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Following market reforms in 1986 Vietnam has transformed from a poor closed economy to a low middle income economy. Like other developing countries, economic growth has placed significant pressure on both infrastructure and environment, particularly the pressure of increasing housing demand, energy consumption, and waste and pollution management. In response to the development challenges and the green movement globally, the government has initiated actions to promote green building to promote more sustainable development. However, green building adoption in Vietnam is still criticised as being slow and lacking governmental support. This paper proposes that promoting green building could solve three inter-connected challenges hindering sustainable development, and provides a comparative review of progress.
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Procedia Engineering 142 ( 2016 ) 313 320
Available online at
1877-7058 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of CUTE 2016
doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.02.053
Sustainable Development of Civil, Urban and Transportation Engineering Conference
A Review on Green Building in Vietnam
Hong-Trang Nguyen
, Matthew Gray
Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
Following market reforms in 1986 Vietnam has transformed from a poor closed economy to a low middle income economy. Like
other developing countries, economic growth has placed significant pressure on both infrastructure and environment, particularly
the pressure of increasing housing demand, energy consumption, and waste and pollution management. In response to the
evelopment challenges and the green movement globally, the government has initiated actions to promote green building to
promote more sustainable development. However, green building adoption in Vietnam is still criticised as being slow and lacking
governmental support. This paper proposes that promoting green building could solve three inter-connected challenges hindering
able development, and provides a comparative review of progress.
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of CUTE 2016.
Keywords: green building; Vietnam; sustainable development; climate change
1. Introduction
Vietnam is a developing country located in South East Asia
. The country has a total mainland of 330,966.9km2,
which stretches from North to South along the Gulf of Tonkin with 3,260km of coastline, and consists of two typical
topographies, “small but very productive areas, such as the Mekong- and Red River deltas and large areas of less
ctive, mountainous terrain” [1-3].
The one-party Communist state went through a political and economic reform in 1986 [4], achieved a fast and
markable development, and became one of the success stories in the world in terms of both economic growth and
erty reduction [5, 6]. Since then, the country has transformed f
rom a poor closed economy to a low middle
income economy with 1755 US dollars per capita in 2012 [The World Bank 2014, as cited in 6], and maintained a
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +61-449-796-958.
E-mail address: ho
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of CUTE 2016
314 Hong-Trang Nguyen and Matthew Gray / Procedia Engineering 142 ( 2016 ) 313 – 320
growth rate at approximately 7.3% per year between 1995 and 2008 [7].
However, the economic growth has significantly increased pressure on both the inf
rastructure and environment,
particularly pressure of increasing demand for buildings, energy consumption, and waste and pollution management.
The green movement in the world has placed green building in a high priority as it is able to meet the building
demand while mitigating the negative impacts of construction industry. Following the movement to deal with its
own development problems, Vietnam necessitates green building in its pathway to sustainability.
2. Inter-connected challenges Vietnam is facing on its pathw
ay of development
2.1. Overgrowing population and urbanisation leading to increasing demand for buildings
Since the 1986 reforms, urbanisation has accelerated and its population begun to grow, corresponding with the
omic development. Like other countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa, the country has also experienced
over-urbanisation concerning the fast pace and scale of urbanisation w
ithout correspondingly benefits the urban
production [8, 9]. In both theory and statistical data, this phenomenon
is directly related to the proportion of
population living in urban areas [10, 11]. The current population of Vietnam is 90.7 m
illion and it is predicted to
grow up to 108.7 million in 2049 with 58.8% of the population residing in urban areas [3, 12]. As there is a two-
sided link between population and housing [13], this growth in population and over-urbanisation will create a huge
and on buildings in the coming years. Construction statistical data showed that each
year, the average of
housing floor areas constructed increased by 115.9% from 2005 to 2013, presented in Fig. 1. [14]. In 2014,
rding to Ministry of Construction, 92 million m
housing floor was built, increasing the average floor per people
to 20.6m
, in which, the average one in urban areas is 23m
/pp and in rural areas is 19.5m
/pp. Up to 2014, the total
area of housing floor constructed is approximately 1,873.65 million m
Fig. 1. Areas of housing floor were constructed from 2005 to 2013 [adapted from 14]
2.2. Predicted insecurity of energy supply
High growth rate of the economy, industrialisation, over-urbanisation and increasing popu
lation are believed to
be the drivers of energy demand. Total demand increased by 9.3 per cent annually between the years 1990 2007;
d it is estimated to increase by 5.5 per cent annually up to the year 2025. Currently, energy production relies
primarily on fossil fuel, including coal, oil, gas, followed by hydro and other renewable energy [15]. The reliance on
ossil fuel has made the energy system of Vietnam carbonised even faster than the world average, China’s and
newly industrialised countries’ (Fig. 2.a).
However, reserve of oil and gas will not be enough for energy production beyond 25 year time-horizon,
rding to Do [16]. Additionally, due to limited reserve generation capacity and rain-fall dependency of
dro, the national electricity system has experienced power shortages relatively frequently in the dry season. In a
long term, studies since 2011 have pointed out that Vietnam will become a net importer of energy in a decade when
Hong-Trang Nguyen and Matthew Gray / Procedia Engineering 142 ( 2016 ) 313 – 320
the demand surpasses the domestic energy production around 2015 (Fig. 3) [7, 15, 16]. It is also projected that in
2025, the nation will need to import approximately 49 per cent of its total primary energy needs. Scholars have
suggested that the government should promote energy efficiency, develop market-based energy pricing and
corporate energy plans with other programs to form a long-term policy package [15, 16]. Even an increase as
mall as US 7.5 cent/kWh in the electricity tariff would drive up the prices of all other factors, thus, it is hard to
implement at one time, especially when Vietnam is facing a high inflation rate [17]. Therefore, in the meantime,
efficiency would be one of the main solutions to deal with the energy shortage.
Fig.2. (a) Carbon intensity; (b) Energy intensity (PPP) over time for Vietnam, China, newly industrialised countries (NIC) and the global average
[adapted from 18]
Fig. 3. Primary energy demand and supply balance [adapted from 16]
2.3. Environmental detriment and negative impacts of climate change
Vietnam has witnessed environmental detriment due to
economic development, urbanisation, industrialisation,
energy consumption and consumption of natural resources” [6]. Economic growth effects, industrialisation, energy
tensity and growing population release pollution and increase CO
emission [19-21]. Currently the electricity
prices for manufacture are low and subsidised; it has made Vietnam more appeal to those industries that are high
energy intensity such as steel and cement [16]. This contributes to the energy intensity of the economy and carbon
ission (Fig. 2. b). There is also evidence of a positive relationship between urbanisation and emissions although it
is arg
ued that the impact of urbanisation on CO
emission is not statistically significant [20, 22, 23]. The pollution is
predicted to be persistent along with the economic growth as the relationship between GDP and pollution remains
positive in both short and long term, proven that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis does not exist in the
country’s context [6].
Due to the excessive CO
and other greenhouse gas emissions, the world is experiencing climate change and
global warming. Vietnam’s long coast line in addition to low-lying and densely populated delta regions make it
ulnerable to present climate extremes and future climate changes [24]. Currently, the country is suffering from
ore frequent strong typhoons during the monsoon season, volatile rainfall patterns and droughts in different extents
316 Hong-Trang Nguyen and Matthew Gray / Procedia Engineering 142 ( 2016 ) 313 – 320
and locations [25, 26]. In the near future, it is also forecasted to be one of the five nations in the world most severely
impacted by rising sea-levels and one of six countries in Pacific-Rim region most vulnerable to climate change [2,
27, 28]. As most areas are within 60km of the coastline, Carew-Reid [2] predicted that inundation from a one meter
sea level rise
will result in the loss of 4.4% of Vietnam’s territory, which include coastal areas and the Mekong river
delta region, affecting 6 million people in 2100. Since the economy backbone of the nation falls in its coastal zone
and th
e lowlands near the coast, which are rich in natural and socio-economic assets, the loss will directly impact its
ealth and standard of living [26].
Additionally, more severe droughts, storm intensity, flooding
and changes in rainfall pattern as consequences of
climate change will affect aquaculture, agriculture and food production [2, 29]. Agriculture plays an important role
the Vietnam economy, making up 21% of GDP, the climate related damages will directly threaten food security
and social welfare [30]. Rural areas where almost all of the agricultural activi
ties take place and which have low
adaptive capacity are extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. The change in climate pattern and frequency of
climate shocks has negative effects on household income and expenditure, threatening their livelihood [31]. This
ds to the economic pressure that has pushed people in rural areas seeking for employment and education
rtunities in the cities to diversify their income from agriculture dependency a livelihood strategy called rural-
urban migration [32]. Census data revealed that the rural-urban migration strongly influences the urban population
and also
over-urbanisation, creating a greater demand for buildings [11].
3. The green building movement as a solutio
n to mitigate the negative impact of the construction industry
3.1. Impacts of the construction industry and buildings
Given the large demand for buildings in Vietnam in the n
ear future, the construction industry is predicted to
gained more focus and investment. However, this industry is unarguably one of the main contributors to global
warming and the largest polluters affecting the environment. Its impacts on climate change have been addressed by
numerous scholars and researchers [33-35]. The construction industry produces half of worldwide CO2 emissions
and co
nsumes almost 50% of all global resources [36]. 36% of total electricity usage in Vietnam is reportedly
nsumed by this section [37]. Ortiz, Castells [38] cite a number of research accusing the industry of “high-energy
nsumption, solid waste generation, GHG emissions, external and internal pollution, environment damage and
resource depletion”. Although it makes the development path more challenging, this industry is considered as
having a great potential to contribute to sustainable development through improvements in its long lasting products
[39, 40].
Buildings affect humans and the environment in countless ways [41]. As we spend about 90% of our time in
door activities, buildings can positively and negatively impact on our living environment [U.S Environmental
rotection Agency, 2004, as cited in 42, Klepeis; Tsang etal., 1995, as cited in 43]. They provide shelter and protect
s from natural extremes [41], however, buildings release volatile organic compounds which pose serious risks to
r health [42]. Buildings consume 50% of energy generated and 70% of
all timber as well as a considerable
proportion of raw materials globally [36, 39, 44]. A significant amount of wastes is also produced during their
lifecycle, from construction, operation and demolition processes [39, 44]. Buildings contribute to air pollution, noise
tion, waste pollution and water pollution [34].
3.2. The green building movement
Green building (hereinafter referred to as GB
) is defined by US Green Building Council [2007, as cited in 41] as
the “practice of creating and using healthier and more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation,
, maintenance and demolition”. Kibert (2004) further defines green/sustainable buildings as “the facilities
which are the outcomes of sustainable construction for the purpose of promoting occupant health and resource
efficiency, minimizing the impacts of the built environment on the natural ecology system” [as cited in 45]. A more
ic definition stated by Hu, Geertman [46] refers to green housing as environmentally-friendly buildings which
are resou
rce-efficient, energy-saving, heath-improved and comfortable for living. In this study, green buildings are
ose embrace the principles of lower environmental impacts through greater energy efficiency, lower energy
and, reduce water usage, improve indoor quality and minimise construction waste [O'Leary, 2008 as cited in
Hong-Trang Nguyen and Matthew Gray / Procedia Engineering 142 ( 2016 ) 313 – 320
The GB movement started in 1970s in Europe and US. It is
first considered as a solution to reduce energy
consumption to deal with instable energy markets after an oil embargo imposed by Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) [48]. Gradually, GB gained serious attention from government, industry players and
scholars as a prom
ising innovation to mitigate building related environment problems such as excessive
consumption of energy and water [Retzlaff, 2009, as cited in 46, Nelms et al. 2005, Sparks, 2007 as cited in 49, 50].
sequently, GB is now considered as a means to achieve low carbon construction towards sustainability [41, 51,
From those purposes, GB is often desi
gned to achieve positive environment performance and assessed by GB
rating tools, which also comprise environment related criteria such as sustainable sites and transport, energy and
water efficiency, environmentally friendly materials, indoor air quality improvement [33, 53, 54]. The benefits of
are generally accepted as resource efficiency, health improvement of occupants and waste reduction during the
building lifecycle [36, 55]. GB has been believed to bring direct economic benefits to their owners as they are able
to save lif
ecycle costs, improve occupant productivity and performance, and increase their competitive advantage
[56]. As an inn
ovation, GB is proved that it has increased average rents and prices’ value of early adopters more
than that of later entrants [57]. Furthermore, it would also bring indirect economic and environmental benefits to the
rrounding communities [57, 58]. A GB market report by BCI Economics [59] showed that buildings certified by
Starthe sustainable building assessment tool used widely in Australia and New Zealandbring significant
e effects. Those buildings only emit one third of GHGs, use a third of electricity, consume half of portable
water compared to average Australian buildings, and also recycle almost 96% of demolition waste. GB practices,
thus, are able to contribute greatly in reducing greenhouse gas, mitigating climate change impacts and maintaining
energy security.
As GB brings both tangible and intangible benefits, the m
ovement is gaining momentum and has become a
global trend [36, 41, 60]. The Green Building Council network and Green Building Certifications are now present in
93 states and tertiarie
s worldwide and has significantly accelerated global GB practices [61, 62]. From a
mparative study of global GB evaluation tools, Reed, Wilkinson [60] show a considerable increase in the number
d maturity of international sustainable building organisations through a large number of projects registering and
seeking certificates in last 10 years, illustrating the successful progress of this initiative.
In Southeast Asia, Green Building Councils were formed in six
countries with their associated green building rating
systems, including Brunei, Green Ship of Indonesia, Green Building Index of Malaysia, Building for Ecologically
Responsive Design Excellence of Philippines, Green Mark of Singapore and LOTUS of Vietnam [62] with an
creasing number of buildings being certified. However, scholars point out that the concept of sustainability is still
relatively new in the region, many important stakeholders in the construction industry are not aware of the GB
concepts [63].
In Vietnam, Solidiance and VGBC [64] claim that the development of the GB market is still in its initial stages
although it has obtained increasing attentions from both the indu
stry and government, and become a topic of recent
real estate fora and conferences [50, 65]. After the first building was certified in 2008, GB can now be seen in large
cities throughout the country, mainly in two major metropolitan areas Hanoi and HoChiMinh City. In terms of
anisation setting, the Vietnam Green Building Council was established in 2007 and joined World Green Building
Council Network as an Associated Group. The Council has played a considerably important role in promoting GB
practices such as engaging construction experts in developing LOTUS - a GB certification developed for Vietnam’s
nditions - and organising regular nationwide training courses ab
out green buildings’ solutions. Comparing
Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) and LOTUS, industry leaders point out that LEED is
considered having higher recognition while LOTUS has higher applicability and lower implementation cost [64].
The LOTUS assessment tools include: LOTUS-NR for non-residential buildings; LOTUS-R for residential
ildings; LOTUS-BIO for Building in Operation; and LOTUS In
teriors and LOTUS Homes are under
development. In 2013, there were 21 LEED projects and 9 LOTUS projects in the total of 41 projects certified as
Green building. Until now, there are 34 LEED projects and 14 LOTUS projects. Based on the small ratio of the
umber of GB projects on the area of floors constructed each year, the adoption of GB is still in its initial stages
(Spot A in Fig. 4.). It shows a stronger trend towards the intern
ational certification and limited recognition of
LOTUS - the localised sustainability assessment tool. This could be th
e result of majority of GB projects’ investors
being multinational companies while domestic ones still hesitate about investing in GB [64].
318 Hong-Trang Nguyen and Matthew Gray / Procedia Engineering 142 ( 2016 ) 313 – 320
Fig. 4. The adoption curve for green construction [adapted from 66]
Another organisation - Green Building Council Vietnam (GBCVietnam) - was established in 2011 as a national
government-sponsored council, demonstrating an official advocacy for GB adoption [67]. This council consists of
19 aca
demia and scholars who are experienced in GB’s attributes. They are developing the National Green Building
Development Strategy for 2020-2030 and a Green Building Assessment Criterion System under contracts with a
overnment agency. Those documents will form an important legal foundation for the development of GB. Pham
[67] as the vice chairman of GBCV - also believes that GB movement in Vietnam is still at its infancy without an
ate attention from the public.
Comparing the number of GB with other peer countries in the region such as Indonesia with 23 LEED projects
d 105 GREENSHIP projects or Philippines with 142 LEED projects [68, 69] illustrates a slow progress of green
ilding adoption in Vietnam. While Vietnam has limited programs addressing renewable energy and energy
ficiency, and has yet provided GB regulations, the other two countries have implemented numerous financial and
vocacy incentives to encourage investment in renewable energy and GB, including feed-in-tariff, net metering,
t loan schemes for renewable energy producers and environmentally friendly investment, and GB guidelines [70].
It is argued that the Vietnam government necessitates stronger actions to pro
mote GB provided the worsen effect of
climate change and all the development challenges.
4. Conclusion
With all the benefits that GB could bring, it should be
considered as a solution for the development related
challenges and increasing demand for buildings in Vietnam, including growing population and over-urbanisation,
icted insecurity of energy supply, and environmental detriment and negative impacts of climate change.
wever, the GB adoption in Vietnam is still criticised as being slow and lacking governmental support. It is
mended that the government needs to take stronger actions such as ratifying regulations or offering incentives
to prom
ote GB towards sustainable development.
This paper is a part of a Doctorate degree undertake
n in Queensland University of Technology (QUT). The
authors would like to express the deepest gratitu
de towards the sponsorship of QUT and the support of IEEE,
Vietnam. The authors also appreciate comments of two anonymous reviewers in preparing this paper.
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... The green building as a positive performance construction has a minimal impact on the environmental aspect, which can also reduce lifecycle environmental implications [37]. Darko et al. [38] further note that one of the major objectives in green building is to minimize environmental interference and con- In the results of the VOS viewer network visualization, the hot terms are represented by their labels as well as circles, and the labels of the hot terms as well as the size of the circles are determined by the weight of the hot terms in the field of green building. The higher the weight of a hot term, the larger the label and the circle. ...
... The green building as a positive performance construction has a minimal impact on the environmental aspect, which can also reduce lifecycle environmental implications [37]. Darko et al. [38] further note that one of the major objectives in green building is to minimize environmental interference and construction waste. The treatment of construction and demolition wastes plays an important role in the development of sustainable building design. ...
... The life cycle of building construction is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions [37,38,41]. The building industry is a "resource-intensive industry" that annually consumes huge quantity of energy and natural resources, including over 40% of energy, 40% of raw materials, 16% of water, and 25% of timber consumed worldwide [37]. ...
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The concept of green building has gradually formed with the increase in public awareness of environmental protection, which also covers a wide range of elements. The green building is the fundamental platform of sustainable development. This review paper provides solutions for the multi-dimensional and balanced development of green building. Since green building is the development trend of the construction industry, it presents an opportunity to mitigate global warming and accomplish energy efficiency. However, the problem is that the development of green building’s implementation is restricted by the lack of government policies, imperfect technical abilities and unreasonable economic benefits. One conclusion drawn from the results shows that the benefits of green building implementation include environmental, economic, social, and health and safety aspects. Moreover, it is crucial to improve the awareness of stakeholders to promote the development process of green building. The government should launch campaigns to encourage developers and tenants to embrace green building, which can add value to buildings. The novelty of the paper provides a more systematic review on the sustainable considerations of green building than previous efforts in the literature. Bibliometric analysis is conducted through VOS viewer software. This review paperdiscusses the relevant benefits and challenges of green building through a critical review of existing research knowledge related to green building. The current advancements in green building are highlighted in this paper. Importantly, future recommendations for standards and policy formulation and future research directions are proposed in this review article.
... Along with national commitments toward global sustainable development, climate change agendas, and foreign assistance programs, energy-efficient buildings have also been promoted [24]. In addition to governmental efforts, market-based green building rating tools have been introduced in Vietnam, including the most popular ones, like the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Building Rating System, and LOTUS, a set of market-based green building rating tools developed by the Vietnam Green Building Council (VGBC), and more recently EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiencies), introduced to Vietnam in 2015 by the International Financial Corporation (IFC), the World Bank Group, and GREEN MARK (developed in the Singapore) (see [27,28]). These certification tools mainly originate internationally and follow building physics science to evaluate the environmental performance of a building [29]. ...
... Major challenges for the GBM in Vietnam in general have been mapped out, including a lack of legislative regulations (i.e., technical codes, standards, guidelines), a lack of competent consultants and general contractors to execute Green Building projects, and a limited market of sustainable materials and products [27,31]. Seven main barriers to market growth in Vietnam are reported by Nguyen et al. [18] to consist of the low electricity price, lack of government incentives, limited supply of skilled employees, short-term thinking, misaligned incentives between building developers and users, low awareness, and price sensitivity discouraging property developers. ...
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The health of urban citizens is largely defined by how their living environments are planned, built, and operated, but scientific and policy discourse about sustainable building has often ig-nored this. Furthermore, while the complex relations between health and the characteristics of built environments require system-orientated thinking and interdisciplinary interventions, they have—until recently—mainly been addressed with conventionally narrow sector-based (mostly technocratic) approaches (e.g., in regard to energy efficiency or carbon reduction). This paper, however, investigates how health co-benefits are perceived by stakeholders in the field of sustain-able building in Vietnam. It examines empirical insights collected from a large-scale household survey—with a focus on a green building-certified project case study—conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, six thematic webinars, and eleven expert interviews. Among other things, the paper points out a challenging mismatch between the high importance homebuyers place on green build-ing health benefits, and the focus of stakeholders on energy-saving benefits, which are not neces-sarily the homebuyers’ most pressing concerns. Therefore, the paper concludes that improved health and well-being should be more strongly considered as co-benefits of green buildings. Equally important is that this paper also brings attention to the essential systemic approach in both academic and practical efforts toward the implementation of the SDG3, to “ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all ages”, and SDG 11, “to make cities and human settlements in-clusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
... However, the results of these reforms were not significant (Sharma, 2005). The lack of capital, low technology deployment, and low private sector participation are the prime reasons for the inefficiency of power market reforms in the region (see Nguyen and Gray, 2016;Sarangi et al., 2019;Delina, 2021). ...
Purpose This paper explores the patterns of the current needs of users' social characteristics in post occupancy evaluation (POE) associated with the environmental performance of green buildings using systematic literature review (SLR). This paper aims to establish a conceptual nexus between environmental performance mandates and the current needs of the users' social characteristics. Design/methodology/Approach This paper adopts a SLR approach designed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for 21 articles that were selected as qualitative synthesis in this study. The search parameter for the selected articles in this review was limited to publications in three databases, Scopus, Web of Science and Emerald, between January 2016 and January 2023, with the help of qualitative software ATLAS.ti 9© in the presentation of the network codes. The initial literature search has retrieved 99 papers which sequentially excluded 42 papers due to exclusion criteria, and the researcher was left with 57 papers. Out of 57, 14 papers were then removed due to duplication of records found in the Scopus and Web of Science databases, and 43 articles were further screened for qualitative synthesis. A thorough critical appraisal was applied to ensure that only selected papers were included, consensus was achieved among the authors and 22 papers were excluded. The qualitative synthesis has finalized 21 studies, and they are selected as confirmative findings. Findings Using network codes presentation of ATLAS.ti 9©, the result shows that the social characteristics are influenced by the evaluated building category and the users' category – the stakeholders (owners, designers) and the occupants. New-fangled elements in environmental performance mandates are legitimacy and accessibility. The users’ social characteristics are derived from the category of users, where the stakeholders (designers, owners) are relatively a novel benchmark in meeting the POE objectives towards environmental performance. The least attention on the users’ social characteristics based on the findings shows that image, experiential (conjoint), happiness, interactive behaviour, morale and values are depicted as the social current needs in the environmental performance using POE. However, all stakeholders and the building occupants’ social characteristics must have a confirmative relation to the performance mandates, especially for newly performance mandates elements: legitimacy and accessibility. Research limitations/implications The research limits the literature search between the recent January 2016 and January 2023 in Scopus, Web of Science and Emerald databases. Limiting the year of publication to the recent years is important to select and rank relevant scientific papers which encompass the reviewed subject. Other limitations include the selection of papers focusing on the POE approach and environmental performance as the main subject of evaluation. Other evaluation purposes that are not related to environmental objectives are excluded in this study. Originality/value The characteristics of the social elements become a challenging subject in meeting the environmental performance needs as they lean more towards intangible elements. The novelty of the findings is drawn from the new pattern and current needs of users' social characteristics in POE for environmental performance.
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Despite being established in Vietnam for over a decade, LOTUS has not achieved the same popularity as other international green building rating systems (GBRS), such as LEED and Singapore's Green Mark (GM). Consequently, concerns about its effectiveness persist. This study employed a systematic literature review to compare and analyse the effectiveness of LOTUS against LEED and GM rating systems. The findings revealed that LEED was the most widely adopted GBRS in Vietnam. While the primary criteria identified across all three systems were energy, water, materials, and indoor environment, the critical aspect of sustainability was environmental. Although GM placed a greater emphasis on sustainability and climate-responsive design, LEED and LOTUS prioritised site location. These results suggest that the late introduction and complexities surrounding the initial versions of LOTUS significantly contributed to its limited popularity in Vietnam. To enhance its effectiveness, this study recommends that the Vietnam Green Building Council (VGBC) increase its engagement with green building researchers and construction stakeholders both within and outside Vietnam, with the aim of simplifying its approach. A more user-friendly and streamlined version of LOTUS will likely encourage adoption by Vietnamese construction practitioners, thereby raising awareness of green building practices in Vietnam.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate a quantitative driving index for implementing green building in Vietnam as a case study in developing countries. Using literature review and expert interviews, 19 driving forces affecting green building implementation were identified in the Vietnamese context. Via obtained data from a questionnaire survey, four principle factors were grouped from defined drivers. The fuzzy synthetic evaluation method was utilized to develop a driving index (DI) for developing the green building in Vietnam. DI model indicated that environmental impact is the most crucial group for green building implementation in Vietnam. Apart from this, the result of the comparative analysis also indicated that most driving forces for adopting green building in developing countries related to environmental and social problems. These results provide the decision‐makers with a comprehensive tool to assess the expectations for green building implementation in both Vietnam and other developing countries.
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Khi trái đất đang chứng kiến sự suy thoái môi trường ở mức độ cao, mọi người trên khắp thế giới đã bắt đầu thực hiện các hành vi xanh. Một trong những hành vi này là mua sử dụng các sản phẩm xanh. Tuy nhiên, có khoảng cách giữa ý định và hành vi thực tế. Vấn đề này dường như là không thể tránh khỏi ở mọi quốc gia. Giống như các quốc gia khác, Việt Nam cũng chứng kiến sự khác biệt giữa ý định và hành động thực tế. Do đó, mục đích của nghiên cứu này là xác định và đánh giá các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến quyết định mua sản phẩm xanh của thanh niên đang học tại các trường đại học trên địa bàn Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Nghiên cứu này sử dụng phương pháp mô hình cấu trúc tuyến tính phục vụ phân tích mô hình và giả thuyết được đề xuất. Để thu thập dữ liệu, một bảng câu hỏi trực tuyến gồm 25 biến quan sát được sử dụng. Nghiên cứu sử dụng phương pháp lấy mẫu thuận tiện và quả cầu tuyết, và thu thập được 322 quan sát. Nghiên cứu này chỉ ra rằng việc hỗ trợ bảo vệ môi trường, thúc đẩy trách nhiệm với môi trường, trải nghiệm sản phẩm xanh và thân thiện với môi trường của các công ty có tác động đến quyết định mua sản phẩm xanh. Đặc biệt, tính thân thiện với môi trường của các công ty ảnh hưởng đáng kể đến quá trình ra quyết định. Nghiên cứu này không chỉ đóng góp vào nền tảng tri thức liên quan đến quyết định mua sản phẩm xanh ở Việt Nam mà còn cung cấp một số hàm ý thực tế rất hữu ích cho các doanh nghiệp. Dựa trên kết quả của nghiên cứu này, các công ty có thể tìm ra các giải pháp để cải thiện doanh thu bán hàng của họ và xác định các cách mới để tiếp cận khách hàng thân thiện với môi trường bằng cách tập trung vào việc đáp ứng các nhu cầu về chức năng, cảm xúc và trải nghiệm của khách hàng.
As the growth of energy demand outstrips that of energy supply in Southeast Asia, it is imperative for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states to seek energy efficiency improvements for sustained energy security. While green buildings have an overall low penetration rate in ASEAN compared to the rest of the world, a relatively large proportion of green bond proceeds in ASEAN have been channeled to financing green buildings. Green bonds hold vast potential as a financing mechanism, and the importance of green bonds as a funding source for green buildings in ASEAN is projected to increase in the future. ASEAN member state governments can encourage the use of this source of finance to address under-investment in green buildings by providing information on raising funds through green bonds, endorsing investment in green buildings through codifying green building standards, and promoting local currency bond financing through domestic investors.
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Introduction. The study provides design and technological parameters for wall coverings with various landscaping systems. At present, the problems associated with the study of design and technological parameters in the construction of non-traditional energy-saving engineering systems have not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of the study is to develop new constructive and technological technologies for wall coverings with landscaping systems, which make it possible to systematize various constructive and technological solutions. In accordance with this goal, the following tasks have been formulated: analysis of scientific and technical research of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of green building technologies in relation to the device of wall coverings with landscaping systems; analysis of design and technological parameters for the construction of such coatings. Materials and methods. The study used methods of comparative analysis and methods of graphic modeling. Results. On the basis of the study carried out, an analysis of the design and technological parameters for the installation of wall coverings with various landscaping systems was carried out, and the most environmentally friendly and effective options for vertical gardening systems were identified. Conclusions. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that in the field of green building technologies, there is a need to develop new standards that cover the design and construction processes with a detailed description of the design and technical characteristics. On the basis of the analysis of the design and technological parameters for the installation of wall coverings with various greening systems, it was found that, according to the main indicators of the effectiveness of technological solutions, an innovative system of wall coverings with modular greening systems made of bioplastic is the best technical solution.
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The inclusion of sustainable development principles in project management is one of the main development scenarios for companies seeking to ensure their stability and investment attractiveness in the future. The purpose of this study is to develop an organizational and strategic model for managing sustainable construction projects using LEED (The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) under conditions of uncertainty. The practical significance of the research results is that the solutions proposed in this work allow achieving sustainable construction goals in companies due to the proposed methods and tools of the project approach. The author used the Delphi method to assess the importance of sustainability criteria in China for LEED and BREEAM certification using anonymous questioning of 30 experts from interested parties. This study proposes a method for assessing the impact of elements of a turbulent environment on a sustainable construction project, which allows one to build a graph model of the mutual influence of the environment in the process of interaction with the project. The generated graph model, in contrast to the existing models, identifies many of the most vulnerable elements of the environment and allows simulating situations of turbulence in the environment of a sustainable construction project. The generated graph model confirms that the greater the potential of the node, the greater the influence of this element of the external environment on the parameters of the sustainable construction project. This study is of interest to those who form a policy and strategy for sustainable construction development, who ensure the development and implementation of sustainable construction projects, as well as scientists to supplement the methodological tools for assessing the effectiveness of these projects and the feasibility of their implementation.
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In this paper I explore the relationship between population and housing. I argue that this relationship is two-sided. On the one hand, the size of a population, and particularly the number of households, determines the demand for housing. On the other hand, the availability of suitable and affordable housing may attract certain categories of migrants. It also influences young people's opportunities to leave the parental home, marry or cohabit, and have children. Furthermore, home-ownership hampers residential mobility and migration by binding people to a place.
Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. About 70% of the country population is vulnerable to typhoons and tropical storms, flooding and landslides. The most recent climate change projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) indicate that Vietnam will be especially hard hit by sea level rise and by more intense and frequent extreme weather. The vast majority of the population is either involved in the agricultural sector or dependent upon natural resources; their livelihoods therefore are influenced by climatic change. Industrial and urban developments are mostly located on the coastal areas and plains that are susceptible to typhoons, tropical storms, sea surges, salt intrusion and sea level rise.
Due to the rapid population growth and economic development, energy demand is likely to triple over the next decade in Vietnam. Development and implementation of Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EE&C) policies and programs is of great importance for the Government of Vietnam that would help to improve the energy efficiency and contribute in meeting the increasing energy demand of the country in the future. In the recent years, the Government of Vietnam has made substantial progress in improving EE&C by initiating a number of EE&C policies and programs with the two most important ones are the Law on EE&C and the National Targeted Program on Energy Efficiency and Conservation (Phase I: 2006-2010 and Phase II: 2012-2015). However, implementation of these policies and programs has been challenged in reality. This paper mainly aims to provide an overview on the current and future energy context in Vietnam; review the evolution of the Government's EE&C policies and programs; and identify the challenges and provide the recommendations for implementing EE&C policies and programs more effectively in the future. This paper suggests that much more efforts relating to improvement on collection, analysis, and management of energy data; capacity building; close coordination among the relevant Ministries and the organizations and agencies during the implementation of EE&C policies and programs; etc. should be put forward in the coming years. In addition, a number of recommendations for promoting EE in three largest energy consumers in Vietnam - namely industrial, residential, and transport sectors has been made in this paper.
Conference Paper
With the rise of low-carbon economy, more and more investors understand and accept the concept of sustainable development, some investors have gradually shifted business focus to green buildings, but most are still on the sidelines. For investors, the most important consideration in their decision-making is the project's future benefits. The main aim of this paper is to identify incremental return on incremental costs of green buildings from the real estate investor's perspective by analyzing a green residential building project. Based on the detailed analysis of incremental costs and benefits of the green building, the paper obtains the incremental investment rate of return using incremental analysis method. It certifies that there is a large benefit space for the developers to invest in green buildings.
China is experiencing a stage of rapid urban development. The energy consumption and related carbon dioxide emissions of households continue to increase. This paper calculates direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions of households based on the input-output method in China from 1996 to 2012. The results reveal that there were more total carbon dioxide emissions from urban households than from rural households, far more indirect emissions from urban households than from rural households, slightly more direct emissions from urban households than from rural households, and differences in direct carbon dioxide emissions from various fuels and in indirect emissions from various sectors between urban and rural households. To examine the causal relationship between urbanization and the carbon dioxide emissions of households, cointegration and Granger causality tests are applied. A unidirectional causal relation was found running from urbanization to both direct and indirect household carbon dioxide emissions, and the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions of households would increase 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively, for every increase of one percent in urbanization. We discuss the reasons of why the development of urbanization will lead to more household direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions, and suggest certain policy implications for urbanization and carbon dioxide emissions based on the results of this study.
This paper quantifies the short-term impact of drought on health conditions and health expenditures. Using panel data from rural Vietnam and rainfall data in an instrumental variable approach, the results suggest that populations face an increased risk of illness in the year they are exposed to drought. Households with reduced agricultural incomes and limited access to coping mechanisms seem particularly affected. Drought-related health shocks also cause financial burden for many households, with health expenditures increasing by 9-17% of total consumption. This paper contributes to a literature which so far has mostly focused on the long-term consequences of climate shocks.