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Multidimensionality of behavioural engagement: Empirical support and implications

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Abstract

Behavioural engagement refers to a large range of student behaviours, differing from one study to another. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a global measure or specific behaviours? The aim of the present study was to test the multidimensionality of the construct of behavioural engagement (presence of distinct dimensions and relevance of grouping them). Five dimensions were distinguished: participation, following instructions, withdrawal, disruptive behaviour and absenteeism (explanatory factorial analyses, Sample 1). Confirmatory factorial analyses supported the grouping of these dimensions in a common construct (Sample 2). The links between correlates and a global measure of behavioural engagement or specific dimensions were generally consistent. The global measure hid differences in relations between dimensions and some correlates. Taking the multidimensionality of behavioural engagement into account appears crucial.

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... Much of the research on student engagement has progressed along these two complimentary lines of inquiry with insufficient consideration all students in adhering to school expectations, resulting in better academic, physical, and emotional outcomes (Bond et al., 2007;Reschly & Christenson, 2012). However, interventions that seek to improve engagement should not assume that engagement is homogenous, both within students and between students (Betts, 2012;Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). ...
... There is not one, single indicator of engagement that can readily capture a student's experience of school. Instead, multiple indicators of engagement should be used to capture both traditional school-based concerns (e.g., behaviors, absences, and dropout) and students' more subtle psychological engagement in school (Hospel et al., 2016). With the acknowledgement that students' engagement is multidimensional comes the recognition that the contexts for the development of students' engagement are also likely to be unique (Wang & Eccles, 2013). ...
... Five outcomes were operationalized as indicators of students' engagement in school: academic engagement, emotional engagement, school discipline (in response to breaches of school expectations), absences from school, and school dropout. These multiple indicators were employed in recognition of the multidimensionality of student engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Hospel et al., 2016) and longstanding concerns with both overt indicators of low engagement and the more recently conceptualized psychological engagement (Newmann et al., 1992). ...
Article
There is a need to further understand the development of student engagement. Ecological models of adolescent development state that proximal factors, such as teacher support, should strongly influence student engagement. Theoretical models also explain concurrent influences from the individual, family, peer, and community contexts. The current study applied an ecological model to the development of five indicators of students' engagement in school. Six hundred and sixty-five full-time Grade 11 students and an additional 54 students who had dropped out of school from Victoria, Australia, completed a Communities That Care survey in term 3 of Grade 10 and term 3 of Grade 11. Grade 10 risk and protective factors from the school (e.g., teacher support), individual (e.g., academic grades, prior engagement), family (e.g., family management practices), peer (e.g., antisocial peer affiliation), and community contexts (e.g., community disorganization) were modeled as predictors of five indicators of Grade 11 engagement (academic engagement, emotional engagement, school discipline, absences from school, and school dropout). Teacher support at Grade 10 had bivariate associations with Grade 11 academic engagement (r = 0.37), emotional engagement (r = 0.35), absences from school (r = −0.14), and school discipline responses (OR = 0.64). The full ecological models explained between 22 and 34% of the variance in engagement; however, teacher support did not predict engagement. Prior engagement and academic grades explained the greatest proportion of variance in students' engagement. Factors from the family, peer, and community contexts made unique contributions to some indicators of engagement. The findings suggest that there is a need to consider student engagement as a long-term process. Implications for improving students' engagement are discussed within an individualized stage-environment fit model of adolescent development.
... 2001), arvosanoina (Jordan 1999;Manlove 1998) sekä osallistumisena myös koulun ulkopuoliseen toimintaan (Fullarton 2002). Hospel, Galand & Janosz (2016) taas totesivat, että behavioraalinen kiinnittyminen rakentuu viidestä osa-alueesta: osallistuminen, ohjeiden seuraaminen, vetäytyminen, häiritsevä käytös ja poissaolot. ...
... Kouluviihtyvyys vaikuttaa muun muassa oppilaan psykologiseen hyvinvointiin, kouluun kiinnittymiseen, poissaolojen määrään, syrjäytymiseen ja käyttäytymisen ongelmiin (Verkuyten & Thijs 2002). Hospel, Galand & Janosz (2016) taas totesivat, että behavioraalinen kiinnittyminen rakentuu viidestä osaalueesta: osallistuminen, ohjeiden seuraaminen, vetäytyminen, häiritsevä käytös ja poissaolot. Poissaolojen lisääntymistä voidaan on siis pitää yhtenä indikaattorina, joka kertoo kouluviihtyvyyden ja kouluun kiinnittymisen heikentymisestä. ...
... The strongest association was found between behavioral engagement and school performance. Hospel, Galand & Janosz (2016) state that behavioral student engagement is based on five areas: participation, following instructions, withdrawal, disruptive behavior and absenteeism. Increasing absenteeism can be considered as an indicator of decreasing school satisfaction and student engagement. ...
Thesis
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The aim of this study was to research how satisfied the comprehensive school eighth graders (N=491) and upper secondary level students (N=200) were with school and which different factors influenced school satisfaction. It was also examined how these students engaged with school. Data was collected with surveys in two phases. The first survey was carried out in spring 2008 when the sample group members were in the eighth grade, and the second survey was carried out in years 2011 and 2012 when the sample group members were in their upper secondary level studies. Majority (85,4 %) of the eighth graders in comprehensive school had high level of school satisfaction. Girls had higher school satisfaction than boys, but the differences between boys and girls narrowed in upper secondary level. Reported student-teacher relationship had strong impact both to school satisfaction and school engagement. Those students who performed highly in school were the most satisfied with school. The lowest school satisfaction was reported among those who performed the weakest and participated in part-time special education. In t upper secondary level. On the other hand the girls trust in their success decreased in the upper secondary level. School engagement was also studied in the upper secondary level. General upper secondary school students were more strongly engaged to school than vocational students. Social competence explained most strongly the student-teacher relationship and it was also connected to emotional school engagement. Support of peers and family was also connected to school engagement. The higher the student's school satisfaction was and the less burnout was reported in the upper secondary level, the better the school engagement was. Role of the self-esteem was significant, as the higher self-esteem in the eighth grade was connected to higher school satisfaction and school engagement in the upper secondary level. Socio-emotional competence explained significantly school satisfaction and engagement, which can be considered the most remarkable finding of this he upper secondary level 90,5 % reported high school satisfaction. Especially the student-teacher relationship improved, in the eighth grade three quarters evaluated the student-teacher relationship as good, but in the upper secondary level nine out of ten evaluated the relationship as good. The reported student-teacher relationship and school satisfaction of boys increased and their burnout decreased in the study. Strong level of socio-emotional competence predicted higher school satisfaction and engagement in the upper secondary level, but medium or low level of socio-emotional competence predicted lower school satisfaction and engagement in the upper secondary level. The strengthening of children's emotional and interaction skills through developing socio-emotional competence should be started early, as school satisfaction and dissatisfaction seem to be quite permanent as early as on the eighth grade and in the upper secondary level. Keywords: school satisfaction, school engagement, socio-emotional competence
... Some studies have included enjoyment as a positive emotion in momentary sampling, along with other achievement emotions (e.g. Hospel et al., 2016). In this study, as observations took place during a range of subjects, enjoyment was expected to vary mostly between lessons, and have limited variability within lessons. ...
... Emotions are relevant to learning and behaviour, as they can be task-promoting or task-inhibiting (Newton, 2013;Inkinen et al., 2013). Hospel et al. (2016) found that different emotions relate to different types of classroom behaviour; behavioural engagement as a global measure (encompassing participation, following instructions, absenteeism, withdrawal, and disruptive behaviours) was positively related to positive emotions, and negatively to negative emotions. Each of the emotions examined in their study related to each of the five sub-domains of behavioural engagement in different ways. ...
... Each of the emotions examined in their study related to each of the five sub-domains of behavioural engagement in different ways. For example, anger related positively to all off-task behaviours (absenteeism, withdrawal, and disruptive behaviours), whereas sadness was only significantly related to absenteeism and withdrawal, but not disruptive behaviours (Hospel et al., 2016). In our study we focus on on-task behaviours, rather than off-task behaviours, which can be seen as a combination of participation and following instructions. ...
Article
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In order to expand previous intraindividual studies of student engagement we investigated students' observed engagement (i.e., on-and off-task behaviour), instructional activities (i.e., teacher-led whole class, individual work, pair-work, student-teacher interaction, assessment, and "other"), and self-reported learning experiences (cognitive engagement, difficulty, competence, emotional engagement, positive and negative emotions), within lessons during one calendar week. Eighteen fourth and fifth grade target students (Mage=10.1, SD=0.44) were observed every 30 sec during two to four lessons each day for five school days (engagement and instructional activities), on average 66.05 times per lesson (SD=19.16, Range=15-80, nobs=14,994) between 9-18 lessons during a week. Simultaneously, students provided 1-3 electronic questionnaire self-reports per lesson (Mself_report=35.1, SD=12.6, Range=19-52, nself_report=631). We regressed observed engagement (0 = off-task, 1 = on-task) on self-reported learning experiences using 3-level (time-points nested in lessons, nested in students) Bayesian logistic regression models in brms. Observed engagement diminished during lessons, and was predicted by higher cognitive engagement, and instructional activities. As compared to teacher-led instruction, engagement was higher during individual tasks, teacher-supported tasks, and assessments. Overall self-reported and observed engagement within lessons converged, supporting their use in intraindividual research.
... Some studies have included enjoyment as a positive emotion in momentary sampling, along with other achievement emotions (e.g. Hospel et al., 2016). In this study, as observations took place during a range of subjects, enjoyment was expected to vary mostly between lessons, and have limited variability within lessons. ...
... Emotions are relevant to learning and behaviour, as they can be task-promoting or task-inhibiting (Newton, 2013;Inkinen et al., 2013). Hospel et al. (2016) found that different emotions relate to different types of classroom behaviour; behavioural engagement as a global measure (encompassing participation, following instructions, absenteeism, withdrawal, and disruptive behaviours) was positively related to positive emotions, and negatively to negative emotions. Each of the emotions examined in their study related to each of the five sub-domains of behavioural engagement in different ways. ...
... Each of the emotions examined in their study related to each of the five sub-domains of behavioural engagement in different ways. For example, anger related positively to all off-task behaviours (absenteeism, withdrawal, and disruptive behaviours), whereas sadness was only significantly related to absenteeism and withdrawal, but not disruptive behaviours (Hospel et al., 2016). In our study we focus on on-task behaviours, rather than off-task behaviours, which can be seen as a combination of participation and following instructions. ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to expand previous intraindividual studies of student engagement we investigated students' observed engagement (i.e., on- and off-task behaviour), instructional activities (i.e., teacher-led whole class, individual work, pair-work, student-teacher interaction, assessment, and ”other”), and self-reported learning experiences (cognitive engagement, difficulty, competence, emotional engagement, positive and negative emotions), within lessons during one calendar week. Eighteen fourth and fifth grade target students (Mage=10.1, SD=0.44) were observed every 30 sec during two to four lessons each day for five school days (engagement and instructional activities), on average 66.05 times per lesson (SD=19.16, Range=15-80, nobs=14,994) between 9-18 lessons during a week. Simultaneously, students provided 1-3 electronic questionnaire self-reports per lesson (Mself_report=35.1, SD=12.6, Range=19-52, nself_report=631). We regressed observed engagement (0 = off-task, 1 = on-task) on self-reported learning experiences using 3-level (time-points nested in lessons, nested in students) Bayesian logistic regression models in brms. Observed engagement diminished during lessons, and was predicted by higher cognitive engagement, and instructional activities. As compared to teacher-led instruction, engagement was higher during individual tasks, teacher-supported tasks, and assessments. Overall self-reported and observed engagement within lessons converged, supporting their use in intraindividual research.
... Student engagement is an important factor to keep students connected through the interaction with the content, their peers, and the instructor of the course. Behavioural engagement, a type of student engagement, is a significant factor which can be used to predict dropout rates and academic achievements (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). It can be defined as the time and effort of students interacting with others within their community through educational activities such as attending classes, participation in class, time on tasks, effort, concentration, and active attempts (Hospel et al., 2016) to optimise their experience and, hence, improve learning outcomes and the development of students (Czerkawski & Lyman, 2016). ...
... Behavioural engagement, a type of student engagement, is a significant factor which can be used to predict dropout rates and academic achievements (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). It can be defined as the time and effort of students interacting with others within their community through educational activities such as attending classes, participation in class, time on tasks, effort, concentration, and active attempts (Hospel et al., 2016) to optimise their experience and, hence, improve learning outcomes and the development of students (Czerkawski & Lyman, 2016). Studies have been conducted to study the relationship between certain behavioural engagement elements and academic performance. ...
Conference Paper
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Quality Assurance after CoVid as we in South East Asia emerge from the crisis>perspectives hosted by Sunway University Malaysia online. Cross disciplinary
... Engagement, especially behavioral engagement (Hospel et al., 2016), is crucial for students' learning (Klem and Connell, 2004). Hence, educators and motivation researchers have long been interested in the mechanisms that regulate students' engagement. ...
... Engagement refers to the student's active involvement in a learning activity and is commonly conceptualized as comprising behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004). Out of these three types of engagement, Hospel et al. (2016) singled out in their review behavioral engagement as a key construct for academic achievement. Indeed, there is evidence that behavioral engagement is a stronger predictor of achievement than emotional and cognitive engagement (Ladd and Dinella, 2009;Chase et al., 2014;Stefansson et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Behavioral engagement is a key determinant of students’ learning. Hence, knowledge about mechanisms affecting engagement is crucial for educators and stakeholders. Self-determination theory (SDT) offers a framework to understand one of these mechanisms. However, extant studies mostly consider only parts of SDT’s theoretical paths from basic psychological need satisfaction via regulations to student engagement. Studies that investigate the full model are rare, especially in mathematics, and results are inconclusive. Moreover, constructs are often merged in ways that may preclude detailed understanding. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to test several hypothesized paths between the individual variables that make up higher-order constructs of need satisfaction, regulations, and behavioral engagement. Satisfaction of the need for competence had a dominating effect on engagement, both directly and via identified regulation. Similarly, satisfaction of the need for relatedness predicted identified regulation, that in turn predicted engagement. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy predicted intrinsic regulation as expected but, in contrast to theory, was also positively associated with controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation). Neither intrinsic nor controlled regulation predicted engagement. Theoretical and method-related reasons for this unexpected pattern are discussed, as well as implications for research and teaching.
... The three dimensions of student engagement that are most often considered in the literature are behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement. Regarding the behavioral dimension, approaches to students' behaviors differ widely between studies (Hospel et al. 2016). Some authors view students' behavioral engagement in terms of their desire to participate by intervening during lessons or spending time on academic tasks (Hirschfield and Gasper 2011). ...
... Third, even though we took the precaution of including the three dimensions of engagement, in our measures we considered each of them as one-dimensional, however behavioral engagement, for example, should be considered as a multidimensional construct. In a recent study by Hospel et al. (2016), five sub dimensions were highlighted: participation, following teachers' instructions, withdrawal, disruptive behaviors, and absenteeism. In future research, the analyses carried out in the present study could be refined and extended by using a method that integrates such sub dimensions. ...
Article
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Students’ engagement is known to be associated with academic success and to prevent school dropouts. While many studies have considered this variable when examining school trajectories, more research is needed to investigate the factors that may sustain and promote engagement in school, regarded as a multidimensional construct (affective vs. cognitive vs. behavioral engagement). In the present cross-sectional study, associations between students’ perceptions of school climate dimensions and their level of engagement were explored. The differential effects on these associations of sex and social background were also examined. Results from a sample of 955 high-school students showed that a model incorporating six dimensions of perceived school climate explained a large proportion of the variance in students’ engagement, especially affective engagement. The perceived climate of relations between teachers and students appeared to be highly predictive of students’ engagement. Analyses also revealed that the predictiveness of school climate factors for affective, cognitive and behavioral engagement varied slightly according to sex and social background. These results highlight important levers associated with students’ engagement in school.
... For example, emotional reactions to schoolwork can be observed as verbal and nonverbal expressive signs, strategic learning can be implied from a purposeful approach to academic materials, agentic engagement is seen in students' voicing their preferences. With regard to this commonality of all aspects of school engagement, Hospel et al. (2016) consider the behavioral component of engagement as a key construct in school engagement studies. The behavioral component of engagement can be described as observed behaviors of classroom involvement including effort, persistence, concentration, attention, and contributing to the class discussion. ...
... The findings of our study have to be considered in the light of its strengths and limitations. To operationalize the construct of school engagement we have used its behavioral component, which is considered central for analyzing students' involvement with school (Hospel et al. 2016). The behavioral engagement covers such school conduct as being attentive, listening to teachers, participating in class discussions, and working hard at school. ...
Article
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The existing research findings still do not provide a clear understanding of the links between adolescent school experience and their identity formation. To address this gap, we analyzed the dynamic links between adolescent school experiences and identity formation by exploring the cross-lagged associations between school engagement, school burnout and identity processing styles (information-oriented, normative and diffuse-avoidant) over a 2-year period during middle-to-late adolescence. The sample of this school-based study included 916 adolescents (51.4% females) in the 9th to 12th grades from diverse socio-economic and family backgrounds. The results from the cross-lagged analyses with three time points revealed that (a) school engagement positively predicted information-oriented identity processing over a 2-year period; (b) school burnout positively predicted the reliance on normative and diffuse-avoidant identity styles across the three measurements; (c) the effects were stable over the three time points and across different gender, grade, and socio-economic status groups. The unidirectional effects identified in our study support the general prediction that active engagement in learning at school can serve as a resource for adolescent identity formation, while school burnout, in contrast, can hinder the formation of adolescent identity. This points to the importance of taking developmental identity-related needs of adolescents into account when planning the school curriculum.
... In-class participation may include both academic and non-academic behaviors. The latter may in turn include attendance, absenteeism, or tardiness [3], [8], [9], [13] as well as conduct, behavioral incidents, disruptive behaviors, and following instructions [3], [9], [13]. Indicators of academic in-class participation are often merged with out-of-class ones. ...
... In-class participation may include both academic and non-academic behaviors. The latter may in turn include attendance, absenteeism, or tardiness [3], [8], [9], [13] as well as conduct, behavioral incidents, disruptive behaviors, and following instructions [3], [9], [13]. Indicators of academic in-class participation are often merged with out-of-class ones. ...
... This study uses the Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris (2004) theoretical framework that distinguishes student emotional, cognitive and behavioral engagement during the learning process. From these three engagement components, this study only discusses the aspects of student behavioral engagement, as it is the most common key construct in almost all definitions of engagement (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). ...
... Behavioral engagement is a construct with several meanings being proffered in different domains and educational settings (Hospel et al., 2016). Fredricks et al. (2004) to explain behavioral engagement as the student behavior on a learning task, which includes student persistence, effort, and their contribution towards their own learning. ...
Conference Paper
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It remains a challenge in online settings to engage students as independent learners without teacher presence. This has led to increasing attention investigating the factors influencing student engagement in this context. As part of a PhD study, this paper investigates students' behavioural engagement with online learning modules without teacher supervision or peer support. The study examines three key constructs of behavioural engagement: student engagement with the task, effort level the student applies to task-completion and finally, following instructions. First, the findings suggest that student engagement was high in 'video' and 'feedback' sections as compared to 'simulation' activities. Second, students invested high effort in task-completion when the learning modules were delivered with instructional guidance. Finally, non-visual learners exhibit more difficulty following instructions in unsupported online settings. The results of this study will contribute to the burgeoning research field promoting the development of online modules that encourage participation of diverse learners.
... El compromiso de los estudiantes es un constructo multidimensional que incluye aspectos comportamentales, emocionales y cognitivos (Fredricks et al., 2004). La mayor parte de trabajos que han abordado el estudio del compromiso en EF se han centrado en el componente comportamental, que incluye aspectos tales como participar activamente en la clase y escuchar con atención al profesor (Hospel et al., 2016), existiendo evidencia de que este compromiso comportamental predice tanto el rendimiento como el aprendizaje de los alumnos (Skinner et al., 2008). En el caso de la clase de EF una mejora en el aprendizaje de las habilidades motoras adquiere una especial importancia, ya que dicha mejora puede facilitar el éxito y la adherencia en actividades físicas futuras, contribuyendo de este modo al objetivo señalado anteriormente de que los alumnos adopten hábitos responsables de AF regular. ...
Article
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This study aimed to test a predictive model for behavioral engagement in physical education (PE) in the light of self-determination postulates (basic psychological needs --> intrinsic motivation --> behavioral engagement) as well as to analyze the invariance of this model according to physical activity (PA) levels. A sample of 468 12-16 physical education (PE) students completed different validated instruments. The hypothesized sequence was tested through a structural equation model. Fitting indices revealed that the model was suitable to predict engagement (χ2 [112] = 310.65, p < .001, χ2 /df = 2.77, CFI = .94, TLI =.92, RMSEA = .06, SRMR = .06). All the hypothesized relationships were significant except for the association between relatedness and intrinsic motivation (p>.05). Findings from the invariance analyses indicated that competence became more important among adolescents showing higher levels in autonomous motivation and PA while autonomy became more relevant among students showing lower levels in autonomous motivation and PA. Results thus suggest that strategies used to facilitate engagement in PE classes should be adapted to students according to the PA they usually perform.
... It is described in terms of observable indicators , such as sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities , attentiveness, and school compliance , effort, and persistence with schoolwork (Skinner, Wellborn & Connell, 1990), school attendance , having necessary equipment for active classroom participation (You & Sharkey, 2009), and participation in extra-curricular activities (Fullarton, 2002). Hospel, Galand, and Janosz (2016) argued that behavioral engagement should be seen as a multidimensional construct consisting of five dimensions: participation, following instructions, withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and absenteeism. ...
... Une étude longitudinale de cinq établissements scolaires en encadrement différencié un impact majeur sur le choix de s'engager ou non dans la tâche d'apprentissage avec toutes ses ressources cognitives, des émotions et un comportement approprié (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). Afin que les représentations motivationnelles et l'engagement soient favorables à l'apprentissage, des variables liées au climat scolaire, telles que le sentiment d'appartenance, le sentiment de sécurité, la violence perçue et la satisfaction, eux-mêmes déterminés par les pratiques pédagogiques, doivent également être favorables (Galand, Philippot, Buidin, & Lecocq, 2004;. ...
Article
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Faire en sorte que la réussite scolaire dépende le moins possible de l’origine socio-économique des élèves, et donc éviter que l’école ne reproduise ou ne renforce les inégalités sociales, est une préoccupation importante de la plupart des systèmes scolaires modernes. Dans cette étude, nous interrogerons la mise en œuvre du décret encadrement différencié en Belgique francophone. Plus particulièrement, nous essayerons de comprendre l’usage que font, sur une période de quatre ans, cinq établissements secondaires des moyens supplémentaires qui leur sont alloués sur la base du public qu’ils accueillent. Nous tentons d’appréhender – à partir d’enquêtes par questionnaire – l’évolution du climat scolaire perçu par leurs élèves, ainsi que la motivation à apprendre de ces derniers. À partir d’observations qualitatives réalisées dans chacun des établissements, nous tenterons également d’identifier les conditions les plus favorables au changement des pratiques pédagogiques qui, au final, pourraient avoir un impact positif sur la scolarité et la réussite des élèves. Ces monographies d’établissement sont l’occasion d’analyser dans quelle mesure et à quelles conditions des politiques d’éducation prioritaire allouant davantage de moyens à certaines écoles, en leur laissant l’autonomie de décision et de planification de l’usage de ces moyens, affectent l’expérience et la réussite scolaire des élèves. Les évolutions constatées auprès des élèves sont très modestes et les résultats soulignent la grande difficulté à (re)mettre le pédagogique, et donc les apprentissages des élèves, au cœur de la dynamique collective d’établissement. Ces observations interrogent certains postulats et certaines modalités de la politique d’encadrement différencié elle-même.
... Second section comprised of items measured teacher bullying, peer bullying and behavioral engagement. Questionnaire was taken from different studies [78][79][80] with minor changes due to present study perspective. Out of nineteen items, nine items on the teacher bullying and five, five items were on the peer bullying and behavioral engagement. ...
... We can conclude that all The hypotheses are accepted for this research. Engagement refers to the way students get involved in the classroom or school which incorporates their feeling, think, and behavior (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). The results of this study indicate a positive influence between the variables emotions, participation, skills, and performances that construct engagement in synchronous learning. ...
Article
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Online training during the pandemic was commonly held using the synchronous learning method. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between synchronous online training preference, gender difference, and online student engagements (OSE). This study was analyzed with Structural Equation Model (SEM) by using SmartPLS 3 software. The participants of this study involved 35 online training participants and produced the following findings: 1) synchronous online training preference has a positive relationship with OSE variables, 2) The relationship between OSE variables is positive, 3) a gender has a positive relationship with skills, participation, and performance, while gender has a negative relationship with emotions and synchronous online training preference.
... El compromiso de los estudiantes es un constructo multidimensional que incluye aspectos comportamentales, emocionales y cognitivos (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). La mayor parte de trabajos que han abordado el estudio del compromiso en EF se han centrado en el componente comportamental, que incluye aspectos tales como participar activamente en la clase y escuchar con atención al profesor (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016) existiendo evidencia de que este compromiso comportamental predice tanto el rendimiento como el clase de EF, una mejora en el aprendizaje de las habilidades motoras puede facilitar el éxito y la adherencia en actividades físicas futuras (Stodden et al., 2008;Vandorpe et al., 2012). Ello explica el interés tanto de educadores como de investigadores por conocer qué factores explican que los alumnos muestren más o menos compromiso durante la clase de EF. ...
Article
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Artículo Original. Relación entre la motivación y el compromiso del alumnado en educación física y el burnout del docente. Para citar este artículo utilice la siguiente referencia: Coterón López, J.; Franco Álvarez, E. (2019). Relación entre la motivación y el compromiso del alumnado en educación física y el burnout del docente. Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la motivación autodeterminada y el compromiso comportamental de estudiantes de educación física en función del burnout experimentado por sus profesores. Participaron 644 estudiantes de educación física (302 chicos y 342 chicas) de edades comprendidas entre 11 y 18 años (M = 14.29, DT = 1.37) pertenecientes a 28 grupos de clase diferentes. También participaron en el estudio los 28 profesores que impartían clase a estos alumnos (14 hombres y 14 mujeres). Los profesores participantes tenían edades comprendidas entre los 27 y los 59 años (M = 39.43, DT = 9.08). En primer lugar, se segmentó la muestra de profesores en función de su nivel de burnout agrupándolos en tres grupos (burnout bajo, burnout medio y burnout alto). A continuación, se llevaron a cabo comparaciones para muestras independientes entre los alumnos a los que impartían clase los profesores con bajo burnout y a los que les daban clase los profesores con alto nivel de burnout. Los resultados del test de Mann Whitney revelaron que los alumnos cuyos profesores presentaban bajo burnout mostraban puntuaciones más elevadas en las variables de motivación intrínseca, regulación identificada y compromiso comportamental. Estos hallazgos sugieren la incidencia del estado mental del profesorado sobre su actuación docente y, en consecuencia, sobre la motivación y el comportamiento del alumnado; en consecuencia, es recomendable realizar acciones para prevenir el burnout entre el profesorado a partir de actuaciones destinadas a mejorar sus condiciones de trabajo. Palabras clave Burnout; compromiso comportamental; educación física.
... In scholarly literature, engagement is treated as a multi-dimensional concept consisting of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects (Finn, 1989;Blondal & Adalbjarnardottir, 2012) each influencing the others (Virtanen, 2016). It has been argued that behavioral engagement, which is the main interest of this study, should also be seen as a multidimensional concept consisting of five dimensions: participation, following teachers' instructions, withdrawal, disruptive behaviors, and absenteeism (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). Disengagement, as opposite to engagement, refers to non-alignment to school norms, goals, and values often manifesting itself at an individual level as school misconduct, which refers to a behavioral dimension of disengagement. ...
Chapter
Due to its success in PISA studies since the early 2000s, Finnish education system has received worldwide attention. The highly standardized system with a relatively low level of stratification has been praised for its capability to promote educational equality. However, recent policy changes have reduced the system’s possibilities to provide equal educational opportunities and education of uniform quality to all citizens. Within comprehensive school, the introduction of free school choice policy has created local school markets, which has led, especially in large cities, to a situation where schools have been divided into high- and low-status schools. In this chapter, the relationship between different school-level factors and students’ behavioral disengagement is analyzed. A hypothesis is that the relationship between school’s structural features, such as school size and socioeconomic composition of the student population, and students’ disengagement is mediated through process-level factors, i.e., school culture. The multilevel input-process-output model provides a conceptual framework for testing this relationship. The results verify the hypothesis only partly. The connection of school’s structural features with students’ disengagement is not mediated through school culture, but the structure and culture are at the same “hierarchical” level both contributing to the disengagement through students’ intrapersonal attitudes and experiences.
... Advocating for a more fine-grained analysis of student behaviours, Nguyen, Cannata, and Miller (2016) have studied good conduct, participation, and effort as distinct components of student behavioural engagement. Similarly, Hospel, Galand, and Janosz (2016) have disentangled student participation, following instructions, withdrawal, disruptiveness, and absenteeism. An in-depth investigation of the behaviours composing the behavioural dimension of engagement and its antecedents may allow a better grasp of teacher practices supporting specific behaviours in the classroom. ...
Article
Background: Different teaching practices, such as autonomy support and structure, provide students with a positive learning context supporting their engagement, which can operate through their underlying motivation, including sense of competence and task value. Aims: This study aims at investigating the best configuration (unique or synergistic) between autonomy support and structure to support student behavioural engagement, including compliance, participation, and misbehaviour, and reading achievement. A second objective is to assess students' sense of competence and task value as mediators linking teaching practices to student engagement and achievement. Sample: The samples included 1,666 7th-grade students and their 85 teachers. Students answered questionnaires and tests at the beginning and the end of the school year. Methods: Students' perceptions of the use of autonomy support and structure by their Language Arts teacher were aggregated at the classroom level. Students rated their sense of competence and task value in Language Arts class. Twice during the school year, they also reported three facets of their behavioural engagement (compliance, participation, and misbehaviour) and answered a reading comprehension test. Multilevel path analyses using Mplus7 allowed accounting for the nested structure of data. Results: Student sense of competence mediated the association of student classroom-aggregated perceptions of teacher structure and autonomy support with self-reported participation in the classroom. Task value mediated the association between both teaching practices and student misbehaviour and compliance, as reported by students. Sense of competence was directly associated with later reading achievement, but the indirect effect of teaching practices was not significant. We found no significant interaction (synergistic effect) between teacher autonomy support and structure. Conclusion: Student classroom-aggregated perception of teacher autonomy support and structure is important to nurture behavioural engagement. However, we found no extra benefit of combining these two dimensions of teaching practices. The processes linking these teaching practices to the three facets of student behavioural engagement were different. As such, to support the various aspects of student engagement, the actions of teachers, as reported by their students, should tap into the mechanisms that are most strongly related to each type of behaviour.
... It consists of five items assessing students' participation or involvement in school activities (e.g., "I pay attention in class."), which are in accordance with five facets of behavioral engagement, including participation, following teachers' instructions, withdrawal, disruptive behaviors, and absenteeism (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). Students responded to the items on a four-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). ...
Article
This study explored the reciprocal relations between hope and academic achievement, and the mediating effect of behavioral engagement in a sample of Chinese elementary school students. A total of 949 students from third, fourth, and fifth grades completed measures of hope and behavioral engagement in the middle of three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores for Chinese, Mathematics, and English were obtained from school records at the end of the corresponding three semesters. Results indicated that hope and academic achievement reciprocally related to one another. Bootstrap analyses of the indirect effects revealed that hope and academic achievement were reciprocally enhanced across time via behavioral engagement. The practical implications of these findings and potential avenues for further research were discussed.
... However, research on the interplay between the affective and cognitive dimensions (which form the dimension of identification) and the behavioral dimension (participation) is largely lacking (Wang & Degol, 2014). In alignment with the participation-identification model, some researchers have suggested that behavioral engagement is the key component among the dimensions of student engagement (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016;Skinner, 2016). There is evidence that behavioral engagement directly predicts students' educational outcomes (see Finn & Zimmer, 2012). ...
Article
This longitudinal study covering two educational transitions examined 1,821 Finnish students’ participation in and identification with school and their associations with students’ academic achievement and truancy. The students were surveyed (a) at the end of primary school, (b) at the beginning of lower secondary school, (c) at the end of lower secondary school, and (d) in the first year of upper secondary education. In alignment with the participation-identification model, higher levels of participation in school activities at the end of primary school predicted higher levels of identification (i.e., feelings of belonging and valuing school) at the end of lower secondary school. This association was mediated by academic achievement. High levels of both participation and identification at the end of lower secondary school predicted lower levels of truancy in upper secondary education. The study indicates that promoting students’ participation and identification during comprehensive school prevents student disengagement from upper secondary education.
... This study defines learning engagement as ³WKH GLVSOD\HG VWXGHQW behaviours of engagement that are associaWHG ZLWK D VWXGHQW ¶V HIIRUW Wowards learning and the learning process, for a single task or their overall learning H[SHULHQFH´ [2]. We can observe these behaviours to infer VWXGHQWV ¶ learning outcomes of the course materials or quizzes with the gamified IS or their involvement and participation level [15]. Thus, perceived learning occurs when the student is fascinated with the IS and derive course satisfaction and sustained attention and interest from the system. ...
Conference Paper
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Despite the significant research on motivation, engagement, and satisfaction in gamification, the quality of the information provided by instructors and designers to students on the gamified application has not received commensurate attention. One potential reason is that quality is an abstract notion that cannot be expressed by simple definition. This paper focus on the critical aspect of the gamified learning environment: using gamified information to enhance students learning behaviour by providing information systems such as Kahoot Mobile Learning application. Our study, based on the contextual and representational information quality, examined 139 users of a gamified information system and found the differential need for information quality when designing content for students. Additionally, the study revealed the four characteristics (website, user, social and task) of information quality as critical dimensions in determining learner’s satisfaction in the gamified application, which in turn influences perceived learning. Our findings provide educators and instructors with important guidelines which when considered on a contextual basis would motivate learners to obtain further information from gamified systems that may lead to perceived learning performance.
... Students rated their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement in math lessons on a scale ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). Behavioral engagement was measured using a 10-item scale (7th grade α = 0.85; 8th grade α = 0.86; Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). The measure included items tapping into student compliance, participation, and withdrawal (e.g., "When the teacher asks a question during a lesson, 1 In the Belgian school system, there is no tacking before 9th grade. ...
Article
This study contrasts three hypotheses to determine the best configuration of teacher need-supporting practices (autonomy support, structure, and involvement) in terms of classroom-levels of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. Multilevel analyses were conducted among a sample of 1193 8th grade students nested in 57 math classrooms. Results failed to support the additive hypothesis (H1), which anticipated that all three practices would be associated with classroom-levels of engagement when jointly considered. Results also failed to support the synergistic hypothesis (H2), which predicted that the greatest benefits would emerge in classrooms characterized by a high level of two or three practices. Finally, results supported the global hypothesis (H3), which anticipated that the global level taken across the three practices—captured by a global factor—would provide optimal support to classroom-levels of engagement. Specific factors representing the imbalance in autonomy support, structure, and involvement also contributed to some aspects of classroom-levels of engagement.
... Behavioral engagement is understood as a set of externally observable behaviors (Appleton et al. 2008;Fredricks and McColskey 2012), which comprise several distinct aspects as absenteeism, disruptive behavior, withdrawal, following instructions, and student participation in whole-class dialogues in accordance with rules and classroom norms (Fredricks et al. 2004;Hospel et al. 2016). Participation may take the form of raising a hand to contribute verbally, respond to a question, make suggestions, or ask a question if called upon by the teacher (Böheim et al. 2020;Burns and Myhill 2004;Dixon et al. 2009;Fredricks et al. 2004;Howe and Abedin 2013;Ingram and Elliott 2015). ...
Article
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Student participation and cognitive and emotional engagement in learning activities play a key role in student academic achievement and are driven by student motivational characteristics such as academic self-concept. These relations have been well established with variable-centered analyses, but in this study, a person-centered analysis was applied to describe how the different aspects of student engagement are combined within individual students. Specifically, we investigated how the number of hand-raisings interacts with student cognitive and emotional engagement in various engagement patterns. Additionally, it was analyzed how these engagement patterns relate to academic self-concept as an antecedent and achievement as an outcome. In an empirical study, high school students (N = 397) from 20 eighth-grade classrooms were surveyed and videotaped during one mathematics school lesson. The design included a pre- and post-test, with the videotaping occurring in between. Five within-student engagement patterns were identified by latent profile analysis: disengaged, compliant, silent, engaged, and busy. Students with higher academic self-concept were more likely to show a pattern of moderate to high engagement. Compared with students with low engagement, students with higher engagement patterns gained systematically in end-of-year achievement. These findings illustrate the power of person-centered analyses to illuminate the complexity of student engagement. They imply the need for differentiation beyond disengaged and engaged students and bring along the recognition that being engaged can take on various forms, from compliant to busy.
... The mediating roles of behavioral engagement, self-concept, and organizational strategy underpin the association between academic enjoyment and achievement Mediation via behavioral engagement. Behavioral engagement is a multidimensional concept that refers specifically to student classroom conduct, participation in school-related activities, and interest in an academic task [27,28]. Among them, students' classroom conduct and participation in school-related activities are the passive aspects of behavioral engagement for activities in these two settings were assigned by teachers, and students were practically driven by teachers' expectations. ...
Article
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Motivated by the positive psychology movement in the English as Foreign Language (EFL), existing studies have demonstrated that subject-related enjoyment has a positive correlation with academic achievement. However, quite a few studieshave examined why academic enjoyment can predict positive academic achievement. This study aimed to investigate whether behavioral engagement, self-concept, and organizational strategy mediated relations between academic enjoyment and achievement in EFL setting. 528 Chinese secondary school students (Male: N = 280; Female: N = 248) participated in the survey and completed the questionnaires on EFL-related enjoyment, behavioral engagement, self-concept, organizational strategy, and academic performance. Structural equation model (SEM) analyses showed that students' academic enjoyment positively predicted their English achievement. Academic engagement, self-concept, and organizational strategy had parallel multiple mediating effects between academic enjoyment and English achievement. Multi-group SEM analysis demonstrated that the model had invariance across genders, indicating that the model is applicable to both male and female students. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... School engagement is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional structure consisting of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive components (Fredricks et al., 2004;Wang & Peck, 2013). Behavioral engagement includes positive behavior, obeying school rules, not being in destructive behavior (Connell, 1990), and participating in school-related activities (Finn, 1993;Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). Cognitive engagement includes learning motivation, valuing tasks assigned at school (Ames, 1992), having self-control on learning strategies such as planning, observing, and evaluating (Zimmerman, 1990;Salmela-Aro & Upadyaya, 2012). ...
Article
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In this study, the mediating and moderating role of Facebook addiction in the relationship between school burnout, and school engagement was investigated. The study group comprised of 283 students continuing to 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th grades. The data were collected by School Burnout Inventory, School Engagement Scale and Facebook Addiction Scale. As a result of the correlation analysis, a significant positive correlation was found between school burnout and Facebook addiction. Also, school engagement was negatively related to school burnout and Facebook addiction. The structural equation model findings indicated that Facebook addiction had a partial mediating role between school burnout and school engagement. The results of the bootstrap analysis supported the significance of the partial mediating role. Besides, as a result of the regression analysis, it was found that Facebook addiction had a differentiating role in the relationship between burnout and school engagement. Research findings are discussed in light of the literature. It is recommended to carry out studies to prevent social media addiction and to enhance conscious technology use. These studies are considered to contribute to reduce school burnout of the students and increase their school engagement.
... Functional engagement prefers to students' observable action and participation, that is general activity in classes, orientation to school activities, participation to club activities outside the school, low absenteeism, and possible interrupting behavior such as making noise during teaching (Fredricks et al., 2004;Hospel et al., 2016). The concepts of emotional and cognitive engagement are partly overlapping. ...
Article
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This article examines how maltreatment experienced by adolescents is related to school engagement. Maltreatment includes physical, mental, and sexual violence along with sexual harassment, neglect, and witnessing domestic violence. School engagement refers to the students’ relationship to all activities in the school. It describes students’ thoughts, activities and participation as well as their emotions in relation to school. Analysis is based on the Finnish School Health Promotion data ( N = 155,299) and analyzed by linear regression analysis. Results indicate that adolescents’ maltreatment experiences are related to school engagement, regardless of gender, age, family structure, or immigrant background. Maltreatment increases functional engagement and decreases emotional and cognitive engagement. These results thus confirm that maltreatment can also cause immersion in schoolwork. The results can be used to prevent lower school engagement and maltreatment of adolescents.
... Behavioural engagement has been defined as interactions with a setting that are active, goal driven, constructive and persistent [19,20]. When students interact with the setting in a positive way, they show several adaptive behaviours, such as putting great effort into their tasks, participating or following the teacher's instructions [21,22]. ...
Article
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Students' engagement in Physical Education has been linked to several adaptive consequences. Even though the existing literature suggests that perceived autonomy support can predict engagement, research is scarce on how teachers' antecedents might influence this behavioural outcome. This study sought to compare the influence of teachers' basic psychological needs' satisfaction and basic psychological needs' thwarting on students' behavioural engagement and on the relationship between perceived autonomy-support and the students' behavioural engagement. The sample included 29 Physical Education teachers and 644 students who were taught by the participants teachers. Data were collected using both paper and online surveys and they were analysed using multilevel modelling techniques. The results revealed that, while teachers' autonomy satisfaction might be significant in the explanation of students' engagement (β = 0.33, p < 0.01), it seems that needs thwarting could be a better predictor of this outcome (β autonomy thwarting = −0.17, p < 0.01; β competence thwarting = −0.06, p < 0.05). These findings suggest the impact of certain external pressures on teachers' practices which, in turn, might affect students' behavioural outcomes.
... This assessment may be driven, for example, by the features of the tasks or by students' perceptions of their capacities, their preferences, their plans, emotions triggered by a task, and so on (Wigfield et al., 2017). These three dimensions play a critical role in the decision to commit to learning and may gauge the amount of effort expended (Eccles, 2009;Hospel et al., 2016), which is probably why they are considered in several variants of the expectancy-value framework. ...
Article
Objective: This study investigates the effects of an alternative approach to grade retention, known as a “remediation measure”. Method: This measure was tested in 2010-2011 in two high schools in Quebec (Canada) and its effects on students’ achievement motivation were analyzed. Specifically, the evolution of general and domain-specific expectancy and value perceptions of 74 students who failed Grade 8 and experienced this measure (Mage = 14.81 years) were compared with those of 42 same-age peers (Mage = 14.84 years) who graduated to Grade 9. This evolution was also examined as a function of teachers’ support and friends’ school attitudes. Results: This measure appeared to have a favorable effect on competence beliefs, in general and in French. However, the results did not reveal any moderating effects of teacher support and friends’ school attitudes. Conclusion: Findings are discussed in light of research evidence concerning the role of social influence on achievement motivation.
... Combining valence and arousal, we arrive once more at the circumplex model of affect (Russel, 1980). Emotions from each quadrant of the circumplex model can influence classroom behaviour in different ways (Hospel et al., 2016). Especially, the combination of arousal and positivity has been found favourable for promoting on-task behaviour and academic work more widely. ...
Article
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Aim: We investigated the dose-response relationship between acute physical activity (PA) intensity during physical education (PE) lessons (dose), and task behaviour and learning experiences in the classroom after PE (response), and mediation effects of acute PA on-task behaviour via learning experiences. Method: A total of 78 children (Mage = 9.30 years; 43 females) took part. Participants reported learning experiences (tiredness, positive and negative affect) during one afternoon per week for 6 weeks. Their task behaviour was observed (on-task, active off-task and passive off-task) during two classroom lessons. Between the classroom lessons, they took part in a PE lesson, with experimentally induced PA intensity (low, medium and high). Accelerometers were worn for 24 h leading up to and during every intervention afternoon. Participants completed self-reports three times per classroom lesson, both before and after PE. Intra- and interindividual differences in PA, task behaviour and learning experiences were analysed with multilevel structural equation models. Results: Moderate PA directly increased on-task behaviour and reduced passive off-task behaviour, whereas light PA increased active off-task behaviour and reduced on-task behaviour. We found no direct effects of vigorous PA or mediated effects of any PA intensity on-task-related behaviour. However, a greater positive affect during PE indirectly led to more on-task and less passive off-task behaviour. Regularly active children reported less tiredness in the classroom. Conclusion: PE lessons can increase on-task behaviour and reduce both passive and active off-task behaviours. Positive affect and tiredness are indirectly involved in the impact of PA on task-related behaviour. The greatest benefits were found for moderate PA and for PE lessons, which left children feeling positive. Moreover, regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous PA leads children to feel less tired during school lessons.
... However, a student that is not engaged will give up easily, not display persistence or effort, get bored, or not listen to the teacher [7]. In this line, and highlighting the importance of the PE setting, behavioral engagement has been pointed out by different authors as a key concept to predict students' learning and performance achievement [8], by suggesting a positive consequence of the type of interactions that take place between teachers and students [9]. There is evidence that the behavioral engagement displayed by students in PE can be affected by their motivational processes [10,11]. ...
Article
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The sport education model (SEM) has been suggested to have a positive impact on students' motivational processes within the physical education setting. However , there is no evidence about how this methodology can affect such processes in the unconventional scenario provoked by the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a SEM-based teaching intervention on students' basic psychological needs (BPN), intrinsic motivation, and behavioral engagement in physical education. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study was carried out in which two groups of secondary students (Mage= 14.61, SD= 0.5) were taught a basketball unit following either the SEM or traditional teaching. Previously validated questionnaires were administered both before and after the intervention. The results showed that students following the SEM methodology significantly improved their autonomy satisfaction (MPre = 3.09 vs. Mpost = 3.63), competence satisfaction (Mpre = 3.48 vs. Mpost = 4.17), and relatedness satisfaction (MPre = 3.79 vs. MPost = 4.43), as well as their behavioral engagement (MPre = 4.05 vs. MPost = 4.48), while students in the control group reported lower relatedness satisfaction after (M = 3.54) than before (M = 4.13) the intervention. This study thus contributes to the understanding of how teaching in a COVID-19 scenario has affected students' motivational responses, and interesting implications for the current situation are provided.
... Behavioral engagement refers to the observable involvement in the activities of the classroom and school. Participation, time on task, compliance to classroom rules are some examples of behavioral engagement (Hospel, Galand & Janosz, 2016). ...
Thesis
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This study investigated the relationship between teachers’ need supportive instructional behaviors (i.e., relatedness support and provision of structure) and different types of student engagement (i.e., behavioral, emotional, cognitive and agentic engagement) from the perspective of self-determination theory. To this end, during a specific lesson teachers’ provision of structure, relatedness support and student engagement were assessed by both self-reports and observations. The participants (N=191) came from one public and one private high school in Ankara, Turkey in 10 different classes. Regression analyses revealed that both provision of structure and relatedness support can be both predicted by behavioral, emotional, agentic and overall engagement with some gender differences. The results show that the joint effects of provision of structure and relatedness support predict more engaged classrooms. Also, frequency analysis results revealed some degree of difference in students’ and observers’ perceptions of need supportive teaching. Students overestimated their teacher’s provision of structure and relatedness support. Finally, the results revealed some degree of difference in students’ and observers’ perception of student engagement. Frequency Analysis revealed that the students are more in line with their teacher than observers regarding their own engagement. However, the students also overestimated their own engagement compared to their teachers suggesting that the teachers need to put more effort in commonly agreeing with their students the needed and actual quality of engagement.
... Students' engagement has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct including behavioral, emotional and cognitive aspects (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Investigations addressing the study of engagement in PE have focused on the behavioral element, which comprises aspects such to actively participate in class and to listen to the teacher carefully (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). From the trans-contextual model of motivation based on Self-Determination theory (Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse, & Biddle, 2003) several works have proven the influence that the context has on students' motivation and, in turn, on students' behaviors. ...
Conference Paper
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Introduction. One of the main objectives in Physical Education (PE) is to transmit the importance of physical activity (PA) and to promote the participation in PA among students. It explains why PE context has been pointed out as an ideal setting to foster an active lifestyle (Langford et al., 2015) and to promote students’ engagement and motivation in PE classes has become a key aspect to both teachers and researchers. Students’ engagement has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct including behavioral, emotional and cognitive aspects (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Investigations addressing the study of engagement in PE have focused on the behavioral element, which comprises aspects such to actively participate in class and to listen to the teacher carefully (Hospel, Galand, & Janosz, 2016). From the trans-contextual model of motivation based on Self-Determination theory (Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse, & Biddle, 2003) several works have proven the influence that the context has on students’ motivation and, in turn, on students’ behaviors. However, literature is scarce in studies aiming to investigate teachers’ antecedents underlying the development of autonomy-supportive contexts (Haerens, Aelterman, de Meester, & Tallir, 2017). The aim of this study is to analyze whether teachers’ burnout could be associated with their students’ basic psychological needs satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement.
... Student engagement has received increased attention for its pivotal role in academic performance (e.g., Chase et al. 2014;Fredricks et al. 2004;Hospel et al. 2016). Ever since Finn's (1989Finn's ( , 1993 early work (and see Finn and Zimmer 2012, for a review) on studies of behavioral participation in classroom activities, there has been a steady stream of research findings supporting that motivated and engaged students show higher academic proficiency including better grades (Corso et al. 2013;Furrer and Skinner 2003;Li and Lerner 2011;Wang and Eccles 2012) and reading literacy (Lee 2014). ...
Article
This study examined relations between student engagement and drug use using data obtained from the statewide biennial California Healthy Kids Survey. Latent variable modeling with confirmatory factor analysis indicated four conceptually distinct and psychometrically sound factors capturing academic motivation, school connectedness, caring relations, and meaningful participation. Further tests indicated relative invariance of the measurement models across grade (7th, 9th, and 11th) and gender. Structural equation models indicated unique prediction of drug use from the four engagement factors with academic motivation providing the largest magnitude of effect. Evidence of suppression was corrected statistically to show consistent prediction across the four constructs. The relative magnitude of regression coefficients diminished considerably with the introduction of relevant covariates. Results are discussed in terms of designing educational programs that emphasize multiple facets of engagement while at the same time also addressing pedagogical means to boost student academic motivation.
... Behavioral engagement has emerged as an important construct in the prediction of students' performance and learning achievement [7]. Different authors have studied this topic, pointing out a positive consequence of the way in which the teacher interacts with his or her students [8,9]. ...
Article
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Teachers’ behaviors can affect students’ engagement in the Physical Education (PE) setting. According to self-determination theory, teachers can rely on either a need-supportive or a controlling teaching behavior, and these behaviors will differently affect students’ outcomes. The main objective of this research was to analyse how teaching behaviors and some contextual variables influence students’ engagement in PE classes. The present study adds to the existing literature through an observation-based design in which real-life examples of need-supportive and thwarting teaching behaviors, as well as students’ engagement behaviors, have been identified. Thirty-seven different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 36 teaching behaviors and five students’ behaviors. Stepwise regression revealed that both structure during activity and relatedness support could predict student engagement in a positive way. Surprisingly, cold teaching also emerged as a direct predictor in the last step of the analysis. On the other hand, controlling and structure before activity behaviors inversely predicted students’ engagement. These four variables explained 39% of the variance in student engagement, whereas autonomy support did not correlate with student engagement. These new findings in the field not only confirm the known relevance of teaching behavior for students’ outcomes but also suggest an unexpected lack of influence of autonomy support on students’ engagement as well as an association between cold teaching and students’ engagement. Results are discussed in the light of new approaches, and some practical implications are provided.
Thesis
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One of the profound educational challenges in the modern world where technology is all pervasive is for educators to harness the complex array of available tools in the quest to provide learning environments that facilitate the learning of students with diverse backgrounds and learning preferences. Engagement with this challenge has the potential to lead to the development and provision of programs that allow a more diverse student population to access these resources and become independent learners. However, the methods for the successful implementation of these technologies are still problematic in curriculum areas such as science education. This suggests that determining the features of such programs that are reflective of individual student needs requires careful deliberation and calibration. In this context, it is considered that the quality of differentiated support, referred to as scaffolding, is paramount in the design and structure of programs offered to students in an online environment. This study strives to determine how to empower students as online learners and the role of scaffolded learning modules to support student engagement in their inquiry process has been investigated in the context of self-directed online environments. A powerful pedagogical scaffolding strategy, predict, observe and explain (POE) (White et al., 1992), originating from the paradigm of constructivism, has been adopted to formulate an extended predict, observe, explain and evaluate (POEE) pedagogical framework by introducing an additional Evaluate (E) phase. This noble scaffolding framework has been employed as the platform for the development of two learning modules that are used in this study to guide students in the process of learning abstract science concepts. A mixed method research study has been applied to examine students’ engagement and learning approaches within the scaffolded learning environment. This has been transacted through interviews, observations, video recordings and student written responses to provide a clear, multifaceted picture of students’ independent interactions with the learning modules. Findings from this study support the strategic value of an evaluate (E) phase, as an extension of the widely used predict, observe and explain (POE) scaffolding framework, in new learning contexts notably in self-directed online learning. In particular, the study exposed the considerable influence of strong instructional supports, strategic integration of multiple external representations, and question prompts embedded in the POEE scaffolded learning modules on students’ ability to engage effectively with independent study. It is significant that learners with prior knowledge and experience benefitted most in this self-directed environment in terms of their level of engagement and the deeper learning approaches they adopted; conversely the lack of prior knowledge and relevant experiences for some learners jeopardized their opportunity to gain deeper science conceptual understandings. This implies the need for more personalized learning settings for novice learners. This study concludes that despite the inherent limitations manifest in the online context, scaffolded learning modules can provide a proximal learning environment for inquiry-based online learning. The findings of this study contribute to the growing body of evidence demonstrating that the strategically designed implementation of inquiry-based online learning holds promise for the creation of a successful learning environment to meet the ever-changing demand for online educational reform.
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One Australian public university is radically changing the way it delivers higher education, introducing a 6-week immersive scheduling delivery model across all units and courses. Despite the emerging success of block and immersive models for raising the performance of diverse student cohorts, the design factors underpinning positive outcomes are underexplored. This paper presents a mixed methods study of the impact and value of student engagement with interactive and responsive online content modules and synchronous classes in an immersive scheduling model. The findings indicate that behavioural engagement with online learning modules has a positive effect on academic success and is a significant predictor of a higher final score. Qualitative data indicate several attributes of high-quality online learning modules that students appear to associate with engagement and deeper learning in the immersive model: interactivity, media richness, constructive alignment, flexibility and responsiveness. Synchronous class attendance did not impact final scores; however, students nonetheless valued the opportunity to form safe and supportive communities of inquiry during classes. This study demonstrates that in times of increasing demand for more flexible learning, immersive scheduling models that are founded on active learning principles and embed interactive, responsive, media-rich online learning modules can improve student engagement and performance. Implications for practice or policy: Higher education practitioners should integrate interactive, responsive, media-rich and constructively aligned online learning modules into curricula. Synchronous active learning classes that create safe communities of inquiry should be offered alongside options for asynchronous participation. Low levels of engagement with online learning modules should prompt follow-up from educators to raise engagement and bolster academic achievement. Immersive delivery models are effective curriculum innovations that, when designed with interactive online modules, can support improved academic achievement.
Chapter
In this chapter, the possible causes of SUDs are discussed. The evidence from different socio-cultural contexts confirms that multiple factors contribute to their development. None of the elements nor set of factors affect all individuals in the same way or explain substance use comprehensively because of the multifactorial nature of SUDs. At the end of the chapter, machine-generated summaries of five relevant scientific papers are included.
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This study aimed to analyze teachers’ experiences in engaging students cognitively in English as a foreign language during the covid-19 pandemic. The participants of this study were experienced and less experienced teachers at private high schools in Medan. The technique of data collection was in-depth interviews. The results showed that both teachers had been familiar with using online media for learning such as zoom meetings although sometimes they had difficulties in engaging the students in the learning process when technical issues of the network occurred. Moreover, they could engage the students by 1) developing creative teaching, 2) designing problem-solving, 3) Aiming at reason, 4) enabling students’ decision-making, and 5) enabling students to evaluate.
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Cette étude vise à documenter ce qui a été mis en place par les enseignants en matière de transmission de travail scolaire et de maintien du lien social lors de la pandémie de COVID-19 en Belgique francophone ainsi qu’à comprendre les effets sur la motivation des élèves du secondaire ne pouvant plus se rendre à l’école. Les résultats mettent en évidence l’importance du soutien des enseignants et indiquent que les élèves recevant très fréquemment du travail à réaliser, mais n’ayant que peu de contacts avec les enseignants, se sentiraient moins capables de réaliser leur travail scolaire. [This study examines teachers’ methods for assigning schoolwork and maintaining social ties during the COVID-19 pandemic in Frenchspeaking Belgium. It also investigates the effects on motivation in secondary-school students who could not attend school in person. The results highlight the importance of supporting teachers and indicate that students who are frequently assigned schoolwork but have few contacts with teachers feel less capable of accomplishing their work.]
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In this article, we contribute to understanding of the mechanisms through which students’ socio‐economic family background can translate into academic performance by focusing on the concept of student engagement. Drawing on theoretical perspectives from disciplines across the social sciences, and a major nationally representative dataset from Australia, which links survey responses with administrative records on school performance, we conduct a series of multiple regression models to investigate the mediating role of student engagement on the relationship between students’ socio‐economic status (SES) and academic achievement. We find that, first, low‐SES students show lower levels of engagement than other students, particularly in terms of behavioural and cognitive aspects; they also have lower achievement levels as measured by standardised test scores. We further find that lower engagement is associated with lower achievement levels, and that the effects of SES on achievement are partially mediated through student engagement. Although there are clearly other mechanisms in place that operate at the same time, it is important to focus on student engagement since it can be directly influenced by teachers and school leaders, as well as curriculum choices and school resources. This makes it a ripe target for government policies aimed at improving educational outcomes for students from low‐SES families, compared with approaches targeting the influences of family environment or peer groups.
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While student engagement has been the subject of increasing attention in the field of education, attempts to translate research findings into practice have been hindered by a lack of clarity and consensus around the concept. It is generally agreed that teachers have an important role to play in promoting the engagement of students in classroom learning, however, little is know about how teachers think about student engagement or their experiences of engaging students in the classroom. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 upper-primary teachers to explore their perspectives on student engagement in learning. The data showed teachers described six qualitatively different forms of engagement and disengagement that vary in terms of the perceived degree of active involvement of the student. Teachers described three forms of engagement: Participating, Investing and Driving. They also described three forms of disengagement: Withdrawing, Avoiding and Disrupting. The proposed continuum offers some clarity about the range of meanings that teachers may have when using the broad terms ‘engagement’ and ‘disengagement’, and offers an alternative perspective on the concept of student engagement that might aid in future efforts to connect research with practice.
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Values can be abstract and intangible and yet they hold high importance as to how people live and work. The purpose of this article is to identify passion as an added value in the passionate and healthy workplace, valuing people for who and what they are. It differentiates between the role of harmonious and obsessive passion and draws attention to examples of passion thrillers and passion killers. Leaders who engage in passion thrillers help to positively motivate themselves and others. They create an environment in which passion is intrinsically drawn from the workforce building on an organisation that is a healthy place to work. Passion killers are described as people (intra and interpersonal relationships) and/ or things (stimuli) that inhibit passion. Discussion compares passion killers to a virus that, if not addressed, can spread throughout the organisation. The term "pathocratic influence" is also introduced where leaders, who engage in passion killing influence others to behave and think in similar ways, damaging the reputation and success of the organisation, creating a working environment that is toxic. Limitations are also identified, and recommendations drawn.
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School absenteeism is an important target of prevention science frameworks within the context of contributing/risk factors and tier-based intervention strategies. Little research has been done with respect to how specific aspects of school climate, academic mindset, and social emotional learning relate to different levels of absenteeism severity. Ensemble analysis, and specifically chi-square adjusted interaction detection analysis, was conducted on a measure of these constructs across multiple levels of absenteeism severity (3+%, 5+%, 10+%, 15+%, 20+%) for 128,381 students (Mage = 13.98; SD = 2.48). Pathways revealed some school climate and academic mindset items to be unique at higher levels of absenteeism severity, though item homogeneity was noted regarding key split points. The latter included items related to turning in assignments on time, liking school, and safety concerns. The findings reveal the need to examine school climate in an integrated fashion with student-based contextual learning factors, may support a dimensional approach to conceptualizing school absenteeism, and may suggest demarcations for tier-based intervention strategies. The findings may also have implications for cohesive school-based initiatives for academics and behavior. Items generated from the present study could serve as targets for school climate intervention components to enhance curriculum-based skill development, teacher care and classroom structure for students, student decision-making, personalized sessions for certain students, and acceptable school grounds. Item-level analysis of school climate may also be preferable in some cases to school-average reports given absenteeism disparities among marginalized students.
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The factor structure of the measure of school engagement ‘Engagement Versus Disaffection with Learning: Teacher Report’ was investigated in the sample of 360 Swedish 6 th graders. Confirmatory factor analyses showed no support for the suggested four-factor structure including behavioural engagement, emotional engagement, behavioural disaffection and emotional disaffection. Exploratory analyses resulted instead in solutions differentiating between indicators of engagement and indicators of emotional problems. A four-factor solution including factors of positive engagement, disengagement, internalized and externalized emotional problems had the best fit. Positive engagement and disengagement factors showed good internal consistency with omega coefficients exceeding 0.95 and are deemed suitable for further use. Several challenges of measuring the complex construct of school engagement are discussed.
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Theories of student engagement for dropout and school completion are proposed to begin as early as age five. Student engagement in elementary-age students has been linked to school completion, post-secondary education, and achievement. However, there is little research examining patterns and profiles of student engagement in this population. In an effort to provide more individualized support and intervention, work in the field of student engagement has begun to examine profiles of student engagement and disengagement or disaffection. This study explored the identification of distinguishable groups based on student engagement in a sample of third-grade students and those groups’ associations with demographic and outcome variables. Consistent with findings of research with older students, four distinct profiles of student engagement were found for males and females: Engaged, Cognitively/Affectively Disengaged, Behaviorally Disengaged, Disaffected. An additional class characterized by high absences was found for males. Demographic characteristics were associated with cluster attributes for males (Free or Reduced Lunch, special education, English Learner, and race-ethnicity) and female (El status). Cluster affiliation was significantly associated with seventh grade Math and Language Arts grades for both males and females and absences for males. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. The findings from the current study indicate there are discernible classes of student engagement and disengagement that can be identified as early as the third grade. These results may aid in the early identification of those at risk for dropping out of school and more effectively link students to targeted early interventions.
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Following approximately 1,800 Finnish children, this longitudinal study examined the associations between students’ perceived social support (teacher-student relationships, family support, and peer support), behavioral engagement, cynicism towards school, and academic achievement during the transition from primary to lower secondary school. After controlling for parental educational level and cynicism before the school transition, the results showed that the more students experienced pre-transition peer support, the less they reported post-transition cynicism. Furthermore, pre-transition peer support contributed to students’ increased academic achievement and behavioral engagement after the transition through decreased cynicism. The findings indicated that peer support functions as a protective factor against cynicism as students move through the critical school transition phase and positively contributes to students’ behavioral engagement and academic achievement.
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, we examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher (n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3-5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student-teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted.
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Résumé Cette étude porte sur les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et le vécu scolaire des élèves relatives à l’absentéisme. Il s’agit aussi de comparer l’adéquation de trois modèles théoriques de l’absentéisme. Deux cent douze élèves du secondaire ont participé à une étude visant à examiner leurs perceptions du contexte scolaire, leurs orientations motivationnelles, leurs compétences perçues, leur sentiment d’aliénation vis-à-vis de l’école et leur absentéisme. Au-delà des différences entre filles et garçons, les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des élèves ne permettent pas suffisamment d’expliquer l’absentéisme. Elles font plutôt ressortir le rôle du sentiment d’aliénation, de même que l’effet du contexte scolaire sur la motivation.
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Is problem-based learning (PBL) really effective? Evidence focusing on achievement provides mixed results, but a growing body of research indicates that PBL fosters students’ academic engagement. However these studies are limited to the education of health professionals and do not include measures of implementation. The aim of the present study is to compare perceptions of the learning environment, motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and goal orientations), self-regulation strategies, study strategies, and satisfaction among engineering students before and after the shift from a lecture-based to a problem- and project-based (PBL) curriculum. The last cohort of students who attended the traditional curriculum and the first cohort of students who attended the new PBL curriculum participated to a questionnaire survey. Results of multivariate analyses show that PBL students perceived stronger academic support and weaker organizational structure. They also report more frequent use of adaptive self-regulation and deep processing strategies, less frequent use of surface processing strategies, lower satisfaction, higher attendance and longer study time. No differences were found for motivational beliefs and collaboration between students. Moreover, perceived learning environment mediates most of the observed differences between cohorts. Implications for attempts to improve student academic engagement are discussed.
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Student engagement research, policy, and practice are even more important in today’s race-to-the top policy environment. With a priority goal of postsecondary completion with advanced competence, today’s students must be engaged longer and more deeply. This need is especially salient for students attending schools located in segregated, high-poverty neighborhoods and isolated rural communities. Here, engagement research, policy, and practice must become more nuanced and less formulaic, and the ensuing review is structured accordingly. Guided in part by social-ecological analysis and social-cultural theory, engagement is conceptualized as a dynamic system of social and psychological constructs as well as a synergistic process. This conceptualization invites researchers, policymakers, and school-community leaders to develop improvement models that provide a more expansive, engagement-focused reach into students’ family, peer, and neighborhood ecologies.
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This article presents a motivational conceptualization of engagement and disaffection: First, it emphasizes children's constructive, focused, enthusiastic participation in the activities of classroom learning; second, it distinguishes engagement from disaffection, as well as behavioral features from emotional features. Psychometric properties of scores from teacher and student reports of behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, behavioral disaffection, and emotional disaffection were examined using data from 1,018 third through sixth graders. Structural analyses of the four indicators confirm that a multidimensional structure fits the data better than do bipolar or unidimensional models. Validity of scores is supported by findings that teacher reports are correlated with student reports, with in vivo observations in the classroom, and with markers of self-system and social contextual processes. As such, these measures capture important features of engagement and disaffection in the classroom, and any comprehensive assessment should include markers of each. Additional dimensions are identified, pointing the way to future research.
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Self-reported grades are heavily used in research and applied settings because of the importance of grades and the convenience of obtaining self-reports. This study reviews and meta-analytically summarizes the literature on the accuracy of self-reported grades, class ranks, and test scores. Results based on a pairwise sample of 60,926 subjects indicate that self-reported grades are less construct valid than many scholars believe. Furthermore, self-reported grade validity was strongly moderated by actual levels of school performance and cognitive ability. These findings suggest that self-reported grades should be used with caution. Situations in which self-reported grades can be employed more safely are identified, and suggestions for their use in research are discussed.
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This study used variable- and person-centered data analytic techniques to examine how early adolescents' academic motivation and social-emotional functioning were associated with their self-reported cognitive and behavioral engagement in the middle school classroom. Regression results showed that both motivational and mental health constructs contributed to the prediction of individual differences in classroom engagement. Person-centered analyses revealed between group variation in classroom engagement as a function of differing patterns of motivation and mental health among different subgroups of adolescents. Convergent and complementary information on these subgroups was provided by using two different grouping approaches. Findings are discussed in terms of broad patterns of promise or problems during early adolescence.
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Researchers, educators, and policymakers are focusing more on student engagement as the key to addressing low achievement, student boredom and alienation, and high dropout rates (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris 2004). As schools and districts seek to increase engagement, it is important for them to understand how it has been defined and to assess the options for measuring it. One challenge educators and evaluators face in measuring engagement is determining the appropriateness of the available instruments, especially given limited time to review the literature. Instruments for measuring engagement also reflect different disciplinary perspectives and theoretical frameworks and are thus not easily compared. To address the information needs of education professionals, this report describes the 21 instruments for measuring engagement in upper elementary through high school identified through a literature review. The report does not include a technical review of the quality of each measure, nor does it recommend or identify strengths or weaknesses of particular instruments. Appendices include: (1) Instrument abstracts; (2) Methodology; and (3) Student self-report subscale information. Some tables contain references. Includes a section containing 38 general references, followed by "References for Excluded Instruments." (Contains 2 boxes, 33 tables, 1 figure and 3 notes.) [For the summary report, see ED514997.]
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We present results of a longitudinal study of 1,046 adolescents in 23 middle schools that examined relations between adolescents' perceptions of their middle school learning environment during 8th grade (school goal structures, autonomy provisions, positive teacher regard) and changes in their academic motivation, achievement, and psychological adjustment from 7th to 8th grade. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that adolescents' school perceptions were significant predictors of their academic and psychological adjustment at the end of 8th grade after accounting for their demographic characteristics, prior academic ability, and prior adjustment assessed at the beginning of 7th grade. Perceptions of positive teacher regard and an emphasis on individual effort and improvement in school (school task goal structure) were associated with increases in academic values, feelings of academic competence, and academic achievement; and decreases in depressive symptoms from 7th to 8th grade. Perceived teacher regard also predicted diminished anger and school truancy and increases in self-esteem over time. Perceptions of an emphasis on competition and differential treatment by ability in middle school (school ability goal structure) were related to diminished academic values, feelings of self-esteem, and academic achievement; and increases in school truancy, anger, and depressive symptoms over time. The developmental significance of adolescents' perceptions of middle school for multiple aspects of their adjustment is discussed.
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This study, conducted with 184 first-year Belgian psychology students, examines the relations between motivational variables and achievement behaviours. A multiple-goal perspective with approach and avoidance dimensions was considered. Correlational, stepwise multiple regressions and MANOVA were performed. Results from the regressions indicate: (1) a direct effect of motivational variables on self-regulated learning strategies, and a direct effect of self-regulated learning strategies on performance, but no direct influence of motivational variables on performance; and (2) a direct influence of value and learning-approach goal orientation on choice. Results from the first multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with task value and self-efficacy as independent variables only show a main effect of task value on all learning strategies and behavioural outcomes. Results from the second MANOVA assert the positive effect of the endorsement of multiple goals on deep-learning strategies and choice.
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Longitudinal data from a study of kindergarten through 5th graders were used to estimate a structural model in which chronic peer exclusion and chronic peer abuse were hypothesized to mediate the link between children's early peer rejection, later classroom engagement, and achievement. Peer exclusion and abuse were expected to predict changes in 2 forms of school engagement (classroom participation and school avoidance), and changes in both forms of engagement were expected to predict changes in achievement. The model fit the data well and lent support to the premise that distinct forms of peer maltreatment and classroom engagement mediate the link between early peer rejection and changes in children's achievement. Early peer rejection was associated with declining classroom participation and increasing school avoidance, but different forms of chronic peer maltreatment mediated these relations. Whereas chronic peer exclusion principally mediated the link between peer rejection and classroom participation, chronic peer abuse primarily mediated the link between rejection and school avoidance. Children's reduced classroom participation, more than gains in school avoidance, anteceded decrements in children's achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this study was to develop a French-language questionnaire to measure students' perceptions of the teaching practices to which they are exposed (goal structures and teacher-student relations). The primary objective was to assess the psychometric qualities of the questionnaire with 1,265 students distributed among various high school years. Internal consistency and test-retest stability of the scales proved to be entirely satisfactory. Results of confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrate the scales' construction validity. Results of multiple regressions also indicate that retained perceptions are consistent predictors of students' motivational directions and emotional experience at school, regardless of their socio-demographic or academic characteristics. The study's second goal was to contribute to the theoretical debate over what students' perceptions reflect. Such perceptions have shown to have little dependency on their socio-demographic or academic characteristics. Students' responses also displayed consistency in relation to their class level. Further, the effects of students' perceptions when aggregated in exogenous variables parallel such effects on an individual basis. Finally, students' perceptions are in line with those of their teachers. These results support the notion that students' perceptions are based largely on the characteristics of their school environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, the authors examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher ( n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3–5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student–teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper presents 3 validation studies of a questionnaire on secondary school students' motivation based on goal theory. 162 girls and 136 boys (aged 12-19 yrs) participated. Exploratory factor analyses and the comparison of several factorial structures through confirmatory factor analyses support the distinction between 3 motivational orientations: learning goals, performance goals, and work avoidance. Results did not support the hypothesis of a separation between an approach and an avoidance component among performance goals. The questionnaire shows the expected properties for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and external validity. Its relations with several educational variables (perceived ability, learning strategies, persistence, school goals structures, teacher-student relationships, feeling of belonging to school) demonstrate its conceptual validity. Interactions between goal orientations were found for some of those variables. Moreover, a distinction between two types of perceived ability is proposed. This distinction allows to reconcile contradictory findings in the literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Premises about the effects of early engagement on achievement were investigated with 383 children who were followed from ages 5.5 to 13.5. Change and continuity in behavioral (cooperative-resistant classroom participation) and emotional (school liking-avoidance) engagement were assessed during Grades 1-3 and examined within variable- and person-oriented analyses as antecedents of scholastic progress from Grades 1-8. Findings corroborated the premises that change as well as continuity in early school engagement is predictive of children's long-term scholastic growth. Compared to children who participated cooperatively in classrooms, those who became increasingly resistant across the primary grades displayed lesser scholastic growth. Among children who manifested enduring engagement patterns, those who exhibited a combination of higher behavioral and emotional engagement across the primary grades made greater academic progress than those who displayed lower levels of these two forms of engagement. Overall, the results of this investigation were consistent with the school engagement hypothesis, and extend what is known about the predictive contributions of early school engagement to children's achievement.
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This study examined the extent to which kindergarteners' classroom behavioral engagement mediated the relation between global classroom quality and children's reading achievement. A structural equation framework was used to analyze data collected in a primarily low-income rural sample (N = 171). Children's reading achievement was measured in the fall and spring of the school year. Observers rated the overall quality of teachers' interactions with their students three times during the year. Children's classroom behavioral engagement was based on several observations and end-of-year teacher ratings. Controlling for family sociodemographic risk and fall reading skill, higher classroom quality was expected to predict higher reading achievement, both directly and indirectly, through promoting behavioral engagement. Results from structural equation modeling supported the indirect effects solution only. Discussion highlights how classrooms providing rich, positive interactions predict literacy achievement by effectively engaging children.
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A study of 805 4th through 7th graders used a model of motivational development to guide the investigation of the internal dynamics of 4 indicators of behavioral and emotional engagement and disaffection and the facilitative effects of teacher support and 3 student self-perceptions (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) on changes in these indicators over the school year. In terms of internal dynamics, emotional components of engagement contributed significantly to changes in their behavioral counterparts; feedback from behavior to changes in emotion were not as consistent. Teacher support and students' self-perceptions (especially autonomy) contributed to changes in behavioral components: Each predicted increases in engagement and decreases in disaffection. Tests of process models revealed that the effects of teacher context were mediated by children's self-perceptions. Taken together, these findings suggest a clear distinction between indicators and facilitators of engagement and begin to articulate the dynamics between emotion and behavior that take place inside engagement and the motivational dynamics that take place outside of engagement, involving the social context, self-systems, and engagement itself.
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Research supports the connection between engagement, achievement, and school behavior across levels of economic and social advantage and disadvantage. Despite increasing interest and scientific findings, a number of interrelated conceptual and methodological issues must be addressed to advance this construct, particularly for designing data-supported interventions that promote school completion and enhanced educational outcomes for all students. Of particular concern is the need to (a) develop consensus on the name of the construct, (b) identify reliable measures of the dimensions of the construct, and (c) complete the construct validation studies needed to move research and intervention forward. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is important to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particularly in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns are consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3.669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.
Chapter
This chapter considers the relationships of student engagement with ­academic achievement, graduating from high school, and entering postsecondary schooling. Older and newer models of engagement are described and critiqued, and four common components are identified. Research on the relationship of each component with academic outcomes is reviewed. The main themes are that engagement is essential for learning, that engagement is multifaceted with behavioral and psychological components, that engagement and disengagement are developmental and occur over a period of years, and that student engagement can be modified through school policies and practices to improve the prognoses of students at risk. The chapter concludes with a 13-year longitudinal study that shows the relationships of academic achievement, behavioral and affective engagement, and dropping out of high school.
Chapter
This chapter first reviews some prominent models of dropping out and the role that individual factors, including engagement, and contextual factors play in the process. It then reviews empirical research related to those factors, with a focus on engagement-related factors. Scholars have proposed a number of models to explain the process of dropping out of school. While there is a fair amount of overlap in the models, they differ with respect to the specific factors that are thought to exert the most influence on dropping out and the specific process that leads to that outcome. The review of conceptual models of the empirical research literature leads to several conclusions about why students drop out. First, no single factor can completely account for a student’s decision to continue in school until graduation. Just as students themselves report a variety of reasons for quitting school, the research literature also identifies a number of salient factors that appear to influence the decision. Second, the decision to drop out is not simply a result of what happens in school. Clearly, students’ behavior and performance in school influence their decision to stay or leave. But students’ activities and behaviors outside of school—particularly engaging in deviant and criminal behavior—also influence their likelihood of remaining in school. Third, dropping out is more of a process than an event.
Chapter
The well-respected engagement scholar, Michel Janosz, shared his thoughts on the chapters in Part IV of this volume. His commentary articulated the areas of agreement and disagreement across scholars regarding the conceptualization of engagement and views on engagement as a process or outcome. He argued for the consideration of (1) the contexts of engagement and understanding the relations between engagement in the classroom and engagement in school; (2) systematic study of the roles of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral engagement; (3) investigation of the relation of engagement with other aspects of psychosocial and neurobiological development; and (4) exploration of engagement within a categorical and person-centered approach in addition to the predominant dimensional and variable-oriented perspective.
Chapter
One of the challenges with research on student engagement is the large variation in the measurement of this construct, which has made it challenging to compare findings across studies. This chapter contributes to our understanding of the measurement of student in engagement in three ways. First, we describe strengths and limitations of different methods for assessing student engagement (i.e., self-report measures, experience sampling techniques, teacher ratings, interviews, and observations). Second, we compare and contrast 11 self-report survey measures of student engagement that have been used in prior research. Across these 11 measures, we describe what is measured (scale name and items), use of measure, samples, and the extent of reliability and validity information available on each measure. Finally, we outline limitations with current approaches to measurement and promising future directions.
Article
In this investigation we examined the relation between teachers' ratings of the classroom behavior of 1,013 fourth graders and student achievement. Students were identified whose behavior was frequently inattentive and withdrawn, and others were identified who were disruptive. Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced achievement tests indicated that inattentive-withdrawn behavior was associated with depressed academic performance, at least to the extent that disruptive behavior was. These results have strong implications for research and practice. Disruptive students tend to draw far more attention from teachers, whereas teachers may overlook inattentive students in spite of the potentially profound effects of nonparticipation in class.
Article
In this study I examined how Taiwanese junior high school students' perceptions of autonomy support were related to their motivational characteristics, and the ability of these constructs to explain students' academic engagement. A total of 343 eighth-grade students completed a self-report survey assessing their perceptions of autonomy support from teachers, achievement goal orientations, self-regulatory styles, and behavioral as well as emotional engagement in schoolwork. Results supported the contention of self-determination theory (SDT) that, when students learn out of personal interest and personal relevance, they are more fully engaged in schoolwork, both behaviorally and emotionally. Moreover, students who perceived higher levels of autonomy support provided by teachers also reported more adaptive patterns of learning. In terms of effects of achievement goals, results suggested that, when constructs from SDT were accounted for, mastery-approach and performance-avoidance goals remained important for explaining Taiwanese students' academic functioning. This study also documented profiles of behaviorally engaged students with different levels of emotional engagement. Findings showed that behaviorally engaged students with higher levels of emotional engagement reported higher perceptions of autonomy support from teachers, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and mastery-approach goal orientation than did behaviorally engaged students with lower levels of emotional engagement. Implications for education and future research are discussed.
Article
Researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and parents have assumed a positive relationship between school attendance and academic success. And yet, among the vast body of empirical research examining how input factors relate to academic outcomes, few investigations have honed in on the precision of the relationship between individual attendance and student achievement. The purpose of this article is to provide insight into this relationship. Specifically, this study has evaluated the hypothesis that the number of days a student was present in school positively affected learning outcomes. To assess this, a unique empirical approach was taken in order to evaluate a comprehensive dataset of elementary and middle school students in the Philadelphia School District. Employing a fixed effects framework and instrumental variables strategy, this study provides evidence from a quasi-experimental design geared at estimating the causal impact of attendance on multiple measures of achievement, including GPA and standardized reading and math test performance. The results consistently indicate positive and statistically significant relationships between student attendance and academic achievement for both elementary and middle school students.
Article
The achievement gap between African American and European American youth is a pervasive problem in the United States. This study explored how achievement values and behavioral engagement affect the academic attainment of an academically at‐risk sample of 167 African American youth in late elementary school. Results indicate that achievement values do not have a significant influence on engagement or achievement in late elementary school. However, behavioral engagement significantly influenced math achievement from Grades 4 to 5. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Student behavioral engagement is a key condition supporting academic achievement, yet student disengagement in middle and high schools is all too common. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the My Teaching Partner-Secondary program to increase behavioral engagement. The program offers teachers personalized coaching and systematic feedback on teachers’ interactions with students, based on systematic observation of videorecordings of teacher-student interactions in the classroom. The study found that intervention teachers had significantly higher increases, albeit to a modest degree, in student behavioral engagement in their classrooms after 1 year of involvement with the program compared to the teachers in the control group (explaining 4% of variance). In exploratory analyses, two dimensions of teachers’ interactions with students—their focus on analysis and problem solving during instruction and their use of diverse instructional learning formats—acted as mediators of increased student engagement. The findings offer implications for new directions in teacher professional development and for understanding the classroom as a setting for adolescent development.
Article
Behavioral disengagement from school is a proximal predictor of dropout. Therefore, the enhancement of behavioral engagement is a useful point of entry for dropout prevention. In this study, we examine the behavioral engagement of at-risk and non-at-risk students in Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a sector confronted with high dropout rates. Using multilevel regression analyses, we assess the role of students’ background characteristics and perceived fit with the school environment in their behavioral engagement. Findings indicate that students in highly urbanized areas are significantly less engaged in school. The perceived proportion of autonomous work is most prominently correlated to students’ behavioral engagement. Whereas in general SVE students are more engaged if their program requires little autonomous work from students, engineering students appear to favor autonomous work forms.
Article
The experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions in academic situations is known to affect students’ learning. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by examining the antecedents and consequences of student emotions in the homework context. Multilevel analyses of a longitudinal dataset containing 3483 grade 9 and grade 10 students in 155 classes showed that the perceived quality of the homework tasks assigned by the teacher affected students’ experience of unpleasant homework-related emotions. Moreover, the experience of unpleasant emotions during homework sessions was negatively related to homework effort and negatively predicted later achievement in mathematics.
Article
Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is import taut to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particular v in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns arc, consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3,669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.
Article
The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions
Article
Student motivation is an important concern for all teachers. Recent research on student motivation has provided evidence for the development of important constructs and generalizations that have direct application to the classroom. Although there are many motivational constructs, self-efficacy is one that is key to promoting students' engagement and learning. Self-efficacy is discussed in terms of how it may facilitate behavioral, cognitive, and motivational engagement in the classroom. Specific suggestions for teacher practice are also provided.