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Second Language Acquisition: Success Factors in Sequential Bilingualism

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... Nonetheless, there was considerable diversity in the second-language abilities demonstrated by these individuals with DS. (p. 187) Kohnert (2008) stated that in multilingual homes there exists ". the availability of rich language in the environment and diverse opportunities to develop and use a particular language for meaningful communicative interactions" (p. 10). ...
... The most perplexing question among monolingual language professionals is whether bilingual or multilingual children with disabilities can acquire all languages, i.e., near-nativelike abilities. Clinical experiences and research support the notion that these children are fully capable of language and cognitive growth in their two language systems (Brice and Brice, 2009;Kohnert, 2008). The limiting factor appears to be the extent of their disability and not their two languages. ...
Chapter
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Typical language development has far too long been predicated on monolingual development. It is estimated that approximately more than half of the world’s population speaks more than one language. Multilingual or multilanguage acquisition differs from monolingual development. It involves more layers that affect ultimate acquisition including second and/or multiple language acquisition factors, environmental factors, individual factors, developmental factors, and, if the child has disabilities, then disabilities are also confounding factors. In addition, the following factors influencing multi- lingual language acquisition will be discussed: (1) second and/or multiple language acquisition; (2) language dominance and proficiency; (3) language maintenance; (4) language model; (5) language deceleration; (6) cross-linguistic influence, that is, language transference; (7) cross-linguistic influence, that is, language interference; (8) cross-linguistic influence, that is, code switching and code mixing; (9) ultimate attainment; (10) language loss (attrition); (11) language fossilization; (12) environmental factors; (13) individual and developmental factors; (14) biological, neurological aspects of multilingualism; (15) disability factors; and (16) strategies for promoting multilingualism. This article will briefly present these overlaying components and provide suggestions for language professionals in promoting multilingualism.
... I was able to differentiate language choice from language preference based on the next idea: bilinguals and multilinguals are aware of what language to use depending on the partner and purpose. Kohnert (2008) explains "Purpose of L1 and L2 are described as personal, educational or vocational, formal or informal, and spoken or written. Partners in these environments are family members, classmates, colleagues, friends, neighbors, community professionals, and other individuals [...] encountered in daily life" (par. ...
Book
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The book titled Applied Linguistics in English Language Teaching in Mexico: Research of Graduate Students presents original studies carried out by five early-career researchers and English as a foreign language (EFL) practitioners who conducted applied research in a variety of educational contexts as part of the thesis requirements of the MA program in Applied Linguistics in English Language Teaching (ELT) at the University of Guanajuato. These research projects were carried out with the aim of understanding issues related to the field of applied linguistics and ELT and providing solutions by adopting problem-solving approaches. This book consists of five chapters which address a range of relevant topics in ELT in Mexico, including the interplay among learner identity, learner socialization and language learning; the relationship between poetry and pronunciation accuracy in EFL classes; growing up as multilinguals; perceptions regarding a constructivist teaching approach in a private school; and the role of emotions related to speaking.
... The relationship between bilingualism and cognitive control is highly influenced by individual variations of the bilingual experience. 41,42 The adaptive control hypothesis 43 suggests that cognitive control processes adapt to the demands of the individual's bilingual experience. Bilingual speakers need stronger cognitive control (e.g., conflict monitoring, resisting interference) in dual-language contexts, in which different languages are used with different speakers, compared to singlelanguage contexts. ...
Article
Cognitive control refers to the ability to perform goal-directed behaviors in the presence of other compelling actions or in the face of habitual practices. Cognitive control functions play a critical role in children's language processing and literacy development. In recent years, many clinicians have expanded their assessment and treatment to target specific cognitive skills. Our goal is to provide a review of recent findings on cognitive control functions in children with different language status (i.e., monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment). While children with language impairment show performance deficits in specific cognitive functions (e.g., working memory updating and interference control), typically developing bilingual children often outperform their monolingual peers in cognitive control tasks. However, the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive control has been controversial. Several factors that influence these variations are discussed. Given the findings on the joint impact of bilingualism and language impairment on cognitive control functions, we identify conditions in which bilingualism attenuates the negative effects of the language deficit and conditions in which language impairment has a stronger effect than bilingualism. Critical issues of bilingual assessment, suggestions, and future directions are discussed.
... Encore peu d'études (hormis celles de l'anglais L2) rapportent des données sur le bilinguisme séquentiel, qui est l'exposition à une deuxième langue (L2) après l'âge de 3 ans (Goldstein, 2004;Jia, Kohnert, Collado & Aquino-Garcia, 2006;Kohnert, 2008;Paradis, 2005Paradis, , 2008Peña & Bedore, 2009;Unsworth, 2005). Cet âge est identifié dans la littérature comme étant celui où les enfants sont exposés à une L2 en service de garde ou dans des programmes préscolaires, et peuvent faire l'objet d'évaluations pour des troubles ou des retards d'apprentissage du langage (Jia, 2003;Jia & Fuse, 2007;Oller, Pearson & Cobo-Lewis, 2007;Paradis, 2005Paradis, , 2008Paradis et al., 2011;Paradis, Rice, Crago & Marquis, 2008;Tabors, 2008). ...
... Les données recueillies pourront faciliter la démarche de diagnostic chez cette population et éventuellement permettre l'élaboration d'un outil d'évaluation adapté. Encore peu d'études (hormis celles de l'anglais L2) rapportent des données sur le bilinguisme séquentiel, qui est l'exposition à une deuxième langue (L2) après l'âge de 3 ans (Goldstein, 2004; Jia, Kohnert, Collado & Aquino-Garcia, 2006; Kohnert, 2008; Paradis, 2005 Paradis, , 2008 Peña & Bedore, 2009; Unsworth, 2005). Cet âge est identifié dans la littérature comme étant celui où les enfants sont exposés à une L2 en service de garde ou dans des programmes préscolaires, et peuvent faire l'objet d'évaluations pour des troubles ou des retards d'apprentissage du langage (Jia, 2003; Jia & Fuse, 2007; Oller, Pearson & Cobo-Lewis, 2007; Paradis, 2005 Paradis, , 2008 Paradis et al., 2011; Paradis, Rice, Crago & Marquis, 2008; Tabors, 2008). ...
... Encore peu d'études (hormis celles de l'anglais L2) rapportent des données sur le bilinguisme séquentiel, qui est l'exposition à une deuxième langue (L2) après l'âge de 3 ans (Goldstein, 2004;Jia, Kohnert, Collado & Aquino-Garcia, 2006;Kohnert, 2008;Paradis, 2005Paradis, , 2008Peña & Bedore, 2009;Unsworth, 2005). Cet âge est identifié dans la littérature comme étant celui où les enfants sont exposés à une L2 en service de garde ou dans des programmes préscolaires, et peuvent faire l'objet d'évaluations pour des troubles ou des retards d'apprentissage du langage (Jia, 2003;Jia & Fuse, 2007;Oller, Pearson & Cobo-Lewis, 2007;Paradis, 2005Paradis, , 2008Paradis et al., 2011;Paradis, Rice, Crago & Marquis, 2008;Tabors, 2008). ...
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This study tests the acquisition of French in Spanish-speaking children by documenting the acquisition of noun phrases in sequential bilingual (Spanish-French) children, compared to native French speakers, matched according to age or language development level. Ten Spanishspeaking children aged 4 to 6 years who were exposed to French for one year on average produced French noun phrases with adjectives and determiners in French (ex. la petite maison verte; the little house green). Results show that bilingual children have more difficulty than French children when producing these French noun phrases. Further analyses on adjective production revealed grammatical gender, adjective variability and participant group effects on results. Variable feminine adjectives are much more difficult for bilingual children to master than for monolingual speakers. Furthermore, an analysis of errors revealed qualitative differences in syntactic errors in the three groups. These findings help us identify typical acquisition difficulties for noun phrases in second language learners and are discussed within a clinical perspective. © 2014 Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists. All rights reserved.
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Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers
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