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Polyols - more than sweeteners


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Polyols - produced today at a millions of tons scale by hydrogenation or fermentation of carbohydrates from renewable raw materials - have become a valuable "natural" ingredient in a wide range of applications in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, chemical and technical industry. Beyond sweetness at low calorific value and favourable glycemic response, the intrinsic properties of polyols make them versatile and widely used bulking agents, humectants, binders, complexing agents, plasticizers and chemical reactants, whenever "green chemistry" solutions are looked for.
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Sugar Industry 138 (2013) No. 4 | 226–234
Polyols – more than sweeteners
Polyole – mehr als Süßungsmittel
Michael A. Radeloff and Roland H.F. Beck
1 Introduction
Polyols are saccharide derivatives in which the carbonyl group
has been reduced to a hydroxyl group, therefore also named
“sugar alcohols”. Commercially available polyols extend from
sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, isomalt, xylitol, and lactitol to
e traditional food use of sugar alcohols as low caloric sweet-
eners carrying a “sugar-free” claim often is combined with
high intensity sweeteners to make up for the lower sweetness
of sugar alcohols in comparison to sugar [1]. Sugar alcohols are
slowly and incompletely absorbed into the blood stream from
the small intestines [2], which generally results in a smaller
change in blood glucose than sucrose. e resulting low glyce-
mic index explains the interest for sugar alcohols in diabetic
foods [3]. As polyols are not fermentable by oral bacteria they
do not contribute to tooth decay [4]. Other functional proper-
ties include a pleasant cool taste and the physical, chemical
and microbiological stability over a wide range of pH and
temperatures, which make polyols a valuable food ingredient.
Beyond sweetness, sorbitol has become a bulk chemical intro-
ducing an element of sustainability in a world of petrochemi-
1.1 e market environment
Polyol production is controlled by a few international play-
ers but new producers in emerging economies are gaining
Polyols – produced today at a millions of tons scale by hydro-
genation or fermentation of carbohydrates from renewable
raw materials – have become a valuable “natural” ingredient
in a wide range of applications in the food, cosmetics, phar-
maceutical, chemical and technical industry. Beyond sweet-
ness at low calorific value and favourable glycemic response,
the intrinsic properties of polyols make them versatile and
widely used bulking agents, humectants, binders, complex-
ing agents, plasticizers and chemical reactants, whenever
“green chemistry” solutions are looked for.
Key words: polyol, sugar alcohol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol,
isomalt, xylitol, lactitol, erythritol
Polyole werden heute im Millionen-Tonnen-Maßstab durch
Hydrierung oder Fermentation von Kohlenhydraten aus
nachwachsenden Rohstoffen hergestellt. Sie sind zu wert-
vollen „natürlichen“ Zusatzstoffen mit breitem Anwen-
dungsbereich in der Lebensmittel-, Kosmetik-, pharmazeu-
tischen, chemischen und technischen Industrie geworden.
Nicht nur als Süßungsmittel mit geringem Kaloriegehalt
und niedrigem glykämischem Index sind Polyole dank ihrer
spezifischen Eigenschaften zu vielseitigen und viel verwen-
deten Füllstoffen, Feuchthaltemitteln, Bindemitteln, Kom-
plexbildnern, Weichmachern und chemischen Ausgangsstof-
fen geworden, und zwar überall dort, wo Lösungen im Sinne
einer „grünen Chemie“ gesucht werden.
Schlagwörter: Polyol, Zuckeralkohol, Sorbit, Mannit, Maltit,
Isomalt, Xylit, Laktit, Erythrit
Table 1: Estimated worldwide
consumption of polyols
Polyol Consumption
in t
Sorbitol 800,000
Xylitol 200,000
Mannitol 180,000
Maltitol 160,000
Isomalt 80,000
Erythritol 50,000
influence. Controlling the
raw material costs is a key
economic success factor as
well as economy of scale in
e worldwide consumption
of polyols is estimated at
close to 1.5 mn t (Table 1).
More than half of worldwide
polyols production is used in
food applications. However,
about three quarters of sorbitol production is consumed by
non-food applications.
1.2 Legal limitations of food use
e United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) con-
siders sugar alcohols as either “generally recognized as safe
(GRAS)” or approved food additives [5].
e European Food Additives List includes: sorbitol (E420),
mannitol (E421), isomalt (E953), maltitol (E965), lactitol
(E966), xylitol (E967), and erythritol (E968) [6].
When consumed in excessive amounts, sugar alcohols can
cause diarrhoea when non-absorbed amounts of sugar alcohols
are entering in the large intestine where they bind water and
are subject to fermentation resulting in a laxative effect, flatu-
lence and diarrhoea. erefore, laxative warning is required for
all foods containing more than 10% added polyols [7].
No. 4 (2013) Sugar Industry 138 | 226–234
2 e group of polyols
All polyols are derived from renewable
agricultural raw materials, which pro-
vide them with a “natural” and “green”
image (Fig. 1).
2.1 Production of polyols
Production processes for polyols gen-
erally are based on high-pressure cata-
lytic hydrogenation of the appropriate
carbohydrates. For reasons of flexibil-
ity in operation, batch process reactors
operated at 25–50 bar are the preferred
option over continuous process reactors
operated at 100–200 bar.
The hydrogenation reaction is per-
formed in the presence of Raney-nickel
or Ruthenium/carbon catalysts during
several hours in stirred vessels at tem-
peratures of 100 to 200 °C. Suspended
Raney-nickel is the preferred active cata-
lyst operated batch-wise at 40–50 bar
while Ruthenium mounted on a carbon
carrier is operated at somewhat lower
pressure [8].
e hydrogenated solution is decanted
Fig. 1: Natural origin of polyols
and filtered and the catalyst recycled and reused. After ion
exchange and carbon treatment the liquor is evaporated to
commercial standards or can be crystallized into powders of
specific physical characteristics (Fig. 2).
2.2 Physical and functional characteristics of
The combination of rather unique properties explains the
interest in polyols not only as low caloric sweeteners [9].
2.2.1 Relative sweetness
Relative sweetness is measured in relation to sucrose, which
has a reference value of 1.0 or 100%. Generally polyols vary
from less than half as sweet (lactitol 40%) to equally as sweet
as sucrose (xylitol 100%) (Fig. 3).
2.2.2 Food energy content
Despite the variance in food energy content of polyols, EU
labelling requirements assign a blanket value of 2.4 kcal/g,
a reduction of 40% compared to sucrose. Real values vary
from 2.6 kcal/g for sorbitol to 1.6 kcal/g for mannitol and
even 0.2kcal/g for erythritol in comparison to 4.0 kcal/g for
sucrose (Fig. 4).
Fig. 2: Production of polyols
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2.2.3 Glycemic index (GI)
e glycemic index reflects how quickly blood sugar levels rise
after ingestion of carbohydrates relative to the consumption
of pure glucose (GI = 100). e GI of polyols varies from 0 to
35 (Fig. 5).
2.2.4 Cooling effect
All crystalline polyols exhibit a negative heat of solution and
therefore provide a cooling sensation in the mouth. Values
vary from –43 cal/g for erythritol to –6cal/ for maltitol (Fig. 6).
2.2.5 Solubility in water at 20 °C
Sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol and lactitol are highly soluble in
water (50–70 g/100 g) but erythritol, isomalt and mannitol
are less (15–30 g/100 g) (Fig. 7).
2.2.6 Hygroscopicity
Water absorption from the atmosphere varies strongly from
highly hygroscopic sorbitol to non-hygroscopic mannitol and
erythritol (Fig. 8).
Fig. 3: Relative sweetness of commercial polyols
Fig. 4: Relative food energy content of commercial polyols
Fig. 6: Relative cooling effect of commercial polyols
Fig. 5: Glycemic Index of commercial polyols
Fig. 8: Relative hygroscopicity of commercial polyols
Fig. 7: Solubility (g/100 g) of commercial polyols in water at 20°C
No. 4 (2013) Sugar Industry 138 | 226–234
2.2.7 Polyol stability
Polyols are stable within a wide pH range of 2–10, they are
melting without decomposition, show no browning by Mail-
lard reaction and are heat stable up to 150–216 °C. (XYL > LAC
2.2.8 Metal complexation
Polyols can bind metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Mg, Ca and
Al under alkaline conditions.
3 Single polyols: Characteristics and use
Choosing the right polyol for a given application depends on
selecting the functional characteristics of the different polyols
that best fit to the intended use.
3.1 Sorbitol
Sorbitol is commercially produced from starch by enzymatic
saccharification yielding a corn syrup of high dextrose equiva-
lent (DE) that subsequently is subjected to catalytic hydroge-
nation (Fig. 9).
3.1.1 Product characteristics
Sorbitol syrups are characterized in terms of quality by the
sorbitol content and the remaining low level of reducing sug-
ars that can be responsible for undesired browning during
storage or further processing. Syrups of high sorbitol purity
are crystallizing easily and therefore need to be stored and
handled at elevated temperatures. Syrups containing small
amounts of other polyols, as a result of a carefully steered
starch saccharification process, do not crystallize and are the
product of choice for most applications.
Sorbitol powder has four crystalline structures – four anhy-
drous crystalline phases plus the hydrate. It may be crystal-
lized from an aqueous solution or low moisture melts or even
spray-dried/spray-crystallized. e g-polymorph is the most
stable of the anhydrous crystal forms used extensively in sug-
arfree confections and chewable tablets [10].
3.1.2 Food and non-food applications [11]
Food applications: Sorbitol introduces a smooth mouth feel
with a sweet, cool and pleasant taste and exhibits good taste
masking properties. It is about 60% as sweet as sucrose with
quite a strong negative heat of solution (–27 cal/g). The
low nutritive value of 2.6 kcal/g and the very low glycemic
response of only 9% that of glucose makes it an ideal ingredi-
ent in dietary foods, including dietary drinks and ice cream,
mints and sugar free chewing gum. Acting as a cryoprotectant
and humectant, sorbitol can protect against damage from
freezing and drying as in the manufacture of surimi, enzymes
or sensitive biotechnology drugs [12].
Pharmaceutical applications: Liquid sorbitol is used for taste
masking and as a bulking agent to add body and viscosity to
liqid dosage forms. Used as a shelf life extender, sorbitol acts
as a crystal modifier and inhibitor preventing syrups from
forming crystals of sugar. Sorbitol powder shows good com-
pressibility and is used as a binder or bulking agent in direct
compression tabletting and also in industrial tablets of deter-
Tobacco and cosmetics: Sorbitol, as the most hygroscopic of all
sugar alcohols, is used as a humectant where it finds itself in
hard competition with propylene glycol and glycerine. Other
applications in cosmetics and oral care include toothpaste,
mouth wash and breath freshener. In skin care it retains mois-
ture, provides clarity and translucency as it has a high refrac-
tive index close enough to the components of transparent
soap bars and translucent gels.
Technical applications of sorbitol include the use in alumin-
ium etching when the metal surface is treated in hot sodium
hydroxide solution for the creation of a perfectly lease and
matte surface finish. Sorbitol acts as a stabilizer to the etching
solution preventing the formation of rock-hard alumina scale
in the treatment tanks. e use of sorbitol as a plasticizer in
thermoplastic starch is based on its high affinity to starch, the
low migration tendency, good water retention and prevention
of starch crystallization [13].
3.1.3 Sorbitol as a key chemical intermediate
Sorbitol is an important starting material in the chemical
production of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), for polyether polyols
in polyurethane production, for sorbitan ester types of surfac-
tants and for isosorbide derivatives.
e historical Reichstein process to produce vitamin C from
glucose used sorbitol as an intermediate to produce sorbose
by fermentation and further chemical transformation into
ascorbic acid (Fig. 10). Today’s industrial process uses a second
fermentation step to form 2-ketogulonic acid (2-KGA) that
is chemically rearranged into vitamin C. Extensive research
is run to engineer a mutant which can carry out a one-pot-
fermentation directly from glucose to 2-KGA [14].
In sorbitol two primary and four secondary hydroxyl groups
are available for esterification or etherification reactions.
Fig. 9: Hydrogenation of glucose to sorbitol
Sorbitol acts as a polyalcohol when
reacted with dicarboxylic acids or their
anhydrides to form polyesters such as in
alkyds, the dominant resin for coatings
and paints [15] (Fig. 11).
e sorbitol functionality of six hydroxyl
groups makes it a starter molecule in
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Sorbitan ester surfactants (Fig. 14) can
cover a wide range on the hydrophilic-
lipophilic balance scale (HLB-value) by
varying the lipophilic fatty acid reactant
(Span-type surfactant) or extending the
hydrophilic sorbitan functionality by
ethoxylation (Tween-type surfactant).
Applications therefore include the whole
range of surfactant action as defoamers,
emulsifiers, wetting agents and deter-
gents. As sorbitan esters hardly show
any toxicity or irritancy they are widely
used in foods, personal care products or
textile care [17].
Isosorbide offers two hydroxyl groups
to form esters or ethers. Isosorbide
mono- and dinitrate are used as phar-
maceutical actives to treat angina pec-
toris. Isosorbide diester with 2-ethyl-
hexanoic acid can replace toxic phthal-
ates used as plasticizers in PVC. Isosor-
bide as a co-starter in polyether polyols
improves the stability in terms of heat,
pH and colour. The use of isosorbide
to form a copolymer of ethylene there-
phthalate (PET) (Fig. 15) introduces a
higher glass transition temperature and
thus a higher degree of rigidity into this
plastic [18].
3.2 Mannitol
Mannitol, the sugar alcohol stereoiso-
mer of sorbitol, can be obtained from
Fig. 10: Production of vitamin C from sorbitol
Fig. 11: Sorbitol in alkyd resin production
polyether polyol produc-
tion (Fig. 12), a compo-
nent that is reacted with
isocyanate to form rigid
polyurethane foams, the
thermosetting plastic
used extensively, e.g.
in automotive parts or
building insulation [16].
3.1.4 Sorbitan and
Sorbitan (anhydrosorbi-
tol) and isosorbide (dian-
hydrosorbitol, DAS) are
formed by heating a melt
of sorbitol under acidic
conditions and evaporat-
ing the water resulting
from a simple or twofold
dehydration reaction
(Fig. 13).
No. 4 (2013) Sugar Industry 138 | 226–234
Glucose can as well be epimerised to
mannose that chromatographically is
enriched and hydrogenated to mannitol
Mannitol-extraction of seaweed by
use of ethanol is commercially done
in China. Extraction of olive leaves by
use of supercritical CO2 or supercriti-
cal water is proposed. Biological synthe-
sis by fermentation can produce much
higher mannitol yields, with minimal to
no side products but is not yet commer-
cially exploited [21].
Mannitol, mildly acidic in aqueous solu-
tion, exhibits sweetness equal to glucose
and half as sweet as sucrose with a cool-
ing effect of –29 cal/g similar to sorbitol.
Mannitol shows a food energy value of
only 1.6 kcal/g but no glycemic response
at all. It virtually is non-hygroscopic
which makes it the polyol of choice in
coatings of hard candies, dried fruits,
and chewing gum [22].
In pharmaceutical applications mannitol
is used as a carrier in tablet and capsule
formulations. It is the preferred excipient
for chewable tablets due to its favourable
mouthfeel. In conventional tablets its
inertness and non-hygroscopic proper-
ties can protect sensitive actives. While
powdered grades of mannitol are used
for wet granulation, granular grades are
used for dry-blended direct compression
tablet formulation [23].
As an active ingredient mannitol acts
as an osmotic diuretic agent and weak
renal vasodilator [24].
3.3 Maltitol
Maltitol is derived by hydrogenation
from the disaccharide maltose (Fig. 17)
obtained from starch saccharification.
A sweetness of up to 90% relative to
sucrose makes maltitol a sugar substi-
tute not requiring the addition of high
intensity sweeteners.
Crystalline maltitol exhibits a similar
subtle cooling effect and about the same
bulk density as table sugar. Food use of
maltitol extends from sugarless hard
Fig. 12: Sorbitol in polyether polyol production
Fig. 13: Dehydration of sorbitol to sorbitan and isosorbide
starch or sugar by hydrogenation, by fermentation or by natu-
ral product extraction.
Hydrogenation of fructose (Fig. 16) yields a 50/50 mixture of
sorbitol and mannitol. Slightly alkaline hydrogenation condi-
tions improve the mannitol yield. Fructose syrups of 90–95%
are obtained by chromatographic enrichment of high fructose
corn syrups or invert sugar [19].
candies, chewing gum, chocolates, and baked goods to ice
cream. e low caloric value of 2.1 kcal/g however, is combined
with the highest glycemic index of all sugar alcohols, i.e. 35%
relative to glucose but still only half of that of sucrose. e
laxative effect of maltitol requires labelling in some countries.
As maltitol is not metabolized by oral bacteria, it is accorded a
“tooth-friendly” health claim [25].
Sugar Industry 138 (2013) No. 4 | 226–234
As an excipient in pharmaceutical drugs,
maltitol syrup is used as low calorie
sweetening agent, e.g. in cough syrup.
e low tendency of crystallization and
the hygroscopic properties of maltitol
makes it a humectant and emollient, e.g.
in skin moisturizer. It also is used as a
plasticiser in gelatine capsules [26].
3.4 Isomalt [27]
Isomalt is produced from sugar by fer-
mentation of sucrose to isomaltulose
and further hydrogenation of the reduc-
ing fructose moiety to an equimolar
mixture of 1,6-glucopyranosyl--sorbi-
tol and 1,1-glucopyranosyl--mannitol
that crystallizes with about 5% of crys-
tal water content (Fig. 18).
Isomalt exhibits about half the sweet-
ness of sucrose and is often combined
with sucralose to provide a 1:1 sugar
A minimal cooling effect and the low
food energy content of 2.0 kcal/g at
a low glycemic index of 9% relative to
glucose has stimulated its use mainly
in sugar free, calorie reduced and non-
cariogenic confectionary products also
suited for diabetics.
As a sugar alcohol isomalt can cause
gastric distress including flatulence and
diarrhoea. erefore, its use is advised
not to exceed a daily intake of 50 g for
adults and 25 g for children.
3.5 Lactitol [28]
Lactitol is a sugar alcohol obtained by
the hydrogenation of lactose (Fig. 19).
This disaccharide consists of the two
sugar moieties galactose and glucose,
and is obtained by ethanol precipitation
from whey. In lactitol the glucose unit
is reduced to a sorbitol unit resulting
in the structure of 4-O-b--Galactopy-
Lactitol crystallizes in the form of lac-
titol mono-, di- and trihydrate of which
the monohydrate and the a-anhydrous
form are of commercial interest. It is only
about 40% as sweet as sucrose. e low
caloric value of 2.0 kcal/g and the low
glycemic index of 4% relative to glucose
make it a bulk sweetener for low calorie
and dietetic foods such as sugar-free can-
dies, cookies, chocolate and ice cream.
Fig. 14: Sorbitan derived surfactants
Fig. 15: Isosorbide therephthalate in rigid PET structure
Fig. 16: Hydrogenation of fructose to mannitol
Fig. 17: Hydrogenation of maltose to maltitol
Fig. 18: Hydrogenation of isomaltulose to isomalt
No. 4 (2013) Sugar Industry 138 | 226–234
Similar to sucrose in terms of freezing point depressing effect,
hygroscopicity and solubility, lactitol is used as a sugar replacer
in frozen products.
e use as a prebiotic for colon health is related to the laxa-
tive effect as the majority of ingested lactitol reaches the large
intestine thus becoming fermentable to intestinal bacteria.
Lactitol is used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics products as
an excipient, a laxative to treat constipation and in toothpaste.
3.6 Xylitol [29]
Xylitol is produced from xylan, a hemicellulose, extracted from
hardwoods or corncobs, hydrolyzed into xylose, a 5-carbon
sugar, which is catalytically hydrogenated into xylitol (Fig. 20).
Xylitol is roughly as sweet as sucrose and exhibits a strong
cooling effect. e low energy content of 2.4 kcal/g and the
very low glycemic response factor of only 3% relative to glu-
cose makes it a sweetener mainly for medicines, chewing gum
and pastilles.
Xylitol-based products are allowed by the US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) to make the medical claim that they
do not promote dental cavities. is “tooth friendly”-claim is
related to xylitol being non-fermentable for oral bacteria.
As a result of the low fermentability of xylitol also by intes-
Fig. 19: Hydrogenation of lactose to lactitol
Fig. 20: Hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol
tinal bacteria, it has a higher laxation
threshold and is more easily tolerated
than mannitol and sorbitol.
Xylitol is used in pharmaceutical appli-
cations as a non-cariogenic sweetening
agent in tablets, syrups and coatings.
3.7 Erythritol [30]
Erythritol is a 4-carbon sugar alcohol
obtained by yeast fermentation of glu-
cose or sucrose (Fig. 21).
A sweetness of 80% relative to sucrose
combined with the strongest cooling
effect known for commercial sugar alco-
hols (–43 cal/g) and the lowest food
energy value of 0.2 kcal/g without any
glycemic response makes erythritol
rather a non-caloric bulk sweetener, e.g.
in zero calorie soft drinks, not affecting
blood sugar levels at all.
e unique digestion pathway of absorb-
ing 90% of the erythritol into the blood
stream in the small intestine and excre-
tion via the urine only allows for 10%
to enter the large intestine and is also
much more difficult for intestinal bacte-
ria to digest. It therefore does not nor-
mally cause gastric or laxative effects.
Erythritol is difficult to metabolize also
for oral bacteria therefore allowing for
a non-cariogenic, tooth-friendly health
Fig. 21: Fermentation of glucose or sucrose to erythritol
As an excipient in pharmaceutical drugs erythritol combines
the advantages of sweetness and chemical stability with non-
hygroscopic and non-glycemic properties. However, there is a
strong propensity to crystallize.
4 Conclusion
In the short history of only 60 years of industrial polyols pro-
duction, sorbitol and the whole range of sugar alcohols have
enjoyed a fast developing world-wide demand driven by a wide
range of applications in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical,
chemical and technical industries.
e today commercially available polyols cover a wide range of
looked for application properties to provide bulk sweetness at
low calorific value combined with a cooling effect resulting in
a pleasant cool taste. Crunchiness, compressibility, solubility,
and hygroscopic properties providing humectancy, make them
a versatile and widely used ingredient in food products.
e combination of rather unique properties explain the inter-
est in polyols not only as low caloric sweeteners; the manifold
functionality of e.g. sorbitol beyond sweetness makes it a
bulking agent, humectant, binder, complexing agent, plasti-
cizer and chemical reactant. Sorbitol has become a commodity
product competing successfully with other bulk chemicals
Sugar Industry 138 (2013) No. 4 | 226–234
such as natural glycerine, propylene glycol (PG) and polyeth-
ylene glycol (PEG).
e carbohydrate origin at improved chemical stability makes
polyols and their derivatives valuable chemical building blocks
whenever “green chemistry” solutions are intended.
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28 Zacharis, C. (2012): Lactitol. In: Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in
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30 de Cock, P. (2012): Erythritol. In: Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in
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Paper received on 19 March 2013
Authors’ addresses: Michael A. Radeloff, Thales-Consult,
Wielandstraße 11, 12159 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: michael.
Roland H.F. Beck, Sensient Food Colors Germany, Geesthachter
Strasse 103, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany; e-mail: roland.
... Lactitol is best known as a nutritive sweetener, whose relative sweetness is between 30 and 40% comparable with that of sucrose [4]. More importantly, regulatory agencies such as European labeling and FDA consider a caloric value of lactitol as 2.4 and 2.0 kcal g −1 , respectively, which correspond to a reduction of 48-40% with respect to sucrose [5]. The molecular structure of lactitol offers stability over a wide range of pH and temperature, making it a suitable candidate for the synthesis of biopolymers, hydrogels, and surfactants. ...
... They found that the energy contribution to the body was 60% less than for sucrose. European labeling considers a blanket caloric value of lactitol as 2.4 kcal g −1 [5]. At the same time, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) establishes a general value of 2.0 kcal g −1 , a reduction of 48-40% with respect to sucrose. ...
... Lactitol is known for its mild and clean sweet taste [4]. Relative sweetness is measured in relation to a reference value of 1, which corresponds to the sucrose sweetness at a given concentration [5]. Lactitol possess a relative sweetness from 0.3 to 0.42. ...
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The first report on the synthesis of lactitol dates back to the early 1920s. Nearly 100 years have passed since then, and the applications of lactitol have exceeded its original purpose. Currently, lactitol is used in bakery, confectionery, chocolate, desserts, chewing gum, cryoprotectant, delivery agent, and stabilizer in biosensors. Lactitol is the main reaction product derived from the hydrogenation of lactose. This chapter is aimed at providing a succinct overview of the historical development of lactitol, a summary of its synthesis, and an overview of its properties and applications.
... Natural origin and additional health benefits of polyols make them more accepted by society than artificial sweeteners. Therefore, they have been in use for many years in human nutrition, cosmetics, pharmacy, chemical and technical industries (Radeloff and Beck 2013). The calorific value of polyols is 10 kJ/g (2.4 kcal/g), except for erythritol, which is 0 kJ/g (0 kcal/g). ...
... Sorbitol in the amount of 15% had a strong negative impact on the growth of the yoghurt culture which resulted in forming no acid, aroma or coagulation in the product, while xylitol showed only little negative effect on the growth of the bacteria (Hyv€ onen and Slotte 1983). Polyols have different chemical structure, molar mass and solubility (Radeloff and Beck 2013), so they could have a different impact on freezing point depression (FPD) and crystallisation process during freezing, and as a result, bacteria viability, but the knowledge about that is not complete. ...
... The taste buds become less sensitive in the low temperatures which affect flavour perception of frozen desserts (Burgos et al. 2016). Crystalline maltitol exhibits a similar subtle cooling effect and about the same bulk density as table sugar (Radeloff and Beck 2013). Isomalt has about half the sweetness of sucrose and a minimal cooling effect. ...
The effect of polyols (xylitol, erythritol, maltitol and isomalt) on physical and sensory properties of probiotic ice cream, as well as the survival of Bifidobacterium BB‐12 during freezing over 28 days of frozen storage, was investigated. The control sample of ice cream, sweetened with sugar, showed a lower pH and higher overrun than those sweetened with polyols. The viable bifidobacteria counts remained above 8 log cfu/g in all samples. The amount of erythritol added was not enough to obtain a similar sweetness as in control, but too high to get an ice cream with good textural properties.
... t, isomaltu -80 tys. t i erytrolu -50 tys t (Radeloff i Beck, 2013). Respektowanie przepisów dotyczących substancji słodzących, w tym polioli, powinno być oczywiste i konsument powinien być przekonany, że produkty zawierające w składzie poliole są dla niego bezpieczne i/lub wykazują dodatkowo właściwości zdrowotne. ...
... ¾ ma zastosowanie inne niż w żywności, np. w pastach do zębów, farmacji, jako środek do produkcji polimerów oraz środków powierzchniowo czynnych (de Cock, 2020;Radeloff i Beck, 2013). ...
... t, isomaltu -80 tys. t i erytrolu -50 tys t (Radeloff i Beck, 2013). Respektowanie przepisów dotyczących substancji słodzących, w tym polioli, powinno być oczywiste i konsument powinien być przekonany, że produkty zawierające w składzie poliole są dla niego bezpieczne i/lub wykazują dodatkowo właściwości zdrowotne. ...
... ¾ ma zastosowanie inne niż w żywności, np. w pastach do zębów, farmacji, jako środek do produkcji polimerów oraz środków powierzchniowo czynnych (de Cock, 2020;Radeloff i Beck, 2013). ...
... Polyols can be defined as the carbohydrates whose carbonyl group has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. Polyols are required for various functions involved in efficient carbon fixation, growth, carbon storage, and reductant recycling (Radeloff and Beck 2013). Polyols are applied as nutraceuticals with valueadded properties and functional foods. ...
Erythritol is a 4-carbon polyol produced with the aid of microbes in presence of hyper-osmotic stress. It is the most effective sugar alcohol that is produced predominantly by fermentation. In comparison to various polyols, it has many precise functions and is used as a flavor enhancer, sequestrant, humectant, nutritive sweetener, stabilizer, formulation aid, thickener, and a texturizer. Erythritol production is a common trait in a number of the yeast genera viz., Trigonopsis, Candida, Pichia, Moniliella, Yarrowia, Pseudozyma, Trichosporonoides, Aureobasidium, and Trichoderma. Extensive work has been carried out on the biological production of erythritol through Yarrowia, Moniliella, Candida, and other yeast strains, and numerous strategies used to improve erythritol productivity through mutagenesis and genetic engineering are discussed in this review.
... ¾ ma zastosowanie inne niż w żywności, np. w pastach do zębów, farmacji, jako środek do produkcji polimerów oraz środków powierzchniowo czynnych ( de Cock, 2020;Radeloff i Beck, 2013). ...
... Mannitol played as an osmotic diuretic agent and weak renal vasodilator 43 . Sorbitol had good compressibility and commonly utilized as a bulking agent 44 . Isomalt originated from sugar by fermentation of sucrose to isomaltulose and further hydrogenation of the reducing fructose moiety. ...
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Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was a member of Malvaceae family. Its calyxes had bright red color due to presence of anthocyanin with an excellent antioxidant property. Raw roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx was highly perishable due to its high moisture content. In order to diversify products from this plant, this research evaluated the possibility of spray drying for roselle extract into dried powder for long-term consumption. We focused on the effect of sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol, isomalt, xylitol, erythritol) at 8%, carrier agents (maltodextrin, gum arabic, glutinous starch, whey protein concentrate, carboxymethyl cellulose) at 12%, operating parameters of spray dryer (inlet/outlet air temperature, feed rate) on physicochemical quality (bulk density, solubility, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, anthocyanin content) of rosselle powder. Results showed that the optimal spray drying variables for rosselle powder should be 8% isomalt, 12% whey protein concentrate, inlet/ outlet air temperature 140/85oC/oC, feed rate 12 ml/min. Based on these optimal conditions, the highest physicochemical attributes of the dried roselle calyx powder would be obtained.
... Isomalt is a widely used sugar substitute which provides only 2 kcal/g, i.e., half the energy value of sucrose (Radeloff and Beck 2013). It is a polyol comprising an equimolar mixture of two mutually diastereomeric disaccharides, each composed of two sugars: one of glucose and mannitol (1-O-α-dglucopyranosyl-d-mannitol), the other of glucose and sorbitol (6-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-sorbitol) (Evrendilek 2012). ...
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The artificial sweetener isomalt is widely used due to its low caloric, non-diabetogenic and non-cariogenic properties. Although the sweetening potency of isomalt has been reported to be lower than that of sucrose, no data on the sensitivity of humans for this polyol are available. Using an up-down, two-alternative forced choice staircase procedure we therefore determined taste detection thresholds for isomalt in human subjects (n = 10; five females and five males) and compared them to taste preference thresholds, determined using a two-bottle preference test of short duration, in a highly frugivorous nonhuman primate, the spider monkey (n = 4; one female, three males). We found that both species detected concentrations of isomalt as low as 20 mM. Both humans and spider monkeys are less sensitive to isomalt than to sucrose, which is consistent with the notion of the former being a low-potency sweetener. The spider monkeys clearly preferred all suprathreshold concentrations tested over water, suggesting that, similar to humans, they perceive isomalt as having a purely sweet taste that is indistinguishable from that of sucrose. As isomalt, like most sweet-tasting polyols, may elicit gastric distress when consumed in large quantities, the present findings may contribute to the choice of appropriate amounts and concentrations of this sweetener when it is employed as a sugar substitute or food additive for human consumption. Similarly, the taste preference threshold values of spider monkeys for isomalt reported here may be useful for determining how much of it should be used when it is employed as a low-caloric sweetener for frugivorous primates kept on a vegetable-based diet, or when medication needs to be administered orally.
Lactose is the most prevalent component in milk and is present as an energy source for the newly born offspring. It has always been considered to be the poor cousin to the milk fat and protein fractions in milk with respect to its value as a dairy ingredient, and considerable research has been undertaken around how excess lactose in the dairy processing industry can be valorised. As a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose, lactose can provide the backbone building block for numerous sugar-derived synthetic compounds that are becoming increasingly significant in our food and health industries. The six lactose derivatives discussed in this chapter include galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), lactulose, lactosucrose, lactitol, lactobionic acid, and tagatose. These compounds are only observed in trace amounts in natural cow’s milk, if present at all, but all can be produced either chemically or enzymatically.
We present a qNMR method for the determination of low calories sweeteners (erythritol, mannitol, maltitol, sorbitol, isomalt and xylitol) in sugar-free foodstuff. The structural similarities of these compounds determine often a severe spectral overlap that hampers their quantification via conventional 1D and 2D NMR spectra. This problem is here overcome by exploiting the resolving capabilities of the CSSF-TOCSY experiment, allowing the quantification of all six polyols, with satisfactory results in terms of LoQ (2.8-7.4 mg/L for xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, 15 mg/L for erythritol, 38 mg/L for maltitol and 91 mg/L for isomalt), precision (RSD% 0.40-4.03), trueness (bias% 0.15-4.81), and recovery (98-104%). Polyol’s quantification in different sugar-free confectionary products was performed after a simple water extraction without any additional sample treatment. While these results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method for polyols quantification in low calories foods, its applicability can be further extended to other food matrices or biofluids.
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The article contains sections titled: 1. Polyols, General 1.1. Definition 1.2. Physical, Chemical, and Organoleptic Properties 1.3. Metabolism and Nutrition 1.3.1. Uptake, Digestion, and Tolerance 1.3.2. Nutritional Aspects 1.3.3. Oral Health and Hygiene 1.3.4. Oxidative Stress 1.3.5. Conclusion 1.4. Regulatory Aspects 2. Xylitol 2.1. Physical, Chemical, and Organoleptic Properties 2.2. Production 2.3. Specifications, Analysis, and Legal Aspects 2.4. Uses 2.5. Metabolism, Tolerance, and Safety 3. Sorbitol 3.1. Physical, Chemical, and Organoleptic Properties 3.2. Production 3.3. Regulatory and Quality Aspects 3.3.1. Purity Requirements 3.3.2. Analysis 3.4. Uses 3.5. Physiology, Tolerance, Toxicology 3.6. Economic Aspects 4. Mannitol 4.1. Physical, Chemical, and Organoleptic Properties 4.2. Production 4.3. Quality Aspects 4.4. Uses 4.5. Physiology, Tolerance, Toxicology 5. Isomaltulose and Trehalulose, Isomalt 5.1. Isomaltulose and Trehalulose 5.1.2. Physical and Chemical Properties 5.1.3. Production 5.1.4. Uses 5.1.5. Economic Aspects 5.2. Isomalt 5.2.1. Physical and Chemical Properties 5.2.2. Production 5.2.3. Uses 5.2.4. Economic Aspects 6. Lactitol 6.1. Physical, Chemical, and Physiological Properties 6.2. Production 6.3. Analysis and Regulatory Status 6.4. Uses 6.5. Economic Aspects 7. Maltitol and Maltitol‐Containing Syrups 7.1. Physical, Chemical, and Organoleptic Properties 7.2. Uses 7.3. Economic Aspects 8. Erythritol 8.1. Physical, Chemical, and Physiological Properties 8.2. Production 8.3. Analysis and Regulatory Status 8.4. Uses 8.5. Economic Aspects
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The use of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols, isosorbide, isomannide and isoidide in polymers is reviewed. 1,4:3,6-Dianhydrohexitols are derived from renewable resources from cereal-based polysaccharides. In the field of polymeric materials, these diols are essentially employed to synthesize or modify polycondensates. Their attractive features as monomers are linked to their rigidity, chirality, non-toxicity, and the fact that they are not derived from petroleum. First, the synthesis of high glass transition temperature polymers with good thermomechanical resistance is possible. Second, the chiral nature of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols may lead to specific optical properties. Finally, biodegradable polymers can be obtained. The production of isosorbide at the industrial scale with a purity satisfying the requirements for polymer synthesis suggests that isosorbide will soon emerge in industrial polymer applications. However, a deciding factor will be the reduction of polymerization time of these low-reactivity monomers to values compatible with economically viable production processes.
Sweeteners are substances with a sweet taste. Based on their relative sweetness compared to sucrose, sweeteners are divided into intense or bulk sweeteners. In the past, the Scientific Committee on Food was the scientific guarantor for the safety of food additives (including sweeteners) in use within the European Union (EU). At present, this responsibility lies with the European Food Safety Authority. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of all sweeteners permitted for food use in the EU. Their safety is documented by the results of several in vitro and in vivo animal studies, tests in humans, and in some cases epidemiological studies. Their safety has been evaluated through a risk assessment process covering hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Permitted sweeteners have been allocated an acceptable daily intake (ADI), which is the amount of a food additive, expressed as mg/kg body weig ht, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without incurring any appreciable health risk. ADI ‘‘acceptable’’ means that the expected exposure to the substance used in foods at the levels necessary to achieve desired technological effects does not represent a hazard to health. The consumption of sweeteners in the quantities within the ADI does not constitute a health hazard to consumers. Keywords: acesulfame K; ADI; aspartame; cyclamate; polyol; risk assessment; saccharin; sweetener
Sorbitol and mannitol were among the first 'sugar-free' ingredients and have been used for over 50 years in foods and related products. Sorbitol has been used in a wide range of products including fruit preserves, baked goods and confectionery and specifically in foods for diabetics since it does not cause an increase in blood glucose on consumption. As the sugar-free bulk sweetener market has matured, sorbitol, like other polyols, has established itself in specific application areas. While sorbitol now occupies a small corner of the polyols market in terms of applications, in terms of volume consumed annually, the use of sorbitol far exceeds the use of all other polyols combined. The main food application for sorbitol and mannitol is sugar-free gum. Non-food uses for sorbitol include toothpaste and mouthwash, and both polyols are used in directly compressed tablets. Sorbitol and mannitol have a low glycaemic index, are safe for teeth, have low calories and are permitted in foods in most countries.
Lactitol, a synthetic disaccharide derived from lactose via catalytic hydrogenation, is regulated as a food ingredient in more than 40 countries worldwide. It is predominantly used in frozen dairy, bakery and chocolate applications. Its addition will result in the usage of 'reduced sugar', 'no added sugar' or 'sugar free' claims on package labels. Lactitol alone or in combination with other bulk sweeteners will produce foods, which will contribute to the consumer's overall healthier eating habits. Lactitol, just like the rest of the polyols is non-cariogenic, while there are also a number of studies examining its potential prebiotic effect.
Xylitol, which is found in almost every sugar-free chewing gum, is a unique ingredient used in food, as well as OTC with unique dental benefits. It is a naturally occurring 'sugar-free' carbohydrate that is manufactured from natural sources such as birch. It is found widely in nature in fruits and vegetables, and is even produced in the human body as part of normal glucose metabolism. Being sugar free and having reduced calories, while also being as sweet as sugar, xylitol has found numerous applications in food products as a sweetener. However, xylitol is not metabolised in the same way as normal carbohydrates and has 40% less calories than sugar, giving it a calorific value ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 kcal/g, depending on national legislation.
Factors such as the price and availability of petroleum, and societal concerns over global climate change continue to create increased market pressure on the industrial and domestic use of petrochemicals. Many industrial suppliers of basic chemicals are looking to alternative, sustainable sources of raw materials. In the polyurethanes industry, suppliers of polyols have been utilizing naturally sourced raw materials for many years in conjunction with petrochemical raw materials. Recently, the polyurethanes industry has moved toward greater replacement of petrochemical content with renewable resources. The principle sources of renewable feedstock are the triglyceride oils found in seeds such as soybean, canola, and sunflower. New, non-food sources of triglycerides such as Lesquerella and Vernonia, and even aquatic sources such as algae, are beginning to draw attention, even as old sources such as castor oil are getting a new look.
Maltitol and maltitol syrups like other polyols are hydrogenated carbohydrates known as sugar replacers, bulk sweeteners or sugar-free sweeteners. Today, they are mostly used in food applications like chocolate, confectionery, dairy and bakery applications. While being less caloric than sugars, maltitol and maltitol syrups also offer technological advantages in food formulation such as cooling effect, humectancy and solubility. Their benefits on the reduction of glycaemic response and on dental health are well known and acknowledged by health authorities in Europe and Americas. Their usage is now expanded in sugar-free pharmaceutical products (e.g. cough syrups).
Erythritol is a non-caloric bulk sweetener, suitable for diabetics and safe for teeth. It occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is produced by fermentation. Erythritol may have potential as antioxidant and prevention or treatment of vascular complications. Main applications are diet beverages and dairy products, sugar-free chewing gum chocolate and candies.
The polymorphism of sorbitol was investigated, confirming the existence of four anhydrous crystalline phases plus the hydrate. The crystallised melt (CM), the alpha form, and the gamma form were obtained via a dry route. The CM was confirmed to be a crystalline state with a spherulite morphology. The alpha form was obtained via direct conversion from the CM, in contrast to more complicated routes previously reported, and was found to have a very high crystallinity. Gamma crystals were obtained by seeding the melt at high temperature; however, crystallinity was clearly less than for alpha crystals.Despite its lower crystallinity, the gamma polymorph was found to be the most stable of the anhydrous crystalline forms; this was confirmed by its high melting point and low hygroscopicity. In contrast, the alpha polymorph has a relatively high melting point but lacks moisture stability at high relative humidity. The hydrate form has the same resistance to moisture as the gamma form, but melts at a lower temperature. The combination of both a high melting point and high stability in the presence of water makes the gamma polymorph best suited for confectionary applications.