ArticlePDF Available

Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age 14–17 years in Vikarabad town: A cross-sectional study



Background: Despite widespread knowledge of the health consequences, tobacco use, especially smoking is common globally. Most of the youngsters become smokers annually and one-third of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. Aim: To assess the various reasons for smoking among teenagers of age 14–17 years. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 384 teenagers to know their views regarding the reasons for smoking habit. A specially designed pretested questionnaire was used for the survey. Results: Majority of 76.4% of the study subjects agreed that smoking habit gives psychological pleasure, 77.5% agreed that smoking starts because of friends, and 65.7% felt that smoking starts as an inspiration for outlook and personality. Conclusion: Various psychological factors, personal factors, and social factors are attached with smoking habit.
© 2016 Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow
Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age 14–17 years in
Vikarabad town: A cross‑sectional study
Md Shakeel Anjum, Madipally Kumar Srikanth, P. Parthasarathi Reddy, M. Monica, K. Yadav Rao, A. Sheetal
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Telangana, India
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Madipally Kumar Srikanth, Depar tment of Public H ealth Dentist ry, Sri Sai College o f Dental Surgery, Vikarabad ‑ 50 1 101, Telangana, In dia.
Background: Despite widespread knowledge of the health consequences, tobacco use, especially smoking is common globally.
Most of the youngsters become smokers annually and one-third of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. Aim: To assess the
various reasons for smoking among teenagers of age 14–17 years. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey
was conducted on 384 teenagers to know their views regarding the reasons for smoking habit. A specially designed pretested
questionnaire was used for the survey. Results: Majority of 76.4% of the study subjects agreed that smoking habit gives psychological
pleasure, 77.5% agreed that smoking starts because of friends, and 65.7% felt that smoking starts as an inspiration for outlook
and personality. Conclusion: Various psychological factors, personal factors, and social factors are attached with smoking habit.
Key words:
Causes of smoking, smoking, social factors, teenagers
Smoking is the single most important preventable cause
of death. The teenage is a critical period in the formation
of the smoking habit. Globally, smoking is still on the
rise among teenagers. The habit of smoking is considered
a true drug addiction and is widespread all over the
world.[1] Currently, study outcomes conrm that smoking
is a potential risk factor for health, causing increased
morbidity and mortality that could be prevented.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more
than 4 million deaths recorded annually worldwide are
related to smoking habits. Smoking is associated with
a number of diseases and disorders in humans. The
exposure of teenagers in any way to tobacco products
can cause a variety of diseases and could inuence their
psychosocial development. About 4000 children start
smoking each day, whereas 1500 of the adolescents
aged <18 years are regular smokers. Some 545,000
youngsters become smokers annually and one‑third
of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. It is
common that many people start smoking in young ages
and become long‑term addiction to nicotine. There are
various determinants of tobacco use among youth.
These include cultural and religious norms, availability
of different types of tobacco products, tobacco control
policies and strategies, and perhaps most importantly,
tobacco industry behavior to promote tobacco use,
and undercut tobacco control strategies. Advertising,
promotion, and marketing efforts of the tobacco industry
inuence adolescent smoking behavior, often to a greater
extent than it inuences the behavior of adults.
Smoking at public places in India is prohibited in
public since October 2, 2008, under the Prohibition of
Access this article online
Quick Response Code:
How to cite this article: Anjum M, Srikanth MK, Reddy PP, Monica M,
Rao KY, Sheetal A. Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age
14–17 years in Vikarabad town: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Assoc
Public Health Dent 2016;14:80-3.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows
others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the
author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
For reprints contact:
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Anjum, et al.: Reasons for smoking
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry
Vol. 14, Issue 1, | January-March 2016
Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008 and Cigarettes and
Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement
and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production,
Supply, and Distribution) Act, 2003.[2] However, still
smoking among the teenagers has not come down.
There are approximately 120 million smokers in India.
According to the WHO, India is home to 12% of the
world’s smokers.[3] The early initiation of smoking habits
and constant exposure to tobacco products increase the
relative risk factor in the occurrence of serious acute or
chronic health disorders.[4]
Between the age group of 14–17 years, a person is
most likely to get attracted toward smoking habit and
become an addict for the rest of his or her life. This is
the age where the inspiration is at the maximum level,
and adolescents are more conscious of their personality,
styles, and making up their role models. Here in this
study, the reasons of smoking have been investigated
to understand why teenagers take up smoking, which
would be helpful in designing the better antismoking
programs. Hence, this present study aimed to highlight
and also to assess the personal, social, environmental,
and other factors inuencing the initiation of smoking
habit in teenagers of age 14–17 years in Vikarabad town.
A descriptive cross‑sectional epidemiological survey was
conducted on 384 teenagers among teenagers of age
14–17 years in Vikarabad town of Rangareddy district
of Telangana state over a period of 3 months from July
1, 2013 to September 30, 2013.
List of 24 high schools and 12 intermediate colleges at
Vikarabad town was obtained and using simple random
lottery method, 4 high schools and 4 intermediate
colleges were selected. A sample of 384 teenagers was
obtained based on the prevalence of smoking among
teenagers. Teenagers were included based on the
inclusion criteria that is who are perceiving studies at
Vikarabad town, all the teenagers both smoking and
nonsmoking who were preset on the day of the survey,
and the exclusion criteria were teenagers who were not
willing to participate in the study. Ethical clearance
was taken from the review board of the dental college.
A pilot study was carried out on a sample of 30 subjects
to check the feasibility of the survey and to note any
difculties encountered during the survey. This pilot
study also helped to make modifications wherever
necessary to design the nal proforma which was based
on the literature review.[3,5,6,7,8] The proforma originally
consisted of 20 items which was reduced to 15 items in
the nal proforma after the difculties and the level of
understanding noted among the teenagers. Validity of the
nal proforma was found to be Cronbach’s alpha of 0.72
which is an acceptable level. The questionnaire included
questions on socio‑demographic factors such as age,
gender, their level of education, and questions regarding
the various reasons for smoking among teenagers.
Voluntary willingness from the teenagers to participate
in the study was considered as consent after discussing
in detail about the purpose of the study. In addition,
required permissions were obtained from the respective
school and college principals and parents. Both smokers
and nonsmokers were included as to know the views of
the nonsmokers regarding what are the other possible
reasons for their peer group for picking up smoking and
for the smokers why they have initiated smoking.
Study procedure
The survey is an anonymous collection of opinion with
no direct question involved relating to the consumption
of tobacco or count of cigarettes etc. Data were collected
through the questionnaire given to the teenagers.
Sufcient time was given to the students to ll the
questionnaire and they were collected back on the
same day. The data covering the major aspects were
related to psychological issues, personal perceptions,
concentration, personality impacts, and socializing
Data analysis
Data were compiled and analyzed for completeness.
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS ‑ version 20.0)
(IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for
Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) was
used for analysis. Mean standard deviation was used to
describe the demographic details of the study population
and percentages were used for descriptive statistics.
Pearson Chi‑square test was used to compare the
opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages
based on their gender. P < 0.05 was set for statistical
A total of 381 teenagers participated in the survey out of
which, 258 (74.21%) were males and 123 (25.74%) were
females. Among these study population, 101 (26.50%)
were of 9th standard, 102 (26.77%) were of 10th standard,
and 178 (46.77%) were in intermediate education and 39
were smokers, remaining 341 were nonsmokers.
Table 1 shows the percentages of opinions of the
students about the various causes for smoking. Majority
of the study participants agreed that usually smoking
habit starts in youth out of their curiosity (75–94%), as
an inspiration for outlook and personality (65–76%),
and inspired by ads of role models (61–65%) with no
signicant difference observed between smokers and
nonsmokers opinions (P values were 0.057, 0.40,
and 0.22, respectively). Many of the teenagers among
smokers (84%) agree that smoking habit starts because
of friends. High percentage of smoking teenagers (61%)
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Anjum, et al.: Reasons for smoking
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry
Vol. 14, Issue 1, | January-March 2016
agree that smoking is fashionable and there was a
signicant difference (P = 0.05) between smokers and
nonsmokers about their views on youth perception
about smoking habit. Majority of teenagers among
smokers (94%) agree that smoking habit starts because
of their loneliness and boredom, whereas 6% of them
disagree for this statement.
Majority of 86% of the teenagers picked up smoking
because of the mood uctuations or various emotional
feeling and a statistical signicant difference as observed
among the smokers and non‑smokers. Following this,
teenager agreed with the statement that they would like
to smoke while studying which helps them to concentrate
more. Socializations was another reason because of which
teenagers will pick up smoking and there was a statistical
difference between the smokers and nonsmokers (P<0.05).
The effects of smoking on health are related to the
occurrence of both acute and chronic disorders. Smoking
can affect almost all the systems in the body, and in
many cases, the disorders are irreversible. The teenage is
a critical phase where they start adapting themselves to
new life style and try to socialize in this modern era. Most
of the smokers start smoking during their adolescence
or early adult years. The earlier they start to smoke, the
more likely they are to become regular smokers.[1] Those
concerned about the health, welfare, and education of
young people should be anxious to nd ways to prevent
them from taking up this habit. A number of factors
inuence an individual to start smoking. This study
aimed to highlight personal, social, and other factors
inuencing smoking in teenagers in Vikarabad town.
In our study, we found that curiosity is one of the major
reasons for the initiation of smoking. Usually, most of
the teenagers starting smoking out of their curiosity to
know what it is and how it is. More than 75% of the study
population agree that smoking habit starts out of their
curiosity. According to Rafael and Zully, the inuence of
the students own classmates is a great inuence for the
beginning of the habit of smoking.[5] Peer inuence was
found to be a strong predictor of smoking initiation in
almost all studies that included these measures.[1] Our
study also found that inuence of friends is the major
reason for initiation of smoking habit and this is similar
to the studies done by Naing et al. in 2004.[1]
According to Rezaei et al. having a smoker family
member, particularly parents, can increase the risk of
smoking among teenagers.[5] Similar results were seen
in the present study were high percentage of the study
group (51.2%) agreed that smoking habit starts because
of smokers in the family. Between the age group of
14–18 years, a person is most likely to get attracted
toward smoking habit and become an addict for the
rest of his or her life. This age represents the growth of
maturity where teens make choices for their life style and
plan where they want to see themselves in the future.[9]
According to this study, majority of the teenagers (66.1%)
agree that smoking habit starts as an inspiration for
outlook and personality and also majority of the study
group agree that smoking habit starts because of ads by
role models such as movie stars and cricketers. According
to the review given by Aristidis et al., commercials
play an important role in the promotion of smoking
behavior.[3] The initiation of smoking is often related
to the inuence and immediacy of advertisements. On
the other hand, this is the age where factors such as
stress, attention disorder, psychological pressures, and
conicts from parents play an important role in impacting
the individual personality, and most of the teens are
seen ghting with these kind of problems, which may
ultimately cause the initiation of the habit. Most of the
study population (65.2%) agree that feelings such as
frustration and anger will trigger them to smoke.
The present study explored various reasons for smoking
such as psychological reasons, personality impact,
inspirations, weight consciousness, and killing appetite.
As we have seen many cases where teens smoke for
either style, causally doing the party or hang‑out with
friends, or sometimes it becomes an important tool for
them to cope up with stress, traumas of life, or attention
disorders. Hence, there are so many factors that motivate
teenagers to become smokers. In most cases, the multiple
factors are playing combined impacts over the subjects
Table 1: Opinions of the students regarding various
reasons for smoking habit
Major reasons for smoking Nonsmokers
opinion (%)
Curiosity 75 94 0.059
For outlook and personality 65 76 0.40
Friends 78 84 0.028*
Ads by role models 65 61 0.22
Fashionable 58 61 0.05*
Loneliness and boredom 67 94 0.004*
For a change in their routine lifestyle 53 76 0.28
smokers in the family (father/
50 61 0.03*
Smoking can takeout psychological
49 56 0.04*
Smoking can ease communication 41 32 0.18
Teens use smoking to kill the
appetite and for weight reduction
41 34 0.01*
Smoking gives a psychological
53 84 0.001*
Smoking is a tool for socialization 43 56 0.03*
Feelings such as frustration, anger,
and stress trigger us to smoke
64 86 0.05*
Smoking helps in concentration of
study/of work
42 70 0.00*
*P<0.05 – Pearson Chi‑square test
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Anjum, et al.: Reasons for smoking
Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry
Vol. 14, Issue 1, | January-March 2016
creating the high chances of acceptance of smoking
habit. Findings of this study increase the understanding
of parents, teachers, and school/college administration
regarding one of the important issues of teenage, now
they can help their teenagers more effectively to overcome
this bad habit. School can arrange some workshop or
seminar regarding the effects of smoking on physical
health. Effects of smoking can also be added in the
curriculum and teachers can deliver lectures on this
sensitive topic, so teens can rethink about this habit.
The coordinated efforts of public and private organizations,
with the support of health professionals, could contribute
greatly to increase the awareness of the dangers and
to combating the problem. Measures are required from
parents and guardians to take care of teenage problems
and other matters they are dealing with. Interventions
on the family level should be used to prevent the
smoking habit among teenagers. Interventions programs
to encourage behavior modication of teenagers are
also recommended. The continuing scientic research
on smoking and its effects on teenagers assists
signicantly in the evaluation and possible redesign and
implementation of smoking prevention programs. The
government should maintain a strict legal framework that
could protect teenagers from smoking behavior and from
the promotion of smoking advertising, at the same time,
encourage the introduction of antismoking programs.
The reasons why teenagers smoke was found to be
multifactorial and the combined impact of all was
creating high chances of smoking among them. Peer
inuence and curiosity about smoking were the main
reasons for smoking followed by teenagers considering
smoking as fashionable. The coordinated efforts of public
and private organizations, with the support of health
professionals, could contribute greatly to increase the
awareness of the dangers and also smoking preventive
Financial support and sponsorship
Conicts of interest
There are no conicts of interest.
1. Naing NN, Ahmad Z, Musa R, Hamid FR, Ghazali H, Bakar MH.
Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents. Tob Induc
Dis 2004;2:133‑40.
2. World Health Organization. Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI), About
Youth and Tobacco; c2011. Available from:
tobacco/research/youth/about/en/index.html. [Last cited on
2011 Mar 30].
3. Aristidis V, Ζoi R, Κonstantinos G. The inuence of advertising
messages on the smoking habits of teenagers. Pneumon
4. Bewley BR, Bland JM, Harris R. Factors associated with the starting
of cigarette smoking by primary school children. Br J Prev Soc Med
5. Razaei M, Zully K. The Habit of Smoking Prevalence, Causes and
Inuences of the Environment Home‑school in High School Students.
1999‑2001. Argentine Federation of Cardiology. 2nd Virtual Congress
of Cardiology; 1999‑2001.
6. Appau IK. Smoking habits among adolescents. Tob Induc Dis
7. Pinilla J, González B, Barber P, Santana Y. Smoking in young
adolescents: An approach with multilevel discrete choice models.
J Epidemiol Community Health 2002;56:227‑32.
8. Rezaei F, Nedjat S, Golestan B, Majdzadeh R. Reasons for smoking
among male teenagers in Tehran, Iran: Two case‑control studies
using snowball sampling. Int J Prev Med 2011;2:216‑23.
9. Rafael M, Zully K. The habit of smoking. Prevalence. Causes and
inuences of the environment home‑schooling high school students.
Interdiscip J Contemp Res Bus 2012;3:1‑9.
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
... Malaysia was reported to contribute to 21% of adult smokers population in South East Asia countries [7] with average of 12 cigarettes per day [8]. Recent trends suggest that young adults (aged [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] are susceptible in developing regular smoking behaviour [9]. Beside manufactured cigarettes, the use of waterpipe tobacco is currently common in this age group [10]. ...
... It was reported that the mean age of picking up the smoking habits was around 15 to 16 years' old which simply means during their teenagers' life in secondary education period. Peer influence, curiosity, having family members who smoke were among the factors causing an individual in the age group of 14-18 to get attracted toward smoking habit and become an addict for the rest of his or her life [22,23]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Smoking has long reported to cause oral cancer. Dental professionals are responsible to advice on both smoking cessation and prevention as the effects of smoking are easily identify within the oral examination. This however may develop some conflict if they themselves own a habit of tobacco use. Aim: This study is to determine the prevalence of smoking among dental student in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) and the factors associated with their smoking habit. Methods: Data on smoking habits, smoking factors, cessation plan and sociodemographic status were collected and analysed using SPSS version 24.0. Conclusions: Less than 7% of total undergraduate dental students at USM is a current smoker. All of them are well-addressed about the awareness and cessation of smoking habits from the dental school curriculum and university's program. However, having close friends who are smokers may influence the smoking habits.
... It can be inferred from this study that most participants began smoking and were regular smokers at the age of 14. Individuals between the ages of 14 to 18 years were most prone to [31]. ...
Full-text available
Rising worldwide adolescent smoking necessitates national and global research to establish intervention methods. This research evaluated the efficacies of ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange (5A’s) and ask, advise, act (3A’s) interventions. Self-reported quit-smoking attempts were the outcome measure. Six villages were randomly selected and equally divided into three groups: 5A’s, 3A’s, and control (no intervention). There were 519 current participant-smokers aged 13-17 followed-up by phone (first and third months) and face-to-face interviews (sixth and ninth months). Most 3A’s participants (n=12, 7.1%) quitted smoking in the first month, followed by the 5A’s (n=9, 5.3%) and the control (n=3, 1.9%). In the third month, 5A’s participants topped the rank (n=16, 10.7%), followed by the 3A’s (n=14, 9.2%), and control (n=5, 3.4%). As per sixth-month follow-up, the 5A’s group maintained its position on top of the list (n =27, 21.4%), followed by the 3A’s (n=22, 17.1%) and the control (n=5, 4.0%). The majority of 5A’s participants quitted smoking after nine months (n=36, 33.0%), followed by the 3A’s (n=27, 25.5%), while control maintained its position (n=5, 5.0%). Division health officers and school health-teams nationwide should implement them.
... The reason for the early age of hypertension risk could be as a result of early debut of chronic risk factors. For example, research shows that tobacco use often begins in the teenage years [14,15,16,17,19]. One study showed that over 30% of adolescent and young adults aged 12-26 and living with HIV smoked tobacco at least once a week [20]. ...
Full-text available
Introduction There is an increased risk of hypertension among people living with HIV (PLWH). Older age has been associated with a higher risk of chronic conditions. In this study, we assess the time taken before adults living with HIV develop hypertension and explore the factors associated with hypertension diagnosis among PLWH. Methods Retrospective analysis on (n=95 701) HIV positive adults from the longitudinal survey data from the National Income Dynamics Survey (NIDS) in South Africa was performed. The adults (18-75 years) were followed in order to determine the age of hypertension risk. Kaplan Meier survival estimates were used to show time to diagnosis. Multivariate cox regression model was used to determine the factors associated with hypertension diagnosis. Results 10.5% had HIV and hypertension at the start of the NID survey (wave 1:2008). Of the remaining (n=85 569), over 75% aged 30 - 46 were at risk of developing hypertension. Thereafter the risk of hypertension comorbidity begins to decrease after the age of 45. In other words, the risk of hypertension began to reduce once the adults living with HIV turned 45 years old. There was no significant association between the development of hypertension comorbidity and the other demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics assessed. Conclusion Young adults living with HIV are also at risk of hypertension. HIV infected persons need to routinely screen for chronic diseases and started on treatment timeously.
... Smoking and Health). A cigarette smoker would not experience immediate and short-term negative health consequences of cigarette smoking (Anjum et al. [2]). However, such a smoker will experience slow but long-term fatal effects of continued smoking (Group [6]). ...
Background. Smoking is one of the global pandemic that has led to continued loss of lives over the past several centuries. West reported that higher percentage of smokers know the health impacts of smoking, with many reporting that the do not enjoy smoking Objective. This study set out to examine the actual reasons for the spread of smoking. Methods. An online survey provided quantitative data from 700 participants. Respondents were randomly divided into two conditions (Yes +, No -) and asked to respond to one of two sets of the causes of smoking. The responses was analysed using contrast method with supersaturated designs and regression methods using the SPSS computer software to determine the actual causes that led to the spread of smoking. Results. The findings indicated that ignorance of the seriousness of smoking on health, the unemployment, the media, ignorance of the legitimate ruling of smoking, to imitate the blind to friends and family, not to introduce deterrent laws to reduce smoking in public places and experience are the factors that led to the spread of smoking in Saudi society statistically. Conclusion. It is recommended that Saudi government professionals develop an operational plan to study these causes to take actions.
... The proportion of participants with insufficient and deficient Vitamin D in this study is high, and this high prevalence is similar to that reported by other researchers. [13] Our study is in line with several recent studies showing current smoking to be associated with Vitamin D deficiency or lower serum Vitamin D concentrations [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] and provided complementary information on the dose-response pattern. Recently, Soldin et al. found an adverse effect of smoking on the synthesis of steroid hormones, including Vitamin D. [29] The exact mechanisms by which smoking affects Vitamin D metabolisms are still unclear. ...
... Various studies have proven that cigarette smoke has become a killer factor indirectly [1]. Smoking is harmful to health because cigarette smoke has the potential to damage all organs of the body. ...
... [10][11][12] This often occurs while attending college or university, perhaps as a result of being surrounded by peers who believe that smoking is fashionable. [13][14][15][16] Importantly, the present study noted that peer pressure, especially from friends, was the main reason that women started smoking. ...
Full-text available
Objectives: Smoking is one of the most adaptable risk behaviours associated with increased mortality rates, yet over one billion individuals worldwide are smokers. This study aimed to examine self-reported reasons for starting and quitting smoking among women attending smoking cessation clinics in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January 2014 and January 2017 in Saudi Arabia using previously collected data. A survey was distributed to 3,000 female smokers attending smoking cessation programmes in 18 clinics from different regions in Saudi Arabia to determine self-reported reasons for smoking initiation and willingness/unwillingness to quit. Results: A total of 2,190 women participated in the study (response rate = 73%). Overall, the most common reason for starting to smoke was friends (31.1%), while the predominant reason for willingness to quit was health concerns (45.5%). The most frequent reason for being unwilling to quit smoking was a fear of mood changes (28%). Conclusion: Most Saudi women are socially-driven to start smoking, while the most common reason for quitting is health concerns. The latter finding is promising in that it shows that smokers are gaining awareness of the adverse effects of smoking.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smoking is a problem that is still difficult to solve today. Indonesia ranks third with the highest number of smokers in the world. Smoking is considered to provide pleasure for smokers. The dangers of consuming tobacco and smoking on health are a truth and a reality. The disadvantages of this smoking behavior are many, both for oneself and for others. There are many reasons for someone to smoke. The factors that cause this smoking behavior come from external factors and internal factors. Objective: To see a description of smoking behavior in college students. This research was conducted on 188 respondents in the city. Methodology: This research is a descriptive study. Sampling using purposive sampling technique Keywords-Behavior, College student, Smoking behavior Abstrak-Merokok adalah masalah yang masih sulit diselesaikan sampai saat ini. Indonesia menduduki rating ketiga dengan jumlah perokok tertinggi di dunia. Merokok dianggap dapat memberikan kenikmatan bagi perokok. Bahaya mengkomsumsi tembakau dan merokok terhadap kesehatan merupakan sebuah kebenaran dan kenyataan. Kerugian dari perilaku merokok ini sangat banyak, baik untuk diri sendiri maupun orang lain.Terdapat banyak alas an yang menjadi latar belakang seseorang menjadi perokok. Faktor yang menyebabkan perilaku merokok ini ada dari faktor eksternal dan faktor internal. Tujuan:Melihat gambaran perilaku merokok pada mahasiswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap 188 responden di Kota Metodologi: penelitian ini merupakan penelitian studi deskriptif. Pengambilan sampel dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Kata Kunci-Mahasiswa, Perilaku, Perilaku merokok PENDAHULUAN Merokok adalah masalah yang masih sulit diselesaikan sampai saat ini. Beberapa aturan dan pemberitaan mengenai dampak dan bahaya merokok sudah dipublikasikan kepada masyarakat, namun kebiasaan merokok di masyarakat masih sulit dihentikan. Bahaya mengkomsumsi tembakau dan merokok terhadap kesehatan merupakan sebuah kebenaran dan kenyataan. Kerugian dari perilaku merokok ini sangat banyak, baik untuk diri sendiri maupun orang lain. Setiap menit, hampir 11 juta batang rokok dihisap di dunia dan 10 orang meninggal karena rokok (Ita, 2018 dalam Adellia, 2019). Berdasarkan data Riskesdas (2013) didapatkan prevalensi perokok pada usia 20-24 tahun sebesar 16,3%. Data tersebut membuktikan tingginya prevelensi perokok usia muda terutama pada usia mahasiswa. Minarsih dalam Lubis (2012) menyatakan bahwa, berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia jumlah wanita yang merokok di Indonesia mencapai 40,5% dari keseluruhan jumlah penduduk wanita yang ada. Peringkat pertama yaitu mahasiswa putri, kemudian disusul oleh pelajar. Mahasiswa berada pada rentang usia 18-25 tahun yang disebut periode emerging adulthood, di mana pada masa ini sudah tidak ketergantungan seperti masa kanak-kanak dan remaja, dan belum memasuki tanggung jawab abadi yang normatif di masa dewasa. Karakteristik pada periode ini adalah mereka mulai sering mengeksplorasi pada berbagai arah kehidupan (Arnett, J.J : 2009). Pada tahap ini individu masih mengeksplorasi jalur yang ingin mereka ambil, ingin menjadi individu seperti apa dan gaya hidup seperti apa yang mereka inginkan. Periode ini adalah periode yang penting bagi mahasiswa yang seringkali merupakan kesempatan pertama mereka untuk membuat keputusan sendiri akan apa yang mereka lakukan. Dalam prosesnya periode ini tidaklah mudah, sebagian dari mahasiswa ada yang kesulitan saat menjalankan tanggung jawabnya sendiri sepenuhnya, mereka masih sulit untuk mandiri dan melakukan segalanya sendiri, Sebagian dari mereka masih ada yang bergantung terhadap teman kelompoknya. Berdasarkan pra-survey yang dilakukan dengan wawancara kepada 74 mahasiswa perokok, 47 mahasiswa diantaranya mengatakan mereka menghisap lebih banyak rokok ketika sedang bersama teman, mereka mengatakan bahwa teman mereka sering menawarkan rokok dan apabila menolak akan diolok-olok. Mereka juga mengatakan bahwa mereka suka melihat temannya merokok sehingga mereka mengikutinya agar sama seperti kelompoknya. Hal ini sesuai dengan mereka sedang dalam keadaan stres. Mereka mengatakan lebih banyak merokok di tempat umum seperti cafe. Mereka mengatakan jika mereka sedang bersama teman, mereka dapat menghabiskan hampir satu bungkus rokok dan ketika mereka stres mereka dapat menghabiskan 7-10 batang rokok. Mereka juga mengatakan bahwa mereka mengetahui dampak dan bahaya dari merokok. Hal ini sejalan dengan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh (Anjum, Srikanth, Reddy, Monica, Yadav Rao, & Sheetal. 2016) yang mengatakan bahwa pengaruh teman sebaya dan stres diketahui sebagai salah satu prediktor kuat yang menjadi alasan utama remaja memulai kebiasaan merokoknya. Mereka juga mengatakan bahwa dengan merokok dapat memberikan ketenangan ketika mereka sedang stres. Pada
Full-text available
Background: Smoking is currently a trend among youths, with the public emergence of new smokers shifting to this group. Aim:This study aims at analyzing the effect of peer promoters as communicators on the knowledge and smoking attitudes of junior high school adolescents. Methods:The quasi-experimental and non-equivalent control group designs were used. Furthermore, the respondents included 1062 students from two junior high schools in Makassar City, Indonesia, with 473 and 589 males and females, respectively. A total of 801 respondents had paired data (pre and post-test) consisting of 334 in the intervention and 467 in the control school.Paired t-test was used to measure the difference in the pretest and post-test scores of intervention and control schools. Independent t-test was used to determine mean difference between the pretest and post-test scores between intervention and the control schools. Results:The results showed that 18.4% (n = 1062) had smoked, with subtleties of 39.4% male and 1.5% female understudies. the knowledge score increase of 0.82 (p = 0.000) and 0.22 (p = 0.004) was observed in the intervention and control schools, respectively (n = 801). The attitude score also increased by 2.23 (p = 0.080) in the intervention and 2.51 (p = 0.000) in the control school (n = 801). Differences in the knowledge and attitude scores between both schools obtained a value of p = 0.004 and 0.766, respectively. Conclusion: education by peer promoters increase knowledge and change adolescent smoking attitudes indicated the promotion of school-based smoking behavior prevention efforts with intensive peer approach
Full-text available
Perilaku merokok merupakan salah satu kebiasaan yang dapat ditemui hampir di setiap kalangan masyarakat, baik laki-laki maupun perempuan, mulai dari usia muda hingga tua. Rokok bukan lagi menjadi hal yang baru atau asing lagi di masyarakat. Sangat mudah untuk menemukan orang yang merokok, seperti di rumah, kantor, cafe, tempat-tempat umum, di dalam kendaraan, bahkan hingga di sekolah-sekolah. Merokok sudah menjadi lifestyle pada kebanyakan penduduk di negara bekembang, termasuk Indonesia. Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara dengan jumlah perokok terbesar di Dunia. Dari data World Health Organization (WHO) pada tahun 2008, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Indonesia menempati urutan ketiga setelah China dan India pada sepuluh negara perokok terbesar. Jumlah perokok di Indonesia mencapai 65 juta penduduk. Sementara China mencapai 390 juta perokok dan India 144 juta perokok. Data dari Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 2013. Mengungkapkan banyak di kalangan mahasiswa yang menyatakan bahwa dengan merokok dapat menghilangkan stres, kecemasan, gelisah, marah, sulit tidur, dan lain-lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya hubungan antara stress dengan kebiasaan merokok pada Komunitas Pendaki Indonesia Korwil Yogyakarta. Jenis penelitian ini menggunakan deskriptif korelasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik total sampling. Analisa data menggunakan Kendall tau. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan koefisien korelasi sebesar 0.055 pada signifikan 0.000 (p value <0.01). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat hubungan signifikan antara stress dengan kebiasaan merokok responden yang merupakan komunitas pendaki dimana semakin tinggi tingkat stressnya, semakin berat pula kebiasaan merokoknya.
Full-text available
To understand the context for tobacco smoking in young adolescents, estimating the effects of individual, family, social, and school related factors. Cross sectional analysis performed by multilevel logistic regression with pupils at the first level and schools at the second level. The data came from a stratified sample of students surveyed on their own, their families' and their friends' smoking habits, their schools, and their awareness of cigarette prices and advertising. The study was performed in the Island of Gran Canaria, Spain. 1877 students from 30 secondary schools in spring of 2000 (model's effective sample sizes 1697 and 1738). 14.2% of the young teenagers surveyed use tobacco, almost half of them (6.3% of the total surveyed) on a daily basis. According to the ordered logistic regression model, to have a smoker as the best friend increases significantly the probability of smoking (odds ratio: 6.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.93 to 9.84), and the same stands for one smoker living at home compared with a smoking free home (odds ratio: 2.03, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.36). Girls smoke more (odds ratio: 1.85, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.59). Experience with alcohol, and lack of interest in studies are also significant factors affecting smoking. Multilevel models of logistic regression showed that factors related to the school affect the smoking behaviour of young teenagers. More specifically, whether a school complies with antismoking rules or not is the main factor to predict smoking prevalence in schools. The remainder of the differences can be attributed to individual and family characteristics, tobacco consumption by parents or other close relatives, and peer group. A great deal of the individual differences in smoking are explained by factors at the school level, therefore the context is very relevant in this case. The most relevant predictors for smoking in young adolescents include some factors related to the schools they attend. One variable stood out in accounting for the school to school differences: how well they enforced the no smoking rule. Therefore we can prevent or delay tobacco smoking in adolescents not only by publicising health risks, but also by better enforcing no smoking rules in schools.
Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
Smoking is a significant cause of deaths that could be prevented Active and passive smoking both contribute to the development of chronic diseases and increased mortality. The early initiation of smoking habits and constant exposure to tobacco products increase the relative risk factor in the occurrence of serious acute or chronic health disorders. In addition to the negative health effects, smoking has a discernible economic impact on the smokers themselves and on the health system of the country and detrimental effects on the social aspects of the population. The mass media and the internet appear to have an important role in increasing the smoking habits of the population. Encouragement of individuals to smoke is accomplished through advertisements which exculpate the negative smoking effects, displaying pictures of health, psycho-emotional balance and feelings of independence and social acceptance. It appears that the recipients of this kind of message are mainly adolescents, who are more susceptible to be influenced towards developing smoking habits, in the absence of anti-smoking advertisements and messages. The effects of smoking in adolescence and the influence of the mass media on the development of smoking habits constitute a multiactorial problem with immediate and long-term socio-economic effects. The coordinated efforts of public and private organizations, with the support of health professionals, could contribute greatly to increasing the awareness of the dangers and to combatting the problem.
Identifying the underlying factors contributing to smoking among teenagers is important in establishing smoking control programs. The present study was designed to identify and compare factors revealed in a preceding qualitative study conducted on 13-15 year-old boys living in two different socio-economic districts in the Northern and Southern parts of Tehran. Two completely similar case-control studies, each with 200 subjects, were conducted using a snowball sampling. The case and control subjects were matched based on the intimacy relations, i.e. six smokers were recruited in each of the Northern and Southern districts; they were then asked to introduce one of their smoker friends as a case and a non-smoker one as a control. Multi-variable conditional logistic regression revealed that having a smoker father is the single effective factor in the two districts. As for boys living in the Northern (wealthier) part of the city, social capital (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.81) played a protective role against smoking, whereas quitting home after a quarrel (OR: 15.07, 95% CI: 1.54-147.25), monthly allowance (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.29-3.82) and hyperactivity (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 2.64-240.45) were associated with a higher risk of becoming a smoker. The studied variables can be classified as personal, familial, and school-level factors. Familial intervention is effective for all the factors which revealed to be influential on the risk of becoming a smoker. It could be concluded that interventions on the family level should be used to prevent the cigarette use in Tehran.
A matched sample of 300 children was selected from 7,115 Derbyshire primary school children, who had completed an initial screening questionnaire on smoking and respiratory symptoms in March 1971. In July 1971, 293 of the 300 children (229 boys and 64 girls) completed a second questionnaire giving information about their first cigarette, smoking by their parents, siblings, and friends, and also their reasons for smoking or not. Because of the small number of girls, only the results from the boys are reported here. Over a period of four months only 63% of the children were consistent in their replies.It would appear that the parents and brothers living in the household, as well as friends, influence boys to take up smoking. Over half of the smokers were given their first cigarette. Eleven per cent of the boys were given their first cigarette by their parents.The children's attitudes to smoking were complex. They did not think smoking was enjoyable. Non-smokers saw smoking as showing off. Most of the children thought smoking caused cancer, but some of these did not see this as a health hazard. Few children saw curiosity as an important reason for smoking. This may have implications for effective antismoking education.
A survey on adolescent smoking habits was carried out among 2,587 girls and boys, mostly aged between 11 and 16 and belonging to 16 schools representative of the 'département' of Rhône in France, in order to evaluate present smoking behaviour as well as estimate the influence of parents, friends and sociodemographic factors in acquiring or maintaining the habit. Students were surveyed in schools using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. Analysis was carried out using both the univariate and logistic methods, aiming at a precise quantification and description of the smoking habit, as well as an identification of predictors of smoking, separately for girls and boys, and also for triers only, occasional and regular smokers. Smoking regularly increases with age and from the age of 14 becomes slightly more prevalent among girls than boys. The influence of peer smoking (group of friends and best friend) seems stronger than parental smoking, although determinants of smoking differ moderately for girls and boys.
The Habit of Smoking Prevalence, Causes and Influences of the Environment Home-school in High School Students
  • M Razaei
  • K Zully
Razaei M, Zully K. The Habit of Smoking Prevalence, Causes and Influences of the Environment Home-school in High School Students. 1999-2001. Argentine Federation of Cardiology. 2 nd Virtual Congress of Cardiology; 1999-2001.