PosterPDF Available

Aggregate resource sustainability in Arctic regions

Authors:

Abstract

It has been established that Arctic region is one of the global areas that have the highest amount of exploitable, but also unexploited resources. The improved accessibility encourages increased economic activities, which very soon will come into conflict and have to adapt to the vulnerability of these areas. Increased economic activity will bring along an increased population, a need for physical infrastructure – in terms of harbors, water and sewage, landing sites for sea transported cargo, roads, airfields, and maybe also railways – and of course buildings for accommodation, industry, trade etc. And all these construction activities will need access to materials. And it is well known that deposits of natural construction materials like sand, gravel and hard rock are scarce in great parts of the Arctic. So when discussing sustainability of a resource based activity in the Arctic, we will have to consider not only the primary resources, those that several centuries will exploit. We will also have to pay due attention to the sustainability of the resources which are necessary for the construction and infrastructural activities, which will be decisive for any future exploitation of resources. With the increasing demand for aggregates, the problem related to aggregates production and consumption is also increasing. Appropriate policies are required to enable the balance between demand and supply, production and environmental impact, infrastructural construction activities and climate protection. This global challenge requires new approaches and tools, particularly IT supported applications to generate realistic models and simulate different scenarios (short-, mid- and longterm). Such scenarios are needed to provide decision makers with efficient tools for the implementation of adequate policies. A crucial aspect of sustainable resource management is data management due to the fact that without proper data and statistics a realistic policy framework cannot be applied. And on this case it is important that authorities and decision makers have a tool which can use a set of interconnected systems (data, GIS-layers, modelling tools, reports and etc.) which in combination facilitate the gathering, processing and reporting of information and analyses required for the sustainable resource management. At the same time it is critical to develop some protocols to exchange data between authorities since it is highly improbable that a single authority would internally produce and consume all the data managed by this tool.
Aggregare Resource Sustainability in Arcc Regions
Svein Willy Danielsen
Independent Geomaterials Consultant, Norway
swdanielsen@gmail.com
Abstract
It has been established that Arcc region is one of the global areas that have the highest amount
of exploitable, but also unexploited resources. The improved accessibility encourages increased
economic acvies, which very soon will come into conict and have to adapt to the vulnerability
of these areas. Increased economic acvity will bring along an increased populaon, a need for
physical infrastructure in terms of harbors, water and sewage, landing sites for sea transported
cargo, roads, airelds, and maybe also railways and of course buildings for accommodaon, in-
dustry, trade etc. And all these construcon acvies will need access to materials. And it is well
known that deposits of natural construcon materials like sand, gravel and hard rock are scarce in
great parts of the Arcc.
So when discussing sustainability of a resource based acvity in the Arcc, we will have to consid-
er not only the primary resources, those that several centuries will exploit. We will also have to
pay due aenon to the sustainability of the resources which are necessary for the construcon
and infrastructural acvies, which will be decisive for any future exploitaon of resources.
Suggesons
Appropriate policies are required to enable
the balance between demand and supply,
producon and environmental impact, in-
frastructural construcon acvies and cli-
mate protecon. This global challenge re-
quires new approaches and tools, parcu-
larly IT supported applicaons to generate
realisc models and simulate dierent sce-
narios (short-, mid- and longterm). Such
scenarios are needed to provide decision
makers with ecient tools for the imple-
mentaon of adequate policies.
A crucial aspect of sustainable resource
management is data management due to
the fact that without proper data and sta-
scs a realisc policy framework cannot
be applied. And on this case it is important
that authories and decision makers have a
tool which can use a set of interconnected
systems (data, GIS-layers, modelling tools,
reports and etc.) which in combinaon fa-
cilitate the gathering, processing and re-
porng of informaon and analyses re-
quired for the sustainable resource man-
agement. At the same me it is crical to
develop some protocols to exchange data
between authories since it is highly im-
probable that a single authority would in-
ternally produce and consume all the data
managed by this tool.
Elena Kuznetsova
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
(NTNU), Elena.kuznetsova@ntnu.no
Inventory and planning Quarrying and producon Use of aggregates in con-
strucon
Reclamaon of mined-out
areas
Processes
Geological mapping
Regulatory issues, and considera-
on of area vulnerability
Planning of future steps
Analyse potenals and alterna-
ves
Extracon
Handling and transport
Producon
Storage
Waste minimizing and storage
Mostly use in road substructure,
pavements and in concrete
Performance analysis – new rela-
ons may have to be established
vs. regulaons
Proporoning, quality control
Plans for reclamaon will be vital
for permits
Regulatory work
Preserve nature and biological
habitat
Special concern for permafrost
areas
Key environmental issues
Geology and access to resources
aggregates can only be extract-
ed where nature has placed them
Nature vulnerability and
environmental conicts – bio-life,
neighbourhood, transport dis-
tances, permafrost situaon
Concider potenal environmental
impacts – dust, noice, vibraon,
truck trac
Special awareness on vulnerable
landscapes and habitats, perma-
frost, aected surface and
groundwater
Products in accordance with es-
senal requirements (CPD)
Chemical and physical durability –
will aect long-term materials
consumpon and structural safe-
ty
Restoraon – remove polluon
Re-establish landscape, new are-
as for use
Control of drainage and ground-
water condion
Issues of sustainability
Any encroach upon nature must
be jused by increased value for
society
Materials must meet essenal re-
quirements
Mass balance will be a key
Logiscs
Energy consumpon
Minimize all waste
Use that saves resources and
minimizes waste generaon/
deposion, needs a minimum of
energy, gives maximum of added
value
Quarries will always be tempo-
rary.
Establish long-term /permanent
post-quarry soluons giving sus-
tainable value for society
Elements of a BAC
Idenfy resources
Idenfy conicts
Provide vital info for planning
availability
Idenfy opons to future recla-
maon
Idenfy means to reduce environ-
mental impact
Minimize visibility
Technology to prevent or reduce
polluon
Novel technology to improve
mass balance
Market acons to avoid unbal-
anced sales
Integrated plants with on-site
downstream soluons to avoid
excess mass transport
Quarrying strictly planned to
adapt to local condions regard-
ing vulnerable geological condi-
ons
Invesgate local opons:
Available resources
Possibilies to replace sand/
gravel with crushed materials
Concider design requirements to
avoid too strict and narrow re-
quirements
Let available resources rule the
materials design (and structural
design), not the other way
around
Reclamaon calls for interdiscipli-
nary planning, decision making
and engineering
Provide essenal data for imple-
mentaon of reclamaon
Obtain broad ownwership of the
chosen soluon among stake-
holders
Ulize broad co-operaon be-
tween disciplines and pares in-
volved to ensure opmum solu-
ons
Sustainability in Arcc aggregate producon and use – four essenal phases
Best Available Concept (BAC)
for sustainable aggregate producon and use
The combinaon of geology dependency and a great variety of user condions will make it unrealisc to come up with one single Best Avail-
able Technology (BAT) for aggregate producon and use (Fig. 2). Rather there should be a connuous development of BAC using a 3-4-5 ap-
proach:
3 basic and interdependent parameters making up the competence basis
Geology
Producon technology
Applicaon (materials) technology
4 essenal phases in the process of aggregate industry
Inventory and planning Use of aggregates in construcon
Quarrying and producon Reclamaon of mined-out areas
5 sustainability issues to be focused during the process
Mineral resources Energy consumpon
Land-use Emissions
Mass balance and surplus materials
Challenges
It has been idened that access to materials will be one of the major global drivers in the years to come.
This will also apply to natural aggregates – sand, gravel and crushed stone – which are essenal resources
for use in construcon and by far the most used materials worldwide, second only to water. Despite the
fact that natural aggregate is widely distributed throughout the world, it is not necessarily available for
use. For example, some areas do not have sand or gravel, and in other areas, natural aggregate does not
meet the quality requirements.
In addion to the harsh environment in Arcc and sub-Arcc areas, the lack of sucient local building and
road material poses another challenge to the building and construcon sector. Innovave methods which
enable the construcon to use local material for building have to be developed. Since the Arcc environ-
ment is extremely sensive, all "imported" material must be chosen carefully and tested before using. De-
tailed knowledge about the environment, the ecologically friendly handling of natural resources, and sus-
tainable building is required.
The eecve management of granular assets are important for future Arcc infrastructure. The lack of an
adequate supply of granular materials for community and territorial infrastructure, private sector projects
and transportaon-related demands are serious challenges. The degree of challenge varies due to geo-
graphic locaon, community producon and management capabilies, the high costs to supply granular
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