clinically, however, is limited as a result of the associated black staining. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, studies are carried out on silver nanoparticles (NPs) and silver diamine fluoride (Ag (NH3)2F ) compound, which are new compounds and used as anti-caries and dentin desensitizing agents today. Moreover, silver compounds and NPs are focused on for different types of dental applications which involve restorative material, endodontic retrograde cement, dental implants and caries preventive solution.
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the structural relation of emotional schemas with psychological distress and evaluate the mediating role of resilience and cognitive flexibility in this relationship. Method: Participants were 300 students that voluntarily completed a questionnaire package that included the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS-P), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Then, we utilized the LISREL software for structural equation modeling. Results: Structural equation modeling and path analysis revealed the direct effects of adaptive and maladaptive emotional schemas on psychological distress. The results indicated that maladaptive emotional schemas indirectly affected psychological distress via resilience and cognitive flexibility (P < 0.01). In contrast, adaptive emotional schemas indirectly affected psychological distress via cognitive flexibility rather than resilience (P < 0.05). Evaluation of the proposed structural model revealed an acceptable fit. Conclusion: The present research findings show the effect of emotional schemas on psychological distress via resilience and cognitive flexibility. Furthermore, the results suggest that resilience partially mediates the relationship between emotional schemas and psychological distress. At the same time, cognitive flexibility mediated this relationship.
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Terror management theory posits that human awareness of the inevitability of death exerts a profound influence on diverse aspects of human thought, emotion, motivation, and behavior. People manage the potential for anxiety that results from this awareness by maintaining: (1) faith in the absolute validity of their cultural worldviews and (2) self-esteem by living up to the standards of value that are part of their worldviews. In this chapter, we take stock of the past 30 years of research and conceptual development inspired by this theory. After a brief review of evidence supporting the theory's fundamental propositions, we discuss extensions of the theory to shed light on: (1) the psychological mechanisms through which thoughts of death affect subsequent thought and behavior; (2) how the anxiety-buffering systems develop over childhood and beyond; (3) how awareness of death influenced the evolution of mind, culture, morality, and religion; (4) how death concerns lead people to distance from their physical bodies and seek solace in concepts of mind and spirit; and (5) the role of death concerns in maladaptive and pathological behavior. We also consider various criticisms of the theory and alternative conceptualizations that have been proposed. We conclude with a discussion of what we view as the most pressing issues for further research and theory development that have been inspired by the theory's first 30 years.
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Being able to adequately process numbers is a key competency in everyday life. Yet, self-reported negative affective responses towards numbers are known to deteriorate numerical performance. Here, we investigated how physiological threat responses predict numerical performance. Physiological responses reflect whether individuals evaluate a task as exceeding or matching their resources and in turn experience either threat or challenge, which influences subsequent performance. We hypothesized that, the more individuals respond to a numerical task with physiological threat, the worse they would perform. Results of an experiment with cardiovascular indicators of threat / challenge corroborated this expectation. The findings thereby contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanism underlying the influence of negative affective responses towards numbers on numerical performance.
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Psychological resilience has become a popular concept. Owing to that popularity, the word resilience has taken on myriad and often overlapping meanings. To be a useful framework for psychological research and theory, the authors argue, the study of resilience must explicitly reference each of four constituent temporal elements: (a) baseline or preadversity functioning, (b) the actual aversive circumstances, (c) postadversity resilient outcomes, and (d) predictors of resilient outcomes. Using this framework to review the existing literature, the most complete body of evidence is available on individual psychological resilience in children and adults. By contrast, the research on psychological resilience in families and communities is far more limited and lags well behind the rich theoretical perspective available from those literatures. The vast majority of research on resilience in families and communities has focused primarily on only one temporal element, possible predictors of resilient outcomes. Surprisingly, however, almost no scientific evidence is actually available for community or family resilient outcomes. We close by suggesting that there is room for optimism and that existing methods and measures could be relatively easily adapted to help fill these gaps. To that end, we propose a series of steps to guide future research.
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The impact of living abroad is a topic that has intrigued researchers for almost a century, if not longer. While many acculturation phenomena have been studied over this time, the development of new research methods and statistical software in recent years means that these can be revisited and examined in a more rigorous manner. In the present study we were able to follow approximately 2,500 intercultural exchange students situated in over 50 different countries worldwide, over time both before and during their travel using online surveys. Advanced statistical analyses were employed to examine the course of sojourners stress and adjustment over time, its antecedents and consequences. By comparing a sojourner sample with a control group of nonsojourning peers we were able to highlight the uniqueness of the sojourn experience in terms of stress variability over time. Using Latent Class Growth Analysis to examine the nature of this variability revealed 5 distinct patterns of change in stress experienced by sojourners over the course of their exchange: a reverse J-curve, inverse U-curve, mild stress, minor relief, and resilience pattern. Antecedent explanatory variables for stress variability were examined using both variable-centered and person-centered analyses and evidence for the role of personality, empathy, cultural adaptation, and coping strategies was found in each case. Lastly, we examined the relationship between stress abroad with behavioral indicators of (mal)adjustment: number of family changes and early termination of the exchange program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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The current research found that participants who had previously endured an emotionally distressing event (e.g., bullying) more harshly evaluated another person's failure to endure a similar distressing event compared with participants with no experience enduring the event or those currently enduring the event. These effects emerged for naturally occurring (Studies 1, 3, and 4) and experimentally induced (Study 2) distressing events. This effect was driven by the tendency for those who previously endured the distressing event to view the event as less difficult to overcome (Study 3). Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect is specific to evaluations of perceived failure: Compared with those with no experience, people who previously endured a distressing event made less favorable evaluations of an individual failing to endure the event, but made more favorable evaluations of an individual managing to endure the event (Study 4). Finally, we found that people failed to anticipate this effect of enduring distress, instead believing that individuals who have previously endured emotionally distressing events would most favorably evaluate others' failures to endure (Study 5). Taken together, these findings present a paradox such that, in the face of struggle or defeat, the people we seek for advice or comfort may be the least likely to provide it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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The ability to respond positively to setbacks, obstacles, and failures is essential for any successful athlete. Although resilience has been studied in general psychology for several decades, it is only recently that researchers and practitioners have begun to explore the construct within the sport context. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of resilience scholarship in sport, and to offer guidelines for future research and interventions in this area. Studies of resilience in sport to date have either used experimental designs to investigate resilience to performance failure, or qualitative interview designs to understand the thoughts and beliefs of athletes who have successfully overcome adversity. Researchers who wish to study sport resilience in the future should think carefully about how they operationalise the construct. Furthermore, knowledge will be enhanced by the development of a sport-specific resilience measure and the use of more sophisticated qualitative approaches and advanced statistical modelling procedures. Sport practitioners can learn from resilience-building programmes developed in other settings as they, craft evidence-based interventions to enhance resilience in athletes.
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Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life’s adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.
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Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control, and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance.
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Does the language people use to refer to the self during introspection influence how they think, feel, and behave under social stress? If so, do these effects extend to socially anxious people who are particularly vulnerable to such stress? Seven studies explored these questions (total N = 585). Studies 1a and 1b were proof-of-principle studies. They demonstrated that using non-first-person pronouns and one's own name (rather than first-person pronouns) during introspection enhances self-distancing. Studies 2 and 3 examined the implications of these different types of self-talk for regulating stress surrounding making good first impressions (Study 2) and public speaking (Study 3). Compared with the first-person group, the non-first-person group performed better according to objective raters in both studies. They also displayed less distress (Studies 2 and 3) and engaged in less maladaptive postevent processing (Study 3). Studies 4 and 5 examined how these different forms of self-talk influence the way people appraise social-anxiety-provoking events. They demonstrated that non-first-person language use (compared with first-person language use) leads people to appraise future stressors in more challenging and less threatening terms. Finally, a meta-analysis (Study 6) indicated that none of these findings were moderated by trait social anxiety, highlighting their translational potential. Together, these findings demonstrate that small shifts in the language people use to refer to the self during introspection consequentially influence their ability to regulate their thoughts, feelings, and behavior under social stress, even for vulnerable individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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The present research examined the immediate impact of challenge and threat states on golf performance in both real competition and a laboratory-based task. In Study 1, 199 experienced golfers reported their evaluations of competition demands and personal coping resources before a golf competition. Evaluating the competition as a challenge (i.e., sufficient resources to cope with demands) was associated with superior performance. In Study 2, 60 experienced golfers randomly received challenge or threat manipulation instructions and then performed a competitive golf-putting task. Challenge and threat states were successfully manipulated and the challenge group outperformed the threat group. Furthermore, the challenge group reported less anxiety, more facilitative interpretations of anxiety, less conscious processing, and displayed longer quiet eye durations. However, these variables failed to mediate the group-performance relationship. These studies demonstrate the importance of considering preperformance psychophysiological states when examining the influence of competitive pressure on motor performance.
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The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat (Blascovich, 2008) suggests that individuals who evaluate a performance situation as a challenge will perform better than those who evaluate it as a threat. However, limited research has examined (a) the influence of challenge and threat evaluations on learned motor performance under pressure and (b) the attentional processes by which this effect occurs. In the present study 52 novices performed a motor task (laparoscopic surgery), for which optimal visual attentional control has been established. Participants performed a Baseline trial (when the task was novel) and were then trained to proficiency before performing under pressurized conditions designed to increase anxiety (Pressure). At Baseline, regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between challenge/threat evaluations and the outcome variables (performance, cardiovascular response, and visual attention). At Pressure, hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for the degree of learning) were performed to examine the relationship between challenge/threat evaluations and the outcome variables. At both Baseline and Pressure tests evaluating the task as more of a challenge was associated with more effective attentional control and superior performance. In the Baseline test, evaluating the task as more of a challenge was associated with differential cardiovascular responses. Although there is some support for an attentional explanation of differential performance effects, additional analyses did not reveal mediators of the relationship between challenge/threat evaluations and motor performance. The findings have implications for the training and performance of motor skills in pressurized environments (e.g., surgery, sport, aviation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study assessed whether cardiovascular (CV) reactivity patterns indexing challenge and threat states predicted batting performance in elite male county (N = 12) and national (N = 30) academy cricketers. Participants completed a batting test under pressure, before which CV reactivity was recorded in response to ego-threatening audio instructions. Self-reported self-efficacy, control, achievement goals, and emotions were also assessed. Challenge CV reactivity predicted superior performance in the Batting Test, compared with threat CV reactivity. The relationships between self-report measures and CV reactivity, and self-report measures and performance were inconsistent. A small subsample of participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed well, reported greater self-efficacy than participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed poorly. Also a small subsample of participants who exhibited challenge reactivity, but performed poorly, had higher avoidance goals than participants with challenge reactivity who performed well. The mechanisms for the observed relationship between CV reactivity and performance are discussed alongside implications for future research and applied practice.
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In modern health care, individuals frequently exercise choice over health treatment alternatives. A growing body of research suggests that when individuals choose between treatment options, treatment effectiveness can increase, although little experimental evidence exists clarifying this effect. Four studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that exercising choice over treatment alternatives enhances outcomes by providing greater personal control. Consistent with this possibility, in Study 1 individuals who chronically desired control reported less pain from a laboratory pain task when they were able to select between placebo analgesic treatments. Study 2 replicated this finding with an auditory discomfort paradigm. In Study 3, the desire for control was experimentally induced, and participants with high desire for control benefited more from a placebo treatment when they were able to choose their treatment. Study 4 revealed that the benefit of choice on treatment efficacy was partially mediated by thoughts of personal control. This research suggests that when individuals desire control, choice over treatment alternatives improves treatment effectiveness by enhancing personal control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Although it is well documented that low self-esteem and depression are related, the precise nature of the relation has been a topic of ongoing debate. We describe several theoretical models concerning the link between self-esteem and depression, and review recent research evaluating the validity of these competing models. Overall, the available evidence provides strong support for the vulnerability model (low self-esteem contributes to depression), weaker support for the scar model (depression erodes self-esteem), and little support for alternative accounts such as the diathesis–stress model. Moreover, the vulnerability model is robust and holds across gender, age, affective-cognitive versus somatic symptoms of depression, European background versus Mexican-origin participants, and clinical versus nonclinical samples. Research on further specifications of the vulnerability model suggests that the effect is (a) partially mediated by rumination, (b) not influenced by other characteristics of self-esteem (i.e., stability and contingency), and (c) driven predominantly by global rather than domain-specific self-esteem. The research has important theoretical implications because it counters the commonly repeated claim that self-esteem has no long-term impact. Moreover, the research has important practical implications, suggesting that depression can be prevented, or reduced, by interventions that improve self-esteem.
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In Study 1, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was administered to 425 undergraduates. Analyses yielded a three component solution comprising (a) rumination, (b) magnification, and (c) helplessness. In Study 2, 30 undergraduate participants were classified as catastrophizers (n = 15) or noncatastrophizers (n = 15) on the basis of their PCS scores and participated in an cold pressor procedure. Catastrophizers reported significantly more negative pain-related thoughts, greater emotional distress, and greater pain intensity than noncatastrophizers. Study 3 examined the relation between PCS scores, negative pain-related thoughts, and distress in 28 individuals undergoing an aversive electrodiagnostic medical procedure. Catastrophizers reported more negative pain-related thoughts, more emotional distress, and more pain than noncatastrophizers. Study 4 examined the relation between the PCS and measures of depression, trait anxiety, negative affectivity, and fear of pain. Analyses revealed moderate correlations among these measures, but only the PCS contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of pain intensity.
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A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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The authors present a theory of sexism formulated as ambivalence toward women and validate a corresponding measure, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). The ASI taps 2 positively correlated components of sexism that nevertheless represent opposite evaluative orientations toward women: sexist antipathy or Hostile Sexism (HS) and a subjectively positive (for sexist men) orientation toward women, Benevolent Sexism (BS). HS and BS are hypothesized to encompass 3 sources of male ambivalence: Paternalism, Gender Differentiation, and Heterosexuality. Six ASI studies on 2,250 respondents established convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Overall ASI scores predict ambivalent attitudes toward women, the HS scale correlates with negative attitudes toward and stereotypes about women, and the BS scale (for nonstudent men only) correlates with positive attitudes and stereotypes about women. A copy of the ASI is provided, with scoring instructions, as a tool for further explorations of sexist ambivalence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cognitive appraisal theories of stress and emotion propose that cognitive appraisals precede physiological responses, whereas peripheralist theories propose that physiological arousal precedes cognitive processes. Three studies examined this issue regarding threat and challenge responses to potential stress. Study 1 supported cognitive appraisal theory by demonstrating that threat and challenge cognitive appraisals and physiological responses could be elicited experimentally by manipulating instructional set. Studies 2 and 3, in contrast, found that manipulations of physiological response patterns consistent with challenge and threat did not result in corresponding changes in cognitive appraisal. Appraisals in Study 3, however, were related to subjective pain independent of the physiological manipulation. These studies suggest a central role for cognitive appraisal processes in elicitation of threat and challenge responses to potentially stressful situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cardiovascular (CV) reactivity is proposed by both the Biopsychosocial Model and the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes to predict competitive performance. The association between CV reactivity and competitive performance was examined in cognitive (Study 1) and motor (Study 2) tasks. In Study 1, 25 participants (9 female) completed a modified Stroop Test, and in Study 2, 21 female netballers completed a netball shooting task, under competition. Measures of CV reactivity, self-report measures of self-efficacy, control, achievement-goals and emotions along with baseline and competitive task performance were taken. CV reactivity indicative of a challenge state predicted superior performance in both tasks compared to CV reactivity indicative of a threat state. In both studies the purported relationships between CV reactivity and the psychological and emotional responses were weak or absent. The mechanisms for the observed association between CV reactivity and task performance are discussed alongside implications of the findings for future research and practice.
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Challenge and threat states predict future performance; however, no research has examined their immediate effect on motor task performance. The present study examined the effect of challenge and threat states on golf putting performance and several possible mechanisms. One hundred twenty-seven participants were assigned to a challenge or threat group and performed six putts during which emotions, gaze, putting kinematics, muscle activity, and performance were recorded. Challenge and threat states were successively manipulated via task instructions. The challenge group performed more accurately, reported more favorable emotions, and displayed more effective gaze, putting kinematics, and muscle activity than the threat group. Multiple putting kinematic variables mediated the relationship between group and performance, suggesting that challenge and threat states impact performance at a predominately kinematic level.
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This article addresses distinctions underlying concepts of resilience and thriving and issues in conceptualizing thriving. Thriving (physical or psychological) may reflect decreased reactivity to subsequent stressors, faster recovery from subsequent stressors, or a consistently higher level of functioning. Psychological thriving may reflect gains in skill, knowledge, confidence, or a sense of security in personal relationships. Psychological thriving resembles other instances of growth. It probably does not depend on the occurrence of a discrete traumatic event or longer term trauma, though such events may elicit it. An important question is why some people thrive, whereas others are impaired, given the same event. A potential answer rests on the idea that differences in confidence and mastery are self-perpetuating and self-intensifying. This idea suggests a number of variables whose role in thriving is worth closer study, including personality variables such as optimism, contextual variables such as social support, and situational variables such as the coping reactions elicited by the adverse event.
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Four studies sought to differentiate between self-enhancement and self-protection as motivations self-handicapping. High-self-esteem participants self-handicapped to enhance success, whereas low-self-esteem participants self-handicapped to protect against the esteem-threatening implications of failure. This was supported with 2 different forms of self-handicapping and corroborated by attributional statements regarding the implications of handicaps for performance outcomes. Thus, different people use the same (self-handicapping) strategy for different reasons. Also, patterns of social motivation vary with level of trait self-esteem.
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Drawing from theory and clinical lore, we consider how individuals are assumed to cope following irrevocable loss. Several assumptions are reviewed reflecting beliefs concerning the grieving process. Specifically, we examine the expectation that depression is inevitable following loss; that distress is necessary, and failure to experience it is indicative of pathology; that it is necessary to "work through" or process a loss; and that recovery and resolution are to be expected following loss. Although limited research has examined these assumptions systematically, available empirical work fails to support and in some cases contradicts them. Implications of our analysis for theoretical development and research are explored. Finally, w e maintain that mistaken assumptions held about the process of coping with loss fail to acknowledge the variability that exists in response to loss, and may lead others to respond to those who have endured loss in ways that are unhelpful. In this article, we focus on how people cope with loss events that involve permanent change and cannot be altered or undone. It is our belief that such experiences provide an excellent arena in which to study basic processes of stress and coping. In the health and medical areas, many specific losses might be considered irrevocable: the permanent loss of bodily function, the loss of particular body parts, the loss of cognitive capacity, the death of a loved one, or one's own terminal illness. In an attempt to advance theoretical development in this rich and complex area, this article updates an earlier review we completed on reactions to undesirable life events (Silver & Wortman, 1980). Because the most rigorous empirical studies have been in the areas of physical disability and bereavement, we shall focus on these two areas in this article. When a person experiences an irrevocable loss, such as the death of a loved one or permanent paralysis, how will he or she react? We maintain that people hold strong assumptions about how others should respond to such losses. As we have discussed in more detail elsewhere (Silver & Wortman, 1980; Wortman & Silver, 1987), such assumptions are derived in part from the theories of loss offered by prominent writers in the area, and in part from clinical lore about coping with loss and our cultural understanding of the experience. As detailed below, individuals who encounter a loss are expected to go through a period of intense distress; failure to experience such distress is thought to
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Although Asians in the United States are targets of racial prejudice and discrimination, cultural forces may hinder their acknowledging that such bias has occurred. High personal self-esteem (SE) may facilitate acknowledging discrimination—which is costly yet necessary to remedy unfair treatment—but the importance of personal SE for Asians has been questioned. This study investigated a novel question: Does high personal SE function as a psychological resource for Asians’ attributions to racial discrimination? Participants received negative performance feedback containing one of three levels of cues to a White evaluator’s prejudice (feedback only, less-clear cues, or more-clear cues). Participants with lower SE reported elevated attributions to discrimination only when cues were more clear, whereas participants with higher SE reported elevated attributions when any cues to prejudice were present. Results suggest that high personal SE serves as a psychological resource for Asian targets of prejudice, lowering the threshold for acknowledging discriminatory treatment.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat (BPS) holds that during active goal pursuit, psychological processes reliably lead to specific patterns of cardiovascular responses. Because psychological experience during goal pursuit is not otherwise easily accessible, using cardiovascular responses to infer psychological states can provide valuable insight. In this context, challenge results from evaluating high resources and low demands, whereas threat results from evaluating low resources and high demands. Both challenge and threat lead the heart to beat faster and harder than during rest, but challenge results in dilation in arteries and more blood pumped, whereas threat results in constriction and less blood pumped. This article summarizes the BPS, presents recent research applications, and discusses remaining questions and future directions, including how research from other theoretical perspectives may clarify the nature of task engagement and how the BPS can inform the study of resilience to stressors.
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Previous research has implicated the role of easily activated self-doubt in unstable high self-esteem (HSE). The current study sought to further elucidate the eliciting conditions of such self-doubt by assessing cardiovascular responses that are sensitive to self-doubt. Participants heard that an upcoming test of reasoning ability could only identify either exceptionally high or especially low ability, and then completed either a difficult or easy version of the test while cardiovascular markers of challenge/threat were measured. As hypothesized, individuals with unstable HSE exhibited cardiovascular responses consistent with greater self-doubt (threat) than others, but only during a difficult test that was diagnostic of exceptionally high ability. This suggests that people with unstable HSE do not experience a high level of self-doubt whenever they are faced with a test of themselves, but instead only when there is a high risk of confirming a lack of exceptional ability. This has important implications for further understanding the nature and underlying mechanisms of unstable HSE.
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Can heeding the automatic impulse to trust one's romantic partner increase physical and psychological resilience in the face of doubts about a partner's responsiveness? Experimental participants were led to believe that their partner perceived a long list of faults in them. All participants then gave a speech about their future career goals while their partner watched. The results revealed impulsive trust (i.e., evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Associations Test) increased resilience to partner-criticism for people who heed their automatic impulses (i.e., low in working memory capacity). Specifically, for people low in working memory capacity and high in impulsive trust, partner-criticism increased resilience relative to control participants (i.e., expecting a more approving partner reaction to their speech, cardiovascular reactivity consistent with a positive challenge response). In contrast, for people low in working memory capacity and low in impulsive trust, partner-criticism decreased resilience relative to control participants (i.e., expecting a more disapproving partner reaction, cardiovascular reactivity consistent with a negative threat response).
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Both common wisdom and findings from multiple areas of research suggest that it is helpful to understand and make meaning out of negative experiences. However, people’s attempts to do so often backfire, leading them to ruminate and feel worse. Here we attempt to shed light on these seemingly contradictory sets of findings by examining the role that self-distancing plays in facilitating adaptive self-reflection. We begin by briefly describing the “self-reflection paradox.” We then define self-distancing, present evidence from multiple levels of analysis that illustrate how this process facilitates adaptive self-reflection, and discuss the basic science and practical implications of this research.
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This cross-sectional study examined whether previous life stressors are associated with current traumatic stress symptoms in women who were sexually abused in childhood. Fifty-eight treatment-seeking women, sexually abused in childhood and meeting criteria for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their childhood sexual abuse, participated in this study. Participants were administered a structured interview to assess PTSD as well as selfreport measures to assess acute stress reactions, other trauma-related symptoms, sexual revictimization as an adult, and recent stressful life events. Recent stressful life events were shown to be associated with PTSD symptoms, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, and other trauma-related symptoms. Sexual revictimization was associated with trauma-related symptoms but not PTSD symptoms or ASD symptoms. Implications for clinical intervention and future research are discussed