Effect of shadowboxing on the psychological factors in middle and aged people

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Aim: To explore the effect of long-term exercise of shadowboxing on the psychological factors in middle and aged people. Methods: Middle and aged people engaged in shadowboxing in Jinan were randomly selected as the subjects. Data about psychological stress, interpersonal relationship, mental age were obtained by the survey of questionnaire. Results: The state of mental health of middle and aged people who were accustomed to doing exercise in Jinan was better, there were 6% of them whose actual age <49, while 100% of them whose mental age <49. There was no difference in mental age between people engaged in shadowboxing and other people (χ2 = 5.49, P > 0.05). There were significant differences in the scores of psychological stress and interpersonal relationship between different activity groups (χ 2 = 18.00-41.82; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Long-term shadowboxing exercises can reduce the psychological stress of middle and aged people, influence their mental stress significantly, and promote the better development of interpersonal relationship.

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... Three studies on stress were not included in the metaanalysis because 1 RCT and 1 NRS treated participants with Tai Chi practice for only one hour [39,40], and the third was an OBS [41] ( Table 3). The RCT with 96 healthy adults showed significantly decreased levels of stress in all groups after one hour of intervention (Tai Chi, meditation, brisk walking and neutral reading) [39]. ...
... The OBS using a Chinese psychological stress questionnaire with 76 healthy Chinese elderly reported that 5 years of regular Tai Chi experience (>30 minutes and >3 times per week) significantly improved stress compared with less physical activity (<30 minutes and <3 times per week). This study, however, found no statistically significant difference between Tai Chi and regular activities of the same duration and frequency [41]. ...
... Overall, Tai Chi was positively associated with improved in stress levels in healthy adults, patients with HIVrelated distress and elderly Chinese with cardiovascular disease risk factors [29,32,33,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. However, the overall study quality was modest with inadequate or no controls in the majority of studies. ...
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Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions.
... Tai chi movements are unique because of their slow and rhythmical nature, which is combined with deep breathing. As a result of these qualities, parasympathetic nerve activity is predominant in Tai chi practitioners 1 although Tai chi is a moderate intensity exercise (3)(4) Mets). 2 Tai chi is therefore considered beneficial in managing psychological health issues such as stress. Randomized control trials and observational studies have reported that Tai chi reduces anxiety and improves self-esteem. ...
... There is also a sense of achievement that comes with learning and becoming proficient in Tai chi movements. The long-term benefits are stress reduction 4 and alleviation of depression. 5 To maintain good psychological health, a person should be able to deal with stress. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health effects of Tai chi on regular practitioners by investigating the relationships between flow experience, IKIGAI (Japanese: "Life worth living"), and sense of coherence. The results indicated that flow experience may influence IKIGAI and IKIGAI may influence sense of coherence; this suggests that IKIGAI may act as an intermediary between flow experience and sense of coherence. The results also indicated that the longer the Tai chi experience, the higher was the flow experience.
... Furthermore, this quote shows that shadowboxing is about learning how to loosen the body and embody the skills that help someone relax and breathe properly even when they are in a fight. In this sense, different studies (Wang & Wang, 2004;Luo et al., 2008;Huang, 2008;Li Yang, 2011;Zheng et al., 2015) have shown that shadowboxing has a beneficiary effect on depression and anxiety. ...
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This article explores human movement and sport as areas full of organic and socio-cultural meanings and implications for social and health sciences research. Physical activity and the human body's movements must be promoted given the series of social and health benefits they provide. By putting the body in the foreground, I highlight kinaesthetic sense as relevant to understanding people's experiences, cultures and actions and how they represent meaning-making practices. For this, I analyse the practice of shadowboxing through the concept of reflexive body techniques (RBTs) and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of embodied intentionality. Shadowboxing is an exercise utilised in training for combat sports. It implies a heightened awareness of corporeal existence where the senses are experienced as working 'on full' and 'to the max'. In shadowboxing, no words are said, the individual is in total interaction only with their body, and there are no third parties involved. Data were collected during seven months of fieldwork with twelve experienced amateur kickboxers training in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, based on a qualitative study. This data corresponds to a more extensive ethnographic study on frequent gym-goers conducted over two years. The findings presented here contribute to the work on the body, movement, and the sensory dimension of sports participation and sporting embodiment, showing how bodily movements are an essential part of the processes of acquiring knowledge, skills, health, and mindfulness, as well as showing the need for dialogue with other sciences and disciplines beyond the social sciences to understand better the actions, movements and behaviours of sportspeople.
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