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Effect of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthenopia

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... In recent years, a considerable number of reports has described that taking AX can improve subjective symptoms such as eye strain in visual display terminal (VDT) operators and the accommodation ability. [4][5][6] This time, we investigated the effects of AX supplementation on the accommodation function of the eye in middle-aged and older people in whom presbyopia had begun. ...
... The amount and duration of supplementation were established in reference to reports of previously conducted studies that suggested effectiveness. 4,5) 3) Test and time point ...
... 1-3) It possesses various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory activity, 7,8) antiulcer activity, 9) antidiabetic activity, 10) and muscle fatigue relieving activity, 11) and not a few reports have been published on clinical trials conducted in subjects complaining of eye strain. [4][5][6][12][13][14] In a previous report, 4) the following results were obtained: In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study in which AX (daily dose of 6 mg) or placebo was administered to VDT operators with chronic complaint of eye strain for 4 weeks to investigate the effects of AX on eye strain, AX showed significant improvement in the accommodation ability, which is considered an objective index of the degree of eye strain (measured by a constant point refraction near point ruler, "D'ACOMO"), as well as improvement in symptoms accompanied by asthenopia such as "shoulder and low back stiffness" and "blurred vision." In another clinical study 6) conducted in healthy volunteers in which the effects of rest after VDT operation on recovery of accommodation function were measured by an analyzer of High Frequency Component in Accommodative micro-fluctuation ("AA-1," NIDEK Co., Ltd.), it was suggested that AX would show effects on accommodation function and promote the recovery process of accommodative fatigue to alleviate fatigue immediately. ...
... Free radicals and singlet oxygen over time manifest diseases such as blindness caused by macular degeneration or dementia caused by Alzheimer's [96] . The research established an optimum daily dose for eye fatigue at 6 mg per day [97] . Additional studies demonstrated at 6 mg per day of Natural Astaxanthin supplementation for four weeks can reduce eye soreness, dryness, tiredness and blurred vision [97,98] . ...
... The research established an optimum daily dose for eye fatigue at 6 mg per day [97] . Additional studies demonstrated at 6 mg per day of Natural Astaxanthin supplementation for four weeks can reduce eye soreness, dryness, tiredness and blurred vision [97,98] . Natural Astaxanthin serves to prevent eye fatigue from occurring in healthy people [99] . ...
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The microalgae represent the vast source of bioactive compounds with the potential for industrial products such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food supplements, molecular probes, fine chemicals, and agrochemicals. Several novel metabolites with potent pharmacological properties have been discovered from the marine organisms among them, 25 percent are from algae. Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant for several health applications. It is a metabolite of zeaxanthin and canthaxanthin, containing hydroxyl and ketone functional groups which is a lipophilic terpene made up of carbon precursors. Astaxanthin cannot be synthesized by humans, only can be absorbed alongside fatty acids via passive diffusion. They are transported to body tissues to protect the cells and lipid-based membranes against oxidative damage. The structure of astaxanthin facilitates it as an excellent antioxidant with free radical scavenging property, mitochondrial protection, anti-inflammatory effects, and protection from glycation. But for a beneficial strategy in health management and carry forward the further research using astaxanthin for gaining more reliable results, a piece of precise information is needed, which can only be accessed from good reviews. Here in this review, we will try to give information regarding the natural source of astaxanthin, market demands, and various applications specifically focused on the human health sector.
... In another experiment, it was found that astaxanthin extracted from the microalga H. pluvialis significantly improved the deep vision and the critical flicker fusion of healthy adult male volunteers, and no effects on static and kinetic visual acuity were observed [108]. Nagaki et al. [109] found that 6 mg of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis per day could improve eye fatigue in visual display terminal workers. It was shown that astaxanthin might increase retinal capillary blood flow in both eyes in normal volunteers and intraocular pressures remained unchanged during the supplementation period [110]. ...
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The ketocarotenoid astaxanthin can be found in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, and Chlorococcum sp., and the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. The microalga H. pluvialis has the highest capacity to accumulate astaxanthin up to 4-5% of cell dry weight. Astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases, and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and HgCl₂-induced acute renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.
... Additionally, it is found that extraction of astaxanthin from microalga Haematococcus pluvialis, had significantly improved the deep vision and the flicker fusion among healthy male adults (Sawaki et al. 2004). According to Nagaki et al. (2010), found that terminal workers with an eye fatigue in the visual display had improved after they are given 6mg of astaxanthin which is extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. In addition, it is shown that astaxanthin had increased the blood flow in the capillaries of the retina in both eyes, but the latter cannot be said for intraocular pressure because remained unchanged (Hashimoto et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we are putting our focus on biologically active compounds that are taken from natural resources, specifically compounds that act on molecular targets and are involved in several diseases in the human body. One of the most well-known biologically active compounds is astaxanthin, which is a xanthophyll carotenoid found in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum and Phaffia rhodozyma. Astaxanthin has shown to provide a wide range of beneficial health benefits on the metabolism and in several organ systems of the human body including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, endocrine diseases, ophthalmic diseases, rheumatological diseases, dermatological diseases, immunological diseases, nephrological disorders and obstetrics and gynaecological conditions, including pre-eclampsia and fertility. Additionally, astaxanthin has shown to provide a comprehensive set of activities which are beneficial to the human body such as anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-apoptotic activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer activity. Moreover, astaxanthin is found to be effective in enhancing sports performance during physical activity and therapeutic for the smoking population due to the high anti-oxidant activity found in astaxanthin.
... Additional studies have validated this work, showing that 6 mg per day of Natural Astaxanthin supplementation for four weeks can reduce eye soreness, dryness, tiredness and blurred vision Nagaki, et al, 2006). ...
... Lighting is one of the structural components of classroom and also can effective on learning in academic environments (7). In high demand visual task (such as classroom) that the eye is focused on a constant distance for a long time, eye muscles become fatigue and spasms (8)(9)(10). In general, in the learning process, 83% of learning takes place through the visual sense, therefore if seeing activity be faced with difficulties, a decrease in the learning occurs (11). ...
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Background: One of the valuable experiences that can be useful educational centers is using the various aspects of educational technology and recognition of importance and application training aides in learning process. This study was conducted with the objective of determination of training aids and lighting effects (video projector and white board) on the eye fatigue among students. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, students in health and nutrition school (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences) (n=200), voluntarily participated (17-30 years old). A questionnaire consisted of three parts was used as data collecting tool. In the first part, demographic characteristics, in the second part, questions about specific symptoms of eye fatigue and in the third part questions related to the public eye fatigue were included. Results: Results showed that between eye fatigue and the use of video projector and white board there is a significant relationship. Also, results showed that there is relationship between eye fatigue and use of glasses. According to these results, there is no significant relationship between eye fatigue with age and sex. Conclusion:The results showed mean of lighting in classroom in use of video projector is lower than Iran Standard Lighting, but this parameter in use of white board taken in standard limit. Eye fatigue had association with application of video projector and using the glasses.
... I risultati dello studio furono molto incoraggianti, in quanto risultò che l'astaxantina è effettivamente utile per contrastare i sintomi associati alla sindrome dell'affaticamento oculare e all'astenopia migliorando la sensazione di testa pesante e oscurità visiva. (12). Questi dati confermano anche i risultati ottenuti da un altro studio clinico sempre alla stessa dose condotto su 20 soggetti volontari che accusavano astenopia. ...
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Parole chiave Occhio, mente sul loro trofi smo e benessere. Una delle nuo-ve fonti alimentari di nutrienti utili per il trofi smo delle strutture oculari deriva dall'olio di Krill estratto da una specie denominata Euphausia superba. Esso è carat-terizzato dalla presenza di acidi a lunga catena ome-ga-3, fosfolipidi, colina e astaxantina. Introduzione L'integrazione con nutrienti specifi ci per la cura quoti-diana e per il benessere dell'occhio può essere di estre-mo aiuto per la prevenzione di disturbi acuti. Si è una-nimi nel ritenere che la vita moderna infatti imponga importanti fonti di stress alle strutture dell'occhio: a partire dallo stress di natura ossidativa, rappresentato dall'inquinamento atmosferico, allo stress luminoso per la ormai quasi costante presenza di luce artifi ciale, sia negli ambienti di lavoro che nella vita domestica e, non ultimo, per le emissioni degli schermi dei computers e dei sistemi informatici. L'utilizzo di rimedi ad azione locale non è sempre pe-raltro suffi ciente. Sia specialisti che operatori sanitari considerano la necessità di associare un'integrazione sistemica, costante e quotidiana, di nutrienti ad azione specifi ca e selettiva ad una alimentazione considerata apparentemente completa. I radicali liberi e l'organismo Schematicamente possiamo riassumere che la forma-zione dei radicali liberi può portare a profonde altera-zioni metaboliche e molecolari:-Alterazioni delle membrane in seguito a liperossida-zione;-Mutazioni in seguito ad un attacco agli acidi nucleici; Strategie per il benessere dell'occhio L'importanza di nuovi fattori nutrizionali naturali New suggestions for ocular wellbeing The importance of new natural nutrients Health and eye health have always been the object of attention , especially for those who suffer from abnormal visual mechanisms. However, there is generally a lack of awareness in the daily care and maintenance of a healthy eye. It is agreed that the use of locally-acting remedies is not always enough, however. It should be accompanied by sys-temic integration, constant and daily, with nutrients of spe-cifi c and selective action. It is well known that a proper concentration of important molecules such as carotenoids at the level of the retina, or of structural molecules able to maintain a proper level of hydration in ocular structures, such as the vitreous body, can strongly infl uence their trophism and wellness. One of the new food sources of nutrients useful for the trophism of eye structures derived from the oil of astaxanthin extracted from a species called Euphausia superba. It is characterized by the presence of omega-3 long chain acids, phospholip-ids, choline and astaxanthin. Riassunto La salute e il benessere dell'occhio sono da sempre oggetto di attenzione ed in particolare per coloro che soffrono di alterazione dei meccanismi visivi. Tuttavia esiste in generale una scarsa sensibilizzazione alla cura quotidiana e al mantenimento in salute dell'occhio. Si è concordi nel ritenere che l'utilizzo di rimedi ad azio-ne locale non sia sempre peraltro suffi ciente. Occorre-rebbe accompagnarlo con un'integrazione sistemica, costante e quotidiana, di nutrienti ad azione specifi ca e selettiva. È noto infatti che una corretta concentrazione di im-portanti molecole come i carotenoidi a livello della retina , oppure di molecole strutturali in grado di mantene-re una corretta idratazione a livello di strutture oculari, come ad esempio il corpo vitreo, può infl uire notevol
... In addition to its positive effects on eye fatigue, strain and accommodation, Astaxanthin has demonstrated other diverse benefits for eye health: Studies have shown that 6mg per day of Natural Astaxanthin supplementation for four weeks can reduce eye soreness, dryness and blurred vision Nagaki et al., 2006). a 46% improvement in the group that took Natural Astaxanthin (Sawaki et al., 2002). ...
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Bob Capelli’s third book on Astaxanthin is by far his best. Well over 300 pages long, this book is the definitive guide on Astaxanthin for use as a health supplement by humans as well as animals. This book is a great tool for scientists and people working in the supplement industry, while written in an easy-to-read format to be enjoyed by anyone. It provides valuable information for any consumer seeking to live a long and healthy life. Features include: • Excerpts from many renowned doctors, researchers and opinion leaders describing Astaxanthin in their own words including Dr. Joseph Mercola, Mike Adams “The Health Ranger,” Dr. William Sears, Suzy Cohen “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist” and more. • Extensive review of “The Healthy Ten” – the ten clinically-validated health benefits of Natural Astaxanthin. • What makes Natural Astaxanthin “The Supplement You Can Feel” – how 80% of consumers can feel it working in their bodies. • Emerging research on Astaxanthin for five new health benefits. • Why nutrition experts are beginning to call Natural Astaxanthin “The Ultimate Anti-Aging Nutrient” and “The Athlete’s Secret Weapon.” • Dosage, bioavailability, safety and other vital information. • Differences between: o Natural Astaxanthin and other supplements. o Different sources of Astaxanthin. o Production methods for Natural Astaxanthin from algae. o Different Astaxanthin consumer products. • Complete list of 330 references included. While Capelli’s first two books contained testimonials from consumers, perhaps the most interesting new feature of this book is a long chapter relating what renowned doctors and opinion leaders as well as university researchers and PhDs say about Astaxanthin. Here is what some of these famous contributors say about this book: Dr. Joseph Mercola, Renowned Internet Health Expert: “I was very impressed with the compelling research on the therapeutic benefits of Astaxanthin in Bob Capelli’s book on Astaxanthin back in 2011. I have been regularly using it since then and believe it has great value for many conditions. Bob’s book was a major factor when I decided to feature Astaxanthin as “The #1 Supplement You’ve Never Heard of that You Should Be Taking” on the Dr. Oz show a few years ago.” Mike Adams, “The Health Ranger:” “Astaxanthin is, without question, one of the most potent and promising natural medicines yet known in the realm of nutritional science. I strongly recommend reading Bob Capelli’s latest Astaxanthin book. Your approach to nutritional supplementation will be forever upgraded!” Suzy Cohen, “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist:” “Natural Astaxanthin is one of my favorite nutrients to recommend to my readers because it does so many positive things for people. It’s a super-antioxidant and a broad-spectrum, safe & natural anti-inflammatory with over 500 medical research studies to back it up. Astaxanthin is the perfect nutrient in the battle against aging because of its clinically-validated effects on a host of concerns people have as they reach middle age and beyond. I read Bob Capelli’s first book on Astaxanthin back in 2007 and I’ve been a fan ever since. And with this new book, Bob has taken the understanding of Astaxanthin to a whole new level.” Susan Smith Jones, PhD, Prolific Author and Media Personality: “A gem of nature, Astaxanthin is an all-in-one natural nutrient that can replace countless other supplements in your kitchen because of its myriad benefits for the entire body. I refer to Astaxanthin as “The Great Protector” in my lectures and workshops. Thank you Bob Capelli for distilling down hundreds of complicated research studies into this revealing, cogent book that beautifully extols the virtues of an antioxidant extraordinaire.”
... Additional studies have validated this work, showing that 6 mg per day of Natural Astaxanthin supplementation for four weeks can reduce eye soreness, dryness, tiredness and blurred vision Nagaki, et al, 2006). ...
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Review of Astaxanthin's health benefits and important information for use as a human nutritional supplement.
... This carotenoid was conventionally acknowledged at that time as a fish feed additive-for enhancing both the aesthetic coloration of ornamental aquarium fish and the flesh color of farmed salmon and trout for human consumption-but soon became popular as an ingredient for health supplements and cosmetic products. The functions of astaxanthin include retinal protection (Nakajima et al. 2008), recovery from asthenopia (Nagaki et al. 2010), skin conditioning (Tominaga et al. 2012(Tominaga et al. , 2017, and improvement of cognitive function (Katagiri et al. 2012), insulin resistance (Ishiki et al. 2013;Ni et al. 2015), and sarcopenia (Liu et al. 2018). In addition to these reported studies, Haematococcus-related astaxanthin research was highly regarded for both the quantity and quality of clinical data in a 2014 Functional Assessment Project conducted by the Japan Health and Nutrition Food Association. ...
Chapter
Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), a unique Japanese citrus species, is one of the foods which have most abundant β-cryptoxanthin all over the world. In this study, β-cryptoxanthin has a variety of health-promoting functions such as the body fat reducing, cosmetic (whitening), and osteoporosis prevention. β-Cryptoxanthin has also been shown in human studies to have anti-exercise fatigue and diabetes prevention actions. These multiple functions further support that β-cryptoxanthin may play a role in vitamin A function.
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The benefit of carotenoids to human health is undeniable and consequently, their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. Additionally, the nutraceutical properties of carotenoids have attracted attention of the food industry, especially in a new market area, the ‘cosmeceuticals.’ Marine organisms (microalgae, seaweeds, animals, etc.) are a rich source of carotenoids, with optimal properties for industrial production and biotechnological manipulation. Consequently, several papers have reviewed the analysis, characterization, extraction and determination methods, biological functions and industrial applications. But, now, the bioaccessibility and bioactivity of marine carotenoids has not been focused of any review, although important achievements have been published. The specific and diverse characteristic of the marine matrix determines the bioavailability of carotenoids, some of them unique in the nature. Considering the importance of the bioavailability not just from the health and nutritional point of view but also to the food and pharmaceutical industry, we consider that the present review responds to an actual demand.
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The leaves of Perilla frutescens var. acuta (PFA) are commonly used as a traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China. We previously showed that PFA attenuates eye fatigue by improving visual accommodation through a clinical study. However, detailed mechanisms and chemical compounds have not been studied. In this study, we analyzed the active compounds in an aqueous extract of PFA involved in ciliary muscle relaxation in vitro and in vivo. NMR and MS analyses showed that the PFA extract contained mainly luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide and apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide. The composition after freeze-drying and spray-drying was similar. Freeze-dried PFA (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, and 200 µg/mL) increased nitric oxide and cGMP levels in ciliary muscle cells isolated from the eyes of rats. [Ca2+]i decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Sprague-Dawley rats treated with freeze-dried PFA (200 mg/kg, orally) showed significantly increased cGMP levels compared with the control group and irradiated with white light. Our results suggest that PFA extract has the potential to reduce eye fatigue by relaxing ciliary muscles.
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Astaxanthin (AX)‐containing preparations are increasingly popular as health food supplements. Evaluating the maximum safe daily intake of AX is important when setting dose levels for these products and currently, there are discrepancies in recommendations by different regulatory authorities. We have therefore conducted a review of approved dose levels, clinical trials of natural AX, and toxicological studies with natural and synthetic AX. Recommended or approved doses varied in different countries and ranged between 2 and 24 mg. We reviewed 87 human studies, none of which found safety concerns with natural AX supplementation, 35 with doses ≥12 mg/day. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 2 mg as recently proposed by European Food Safety Authority was based on a toxicological study in rats using synthetic AX. However, synthetically produced AX is chemically different from natural AX, so results with synthetic AX should not be used in assessing natural AX safety. In addition, few safety studies have been conducted in either humans or animals with synthetic AX. We therefore recommend the ADI for natural AX to be based only on studies conducted with natural AX and further studies to be conducted with synthetic AX (including human clinical trials) to establish a separate ADI for synthetic AX.
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Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, naturally synthesized by Algae, Yeast, and bacteria. They are not just a powerhouse of antioxidant properties but also possess anti-inflammatory and other bioactive properties. Haematococcus pluvialis is the potential ASX source and shows powerful regulation on many health diseases. Over the decades, numerous studies have emphasized its importance in many human health diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer, Parkinson, skin allergies, COVID-19, and many more. The present review discusses available evidence on the functional activities of ASX in various diseases and summarizes the potential factors involved in ASX response and highlights the potential implications.
Chapter
Astaxanthin (ATX) protects against oxidative stress, various diseases, and age-related degeneration. It is metabolized primarily by hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 in rats. However, because the free form of ATX is not water-soluble and has low bioavailability, prodrug ATX has been developed to improve its solubility. ATX is generally recognized as safe in the United States. Among its uses, ATX is a potential antidementia agent that lowers β-amyloid in human red blood cells. Additionally, in many studies ATX has been found to alleviate diabetes mellitus, reduce metabolic syndrome risks, and provide protection against numerous forms of cancer. ATX also prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy, alleviates endothelial dysfunction, and protects against cardiovascular disease. It may also be the most effective carotenoid for preventing eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. This chapter describes the current ATX research development focusing on its pharmacokinetics, health benefits, and toxicity.
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Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as “super anti-oxidant.” Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.
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Astaxanthin is known as a "marine carotenoid" and occurs in a wide variety of living organisms such as salmon, shrimp, crab, and red snapper. Astaxanthin antioxidant activity has been reported to be more than 100 times greater than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and approximately 550 times more potent than that of vitamin E for singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin exhibits no pro-oxidant activity and its main site of action is on/in the cell membrane. To date, various important benefits suggested for human health include immunomodulation, anti-stress, anti-inflammation, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuation of eye fatigue, increased sports performance and endurance, limiting exercised-induced muscle damage, and the suppression of the development of lifestyle related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Recently, there has been an explosive increase worldwide in both the research and demand for natural astaxanthin in human health applications. Japanese clinicians are especially using astaxanthin extracted from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, as add-on supplementation for patients who are unsatisfied with conventional medications or cannot take other medications due to serious symptoms. For example, in heart failure or overactive bladder patients, astaxanthin treatment enhances patient's daily activity levels and QOL. Other ongoing clinical trials and case studies are examining chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and CVD, as well as infertility, atopic dermatitis, androgenetic alopecia, ulcerative colitis and sarcopenia. In the near future, astaxanthin's role may be stated as, "Let astaxanthin be thy medicine".
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Objective The study aimed to verify that ingestion of multiple dietary supplement containing lutein, astaxanthin, cyanidin-3-glucoside and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) would improve accommodative ability of aged and older subjects who were aware of eye strain on a daily basis. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group comparison study was conducted for 48 participants aged 45 to 64 years who complained of eye strain. The subjects took multiple dietary supplement containing 10 mg of lutein, 20 mg of bilberry extract and 26.5 mg of black soybean hull extract (a total of 2.3 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside in both extracts), 4 mg of astaxanthin, and 50 mg of DHA (test supplement) or placebo for four consecutive weeks. Near-point accommodation (NPA) and subjective symptoms were evaluated both before and after four weeks’ intake. Results The variation of the NPA of both eyes from baseline to 4 weeks’ post-intake in the test supplement group was significantly higher than in the placebo group (1.321±0.394 diopter (D) in the test supplement group and 0.108±0.336 D in the placebo group, p=0.023). The multiple dietary supplement group showed improvement in the NPA. Regarding subjective symptoms, significant improvement of “stiff shoulders or neck” and “blurred vision” was also found in the test supplement group compared to the placebo group (p<0.05). There were no safety concerns in this study. Conclusion This study shows that multiple dietary supplement containing lutein, astaxanthin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and DHA has effect to improve accommodative ability and subjective symptoms related to eye fatigue.
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Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed. INTRODUCTION: The ketocarotenoid astaxanthin, 3, 3′-dihydroxy-b,b-carotene-4, 4′-dione, belongs to the family of xanthophylls, the oxygenated derivatives of carotenoid. The synthesis of xanthophylls in plants is derived from lycopene.
Chapter
Astaxanthin is known as a “marine carotenoid” and occurs in a wide variety of living organisms such as salmon, shrimp, crab, and red snapper. Astaxanthin antioxidant activity has been reported to be more than 100 times greater than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and approximately 550 times more potent than that of vitamin E for singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin doesn’t exhibit any pro-oxidant nature and its main site of action is on/in the cell membrane. To date, extensive important benefits suggested for human health include anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, anti-stress, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuation of common fatigue including eye fatigue, increased sports performance and endurance, limiting exercised-induced muscle damage, and the suppression of the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Recently, there has been an explosive increase worldwide in both the research and demand for natural astaxanthin mainly extracted from the microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, in human health applications. Japanese clinicians are especially using the natural astaxanthin as add-on supplementation for patients who are unsatisfied with conventional medications or cannot take other medications due to serious symptoms. For example, in heart failure or overactive bladder patients, astaxanthin treatment enhances patient’s daily activity levels and QOL. Other ongoing clinical trials and case studies are examining chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and CVD, as well as infertility, atopic dermatitis, androgenetic alopecia, ulcerative colitis, and sarcopenia. In the near future, astaxanthin may secure a firm and signature position as medical food.
Chapter
This is an overview of the potential of Haematococcus pluvialis for use in the commercial production of natural astaxanthin, along with a survey of mass culture methods that utilize the characteristics of H. pluvialis. The latest advancements in cultivation methods that incorporate new technologies, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), are outlined. Furthermore, the differences in culture conditions that may affect the product quality required to meet the standards for its use as a health supplement ingredient are discussed. Additionally, insights are provided on some of the current avenues of research and the future of astaxanthin cultivation.
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To determine the antioxidant supplementation effect on accommodation among VDT users. A double blind randomized placebo controlled study. Registered under Clinical Trials.gov Identifier No. NCT00877201. Fourty right eyes of 40 healthy VDT users (30 females, 10 males, mean age: 43.8±2.8 years, range: 40-49 years). 20 subjects (15 females, 5 males; mean age: 44.0±2.7 years, range: 40-49 years). Subjects were required to take an antioxidant supplement, 20 age and sex matched subjects (15 females, 5 males; mean age: 43.6±3.1 years, range: 40-49 years) were required to take placebo medication for 4 weeks. The mean of the change in accommodation power was significantly higher in the group receiving antioxidant supplements (0.20±0.50 Diopter(D)) compared to the placebo group (-0.12±0.48(D)) (p<0.05). Antioxidant supplementation was observed to improve accommodation in Japanese Visual Display Terminal (VDT) Users.
Chapter
In view of their broad color variation and superior antioxidant activity, carotenoids are widely used in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and feed industries. Cyanobacteria are well-known producers of commercially important carotenoids, such as β-carotene and zeaxanthin. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for the production of valuable carotenoids, such as astaxanthin and lutein, has garnered significant interest in recent years because it offers the advantages of simple cultivation, harvesting, and genetic manipulation. This chapter describes the potential of cyanobacteria as carotenoid producers, the applications of carotenoids, the biological activities exhibited by carotenoids (e.g., antioxidant, cardioprotective, and anticancer), and the recent progress in carotenoid processing technology (e.g., extraction, formulation, and isomerization).
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rights: 本文データは和漢医薬学会の許諾に基づき複製したものである We evaluated the effects of astaxanthin, a red carotenoid, on accommodation, critical flicker fusion (CFF), and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. As controls, 13 non-VDT workers received no supplementation (Group A). Twenty-six VDT workers were randomized into 2 groups: Group B consisted of 13 subjects who received oral astaxanthin, 5 mg/day, for 4 weeks, and Group C consisted of 13 subjects who received an oral placebo, 5 mg/day, for 4 weeks. No significant difference in age was noted among the 3 groups. A double-masked study was designed in Groups B and C. Accommodation amplitude in Group A was 3.7± 1.5 diopters. Accommodation amplitudes (2.3±1.4 and 2.2±1.0 diopters) in Groups B and C before supplementation were significantly (p<0.05) lower than in Group A. Accommodation amplitude (2.8±1.6 diopters) in Group B after astaxanthin treatment was significantly (p<0.01) larger than before supplementation, while accommodation amplitude (2.3±1.1 diopters) in Group C after placebo supplementation was unchanged. The CFFs and amplitude and latency of P100 in PVEP in Group A were 45.0±4.2 Hz, 6.5±1.8μV, and 101.3±6.5 msec, respectively. The CFFs in Groups B and C before supplementation were significantly (p<0.05) lower than in Group A. The CCFs in Groups B and C did not change after supplementation. Amplitudes and latencies of P100 in PVEP in Groups B and C before supplementation were similar to those in Group A and did not change after supplementation. Findings of the present study indicated that accommodation amplitude improved after astaxanthin supplementation in VDT workers. 赤色カロチノイドの一種であるアスタキサンチンのvisual display terminal(VDT)作業者の調節力,中心フリッカー値,パターン視覚誘発電位に及ぼす影響を調べた。VDT作業を行わない13人をコントロールとした(Group A)。26人のVDT作業者を2群に無作為に分けた。Group Bはアスタキサンチン一日5mg 4週間内服した13人で,Group Cはアスタキサンチンを含有しないカプセルを4週間内服した13人とした。外見上同じカプセルでの内服投与を行った。結果:Group AはGroup B及びGroup Cと比較して,調節力,中心フリッカー値は有意に高い値であったが,パターン視覚誘発電位検査結果は,Group B,Cと有意差はなかった。Group Bでは,アスタキサンチンの投与前後で有意な調節力の改善がみられた(p<0.01)。しかし,中心フリッカー値,パターン視覚誘発電位に変化はみられなかった。Group Cでは,投与前後で,調節力,中心フリッカー値,パターン視覚誘発電位に変化はみられなかった。考察:VDT作業者では,非作業者と比べ調節力,中心フリッカー値が低下していることは以前より報告されており,今回の我々の研究でも同様の結果であった。VDT作業者で,アスタキサンチン非内服群では,調節力は投与前後で変化がなかったが,アスタキサンチンの内服群で,有意に調節力が改善した。VDT作業者の調節力の改善には,アスタキサンチンの内服が有効と考えられた。