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The analysis on sport attitudes of students at high school education in Turkey

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Vol. 11(5), pp. 194-203, 10 March, 2016
DOI: 10.5897/ERR2015.2610
Article Number: DF5719857347
ISSN 1990-3839
Copyright © 2016
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
http://www.academicjournals.org/ERR
Educational Research and Reviews
Full Length Research Paper
The analysis on sport attitudes of students at high
school education in Turkey
Ahmet Atalay
School of Physical Education and Sports, Ardahan University, Ardahan, Turkey.
Received 17 December, 2015; Accepted 29 January, 2016
The research objective is to determine different variables on sport attitudes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
grade high school students throughout Turkey. Data were collected using face to face survey method
with students studying in 21 provinces within seven different geographical regions of Turkey. 5862
randomized students are selected throughout Turkey for this research. Frequency analysis, reliability
analysis, factor analysis, nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis comparison tests were
conducted to determine the sport attitudes of students. Reliability analysis is made regarding the
questions on the sportive attitude scale and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is calculated as 0.923. With
respect to research results of sport habits of students at high school in secondary education level
throughout Turkey, it is determined that students who are studying in higher grades, have medium-
income family and whose mother’s educational status is relatively on a higher level, are more positive
towards sport participation.
Key words: Turkey, high school, student, sport, health, physical activity, attitude. Kindergarten, teacher, spare
time, sporting habit.
INTRODUCTION
Attitude, cognitive, emotional and behavioral system,
might be described as a notion consisting of individual’s
perpetual or temporary assumptions of the world. It may
also include individual’s expectations on other persons,
their values and perspectives, their emotions and beliefs
on what is right or wrong and what to seek and avoid
(Karahan and Kuru, 2015). Individual’s attitude on any
event or fact comprises cognitive, affective and
behavioral factors (Usta et al., 2014).
Arising from opinion and attitude among individuals and
society regarding sport or participation in sport might take
shape with factors like life style, education and
perspective on life. Accurate perception of physical,
cognitive, mental and social benefits of sport will maintain
the improvement of sport attitudes.
While sport provides opportunity for the eminence of
countries, it also represents an obvious call for cultural,
social and economic aspects (Nicholson et al., 2011).
However, perceiving this call will be ensured by
generalizing mass sport activities and adopting sport
attitude in society. Generalization of sport in society and
exhibiting a positive sport attitude is closely related to
transferring sport to children and adolescents as a
cultural element and enabling them adopt regular sport
E-mail: ahmet.atalay.75@gmail.com. Tel: +90 507 578 97 83.
Authors agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 International License
habit.
Nowadays, sport is a significant factor in upbringing
qualified persons who have completed their physical,
social and emotional development and also it can be
considerably deemed as supporter of socializing process
for children and adolescents (Koçak et al., 2013;
Pherson, 1981). Participating in sport influences social
and emotional development in addition to healthy
development of young generation (Marquis and Baker,
2015). Participating in regular physical activity significantly
contributes to cognitive functions development together
with supporting healthy aging process for children,
adolescents and also adults (Booth et al., 2000; Weuve
et al., 2004).
Sport is an area in which individual gains a competitive
manner, working discipline and ambition of struggle,
learns cooperation despite all diversities persons gather
within the same rules and compete individually or as
teams (Şahan, 2008; Şebin et al., 2007). Such factors as
competition, entertainment, rivalry and developing rivalry
motivate participating in this area (Koivula, 2009).
Participating in sport has substantial functions in terms of
strengthening the entire society, enhancing communi-
cation, cooperation, solidarity and social ties in society
(NSW Sport and Recreation, 2007); developing social
networks and maintaining them beyond its physical and
health-related benefits (Allender et al., 2006). Likewise,
sport is closely related to especially social integration and
suppression of social problems (Vermeulen and Verweel,
2006); improvement of health and social progress
(Sherlock et al., 2010); supporting psychosocial and
emotional soundness (Stepteo and Butler, 1996) and
enhancing civil participation and social communication
(Edwards, 2013).
Social, cultural and educational acquisitions gained
with sports also influence the social lives of individuals.
Therefore, it is essential for children and youth to be
involved in sports, develop a positive attitude about
sports in order to build a healthy society. Furthermore,
the attitudes and behaviors of the school environment
and the physical training teachers are the milestones of
this process. Bringing healthy and qualified individuals
into society through sports is also a dynamic of social
development. Within this context, the correlation
coefficient between social well-being and participation in
sports or positive attitude towards sports is relatively
high.
In this manner, the research objective is to determine
different variables (parentseducation level, income and
students’ graduate level) on sport attitudes of the 1st,
2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade students at high school in
secondary education level throughout Turkey.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
The research objective is to determine different variables (parents’
education level, income and students’ graduate level) on sport
Atalay 195
attitudes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade students at high school
in secondary education level throughout Turkey. For this purpose,
data is acquired using face to face survey method with students
studying in 21 provinces within seven different geographical regions
of Turkey.
Turkey is a country that is parted to seven different geographical
regions. Therefore, the scale of this research involves 21 provinces
that have been randomly selected from seven different geographic
regions, in order to represent the country in general with research
findings. The survey used is “Sport Attitudes of College Students”
scale which was developed by Funda Koçak in 2014 (Koçak, 2014).
Five point likert type scale with 19 questions has been used in
this research. The responses in the scale are graded from 1 to 5.
The grading is as following: 1: Absolutely Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3:
Undecided, 4: Agree, 5: Absolutely Agree. Reliability analysis is
made by Koçak (2014) and cronbach’s alpha coefficient was
calculated as 0,823. In this research, reliability analysis is made
regarding the questions on the sportive attitude scale. Cronbach’s
alpha coefficient is calculated as 0.923. 5862 randomized students
are participated in this research from the provinces included in the
research. Also within the scope of research, the relations between
the factors obtained from sportive attitude scale and students’
demographic features are analyzed. Frequency analysis, reliability
analysis, factor analysis and nonparametric comparison tests are
conducted to determine the sport attitudes of students. Frequency
analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis and nonparametric
Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis comparison tests are conducted
to determine the sport attitudes of students.
FINDINGS
Results of frequency analysis obtained regarding the
demographic features of research participants are shown
in detail in Table 1. The variances of gender, age, grade
and number of family members, income and parents’
educational status of the participants are considered.
Sample adequacies for factor analysis and sphericity test
results are shown in Table 2. According to test results,
Kaiser Meyer statistic coefficient has been calculated as
0.953 and this result shows that chosen sample is
adequate. Whether there is a meaningful correlation
between variances is analyzed with Bartlett sphericity
test. Hypotheses regarding sphericity test are as below:
Ho: There is no meaningful correlation between survey
questions.
Hı: There is a meaningful correlation between two
questions at least.
It is identified that, a meaningful correlation exists
between at least two variances according to hypothesis
test result regarding sphericity test (p<0.05). Eigen value
statistics calculated for factor analysis and variance
description ratio are shown in Table 3. Two factors of
which eigenvalue is bigger than 1 are chosen according
to Kaiser Scale. Considering the obtained two factors,
variance description ratio is approximately 45%. The total
variability of chosen two factors are described as 45% in
consequence of factor analysis. Rotated components
matrix results with relation to factor analysis are shown in
Table 4. Three questions with low factor load are
196 Educ. Res. Rev.
Table 1. Demographic frequency analysis.
Variable
Group
Valid percentage (%)
Age
14
.7
15
21.4
16
26.2
17
25.5
18
20.8
19
4.2
20
1.2
21
.1
Gender
Male
48.7
Female
51.3
Classroom
1
25.7
2
27.3
3
25.6
4
21.3
Number of persons in family
1
.0
2
.1
3
3.7
4
18.6
5
30.4
6
21.2
7
11.2
8
10.3
9
3.5
10
.5
11
.5
12
.1
Income
0-499
1.9
500-999
6.9
1000-1499
9.7
1500-1999
15.7
2000-2499
24.7
2500 and more
41.0
Education of the father
Primary education
12.4
Secondary education
39.0
College
27.2
Undergraduate
17.8
Graduate
3.1
PhD
.6
Education of the mother
Primary education
36.3
Secondary education
33.8
College
11.9
Undergraduate
16.0
Graduate
1.9
PhD
.1
Atalay 197
Table 2. Sample size adequacy and correlation test statistics.
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistic
0.953
Bartlett's test of sphericity statistics
Chi-square statistic
37842.466
Df
171
Sig.
0.000
Table 3. Eigen values and the percentage of explained variances.
Item
Eigen value
Variance percentage (%)
Cumulative variance percentage (%)
i1
7.220
38.001
38.001
i2
1.342
7.064
45.065
i3
0.973
5.122
50.187
i4
0.877
4.617
54.803
i5
0.761
4.004
58.807
i6
0.718
3.780
62.587
i7
0.698
3.676
66.264
i8
0.645
3.395
69.659
i9
0.630
3.316
72.975
i10
0.600
3.159
76.134
i11
0.585
3.081
79.216
i12
0.558
2.936
82.151
i13
0.538
2.831
84.982
i14
0.515
2.710
87.693
i15
0.509
2.678
90.370
i16
0.479
2.523
92.893
i17
0.456
2.399
95.292
i18
0.449
2.363
97.655
i19
0.446
2.345
100.000
excluded from the analysis. According to rotated
components matrix results, the first factor has 10
questions and the second factor has 9 questions. As
factor loads are over 0.50, survey questions are listed
under relevant factors.
Average comparison tests
Average score values of survey questions clustered
under two factors are received by using factor structures
obtained as a result of factor analysis. In this manner, two
different factors are converted to variances. Factors are
denominated according to questions clustered under
factors. The first factor is denominated as physical and
mental attitude and the second factor is denominated as
a social and psychological attitude. Test of normality is
implemented for factor scores and it is determined that
factor scores do not comply with normal distribution
according to test statistics (p<0.05). Mann-Whitney and
Kruskal-Wallis tests are implemented as factor scores do
not comply with normal distribution. Variances of grade,
gender, income and parents’ education status are used
for average comparison tests. Social-psychological
attitude and physical-mental attitude factor scores are
used as dependent variables. Hypothesizes for average
comparisons are as below:
Ho: There is no meaningful difference between
demographic variance groups according to factor scores.
Hı: There is a meaningful difference between at least two
groups of demographic variance according to factor
scores.
Multiple comparison tests are implemented for variances
that statistically have meaningful difference, and
differential groups are analyzed.
According to the results of Kruskal-Wallis test
implemented for grade variance, there is a meaningful
difference between at least two groups for physical-
mental attitude factor (p<0.05). The results of multiple
comparison test for grade group is shown in Table 5. A
meaningful difference is not found for social-
psychological attitude factor (p<0.05). According to
multiple comparison test results, 4th grade students have
198 Educ. Res. Rev.
Table 4. Rotated component matrix of the
items.
Item
Component
1
2
i18
0.683
-
I11
0.656
-
i17
0.631
-
I10
0.630
-
i19
0.630
-
i15
0.624
-
I12
0.602
-
i16
0.593
-
i14
0.584
-
i13
0.550
-
i3
-
0.686
i5
-
0.646
i6
-
0.641
i7
-
0.634
i4
-
0.620
i2
-
0.613
i1
-
0.613
i8
-
0.595
i9
-
.0537
Table 5. Multiple comparisons with classroom
variable for physical-mental attitude factor.
Group
Test statistic
Sig.
4-2
70,895
1.000
4-1
74,550
1.000
4-3
222,817
0,003
2-1
3,655
1.000
2-3
-151,921
0,074
1-3
-148,267
0,097
higher physical-mental attitude score in comparison to
3rd grade students (p<0.05). According to Mann-Whitney
test implemented for gender variance, there is no
meaningful difference between gender groups for both
factors (p>0.05).
According to the result of Kruskal-Wallis test
implemented for income variance, there is a meaningful
difference between at least two groups for both factors
(p<0.05). The result of multiple comparison tests for
income groups are shown in Table 6 to 7. It is determined
according to multiple comparison test results that,
individuals with income in the rage of 1500 to 1999 TL
have higher physical-mental attitude score in comparison
to individuals with income in the rage of 0-499 and 500-
999 TL (p<0.05). According to the result of Kruskal-Wallis
test implemented for father’s education status variance,
there is no meaningful difference between gender groups
for both factors (p>0.05).
According to the result of Kruskal-Wallis test
implemented for mother’s education status variance,
there is a meaningful difference between at least two
groups for both factors (p<0.05). The result of multiple
comparison tests for income groups are shown in Table 8
to 9. It is determined according to multiple comparison
test results that, individuals whose mother’s education
status is at the level of master degree have higher social-
psychological attitude score in comparison to individuals
whose mother’s education status is at the level of
elementary school and bachelor’s degree (p<0.05). The
individuals whose mother’s education status is at the
level of master degree have higher physical-mental
attitude score in comparison to individuals whose
mother’s education status is at the level of secondary
education (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION
With respect to this research results, the research in
which sport attitudes or in other words sport habits of
students at high school in secondary education level
throughout Turkey are assessed and two factors have
been obtained as a result of the factor analysis: socio-
psychological and physical-mental factors. Relations
between the factors and demographical features have
been examined with average comparison tests.
Considering the results of average comparison test, it has
been understood that senior students have more positive
views on sports in terms of physical-mental attitude than
junior students have.
When the level of income is examined, individuals with
family income in the rage of 1500 to 1999 TL think more
positively on sport physical-mentally in comparison to the
individuals with income in the rage of 0 to 499 and
500999 TL. The individuals whose mother’s education
status is at the level of master degree have more positive
perspective on sport in terms of social-psychological
attitude in comparison to individuals whose mother’s
education status is at the level of elementary school and
bachelor’s degree. It has been identified that gender
factor which is dominant and determinant concerning
participation in sport has not caused a significant
difference within this research.
According to the results of this research, senior
students have more positive views on sports attitude than
junior students. Sport which is a basic supporter of
education life must be popularized and promoted with the
purpose of raising healthy generations. Insufficient
physical activity that has become a universal disorder is
the fourth most common cause of death (Kohl et al.,
2012). Insufficient level of physical activity, especially
obesity is a disorder that has fatal results like cardio-
vascular disease and diabetes. Therefore, children and
young people should be encouraged to participate in
Atalay 199
Table 6. Multiple comparisons with income variable for physical-mental
attitude factor.
Group
Test statistic
Sig.
0-499 - 500-999 TL
-231,606
1.000
0-499 - 1000-1499 TL
-298,058
1.000
0-499 - 2500 TL and more
-346,880
0,495
0-499 - 2000-2499 TL
-357,106
0,458
0-499 - 1500-1999 TL
-531,153
0,024
500-999 - 1000-1499 TL
-66,453
1.000
500-999 - 2500 TL and more
-115,274
1.000
500-999 - 2000-2499 TL
-125,500
1.000
500-999 - 1500-1999 TL
-299,548
0,044
1000-1499 - 2500 TL and more
-48,821
1.000
1000-1499 - 2000-2499 TL
-59,047
1.000
1000-1499 - 1500-1999 TL
-233,095
0,146
2500 TL and more - 2000-2499 TL
10,226
1.000
2500 TL and more - 1500-1999 TL
184,274
0,073
2000-2499 - 1500-1999 TL
174,048
0,217
Table 7. Multiple comparisons with income variable for social-physical
attitude factor.
Group
Test statistic
Sig.
0-499 - 500-999 TL
-267,197
1.000
0-499 - 1000-1499 TL
-340,572
0,757
0-499 - 2500 TL and more
-390,676
0,245
0-499 - 2000-2499 TL
-408,948
0,199
0-499 - 1500-1999 TL
-517,754
0,032
500-999 - 1000-1499
-73,376
1.000
500-999 - 2500 TL and more
-123,479
1.000
500-999 - 2000-2499 TL
-141,751
1.000
500-999 - 1500-1999 TL
-250,557
0,192
1000-1499 - 2500 TL and more
-50,103
1.000
1000-1499 - 2000-2499 TL
-68,376
1.000
1000-1499 - 1500-1999 TL
-177,182
0,743
2500 TL and more - 2000-2499 TL
18,272
1.000
2500 TL and more - 1500-1999 TL
127,078
0,785
2000-2499 TL - 1500-1999 TL
108,806
1.000
physical activities and sports with the aim of being
healthy generations (Melekoğlu, 2015). Even in
developed countries of western societies, physical activity
level is low. Nowadays, 31% of population at the age of
15 and older ones are inactive (Hallal et al., 2012).
Developing new strategies are inevitable in order to
increase participation in physical activities for a healthy
society (Eime et al., 2015). Branch teachers, particularly
physical education teachers and school management
have responsibility for the purpose of increasing children
and young people's participation in sports. Drake et al.
(2015) states that sports events to be held in schools are
significantly efficient and important in terms of developing
social health and he underlines that more students
should be aimed to participate in sport activities held in
schools (Drake et al., 2015).
Only organizing activities is not enough for developing
sport attitudes of students. Sport environment, area and
equipment should also be provided and they should be
accessible with the aim of conducting these activities
healthfully. Otherwise, developed strategies will be
useless. In a research conducted by Kotan et al., 44,6%
of students have stated that there are not enough
equipment for the attended branches; 54,6 % of students
200 Educ. Res. Rev.
Table 8. Multiple comparisons with mother education variable for
physical-mental attitude factor.
Group
Test statistic
Sig.
PhD - Graduate
123,392
1.000
PhD Secondary Ed.
347,308
1.000
PhD Primary Ed.
358,822
1.000
PhD Undergraduate
372,106
1.000
PhD College
572,795
1.000
Graduate - Secondary Ed.
223,916
1.000
Graduate - Primary Ed.
235,430
1.000
Graduate - Undergraduate
248,714
1.000
Graduate - College
449,403
0,135
Secondary Ed. - Primary Ed.
11,514
1.000
Secondary Ed. Undergraduate
-24,798
1.000
Secondary Ed. - College
-225,486
0,037
Primary Ed. Undergraduate
-13,284
1.000
Primary Ed. - College
-213,973
0,056
Undergraduate College
200,689
0,264
Table 9. Multiple comparisons with mother education variable for
social-physical attitude factor.
Group
Test statistic
Sig.
PhD undergraduate
186,028
1.000
PhD primary Ed.
201,237
1.000
PhD secondary Ed.
281,874
1.000
PhD - graduate
315,256
1.000
PhD college
442,410
1.000
Undergraduate primary Ed.
15,209
1.000
Undergraduate secondary Ed.
95,846
1.000
Undergraduate - graduate
-129,228
1.000
Undergraduate college
256,383
0,036
Primary Ed. - secondary Ed.
-80,637
1.000
Primary Ed. - graduate
-114,018
1.000
Primary Ed. - college
-241,173
0,016
Secondary Ed. - graduate
-33,381
1.000
Secondary Ed. - college
-160,536
0,466
Graduate college
127,155
1.000
have expressed that they cannot use available equipment
whenever they want; 50,2% have mentioned that there
are not fields suitable for the attended branches (Kotan et
al., 2009).
There are also social, mental, emotional and cognitive
benefits of sport activities. For example, sense of
belonging to a group and social identification are very
dominant in lives of young people in high school. Sport
activities at schools play a very important role for
satisfying these dominant senses. Regarding this social
mission of the sports, marsh remarks that participation in
sport is a supporting conception when someone identifies
him/herself within school (Marsh, 1993). This process
beginning with the school identification should be
perceived and evaluated as a proceeding flow of life
enabling adolescents to take part as beneficial individuals
in society. In a research about concrete results of sport
activities held within schools, it has been stated that
social skills of children participating in regular sports
activities are high and their behavioral problems are low
(Marquis and Baker, 2015).
The individuals who are learning to be a part of a group
individually and are developing their social skills will take
the first step to be a part of social unity and solidarity,
social adaptation. Likewise, participating in sport
contributes to the progress of socializing as it mediates
the strengthening of social integrity. While Yetim (2005)
remarks that sport has a mission of establishing cohesion
and peace among persons, societies and nations, Erkal
et al. (1998) remarks that sport also bears the subsidiary
qualification for individuals’ social statuses. Concerning
this, Şahan (2008) states that one of the most significant
impact of sport on social life is being an important factor
in the integration of society.
Ertop et al. (2012) considered this matter from a
different perspective, he emphasized on sense of healthy
life and he remarks that students’ regular sport habit
significantly affects their self-realization, stress manage-
ment, their feeding and exercise behaviors. Besides he
emphasizes that healthy life style perception of students
who are engaged in sport is better than the students who
don't. In a similar vein, Korkmaz and Deniz (2013) state
that individuals whose physical activity level is increasing,
lead healthier and high quality life.
When research results are evaluated, individuals with
family income in the rage of 1500 to 1999 TL think more
positively on sport physically-mentally in comparison to
individuals with income in the rage of 0 to 499 and 500 to
999 TL. Namely, it will be appropriate to state that sport
attitudes are affected positively in parallel with the
increase of income level.
Socio-economic status of the family is a factor that
impacts the level of physical activity for adolescents. It
can be said that adolescent students whose family has
low socio-economic status level are sedentary or less
active compared to equals and participating in sport
increases in case of increase in family income (Santos et
al., 2004; Kızılkaya, 2009).
In a study of Kotan (2007) which is on the reasons of
discontinuing sport, financial difficulties have less effect
upon discontinuing sport among the students who
participate in sports regularly with the increase of family
income level. In a research conducted by Şahin et al.
(2009), it is understood that majority of the students are
from middle and low income, meeting their basic needs
with limited means due to their economic status and
therefore their participation in some recreational activities
remains limited.
Physical training and sport activities within the system
of education, is a factor contributing to the improvement
of individuals in terms of education. When assessed from
this point of view, Dinç et al. (2011) who considers family
income and sport attitude relation from a different
perspective, remarks that the students who have regular
sport habit with the increase in family income, are also
good at their courses. Likewise, in a research conducted
by Öncü (2007), with the increase in family income, the
views on extending gym class period and need of dealing
with each student privately by teachers gain importance.
Family income is one of the basic indicators directly
affecting physical, social, mental and cognitive
Atalay 201
development of family members. Economic status is
occasionally a stimulant or a restrictive factor for the
reinforcement of personal development and for intensely
use of tools for that. Thus, families’ economic self-
sufficiency is directly associated with sport attitudes of
children and adolescents.
General consent in research results and in the body of
literature is towards sport attitudes and participating in
sport is rising together with increase in family income
level. However, in the research conducted by Dalkılıç
(2011), it is understood that there is not a meaningful
relation between family income level and participation in
sport, children from families with any level of income
group participate in sport activities within the bounds of
means (Dalkılıç, 2011). Education is the leading factor
within the most important instruments for a society's
development and progress. Societies with high education
level, solemnly evaluates timing, location factors and
economic means and opportunities to reinforce cultural,
social, artistic and sportive development. In this manner,
the relation between education and sport is a process to
consider. The beginning of this process is based upon
the educational status of family. Parents might contribute
to personal development of children as role models in the
sense of positive or negative manner.
When assessed within the scope of research, one of
the variances influencing sport attitude is mother's
educational status. The individuals whose mother’s
education status is at the level of master degree have
more positive perspective on sport in terms of social-
psychological attitude in comparison to individuals whose
mother’s education status is at the level of elementary
school and bachelor’s degree.
There is a meaningful relation between parents’
educational status and their children’s participation in
sport. Accordingly, it can be said that mothers’ education
status of bachelor’s degree and higher educational status
is particularly effective on children’s participation in sport.
(Akcan and Bulgu, 2012).
In a research conducted by Hünük et al. (2013), it is
obvious that social support perceived from their mother is
effective on the participation in sport for female students
whose physical activity level is high. It can be said that
parents interested in sport, encourages their children for
participating in sport and educational status of the
parents is effective on encouraging for sport (Amman et
al., 2000). Besides, parents’ educational status not only
influences their children’s tendency on sport, branching
out within sport also differentiates with the increase in
educational status (Yücel et al. 2015).
Family as being the smallest unit of society becomes
prominent as an environmental factor for children to gain
the habit of evaluating their leisure times (Tercan, 2015).
Starting to participate in sport at early ages with the
support of family members, constructs a value in society
and it contributes to social benefit (Bulgu, 2013). No
doubt that mother’s educational status has high
202 Educ. Res. Rev.
importance like fathers’ within this process. It can be
stated that parents need to support and maintain this
support for their children’s participation in sport to be
active, and they should establish positive and interesting
sport environment for their children (Eime et al., 2015).
Besides, if parents have negative attitude regarding their
children’s participation in sport for various reasons,
consciousness raising activities should be conducted for
parents to change these attitudes, and these activities
should be generalized (Güven and Öncü, 2006).
Gender and society dilemma disrupts women’s social
activity process occasionally. In fact, it can be said that
this dilemma needs to be abolished with regard to ensure
girls in secondary education level taking part in society as
substantial and qualified individuals and a perception
should be established for the benefit of girls. As for
female students expressing themselves clearly and
taking part in social life as a powerful woman signifies
social wealth. Participation in sport or female students’
sport attitudes should be on the same level with male
students or even on a higher level of participation to
establish this wealth.
Research results are on the level of meeting the earlier
mentioned expectation, and no meaningful difference is
determined with regard to gender variance of male and
female students’ sport attitudes. The importance of this
generated result appears as a counter result in terms of
the revealed findings in the body of literature. Likewise,
generally the level of participation in sport for males can
be seen as higher than females in the earlier researches.
It is asserted in the study conducted by Hoase et al.
(2004) with 23 college students in various geographies of
the world that the level of participation in physical
activities for male students (73%) is higher than female
students (64%).
As stated earlier, it is seen in many scientific studies
conducted both in Turkey and in other countries that
sport attitudes or the level of participation in sport for
males is higher than females (Telford et al., 2015; Yüksel,
2014; Alemdağ, 2013; Alricsson et al., 2006; Tel and
Köksalan, 2008; Bahar, 2008; Booth et al., 2000; Dwyer
et al., 2006; Aslan et al., 2007).
CONCLUSION
With the research results, sport attitudes or in other
words sport habits of students at high school in secondary
education level throughout Turkey are assessed. It is
determined that students who are studying in higher
grades, have medium-income family and whose mother’s
educational status is relatively on a higher level, are more
positive towards sport participation. Thus, it has been
revealed that the family education levels, increased
education periods and the income groups are determining
factors in the attitudes of children towards sports.
Sport is the leading actor within the most efficient
instruments for a social well-being and prosperity along
with its health-related benefits. Development of society
and its progress has substantial functions in terms of
strengthening the entire society, enhancing communi-
cation, cooperation, solidarity and social ties in society
(NSW Sport and Recreation, 2007); developing social
networks and maintaining them beyond its physical and
health-related benefits. Therefore, it can be said that
society, school and families need to take joint action to
develop sport attitudes of students in educational
institutions. Besides, the need for parents’ being a role
model for children and leading them in sport activities for
children development regardless of their economic
conditions should be emphasized. In this regard,
educational process should be supported with sport and
steps should be taken toward reinforcing the relation
between education and sport.
Conflict of interests
The author has not declared any conflicts of interest.
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