Conference Paper

The Role of Energy Storage Solutions in a 100% Renewable Finnish Energy System

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Integrating high shares of renewable energy (RE) sources in future energy systems requires a variety of storage solutions and flexibility measures. In this work, a 100% RE scenario was developed for Finland in 2050 for all energy sectors using the EnergyPLAN modelling tool to find a least-cost system configuration that suited the national context. Hourly data was analysed to determine the roles of various energy storage solutions, including stationary batteries, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connections, thermal energy storage and grid gas storage for Power-toGas (PtG) technologies. V2G storage and stationary batteries facilitated use of high shares of variable RE on a daily and weekly basis. Thermal energy storage and synthetic grid gas storage aided in resolving seasonality issues related to variable RE generation plus facilitated efficient use of other forms of RE, such as biomass, and Combined Heat and Power to maintain the reliability and independence of the energy system throughout the year. In this scenario, 30 GWp of installed solar PV, 35 GWe of onshore wind power and 5 GWe of offshore wind power are supported by 20 GWh of stationary Lithium-ion batteries, 150 GWh of V2G storage (Li-ion), 20 GWhth of thermal energy storage, and 3800 GWhth of grid gas storage. Discharge of electricity and heat from storage represented 15% of end-user demand. Thermal storage discharge was 4% of end-user heat demand. In the power sector, 21% of end-user demand was satisfied by electricity storage discharge, the majority of this (87%) coming from V2G connections. Grid gas storage discharge represented 26% of gas demand. These observations suggest that storage solutions will be an important part of a 100% renewable Finnish energy system.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... For many experts, energy storage technology is considered one of the disruptive technologies that could change the way we generate and consume energy. In the past decades [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18], several research activities dealing with some scenarios of low-carbon energy future have somehow examined the role of energy storage technology in the corresponding systems. Many researchers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]estimated storage capacity requirements for renewable energy based grids that dominantly depends on wind and solar. ...
... In the past decades [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18], several research activities dealing with some scenarios of low-carbon energy future have somehow examined the role of energy storage technology in the corresponding systems. Many researchers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]estimated storage capacity requirements for renewable energy based grids that dominantly depends on wind and solar. These studies uses diverging methodologies for modeling while also studying the cases at different geographic regions. ...
... As regards to modelling techniques, we could have three major categories. Namely, (i) those estimating required energy capacity for very high shares of renewable energy with no or little attention to the power capacity of storage [1][2][3]; (ii) economic models assessing storage as a key technology in a low-carbon energy future [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]; and (iii) those studying factors affecting storage design and the corresponding capacity requirements [12][13][14][15]. As regards to the diversities in geographic location, it is possible to find studies covering several parts of the world such as entire regions (or a part) of Europe [1,2,5,9], Japan [3], Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) [6], Asia [7], Israel [12,13], USA [4,10,[14][15][16]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present issues of electricity storage requirements based on comparative studies of various results. Studies using the datasets of Israel and California show that the storage requirement was defined by the seasonal and diurnal patterns of the local demand, and the corresponding variable renewable energy (VRE) resources profile. It was found that when we increase energy supply from VRE, the use of storage and its capacity increases until we reach some threshold. After that threshold, the storage use starts to decline even if we increase the size. An optimally utilized storage of about daily average demand would be sufficient to reach grid penetration of about 90% of the total demands from VRE at 20% total energy loss. Optimizing with other RE resources will be necessary to reach a net zero energy system instead of pushing for penetration of 100% VRE, which will require larger storage size at reduced storage usability. A loose approximation shows that the largest storage requirement for such a VRE was of the order of 6 times average daily demand with a modest increase in energy loss. A diverse Finnish 100% RE system (with 70% from VRE) was reported with energy storage size of about 8.6 times average daily demand and 6% total loss. At similar loss, the same penetration was achieved by a storage size of 0.5 times daily average demand in California, suggesting further optimization in the Finish system could result in further reduction in storage with some increase in curtailment, but might lead to higher total system cost. It was also noted that the mismatch between the VRE and load profile leads to least efficient use of resources if 100% VRE grid was aspired. However, optimal designing for VRE penetration up to 90% complemented with other renewable resources could provide an efficient energy system relying on lower storage size and balancing. We conclude that understanding of the physics and economics of the future energy system is mandatory to build and operate it optimally.
... Previous work for the whole of Finland suggested that a combination of 100% RE and an appropriate mix of energy storage solutions (ESS) could provide the basis of a sustainable and affordable energy system for the entire country by 2050 [9]. In addition, Child and Breyer [10] showed how storage technologies could play a significant role in facilitating high shares of solar photovoltaics ...
... Several hourly and annual outputs from the EnergyPLAN analysis were readily available, including V2G storage discharge, stationary battery storage discharge, and thermal storage discharge. However, both the annual electricity and heat that were ultimately derived from stored gas were calculated according to the equations listed in [10]. The direct usage of solar PV and wind energy was determined by summing these categories of supply (solar PV+ onshore wind + offshore wind) and dividing by the total supply of electricity from all sources. ...
... On a daily and weekly level, PtG technology provides a buffer between high levels of variable RE generation and the creation of synthetic fuels for transport. This result is interesting when considering that PtG played a very important seasonal storage role in an analysis of Finland as a whole [9], [10] The contrasting result appears partially due to the less variable wind conditions in the Åland archipelago, but also due to extensive V2G storage. In this regard, this study may be the first to show that while V2G services provide rather short term storage on a daily and multi-day level, extending these services may greatly result in less need for seasonal storage. ...
Conference Paper
In this work, a 100% renewable energy (RE) scenario that featured high participation in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services was developed for the Åland islands for 2030 for all energy sectors (power, heat and transport). The EnergyPLAN modelling tool was used to find a least-cost system configuration that suited the regional context. Hourly data was analysed to determine the roles of various energy storage solutions, including V2G connections that extended into electric boat batteries, thermal storage and grid gas storage for Power-toGas (PtG) technologies. Two weeks of interest (max/min RE) generation were studied in detail to determine the roles of energy storage solutions in the energy system. Broad participation in V2G connections facilitated high shares of variable RE on a daily and weekly basis. In the Sustainable Mobility scenario developed, high participation in V2G (2750 MWhe) results in less need for gas storage (1200 MWhth), electrolyser capacity (6.1 MWe), methanation capacity (3.9 MWhgas) and offshore wind power capacity (55 MWe) than other scenarios that featured lower V2G participation. As a result, total annualised costs were lower (225 M€/a). The influence of V2G connections on seasonal storage is an interesting result for a relatively cold, northern geographic area. Analysis revealed several functions of V2G batteries. In total, 139.8 GWhe was charged from the grid. Of this, 78.2 GWhe returned to the grid, 53.2 GWhe satisfied transport demand, and the remainder (8.4 GWhe) constituted losses. A key point is that stored electricity need not only be considered as storage for future use by the grid, and V2G batteries can provide a buffer between generation of intermittent RE and its use by end-users. Direct consumption of intermittent RE further reduces the need for storage and generation capacities. In this study a strong relationship between RE generation and V2G battery charging was observed.
... Therefore, the flexibility offered by BEVs to electricity networks remains somewhat underrepresented. Recently, Child and Breyer [16,17] described the role of ESS in the Finnish energy system as a whole, and observed that Powerto-Gas (PtG) was a complement to wind energy production, while battery storage coupled well with solar PV production in Finland. It seems reasonable to investigate whether the same would hold true for Åland in particular, where both wind and solar resources are measurably better than those on mainland Finland. ...
... In all other respects this scenario is similar to the 2030 SDF Bio scenario. Next, the roles of various forms of storage in the energy system for 2030 scenarios (excluding 2030 BAU) were summarised according to the same method as [17]. This was deemed necessary in order to provide an overview of storage for the scenarios and to more easily compare the influence of the various storage solutions. ...
... However, upon a detailed analysis of hourly data related to the Basic 100% RE scenario, it was concluded that solar PV generation can be supported by various energy storage solutions and seasonally complemented by other forms of variable RE generation, such as wind and hydro power, as well as dispatchable generation of synthetic gas and biomass-based energy in CHP plants. On a daily basis, both flexible demand and V2G batteries had noticeable association with PV generation, also observed in another more detailed study by the authors [101]. Further, in the Basic 100% RE scenario, it was determined that solar PV would generate approximately 29 TWh e of energy in 2050, which represented 16% of annual electricity production and 28% of end user electricity consumption. ...
... About 45% of this production was calculated to be used directly by end users, suggesting that storage solutions must play a strong role in solar PV systems located at high latitudes [100]. When also considering the intermittent nature of wind energy production, [101] found that, in the same scenario, approximately 47% of solar PV and wind energy combined was used directly, and confirmed the importance of storage solutions. ...
... The European perspective also often refers to an analysis of the impact of the increasing use of renewable energy sources (see [35] for an extended overview). Moreover, there is an increasing number of studies in which the authors (i.e., Lund and Mathiesen [36]; Child and Breyer [37]; Jacobson et al. [38]; Child et al. [39]) state that future transformation of the power sectors towards the use of 100% renewable energy sources is possible. The analysis of world literature also points to the existence of work on the assessment of the effects of the environmental regulations in force on demand for primary fuels. ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of environmental regulations implemented in the power industry that affect the consumption of solid fuels is of key importance to coal-based power generation systems, such as that in Poland. In this context, the main purpose of the paper was to determine the future demand for hard coal and brown coal in the Polish power sector by 2050 with reference to the environmental regulations implemented in the power sector. To achieve these goals, a mathematical model was developed using the linear programming approach, which reflected the key relationships between the hard and brown coal mining sector and the power sector in the context of the environmental regulations discussed. The environmental regulations selected had a great influence on the future demand for hard and brown coal in the power generation sector. The scope of this influence depended on particular regulations. The prices of CO2 emission allowances and stricter emissions standards stemming from the Industrial Emissions Directive and the BAT (Best Available Techniques) conclusions had the largest influence on the reduction of hard coal demand. In the case of brown coal, no new power generating units would be deployed; hence, brown coal consumption would drop practically to zero in 2050 under all the scenarios considered.
... This study focuses on extracting insights from results of various hourly models. From those, we included studies dealing with the case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) [10], and Finland [9] as well as studies based on the Israeli [19] and Californian [5] grids because of the ready availability of the result data. We have also included 2 other studies [8,4,6] (namely a study covering the eastern United states PJM interconnection [8] and Europe [4,6]) that are based on an hourly modeling strategy and present useful typical data for the intended comparison. ...
Conference Paper
Resource complementarities carry significant benefit to the power grid due to their smoothing effect on the variable renewable resources output. In this paper, we show that complementarity significantly reduces energy storage requirement by using simulation results generated for Israel, Saudi Arabia, California and Finland. In a complementarity study performed using Israeli and Californian data sets (focusing on the electricity sector alone), the wind-solar complementarities were shown to significantly increase grid penetration as compared to stand-alone wind/solar systems even without the need of energy storage. At even higher grid penetration their complementarity carries significant multidimensional benefits to the power grid. The most important observation was the achievement of very high grid penetration at reduced energy storage and balancing requirements as compared to stand-alone systems. Using specific energy storage capacity (186 GWh/22 GW) and setting the solar share to 0%, 50% and 100% of the total VRE capacity, the 50-50 wind-solar capacity mix has led to significantly higher penetration as compared to the stand-alone systems. For instance, by allowing 15% energy curtailment, it was shown that grid penetration of 63%, 80% and 55% of the annual demand, respectively, can be achieved. This was because of storage being able to follow a flexible dispatch strategy, which makes it applicable for various services depending on the season of the year and the available resources. A study on a 100% renewable energy system of Finland shows that one of the best scenarios was related to a 43%-57% wind-solar capacity mix for a 70% VRE penetration by 2050. A similar study on Saudi Arabia shows that broader resource complementarity and higher level of flexibility obtained through sector coupling has reduced the required storage very significantly. The results indicate that the multiple benefits obtained from resource complementarity should be emphasized during the transition to systems of high renewable energy shares.
... Energy storage is seen as a cornerstone of the green energy revolution [1,2]. The intermittent nature of solar and wind resources can be overcome with different types of flexibility (supply side management, demand side management, grids, sector coupling, storage), thereof energy storage is regarded as one of the most important, enabling a faster transition towards a 100% renewable energy system [3,4,5]. With the increase in global installed capacities of renewable energy power plants, there is a surge in demand for energy storage capacities. ...
Conference Paper
Saudi Arabia can transition to a 100% renewable energy system by 2040 including the integration of the power, desalination and non-energetic industrial gas sectors. Single-axis tracking PV and battery storage contribute the highest to the final LCOE of the system. By 2050, single-axis tracking PV accounts for 77% of the total electricity generation. Battery storage accounts for 44% of the total electricity demand. Desalination plants provide additional flexibility to the energy system. Through sensitivity analysis, it is found that decreasing the capex of desalination plants results in a decrease in battery storage output and ultimately the total system capex throughout the transition. However, the required SWRO capex decrease seems to be higher than possible, leading to a lower cost flexibility provided by solar PV and battery storage than possible by very low cost water storage. This is because the relatively more expensive SWRO desalination prefers baseload operation for total energy system cost reasons.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical Report "Global Energy System based on 100% Renewable Energy – Power Sector", published at the Global Renewable Energy Solutions Showcase event (GRESS), a side event of the COP23, Bonn, November 8, 2017 A global transition to 100% renewable electricity is feasible at every hour throughout the year and more cost effective than the existing system, which is largely based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Energy transition is no longer a question of technical feasibility or economic viability, but of political will. Existing renewable energy potential and technologies, including storage can generate sufficient and secure power to cover the entire global electricity demand by 2050 . The world population is expected to grow from 7.3 to 9.7 billion. The global electricity demand for the power sector is set to increase from 24,310 TWh in 2015 to around 48,800 TWh by 2050. Total levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) on a global average for 100% renewable electricity in 2050 is 52 €/MWh (including curtailment, storage and some grid costs), compared to 70 €/MWh in 2015. Solar PV and battery storage drive most of the 100% renewable electricity supply due to a significant decline in costs during the transition. Due to rapidly falling costs, solar PV and battery storage increasingly drive most of the electricity system, with solar PV reaching some 69%, wind energy 18%, hydropower 8% and bioenergy 2% of the total electricity mix in 2050 globally. Wind energy increases to 32% by 2030. Beyond 2030 solar PV becomes more competitive. Solar PV supply share increases from 37% in 2030 to about 69% in 2050. Batteries are the key supporting technology for solar PV. Storage output covers 31% of the total demand in 2050, 95% of which is covered by batteries alone. Battery storage provides mainly short-term (diurnal) storage, and renewable energy based gas provides seasonal storage. 100% renewables bring GHG emissions in the electricity sector down to zero, drastically reduce total losses in power generation and create 36 million jobs by 2050. Global greenhouse gas emissions significantly reduce from about 11 GtCO2eq in 2015 to zero emissions by 2050 or earlier, as the total LCOE of the power system declines. The global energy transition to a 100% renewable electricity system creates 36 million jobs by 2050 in comparison to 19 million jobs in the 2015 electricity system. Operation and maintenance jobs increase from 20% of the total direct energy jobs in 2015 to 48% of the total jobs in 2050 that implies more stable employment chances and economic growth globally. The total losses in a 100% renewable electricity system are around 26% of the total electricity demand, compared to the current system in which about 58% of the primary energy input is lost.
Article
There are several barriers to achieving an energy system based entirely on renewable energy (RE) in Finland, not the least of which is doubt that high capacities of solar photovoltaics (PV) can be feasible due to long, cold and dark Finnish winters. Technologically, several energy storage options can facilitate high penetrations of solar PV and other variable forms of RE. These options include electric and thermal storage systems in addition to a robust role of Power-toGas technology. In an EnergyPLAN simulation of the Finnish energy system for 2050, approximately 45% of electricity produced from solar PV was used directly over the course of the year, which shows the relevance of storage. In terms of public policy, several mechanisms are available to promote various forms of RE. However, many of these are contested in Finland by actors with vested interests in maintaining the status quo rather than by those without confidence in RE conversion or storage technologies. These vested interests must be overcome before a zero fossil carbon future can begin. The results of this study provides insights into how higher capacities of solar PV can be effectively promoted and managed at high latitudes, both north and south.
Thesis
As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool REMix-PlaSMo yields results as to where the volatile power technologies photovoltaics and wind are to be located within a country in order to gain distinct effects on their aggregated power output. Three different modes are implemented: (a.) Optimized plant siting in order to obtain the cheapest generation cost, (b.) a minimization of the photovoltaic and wind portfolio output variance and (c.) a minimization of the residual load variance. The third fundamental addition to the REMix model is the amendment of the module REMix-OptiMo with a new power transmission model based on the DC load flow approximation. Moreover, electricity imports originating from concentrating solar power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East are now feasible. All of the new capabilities and extensions of REMix are employed in three case studies: In case study 1, using the module REMix-EnDaT, a global potential assessment is carried out for 10 OECD world regions, deriving installable capacities, cost and full load hours for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power. According to the latter, photovoltaics will represent the cheapest technology in 2050, an average of 1634 full load hours could lead to an electricity generation potential of some 5500 PWh. Although CSP also taps solar irradiance, restrictions in terms of suitable sites for erecting power plants are more severe. For that reason, the maximum potential amounts to some 1500 PWh. However, thermal energy storage can be used, which, according to this assessment, could lead to 5400 hours of full load operation. Onshore wind power could tap a potential of 717 PWh by 2050 with an average of 2200 full load hours while offshore, wind power plants could achieve a total power generation of 224 PWh with an average of 3000 full load hours. The electricity generation potential of hydro power exceeds 3 PWh, 4600 full load hours of operation are reached on average. In case study 2, using the module REMix-PlaSMo, an assessment for Morocco is carried out as to determine limits of volatile power generation in portfolios approaching full supply based on renewable power. The volatile generation technologies are strategically sited at specific locations to take advantage of available resources conditions. It could be shown that the cost optimal share of volatile power generation without considering storage or transmission grid extensions is one third. Moreover, the average power generation cost using a portfolio consisting of PV, CSP, wind and hydro power can be stabilized at about 10 €ct/kWh by the year 2050. In case study 3, using the module REMix-OptiMo, a validation of a TRANS-CSP scenario based upon high shares of renewable power generation is carried out. The optimization is conducted on an hourly basis using a least cost approach, thereby investigating if and how demand is met during each hour of the investigated year. It could be shown, that the assumed load can safely be met in all countries for each hour using the scenario's power plant portfolio. Furthermore, it was proven that dispatchable renewable power generation, in particular CSP imports to Europe, have a system stabilizing effect. Using the suggested concept, the utilization of the transfer capacities between countries would decrease until 2050.
Article
A district energy system, especially one employing a large heat storage facility, may be able to tap energy sources that would not otherwise be suitable owing to irregular occurrence or difficulty in transporting the energy to demand centres. To be viable as thermal energy for buildings, sources such as geothermal, solar, and nuclear energy (which is likely to be available in off-peak electrical demand periods) all require at least one of the following: an extensive network for distribution of the energy, large-scale demand applications, or large off-peak storage capacity. These requirements have hindered the use of these sources in individual buildings, but they are compatible with a district energy system. -from Author.
Conference Paper
There are several barriers to achieving an energy system based entirely on renewable energy (RE), not the least of which is doubt that high capacities of solar PV can be feasible due to long, cold and dark Finnish winters. Technologically, several energy storage options can facilitate high penetrations of solar PV (up to 29 TWhe, or 16% of annual electricity production) and other variable forms of RE. These options include electric and thermal storage systems in addition to a robust role of Power-toGas (PtG) technology. Approximately 45% of electricity produced from solar PV was used directly over the course of the year, which shows the relevance of storage. In terms of public policy, several mechanisms are available to promote various forms of RE. However, many of these are contested in Finland by actors with vested interests in maintaining the status quo rather than by those without faith in RE conversion or storage technologies. These vested interests must be overcome before a zero fossil carbon future can begin.
Article
A clear consensus exists in German society that renewable energy resources have to play a dominant role in the future German energy supply system. However, many questions are still under discussion; for instance the relevance of the different technologies such as photovoltaic systems and wind energy converters installed offshore in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Concerns also exist about the cost of a future energy system mainly based on renewable energy. In the work presented here we tried to answer some of those questions. Guiding questions for this study were: (1) is it possible to meet the German energy demand with 100% renewable energy, considering the available technical potential of the main renewable energy resources? (2) what is the overall annual cost of such an energy system once it has been implemented? (3) what is the best combination of renewable energy converters, storage units, energy converters and energy-saving measures? In order to answer these questions, we carried out many simulation calculations using REMod-D, a model we developed for this purpose. This model is described in Part I of this publication. To date this model covers only part of the energy system, namely the electricity and heat sectors, which correspond to about 62% of Germany's current energy demand. The main findings of our work indicate that it is possible to meet the total electricity and heat demand (space heating, hot water) of the entire building sector with 100% renewable energy within the given technical limits. This is based on the assumption that the heat demand of the building sector is significantly reduced by at least 60% or more compared to today's demand. Another major result of our analysis shows that - once the transformation of the energy system has been completed - supplying electricity and heat only from renewables is no more expensive than the existing energy supply.
Article
The paper reviews different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. We consider both supply and demand side measures. In addition to presenting energy system flexibility measures, their importance to renewable electricity is discussed. The flexibility measures available range from traditional ones such as grid extension or pumped hydro storage to more advanced strategies such as demand side management and demand side linked approaches, e.g. the use of electric vehicles for storing excess electricity, but also providing grid support services. Advanced batteries may offer new solutions in the future, though the high costs associated with batteries may restrict their use to smaller scale applications. Different “P2Y”-type of strategies, where P stands for surplus renewable power and Y for the energy form or energy service to which this excess in converted to, e.g. thermal energy, hydrogen, gas or mobility are receiving much attention as potential flexibility solutions, making use of the energy system as a whole. To “functionalize” or to assess the value of the various energy system flexibility measures, these need often be put into an electricity/energy market or utility service context. Summarizing, the outlook for managing large amounts of RE power in terms of options available seems to be promising.
Conference Paper
The excellent solar resources of Israel make it possible to reach the target of 100% RE, independent of fossil fuel supply in a rather close future. For now the development of large PV capacities is restrained by battery storage costs: before reaching a cost level of 200 €/kWh, batteries are not competitive and installations of thermal storages and CSP are cost optimal. The role of CSP remains unclear; however, the high competitiveness of PV-battery may limit CSP to a minor role. PV self-consumption plays a significant role in the energy transformation in Israel.
Article
Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devices is already highly beneficial for the RES integration, while seasonal storage devices are only needed when more than 80% of the electricity demand can be met by wind and solar energy. Our results imply that a balance between the installation of additional generation capacities and storage capacities is required.
Reservoir content for Finland
  • Finnish Environment
Finnish Environment Institute. Reservoir content for Finland. [Online]. Available: http://wwwi2.ymparisto.fi/i2/finergy/indexe.html.[Accessed January 5, 2016]
Vision and initial feasibility of a recarbonized Finnish energy system, " in 17 Th International Conference of the Finland Futures Research Centre and the Finland Futures Academy: Future Studies Tackling Wicked Problems
  • M Child
  • C Breyer
M. Child and C. Breyer, "Vision and initial feasibility of a recarbonized Finnish energy system, " in 17 Th International Conference of the Finland Futures Research Centre and the Finland Futures Academy: Future Studies Tackling Wicked Problems, Turku, June 11-12, 2015. [Online] Available: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/278024493_Vision_and_Inital_Feasibility_An alysis_of_a_Recarbonised_Finnish_Energy_System. [Accessed June 22, 2015]
Electricity market Available: http://bit.ly/1Q87h89
  • Fingrid
Fingrid. Electricity market. [Online]. Available: http://bit.ly/1Q87h89. [Accessed: October 12, 2015]
Statistics and publications. [Online] Available: http://energia.fi/en/statistics-and-publications
  • Industries Finnish Energy
Finnish Energy Industries. Statistics and publications. [Online]. Available: http://energia.fi/en/statistics-and-publications. [Accessed: October 8, 2015]
Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE)
  • P Stackhouse
P. Stackhouse. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE). Release 6.0. [Online].
Optimized Power Plant Siting and Scenario Validation
  • D Stetter
D. Stetter, Enhancement of the REMix Energy System Model: Global Renewable Energy Potentials, Optimized Power Plant Siting and Scenario Validation. PhD [Dissertation]. Stuttgart: Stuttgart University, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://elib.unistuttgart.de/opus/volltexte/2014/9453/pdf/Dissertation_Stetter_Daniel.pdf [Accessed: January 15, 2015]
Stromspeicher in der Energiewende
  • Agora Energiewende
Agora Energiewende. Stromspeicher in der Energiewende, Berlin, September, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://bit.ly/YKKmMR. [Accessed: November 22, 2015]
Technology roadmap: Energy storage
  • International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency, "Technology roadmap: Energy storage," OECD/IEA, Paris, 2014.
Report of the parliamentary committee on energy and climate issues
Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy, "Energy and climate roadmap 2050. Report of the parliamentary committee on energy and climate issues." Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Tech. Rep. 50/2014, 2014.
Vision and initial feasibility of a recarbonized Finnish energy system
  • M Child
  • C Breyer
M. Child and C. Breyer, "Vision and initial feasibility of a recarbonized Finnish energy system," in 17 Th International Conference of the Finland Futures Research Centre and the Finland Futures Academy: Future Studies Tackling Wicked Problems, Turku, June 11-12, 2015. [Online] Available: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/278024493_Vision_and_Inital_Feasibility_An alysis_of_a_Recarbonised_Finnish_Energy_System. [Accessed June 22, 2015]