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Implementing and Evaluating a Blended Learning Format in the Communication Internship Course


Abstract and Figures

The use of blended learning is well suited for classes that involve a high level of experiential in-quiry such as internship courses. These courses allow students to combine applied, face-to-face fieldwork activities with a reflective academic component delivered online. Therefore, the pur-pose of this article is to describe the pedagogical design and implementation of a pilot blended learning format internship course. After implementation, the pilot class was assessed. Results of the survey and focus group revealed high levels of student satisfaction in the areas of course structure, faculty-student interaction, and application of theory to the "real-world" experience undertaken by students during the internship. Lower levels of satisfaction with the course's aca-demic rigor and a sense of community were also reported. Notably, students with experience in blended learning expressed lower levels of overall satisfaction, but reported higher levels of satis-faction with the course's rigor and sense of community. The paper concludes by offering impli-cations for instructors seeking to implement blended learning approaches.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice Volume 14, 2015
Cite as: Smith, C. M. (2015). Implementing and evaluating a blended learning format in the communication internship
course. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice, 14, 271-235. Retrieved from
Editor: Minh Huynh
Submitted: March 25, 2015; Revised: June 5, July 14, 2015, July 18, & August 12, 2015;
Accepted: August 26, 2015
Implementing and Evaluating a Blended Learning
Format in the Communication Internship Course
Christina M. Smith
California State University Channel Islands, Camarillo, CA, USA
The use of blended learning is well suited for classes that involve a high level of experiential in-
quiry such as internship courses. These courses allow students to combine applied, face-to-face
fieldwork activities with a reflective academic component delivered online. Therefore, the pur-
pose of this article is to describe the pedagogical design and implementation of a pilot blended
learning format internship course. After implementation, the pilot class was assessed. Results of
the survey and focus group revealed high levels of student satisfaction in the areas of course
structure, faculty-student interaction, and application of theory to the “real-world” experience
undertaken by students during the internship. Lower levels of satisfaction with the course’s aca-
demic rigor and a sense of community were also reported. Notably, students with experience in
blended learning expressed lower levels of overall satisfaction, but reported higher levels of satis-
faction with the course’s rigor and sense of community. The paper concludes by offering impli-
cations for instructors seeking to implement blended learning approaches.
Keywords: blended learning, internship, Communication, assessment, community
The use of blended learning has increased dramatically in higher education (Jeffrey, Milne,
Suddaby, & Higgins, 2014). While definitions of blended learning vary, all involve the combina-
tion of face-to-face instruction with online learning in a unified and complementary manner
(Glazer, 2012). A full definition and discussion is provided in the Study Context section. The
growing popularity of blended learning is due to a number of factors, including increased pres-
sure to serve more students with fewer resources, demands of flexibility from students, and great-
er retention rates (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). Studies report higher levels of student satisfaction
due to the increased interaction and motivation resulting from hybrid formats (Fabry, 2012; Sor-
den & Munene, 2013). Additionally, faculty report higher satisfaction levels in their interactions
with students when using a blended course format (Ho, Lu, & Thurmaier, 2006). These factors
have led to widespread institutional sup-
port of blended learning. In fact, a re-
cent Center for Digital Education survey
found that 90% of faculty respondents
noted their university encouraged blend-
ed approaches (“Realizing the Full Po-
tential,” 2012).
Jelfs, Nathan, and Barrett (2004) con-
tend that hybrid approaches involve
“blending of the learning into students’
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Blended Learning Format
lives” (p. 87). Thus, blended learning is particularly well suited for classes that involve a high
level of fieldwork or experiential inquiry. An internship course is well suited to this design be-
cause it allows students to combine applied, “real-world” fieldwork activities with a reflective
academic component.
As noted by Jeffrey, Milne, Suddaby, and Higgins (2014), there is a lack of research on the teach-
ing practices surrounding blended learning, or how “teachers balance the blend.” This is particu-
larly important considering that “only by understanding current practice can we prepare to make
changes to that practice.” Therefore, the purpose of this article is to address the lack of research
on blending learning teaching practices by presenting a case study in the design, execution and
evaluation of an internship course delivered using this format.
First, the context for the case study, including literature on hybrid course design and online
Communication and internship courses, is provided. Next is a description of the conception of
the course and selection of technological tools. I then provide an overview of course activities,
including the module structure, assignments, and discussion prompts. Then, the case study’s
evaluation, which consisted of a survey and focus group, is reviewed. This is followed by the
results and discussion section. The paper concludes with implications and future directions for
instructors of blended learning courses.
Study Context
Definitions of hybrid or blended learning vary from technology-oriented to pedagogically orient-
ed understandings (see Driscoll, 2002). Lord and Lomicka (2008) define blended learning as
“combining various types of pedagogy with different tools for interaction and discussion.” Often,
the definition emphasizes the combination of two existing approaches: wholly online and tradi-
tional classroom instruction. Dawley (2007) defines hybrid learning as “online instruction that
complements traditional instruction and tailors the needs of individual students” (p. 2). Garrison
and Vaughan (2008) point out that blended learning involves three key assumptions: the thought-
ful integration of both online and face-to-face learning, an emphasis on student engagement in
course design, and the replacement of traditional on-campus contact hours. Hybrid courses po-
tentially allow instructors to capitalize on the strengths of both instructional modes. However,
little agreement exists as to the optimal combination of a number of instructional and organiza-
tional elements within the blended learning environment, including space, time, and humanness
(Graham, 2006; Khechine, Lakhal, Pascot, & Bytha, 2014).
There are many important aspects to consider when preparing to construct and deliver a hybrid or
blended online/face-to-face learning experience. Regarding the pragmatic components, Ko and
Rossen (2004) suggest that instructors first discern which components work best in each medium.
Moreover, they suggest that in designing a blended course, instructors must refine the processes
of orientation, facilitation, and preparation, staying mindful of transitions, pacing, and setting
clear expectations for their students. Again, considering students in an internship course simulta-
neously complete several hours of applied work outside of class time, these elements became cen-
tral to a successful experience.
In terms of internships, web-based technologies offer a way to facilitate off-campus learning op-
portunities for students with numerous prior commitments (O’Keefe Bazzoni, 2000). The ability
for students to apply communication theory outside the classroom is highly beneficial to their
curricular experience. Mattern (2003) details an approach to internships whereby public relations
practitioners would guide students in fieldwork that applied their classroom knowledge. Given
that most programs will not have the resources to execute this type of individualized approach, a
blended learning-based approach provides a mechanism for students to obtain course credit while
engaging in instructor-facilitated experiences.
Blended and online learning is not new in the field of Communication. Courses in Organizational
Communication have implemented a variety of technologies to enhance student learning, includ-
ing Skype to train students in the art of online/remote interviewing (Garner & Buckner, 2013) and
the construction of an online public speaking class (Linardopoulos, 2010). While most students
surveyed indicated that their preference for an online public speaking course was based on con-
venience, nearly 80% of students felt that their learning was the same as students on-campus and
most believed that their public speaking skills increased as a result of completing the course. Ad-
ditionally, scholars have investigated instructor perceptions of implementing technology in
Communication courses. Using Professional Communication as a case study, Freeman and
Tremblay (2013) designed seven online modules and interviewed instructors at the end of the se-
mester. Results were mixed, but did suggest that student-instructor engagement underwent a pos-
itive shift.
In the fall of 2013 the Communication Internship course at a California State University was re-
designed for delivery in a blended learning format. The author participated in a professional de-
velopment program that sought to provide resources and peer feedback for instructors converting
a course to a blended learning format. This is commendable considering the widespread lack of
institutional support for online course design (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). The Blended Learn-
ing Preparation Program implemented a cohort model to teach faculty about “course design, tech-
nologies and pedagogy regarding teaching in a blended learning environment”
( The faculty collaborated in a series of workshops and pre-
sented the results of their re-design at the end of the semester. Faculty were also encouraged to
formally evaluate the course after its implementation the following semester. The resulting eval-
uation serves as the case study for this investigation.
The re-designed Internship course was intended to replace the existing format that asked students
completing an internship to simply write a final 3-page reflective paper. Program faculty were
concerned that this approach lacked rigor. Moreover, students did not interact with one another
(and very little with the instructor) during the course of the semester, leading to a lack of commu-
nity in the course. In the re-designed Internship course, students implemented a variety of tech-
nologies, including Google Presentations, blogs, and ScoopIt to perform weekly module-based
activities. Additionally, each module-based section of the re-designed course had specific objec-
tives addressing various aspects of communication theory, research, and writing.
Course Design and Implementation
The re-designed internship course had two primary goals: first, the instructor sought to increase
the academic rigor of the class, and second, the instructor wanted to bolster the sense of commu-
nity among students in the class. Regarding the former goal, the instructor sought to foster a
“community of inquiry” among students enrolled. This approach “supports connection and col-
laboration among learners and creates a learning environment that…will precipitate and sustain
critical reflection and discourse” (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008, p. 8). Each element social pres-
ence, teaching presence, and cognitive presencewas addressed in the re-design. Additionally, a
second but related goal was to increase the interaction among students and foster community. In
this case, community can be understood as things like trust, common learning goals, and interac-
tion (Rovai, 2002). Students potentially “feel isolated from the instructor and other class mem-
bers” which can lead to problems (Davidson-Shivers & Rasmussen, 2006, p. 18). Thus, building
technologically based mechanisms to ensure a sense of community became one focus of the re-
design effort.
A sense of community also results from a high level of student engagement. As noted by Jeffrey
et al. (2014), this is accomplished in two ways. First, the course must create a sense of social
presence, defined as “the teacher’s enthusiasm and the extent to which students feel a part of the
Blended Learning Format
class” (p. 129). As Sorden and Munene (2013) point out, social presence is positively linked with
many desirable outcomes such as student engagement, retention, and overall satisfaction. En-
gagement is maintained by providing students with a clear structure, instructions, and assessment
criteria, as well as timely feedback. In this case, the course was broken into three one-month
modules, with an in-class orientation meeting at the beginning of the semester and a final meeting
at the end where students delivered a presentation on their internship. In between these class
meetings, each module was structured similarly for consistency. It was believed that consistency
among modules would be easier for both the instructor in designing the course and the students
(half of whom had little online course experience) in completing the activities on schedule.
The next step was to examine various technologies to execute the online components of course-
work. As Smith (2008) contends, designing a learner-centered online course is key to its success.
The instructor utilized the Blackboard interface to construct and deliver the course content. As
noted, each module was presented as a unit to students and contained similar content. Due to the
wide availability and use of Google by students, Google Presentations were chosen for the
knowledge and application-based activities. For the evaluation component, a WordPress blog
was created for students to use for reflection. In addition to the original post, students were re-
quired to respond to classmates, thus facilitating interaction. While it was originally believed that
such online interaction would be effective in bolstering community, student feedback still sug-
gested a lack of connection with classmates (see below). Students were also asked to engage with
an online news curation service called “ScoopIt.” This technology allowed students to locate rel-
evant news articles about internships, careers in Communication, and job-related information and
add their unique interpretations to the article. Finally, for convenience, students were provided a
variety of options for completing an individual meeting component with the instructor (in person
via office hours, online using Skype, or via phone).
Course Activities
Students accessed all materials for a module under a single page, including instructions, readings
and resources, assignment descriptions, and links to the Google Presentation and blog. The home
page included a welcome video where the instructor offered an introduction, his or her back-
ground, and walked students through the online course site using a screencast technology (please
see Appendix A for a screenshot of the course home page). Before the first class meeting (held
on campus) students were asked to complete a “Pre-Module.” This was meant to serve as a pri-
mer and build social presence (Jeffrey et al., 2014). The goal was to familiarize them with the
various technologies as well as to begin building community. In addition to offering his or her
name and picture, hometown, and internship position, each student was asked to give three ques-
tions that would be answered during the first class meeting.
Each subsequent module proceeded similarly: it began with a weeklong Google Presentation-
based assignment whereby students were asked to utilize resources provided to answer a series of
prompts. Several resources and readings were provided and students were allowed to choose
among them or to locate their own, fostering open and purposeful inquiry (Garrison & Vaughan,
2008). The prompts consisted of three questions that each addressed a different level of Bloom’s
Taxonomy. To address the knowledge component, the first two prompts asked for a definition of
key concepts, asking students to identify the factual terminology involved. To address the com-
prehension component, the third prompt allowed students to compare different categories. Final-
ly, to address the application component, the fourth prompt asked students to find another exam-
ple of the concept (please see Appendix B for learning module materials). For example, the
module on organizational assimilation and culture asked the following questions…
1. Define assimilation and note how it is achieved (knowledge).
2. Outline the concept of organizational culture (knowledge).
3. How do assimilation and culture connect (comprehension)?
4. Peters and Waterman suggest Disney is an organization with a strong culture. What
organizations do you think have a strong culture (application)?
In week two, analysis and synthesis were addressed when students were asked to review the en-
tire Google Presentation and blog about their own unique experience. In particular, they were
asked to compare and contrast their internship experience with the criteria presented the previous
In what ways did the concepts presented on organizational assimilation and culture com-
pare and contrast with your own experience in entering your organization?
These two weeksworth of exercises provided the cognitive presence for the course (Garrison &
Vaughan, 2008).
In the third week, students were required to meet with the instructor using their preferred format.
This gave the instructor the opportunity to troubleshoot problematic internship incidents, offer
advice on communication-related issues, or to motivate students struggling with online course-
work. Indeed, as Jeffrey et al. (2014) suggest, personal contact is the best mechanism for re-
engaging those “who have drifted away.” As a follow-up, students were asked to complete an
online journal (accessible only to the instructor) that noted the outcome of the week’s conversa-
Please reflect on the information, tools, and/or resources you have applied from our one-
on-one meeting this week. Be specific.
These exercises were intended to create a sense of discipline among students and to bolster the
teaching presence during weeks of online instruction (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008).
Finally, in the fourth week, students met together as a class to complete a facilitated discussion on
topics related to classroom content. Such in-class meetings served as the primary mechanism for
maintaining social presence among students and between student and instructor. Again, for the
module on organizational assimilation and culture, students were broken into small groups ac-
cording to their internship experience and asked to answer the following…
Develop a set of “best practices” for organizations in XXX to communicate the organiza-
tional culture and to efficiently and effectively assimilate interns into that culture. Be
prepared to share the results of your discussion with the class.
The second module addressed organizational leadership, with prompts that asked students to ex-
plore the concept in scholarly literature and interview a leader in their organization. In the final
module, the instructor sought to connect the Internship experience with Communication Program
Learning Outcomes, providing students with a “bigger picture” view of their work experience.
Therefore, they were asked to utilize the news curation tool called “ScoopIt” to locate and anno-
tate articles of relevance to Communication students.
ScoopIt is a site that allows for collecting, archiving, and annotating/curating news sto-
ries related to a specific topic. Based on your experience in completing Communication
coursework, and a hands-on experience through the internship, please complete the fol-
lowing: Locate 3 articles related to Communication, Internships, Employment, etc and
link them to our Internship ScoopIt site. For each article, include a 50-100-word annota-
tion that describes the article’s importance to students interested in completing intern-
ships in the future. Alternatively, you can note why Communication students in general
Blended Learning Format
should be interested in exploring the article’s contents. This site will be required reading
for Internship students next semester.
Their blog post for this module was also different in content. Instead of responding directly to a
set of resources given by the instructor, students were asked to offer feedback on the Communica-
tion Program’s effectiveness in career preparation…
Read 2-3 annotated articles from our ScoopIt site and apply the material to your intern-
ship position. Based on your readings, reflect on how you were trained to take on this
position. Post a 200-word response to the following prompt on your blog:
What was the most rewarding class you took at the university?
What was the most useful class, based on your internship experience?
What do you believe are the strengths of the current Communication Program in terms of
career preparation?
How can the Communication Program better meet the needs of its students in terms of
career preparation?
Research Design and Methodology
To measure the effectiveness of the Communication Internship course’s re-design and use of
technology, it was assessed after the first semester of implementation using both a survey and
focus group. Such summative assessments help the instructor and other interested parties meas-
ure the overall impact of the course (Davidson-Shivers & Rasmussen, 2006). In the case of the
Communication Internship course, two means of assessing the pilot class were performed. First,
a brief survey was administered to students during the final in-class session, and second, a focus
group was conducted with students enrolled in the course.
The participants consisted of 11 upper division undergraduate students at a California State Uni-
versity. 4 students were male and 7 were female and the average age was 22.7. 9 were Commu-
nication majors, 1 was a Communication minor, and 1 was a Business major. All Communica-
tion students were focusing on organizational communication and non-profit leadership in their
studies. The Internship course was completed in fulfillment of an elective and students per-
formed their internships in communication-related positions at organizations located both on-
campus and off-campus. Six students had not completed a blended learning-format course in the
past, whereas five had previous experience with blended learning.
As noted, on the final day of class, students were asked to complete a survey to assess the
course’s effectiveness. In order to minimize instructor influence, a member of the university’s
Teaching and Learning Innovation team administered the survey. Students were not graded on
completion of the survey and were informed its completion was completely voluntary. The sur-
vey consisted of a series of nine 5-item likert scale questions ranging from 1 (strongly disagree)
to 3 (neutral) to 5 (strongly agree) and addressed overall student satisfaction, the use of technolo-
gy, the course structure and expectations, instructor interaction and feedback, the academic rigor
of the class, and the sense of community fostered. Overall student satisfaction (SATISFACTION)
was measured by asking students to agree or disagree with “In general, I was satisfied with the
blended learning Internship course.” The use of technology (TECHNOLOGY) was measured by
asking students to agree or disagree with “Technology was utilized effectively in the course.”
Expectations (EXPECTATIONS) were measured by asking students to agree or disagree with
“Course expectations and grading standards were clearly articulated.” Instructor interaction (IN-
TERACTION) was measured by asking students to agree or disagree with “The feedback and in-
teraction provided by the instructor was useful.” The course’s academic rigor (RIGOR) was
measured by asking students to agree or disagree with “I found the internship course to be aca-
demically rigorous.” The course’s exploration of Communication theory (THEORY) was meas-
ured by asking students to agree or disagree with “The internship course increased my under-
standing of communication theories and practices.” The internship’s ability to increase work-
force experience (WORKFORCE) was measured by asking students to agree or disagree with
“The internship course increased my workforce experience and made me a more competitive ap-
plicant for jobs.” The ability of assignments to connect theory to the real world (CONNECTION)
was measured by asking students to agree or disagree with “The assignments served to clearly
connect communication theory with the real world.” The sense of community in the course
(COMMUNITY) was measured by asking students to agree or disagree with “The internship
course built a strong sense of community among students.”
Focus Group
In addition to the survey, a focus group was conducted with students. Focus groups allow partic-
ipants to be stimulated by each other’s ideas and experiences (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). Focus
groups also allow researchers “to explore group characteristics and dynamics as relevant constitu-
tive forces in the construction of meaning and the practice of social life” (Kamberelis & Dimitri-
ads, 2005, p. 902). In this sense, group interaction can often produce richer data than dialogue.
The focus group was conducted by the same Teaching and Learning Innovation team member on
campus on the final day of class and lasted approximately 60 minutes. Questions focused on the
overall student experience, what students found effective and ineffective about the course struc-
ture and content, and workload. Additionally, questions asked about the interactions between
instructor and student, as well as student-student interactions.
Results and Discussion
Overall, students indicated a high level of satisfaction with the re-designed course, with 73% sat-
isfied or very satisfied, 27% neutral, and no students reporting dissatisfaction (see Figure 1).
Blended Learning Format
Descriptive statistics are provided below (see Table 1). The item with which students indicated
the highest level of agreement was developing their experience for the workforce (WORK-
FORCE, mean = 4.63). The next two items with high levels of agreement included helping stu-
dents to apply the concepts and theories learned in the Communication curriculum to their experi-
ence in the field (CONNECTION, mean = 4.36) and helping them to increase their understanding
of Communication theory (THEORY, mean = 4.00). Regarding the structure, organization, and
instructor interaction, students indicated a high level of satisfaction with the use of technology
(TECHNOLOGY, mean = 4.36) and the instructor-student interaction in the course
(INTERACTION, mean = 4.45) (see Figure 2).
Table 1: Results of Survey
Variable Mean Standard
SATISFACTION 4.36 0.924 3 5
TECHNOLOGY 4.36 0.809 3 5
WORKFORCE 4.63 0.505 4 5
CONNECTION 4.36 0.809 3 5
Figure 2: High Levels of Agreement
Open-ended responses on the survey mirrored these results. Students noted that they “felt like it
provided a lot of opportunities to apply information” and that “this class required me to use what
I have learned so far in the community.” Other open-ended comments indicated that the course
was successful in “application of theories in real world” and “the practical nature of the con-
However, students indicated the lowest levels of agreement with the academic rigor of the re-
designed class (RIGOR, mean = 3.72). Moreover, the sense of community fostered in the blended
learning environment (COMMUNITY, mean = 3.54) received the lowest reported score on the
survey (see Figure 3).
Furthermore, the less effective elements listed on open-ended responses included “the lack of
face-to-face time with other students” and that “there was no face-to-face communication with
lessons.” These results could be due in part to the overall student experience in the Communica-
tion program at the university. Program hallmarks include close faculty-to-student interaction
and mentoring, widespread group work, and highly interactive teaching methods across classes.
Thus, students may have higher expectations for the amount and quality of student-student inter-
action based on their face-to-face learning experience. Alternatively, students may not have un-
derstood the notion of rigor as asked on the survey. Nevertheless, the results suggest the need to
continue refining this element.
Figure 3: Low Levels of Agreement
A comparison was made between the satisfaction levels of students that reported having previous-
ly taken a blended learning format course and those that had not (see Figure 4). Results suggest-
ed that overall satisfaction levels were lower among students with prior experience (SATISFAC-
TION mean of 3.8 vs. 4.8). Lower scores were also reported on the use of technology (TECH-
NOLOGY mean of 4.2 vs. 4.5), faculty-student interaction (INTERACTION mean of 4.2 vs. 4.6),
and increased experience for the workforce (WORKFORCE mean of 4.4 vs. 4.8). Questions ad-
dressing Communication theory received mixed results. While students that had previously com-
pleted a blended learning course reported less agreement with the course’s ability to connect theo-
ry to the “real world,” (CONNECTION mean of 4.2 vs. 4.5) they reported higher agreement with
Blended Learning Format
the course’s ability to increase their overall knowledge of Communication theory (THEORY mean
of 4.2 vs. 3.8).
Finally, in the two measures that received the lowest overall levels of agreement, students with
previous blended experience reported higher levels of satisfaction: academic rigor (RIGOR mean
of 3.8 vs. 3.6) and sense of community (COMMUNITY mean of 3.6 vs. 3.5). Considering the
university is only beginning to implement blended learning approaches into its overall curricu-
lum, most students may not yet be accustomed to such approaches and are therefore using their
understanding of face-to-face classes to inform their responses. For students with previous online
learning experience, the course actually is meeting its goals of increasing academic rigor and a
sense of community.
Figure 4: Comparison of Previous Blended Learning Experience
Results from the focus group mirrored findings from the survey (see Table 2). Students indicated
satisfaction with the instructor feedback and interaction, the applied nature of the coursework and
lack of “busywork,” and the use of key technologies such as ScoopIt. This technology was posi-
tively received by students for the ability to locate, curate, and post relevant news articles. Stu-
dents indicated a surprisingly high satisfaction level with using this technology, suggesting the
assignment allowed them to be exposed to outside ideas and information. Students in the course
indicated that they perceived a lack of community and student-to-student interaction in the pilot
course. Thus, while in the end students reported a positive experience with the re-designed
blended learning format of the Communication internship course, future implementations should
continue exploring ways to increase substantive interaction and a sense of community among stu-
Table 2. Focus Group Themes
Illustrative Student Comments
Course activities
“I felt that the work that we were supposed to do was not busywork
– it was just quick and to the point” (Student R).
“I felt like the course treated us like adults. It was, here’s the in-
formation – now go apply it” (Student T).
Connecting coursework to
“real world”
“Actually realizing how your Communication classes correlate with
working” (Student C1).
“It was kindof like the best of both worlds – in having some school,
class where you’re learning some stuff but also real world experi-
ence” (Student R).
“It actually made the connection between theory and real-life expe-
rience” (Student C2).
Use of technology
Use of ScoopIt to “post articles from online that pertain to our class
and pertain to the business world…there were articles that I never
would have thought of that were real interesting. It was someone
else’s perspective, someone else looking at it. Sometimes they put
different universities in different parts of the country and those dif-
ferent perspectives were nice to read” (Student M).
Sense of community
“Was potentially lost in technology” (Student E)
“I didn’t feel like there was a lot of togetherness, just because our
work wasn’t together” (Student R).
“When you limit the amount of class sessions that you have, I feel
like we all missed out on friendship” (Student C2)
“I think its community in the best way it could’ve been. With the
technology its not gonna be really tight knit. But for what it was
worth, I think it did the best it could” (Student E).
Academic rigor
The workload was “a lot for me. Um, just because the nature of my
internship, combined with my other classes and, and then on top of
that, since, there was also online work” (Student C2).
“We are spending lots of hours in our internship so I don’t think
there should be a heavy workload because the work we are doing is
within our jobs(Student C1).
The results of the survey and focus group on the pilot internship course provided an opportunity
to explore implications for faculty interested in designing and implementing blended learning in
similar classes. Findings revealed the following considerations for all instructors: (1) setting
clear expectations for students, (2) clearly structuring the course and communicating evaluation
measures, and (3) being strategic in the overall implementation of blended courses.
In terms of the first point, student focus group participants recognized the need for discipline and
professionalism in taking any online-based coursework. They suggested that successful students
Blended Learning Format
must be organized, motivated, and articulate to succeed. This is in line with the findings of Na-
pier, Dekhane, and Smith (2011), where students in a blended learning course identified disci-
pline and autonomy as essential for success. Thus, instructors should communicate these neces-
sary traits to students early in the course. Often, the addition of a “wisdom wall” is a useful
mechanism for this activity. Here, former students offer advice for those about to take the course,
allowing students to access information from their peers (Pacansky-Brock, 2012).
In terms of the second point, student participants recommended that instructors must be clear and
consistent with online content, structure, and grading expectations. Such qualities are aligned
with Ko and Rossen’s (2004) suggestions for designing a blended learning course. Especially in
an internship course, students must be given sufficient time for both the reflective, academic
component, as well as the applied fieldwork component.
Finally, and in line with existing literature on blended learning, such approaches must be inten-
tional: “good instructional design is vitally important to the success of a blended learning course,
perhaps even more so than in a traditional classroom or in fully online courses (Glazer, 2012, p.
5). As universities increasingly pressure faculty to utilize hybrid and online approaches, it is nec-
essary that intentionality guide all decisions to modify a course’s delivery modality. In his review
of the key problems and opportunities afforded by increased technology in education, Vaughan
(2007) reports that administrators see one of the top benefits of blended learning as its ability to
reduce costs and space demands. On the other hand, faculty reported that, while blended learning
courses require additional time for planning and development, often there is a lack of support
from the administration for these key tasks. Furthermore, professional development in acquiring
and applying technology is often lacking as well. The disconnect between faculty and adminis-
trator perceptions may be one reason that a recent poll by Inside Higher Ed found that most facul-
ty are still skeptical of online learning (Strausheim, 2014). Institutions must be willing to commit
resources if blended learning approaches are to be implemented effectively.
As Freeman and Tremblay (2013) point out in their study of an Introduction to Professional
Communication course delivered in a hybrid format, “where blended learning is imposed, faculty
may not have the opportunity to make the pedagogical transition to a blended teaching environ-
ment and may experience a disconnect between their existing pedagogical approach and the re-
quirements of online instruction.” Ultimately, faculty must be offered the support necessary to
produce blended learning courses that elicit buy-in in order to maximize the benefits of this ap-
This evaluation of the pilot internship course also revealed both strengths and areas for improve-
ment in the redesigned course itself. As a result, the instructor must continue refining the course
to improve these elements while maintaining the successful elements. In the future, the technolo-
gy VoiceThread will be utilized for the course in place of the Google Presentation. It is thought
that this technology, which allows for textual, audio, and video responses, will help foster a
stronger sense of interaction among students than the static, text-based predecessor. Existing
studies demonstrate that it successfully elicits student responses (Pecot-Hebert, 2012).
VoiceThread could potentially increase the sense of community and student-to-student interaction
by allowing students to hear one another’s voices or see webcam images of respondents.
As indicated, there is currently a lack of research on blended learning teaching practices (Jeffrey
et al., 2014). Moreover, there are few studies that have investigated blended teaching practices
surrounding internship courses. Blending such courses facilitates the experiential application of
concepts and theories and assists students in obtaining job-related skills. Indeed, faculty in the
health care and education fields are starting to explore how blended learning environments can be
effectively utilized (LaFrance & Beck, 2014; Mahnken, Baumann, Meister, Schmitt, & Fischer,
2011). In the case of an experiential learning experience, the role of the instructor becomes that
of mentor. Instead of disseminating information to students, the instructor must help students to
make the connection between theory and praxis. Such a relationship is key for a course like the
internship, which does not involve set content like other courses. Rather, the main purpose of the
internship is to allow students to test their knowledge and skills in a specific organizational set-
Thus, as O’Keefe Bazzoni (2000) points out, a blended learning approach is particularly well
suited for these types of courses. Blended learning allows instructors to utilize technology to
provide the necessary theoretical grounding, while face-to-face time can be dedicated to interper-
sonal discussion and guidance. This lets instructors capitalize on one of the strengths reported by
faculty having taught in a blended format: the novel ways of communicating and increased quali-
ty of interaction with students afforded by technology (Vaughan, 2007).
This paper described the design, implementation and evaluation of a pilot blended learning in-
ternship course in the field of Communication. The course was the first one in the Communica-
tion program at the university to be designed and implemented in this format. In addition to in-
class meetings, three technology-based modules were designed to address both key concepts in
the field and specific cognitive processes. Results of the summative assessment revealed high
levels of student satisfaction in the areas of course structure, faculty-student interaction, applica-
tion of theory to the “real-world” experience undertaken by students during the internship, and
the use of specific technologies. Lower levels of satisfaction with the course’s academic rigor
and a sense of community were also reported.
As noted in the Study Context, the pilot blended learning internship course replaced a previous
iteration of the class where students only completed a brief reflective paper at the end of the se-
mester. In addition to a workload that was not challenging enough, the previous format also did
not allow students to interact with one another. Thus, the course was re-designed with the goals
of increasing academic rigor and building a stronger sense of community. Though the results
suggested that these goals were not met in levels as high as other elements measured, from my
perspective, the re-designed class is a dramatic improvement. Students were required to engage
with Communication theory throughout the semester (as opposed to only at the end) and were
given the opportunity to learn directly from their peers. Furthermore, as previously indicated, the
results are potentially influenced by students’ lack of experience with online learning coupled
with their previous experience in other courses in the Communication Program that stress inter-
personal interaction and group work.
The study did have some limitations; primarily, it involved a small sample size of only 11 stu-
dents – all of whom were relatively similar in terms of educational goals and objectives (all were
Business/Communication students performing internships in fulfillment of elective credit). Fu-
ture research should continue to investigate how internships and other fieldwork-based classes
implement a blended learning format to meet the learning objectives of other disciplines. Addi-
tionally, the study was limited to a single small California State University whose student popula-
tion consists of a large number of first generation college students, many of whom struggle to
utilize technology. As a result, the findings don’t necessarily transfer to universities with more
technologically savvy students. Future studies should continue to explore how blended learning
approaches can be implemented to effectively serve a diverse student population.
Blended Learning Format
Appendix A. Screen shot of course home page
Appendix B. Learning modules
Module 1: Organizational Assimilation and Culture
Student Outcomes/Learning Objectives
1. To explain the three assimilation processes/stages: anticipatory socialization, encounter, and
2. To identify the history of organizational communication approaches to culture.
3. To apply two or more tools for measuring organizational culture.
4. To reflect on their own organizational assimilation and culture.
Learning Plan/Activities
1. Using the resources provided and those you find on your own, complete the Google Presenta-
tion on organizational assimilation and culture.
Resources: Miller textbook, Chapters 5 (Culture) and 7 (Assimilation)
Article: Pacanowsky and O’Donnell Trujillo on Culture
Article: In Search of Excellence excerpt
Link to Video on Disney
2. In Google presentation, prompts include:
Define assimilation and note how it is achieved.
Outline the concept of organizational culture.
How do assimilation and culture connect?
Peters and Waterman suggest Disney is an organization with a strong culture. What organiza-
tions do you think have a strong culture?
3. Complete blog posts that reflect upon the activity.
4. Schedule and attend a one-on-one meeting.
5. Participate in facilitated in-class discussion. Based on the blog entries, the instructor will
summarize 3-5 of the common themes that arose. They will then list these on the board and we
will go around the room allowing each student to choose one theme that was relevant to them and
discuss it for 2-3 minutes.
For the second portion of class, students are grouped together based on similarities (industry,
type of organization, location, etc) and are provided a prompt.
Assessment Performance Task
1. For Google Presentation
There are four prompts. Each student must contribute their own answers (minimum of 50 words
each) to at least three.
Make sure to include your author information on your slide.
Posts are due on Saturday at 11:59 PM.
Blended Learning Format
2. For Blog Post
View the completed Google Presentation on organizational assimilation and culture and apply the
material to your internship position. Think about how you were assimilated into the organization
and the ways in which you learned the culture. Post a 250-word response to the following prompt
on your blog:
In what ways did the concepts presented on organizational assimilation and culture compare and
contrast with your own experience in entering your organization?
3. For Individual Meetings
Ask students to reflect on what they take away or will apply from our one-on-one meetings.
4. For Facilitated Discussion
Develop a set of “best practices” for organizations in XXX to communicate the organizational
culture and to efficiently and effectively assimilate interns into that culture.
Module #3: Applying Communication Skills and Knowledge
Student Outcomes/Learning Objectives
1. To reflect on the skills and competencies obtained in Communication coursework and how
they relate to the overall internship experience.
2. To reflect on how their successes and challenges can assist future Internship students.
Learning Plan/Activities
1. Using your own experience with the Internship course, please complete 3 posts to our ScoopIt
site, a platform meant for archiving and curating news stories related to specific topics.
2. Prompt for ScoopIt site:
ScoopIt is a site that allows for collecting, archiving, and annotating/curating news stories related
to a specific topic. Based on your experience in completing Communication coursework, and a
hand-on experience through the internship, please complete the following:
Locate 3 articles related to Communication, Internships, Employment, etc and link them to our
Internship ScoopIt site.
For each article, include a 50-100-word annotation that describes the article’s importance to stu-
dents interested in completing internships in the future. Alternatively, you can note why Com-
munication students in general should be interested in exploring the article’s contents. This site
will be required reading for Internship students next semester.
3. Complete blog posts that reflect upon the activity.
4. Schedule and attend a one-on-one meeting.
5. Participate in facilitated in-class discussion. Based on the blog entries, the instructor will
summarize 3-5 of the common themes that arose in terms of the Communication Program. They
will then list these on the board and we will go around the room allowing each student to choose
one theme that was relevant to them and discuss it for 2-3 minutes.
Assessment Performance Task
1. For ScoopIt Site
There is a prompt on CI Learn that identifies the assignment instructions and goals.
Annotated articles are due on Saturday at 11:59 PM.
2. For Blog Post
Read 2-3 annotated articles from our ScoopIt site and apply the material to your internship posi-
tion. Based on your readings, reflect on how you were trained to take on this position. Post a
200-word response to the following prompt on your blog:
a. What was the most rewarding class you took at CI?
b. What was the most useful class, based on your internship experience?
c. What do you believe are the strengths of the current CI Communication Program in terms
of career preparation?
d. How can the CI Communication Program better meet the needs of its students in terms of
career preparation?
3. For Individual Meetings
Ask students to reflect on what they take away or will apply from our one-on-one meetings.
4. For Facilitated Discussion
In groups of 3, students will be asked to create a “Wisdom Wall” for future Internship students.
They will be asked to focus on preparing for an internship (including what classes and/or extra-
curricular activities to undertake) as well as how to best position oneself for a strong internship
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Christina M. Smith is an Assistant Professor of Communication at
California State University Channel Islands. She earned her Ph.D.
from the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona
State University. Her research interests are in visual rhetoric, digital
media, and public memory. She has published in Critical Studies in
Media Communication, Argumentation and Advocacy, and Western
Journal of Communication.
... Through Online Distance Learning (ODL), students can obtain learning materials related to new subjects that they can explore theresources such as class lectures outside the school environment where they have face-to-face lessons. The students then focus on the adaptation of new learning content through approaches such as cooperative learning in classes, blended learning, project-based and group discussions and videos (Smith, 2015). ...
The implications of online learning versus face-to-face learning have been discussed for several years in higher education. Hence, this study’s objective was to assess the learning satisfaction towards Online Distance Learning (ODL) and its relationship with ODL readiness in the context of Physical Education setting. This quantitative research adopted an online survey method that measure the ODL readiness and learning satisfaction among 172 Physical and Health Education students who are practicing ODL due to Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The results indicate that ODL readiness is more likely to affect the learning satisfaction among students while having ODL session and it led to low satisfaction level in learning. The results of learning satisfaction level showed a small effect in accordance to gender; male students are anticipated to have slightly higher than female students due to dissimilarity of skill possessed. On this basis, it is recommended the ODL readiness among students should be considered when performing ODL classes in order to achieve high learning satisfaction towards ODL.
... Guidance is needed to direct this different type of delivery of new learning opportunities (Briant and Crowther, 2020). The literature has investigated the virtual internship in the distance and online learnings (Goldsmith and Martin, 2009;DeWitt and Rogers, 2009;Larkin and Beatson, 2014;Pike, 2015;Bayerlein, 2015;Smith, 2015;Medeiros et al., 2015;Jeske and Axtell, 2016;Sykes and Roy, 2017;Petit and Ntebutse, 2017;Bayerlein and Jeske, 2018;Pillutla et al., 2019). These studies were reviewed to assist in planning for the current program and aiming to ensure best practices. ...
Purpose: This paper examined the evaluation of the virtual internship program for KAU IT students during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020 summer. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method survey was utilized for the data collection. Out of 164 enrolled students in the 2020 summer training program, 147 students opted to participate. This gives a response rate of 89.6% of the total students' number who could participate. In addition to collecting quantitative data, qualitative data were collected. The sources for qualitative data were survey open questions, weekly reflective writing and video recordings. Findings: The quantitative result showed that the students were satisfied with their virtual internship. These results were further qualitatively explored and discussed under five themes: information and knowledge, work experience, live interaction, the comfort of achieving tasks and soft skills. The outcomes showed that the plan which offered students opportunities to be trained online with real companies accomplishing real work tasks was the best in fulfilling the requirements of the internship. Thus, it emphasized the importance of a strong alliance with the industry to provide useful virtual internship opportunities. Research limitations/implications: Though this study made a novel contribution to the timely literature on the COVID-19 pandemic, it is not without its limitations. The difference in the three sample sizes makes it difficult to get in-depth comparative analysis. For future research, it is highly recommended to study the impact of online training with real existing companies on a relatively larger sample number. Practical implications: In order for a higher educational institute to successfully adopt the proposed plans for the virtual internship, here are the reflections and lessons learned from our three plans. (1) Emphasize your efforts on extending your partnership with the private sector and computing industry. (2) The MCIT training focuses on developing technical skills; therefore, it is great to be offered to students in the computing field as extracurricular activities but not as the fulfillment of the internship program. (3) Blackboard training sessions, which cover nontechnical skills, are good to be offered prior to the internship. Social implications: For governmental human resource agencies, it is highly recommended to further develop and invest in manpower to develop online platforms. In normal situations, these platforms act as an extra training resource. In abnormal situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, they act as useful source for online training. For students, this sudden unexpected transition from normal to online training should enrich them with the ability to be flexible and adaptive, tune them with opportunities for independent and innovative creative work, encourage them to take risks and provide them with opportunities to do things differently. As an outcome, students will enhance their self-efficacy and capabilities. Originality/value: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, not only classes and internship programs have been done remotely but increasingly jobs have also gone in that direction. A virtual internship today might be good preparation for the virtual/remote work of tomorrow. For this reason, this study was conducted to add a novel contribution to the virtual internship literature.
... 18,No. (Smith, 2015;Jeffrey, et al., 2014). Penerapan BL membantu mahasiswa dalam menerapkan cara-cara baru berkomunikasi dan meningkatkan kualitas interaksi antara dosen dengan mahasiswa ataupun mahasiswa dengan mahasiswa yang difasilitasi dengan teknologi (Zhang and Zhu, 2017;Huang, 2016). ...
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p align="left"> Abstrak Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kemampuan komunikasi mahasiswa setelah melaksanakan proyek pembuatan desain website menggunakan model pembelajaran Blended Learning (BL) dan pembelajaran tatap muka/ face-to-face (F2F). Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen dengan bentuk penelitian adalah kuasi eksperimen. Populasi penelitian berjumlah 696 mahasiswa dan sampel penelitian berjumlah 63 mahasiswa yang diambil menggunakan teknik purposive sampling . Sampel penelitian dibagi menjadi dua kelas, yaitu kelas yang melaksanakan BL dan kelas yang melaksanakan pembelajaran F2F. Alat pengumpul data dalam penelitian ini berupa portofolio dan lembar observasi. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan analisis multivariat. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan komunikasi mahasiswa berada dalam kategori baik dan terdapat perbedaan kemampuan komunikasi pada proyek desain website antara kelompok yang melaksanakan BL dan F2F. Abstract The research aimed to determine differences in student communication skills after implementing a website design project using Blended Learning (BL) learning model and face-to-face learning (F2F). The research method used an experimental method with the form of research was quasi-experimental. The study population numbered 696 students and the study sample numbered 63 students taken using purposive sampling techniques. The research sample divided into two classes, namely classes that carry out BL and classes that carry out F2F learning. Data collection tools were in the form of portfolios and observation sheets. Data analysis techniques using descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis. The analysis showed that the communication skills of students are in good category and there are differences in communication skills in website design projects between groups implementing BL and F2F. </p
... It is not difficult to find among recent studies the conclusions that students prefer blended learning's accessibility and flexibility, which leads to reduced drop-out rate, higher exam pass rates, improved learning faculty-student interaction and outcome, and increased motivation and creates a positive attitude and satisfaction (El-Deghaidy & Nouby, 2008;Hughes, 2007;López-Pérez, 2011;Melton, Bland, & Chopak-Foss, 2009;Smith, 2015;Smyth et. al., 2012;So & Brush, 2008). ...
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Aim/Purpose Blended learning can transform students experience and learning in higher education. Although the literature extensively explores benefits of blended learning, limited research exists to provide a detailed design principle for implementing instructional activities in blended courses and its usage as tool to influence learning outcomes for second language first year accounting learners. Background The objective of this study is to find out how the learning experience of students was impacted and by designing and implementing blended learning and connectivity between online and face-to-face learning. This paper reviews the challenges and benefits of blended learning and highlights teachers' and students' perceptions on the impact of the connectivity of online and face-to-face activities on students' learning. Methodology Data was collected from students enrolled in the course using an open-ended questionnaire. There were 220 respondents, representing a response rate of 65%. Data was extracted from the online learning data and grade center. Teachers' experiences and observations were also noted. The survey results were analyzed using content analysis. Contribution Research focusing on blended learning design and implementation is limited, and there is no one size fits all when it comes to blended learning. Consequently , this paper contributes to the discussion by highlighting how second language, first-year accounting students benefit from blended learning and the connectivity between online and face-to-face activities. Increased flexibility for learners Transforming a First-year Accounting Course 320 appears to be one of the most cited rationale for the combination of traditional with online instructional methods, however, this study evaluates blended learning as a tool for transforming the learning experience of second language, first year accounting students. Findings Findings show that students benefit from blended learning, and connectivity between online and in-class activities allows students to exploit the advantages of both online and face-to-face learning. Students can see the relevance of what they are doing online and how that contributes to their in-class activities and, hence, are motivated to complete the activities. Recommendations for Practitioners
... • Ask students to build a virtual "wisdom wall (Smith, 2015)" of recommendations to future students (can use Padlet or similar application) ...
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Background Since about 2010 e‐learning has been embedded in educational practice and has become, surely due to the Covid‐19 pandemic, increasingly important. Objectives Although much has been written about e‐learning, little is known about crucial didactic and pedagogical design principles for e‐learning. This review tried to fill that gap. Methods Based on a systematic literature review, 42 studies (out of 1857 unique hits) were included that address e‐learning design in higher education. Open and axial coding was used for analysis. Results and conclusions There were two continuums distinguished as important for e‐learning: (1) the active learning continuum and (2) the authentic learning continuum. Those continuums appear to be useful to give a visual representation of included studies through an active and authentic learning continuum. This resulted in four clusters with (slightly) different properties. These properties vary from a relatively low to a high level of authenticity, and from teacher to student centred. Analysis also revealed four crucial aspects for e‐learning design: (1) content scaffolding, (2) process scaffolding, (3) peer‐to‐peer learning, and (4) formative strategies. In general, most of the e‐learning approaches demand an educational design that facilitates authentic learning and self‐regulation. Takeaways To help practitioners in realizing e‐learning design, this paper will provide some concrete suggestions and tips for e‐learning design. Furthermore, this research shows that more well‐founded research is necessary to gain more insight in didactic and pedagogical design principles for e‐learning.
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Executive Summary This paper discusses the constructs of social presence, collaborative learning, computer-supported collaborative learning, and satisfaction in blended learning environments. It presents the results of a study that used the Collaborative Learning, Social Presence, and Satisfaction (CLSS) questionnaire , which was conducted on one campus in a multi-campus community college system. The CLSS questionnaire measured the amount of perceived collaborative learning, perceived social presence, and reported satisfaction in a blended course. The sample of participants was drawn from students enrolled in one or more blended courses on one campus in a multi-campus, community college system in the southwestern United States.
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Opportunities for K-12 students to choose virtual and blended learning experiences continue to grow. All 50 states including Washington, D.C., now offer some virtual experience in K-12 education. Of these, 40 states have state virtual schools or state-led online learning initiatives. In addition, federal and state support for this type of learning continues to expand. Field experiences are beginning to be available for virtual school teachers; however, little information is available on field experiences for pre-service administrators in virtual K-12 settings. This study provides a status report on the state of school administrator preparation for K-12 online and blended learning programs in the United States. This research was conducted by surveying initial certification Educational Leadership programs regarding the extent that pre-service administrators are exposed to K-12 online learning environments. Results indicate that very few Educational Leadership programs provide any administrator preparation for leading a K-12 virtual school or teachers of online courses. Important ramifications exist for Educational Leadership programs preparing educators to lead fully online and blended learning programs.
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The purpose of the paper was to determine the factors that explain the acceptance of a webinar system (Elluminate) in a blended learning course by students. The effects of gender and age as moderating variables were also studied. Our hypotheses were based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model, which was proven to be able to better explain the variance in usage intention than previous acceptance models. In total, 114 students enrolled in a blended information systems course at Laval University in Quebec-Canada answered 37 questions of seven-point Likert-type scale. Results have shown that the intention to use a webinar was directly influenced by performance expectancy (practical academic performance), effort expectancy (easiness of use), and facilitating conditions (technical and organizational support). Only the age variable had had a moderating effect. The obtained results will not only add scientific evidence to the literature about blended learning, webinars, and technology adoption, but it could also lead to a better practical understanding of the factors that may incite or discourage students to use webinar technologies in blended higher education. Faculty members and administrators should use these results to evolve strategies to align users' expectations with technology use for learning.
As MPA programs search for teaching options that meet students’ needs and maintain program quality, many are exploring various distance learning formats. This paper evaluates whether students with synchronous learning and asynchronous learning experiences received a different quality of instruction in an course that blended distance and face-to-face learning. The authors review the literature on blended learning distance education as an alternative to online-only distance education, discuss the model of blended learning distance education used in the course described in this analysis, and then review their hypotheses, research methodology, and statistical analysis. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of this experiment for other MPA programs that might explore a blended learning distance education component in their curriculum.
This groundbreaking book offers a down-to-earth resource for the practical application of blended learning in higher education as well as a comprehensive examination of the topic. Well-grounded in research, Blended Learning in Higher Education clearly demonstrates how the blended learning approach embraces the traditional values of face-to-face teaching and integrates the best practices of online learning. This approach has proven to both enhance and expand the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning in higher education across disciplines. In this much-needed book, authors D. Randy Garrison and Norman D. Vaughan present the foundational research, theoretical framework, scenarios, principles, and practical guidelines for the redesign and transformation of the higher education curriculum. Blended Learning in Higher Education. Outlines seven blended learning redesign principles. Explains the professional development issues essential to the implementation of blended learning designs. Presents six illustrative scenarios of blended learning design. Contains practical guidelines to blended learning redesign. Describes techniques and tools for engaging students.
This is a practical introduction to blended learning, presenting examples of implementation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. For faculty unfamiliar with this mode of teaching, it illustrates how to address the core challenges of blended learning—to link the activities in each medium so that they reinforce each other to create a single, unified course—and offers models they can adapt.