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Treatment of sewage using dual media filter and its sustainable re - use

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© 2014| All right reserved 104
Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, 2014; Vol. 2 (3): 104-111 ISSN: 2322-0015
Design of Laboratory Based Waste Water Treatment Plant
Dhote Jayashree1, Chavhan Arvind1 and Ingole Sangita2*
1Department of Zoology, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati, India. 444603
2Department of Environmental Science, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati, India. 444603.
Correspondence author: Dr. Sangita Ingole, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Shri
Shivaji Science College, Amravati, India. 444603. Email sangita_pi@rediffmail.com
Manuscript Details
ABSTRACT
Received : 15 January, 2014
Revised : 06 March, 2014
Revised received: 19 May, 2014
Accepted: 01 June, 2014
Published: 09 June 2014
ISSN: 2322-0015
Cite this article as:
Dhote Jayashree, Chavhan Arvind,
Ingole Sangita. Design of
Labaoratory base waste water
treatment plant. Int. Res. J. of Sci. &
Engg,. 2014; 2 (3): 104-111.
Copyright: © Author(s), This is an
open access article under the terms
of the Creative Commons
Attribution Non-Commercial No
Derivs License, which permits use
and distribution in any medium,
provided the original work is
properly cited, the use is non-
commercial and no modifica- tions
or adaptations are made
The use of conventional water and wastewater treatment processes becomes
increasingly challenged with the identification of more and more
contaminants, rapid growth of population and industrial activities, and
diminishing availability of water resources. It is need of present day to find out
proper and reliable technology which is use for treatment of waste water.
This paper present the finest design of laboratory scale wastewater treatment
plant, which is a combination of natural and physical operations such as
primary settling with cascaded water flow, aeration, agitation and filtration
(Dual media filter), hence called as hybrid treatment process. The economical
performance of the plant for treatment of sewage showed in terms of
reduction of organic load of sewage pollutants such as COD (80%), TDS (80%),
TSS (81%), and total hardness (78%). Hence, this technology could be a good
alternative to treat wastewater for landscaping, gardening, toilet flushing, floor
washing, and irrigation.
Keywordswaste water treatment plant, waste water, natural technology,
pollutant.
INTRODUCTION
Due to rapid Urbanization and growth of world population, the municipal
bodies are problems of collection, treatment and disposal of waste water.
Wastewater generated by local bodies off either on land or into the surface of
water. The land disposal causes ground water pollution whereas the disposal
into surface water affects the aquatic life. There is no adequate sewerage
system in any of municipal bodies in Maharashtra state (MPCB, 2009). Due to
paucity of funds of the local bodies discharge their domestic’s effluents in
nearby river through /local nalla without any treatment and it is a major
source of surface water pollution. Scientists around the world are working on
new strategy for water conservation (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013;
Pangarkar et al., 2010 Rao et al., 2003). It is an opportune time, to refocus on one
of the technique to recycle water through the reuse of waste water by
economical way. Sewage is non-industrial waste water generated from
domestic processes such as washing dishes, laundry and bathing. Waste water
is distinct from black water in the amount and composition of its chemical and
OPEN ACCESS
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Design of Laboratory base waste water treatment plant
Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, 2014; Volume 2, No. 3. May-June 2014. 105
biological contaminates (from feces or toxic chemicals).
Dish, shower, sink, and laundry water comprise 50-
80% of residential waste water (Hussain et al., 2002;
Emerson, 1998).
Waste water treatment is an environmental friendly
process as a control of water pollution. Many people
have investigated the various waste water treatment
methods extensively on the international and national
levels and many researchers tried to reduce the cost for
recycling of the water (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al.,
2013). The household waste water can be reused for
other purposes, especially landscape irrigation, floor
washing, car washing and toilet flushing. Grey water
has some pollutants that are considered as fertilizer for
the plants. Phosphorous, nitrogen, and potassium are
excellent sources of nutrients when reusing waste
water for irrigation of landscaping and gardens
(Pangarkar et al., 2010). Benefits of grey water include
using less fresh water, sending less waste water to
septic tanks or treatment plants, less chemical use,
groundwater recharge, plant growth, and raises
awareness of natural cycles (Emerson 1998, Little et al.,
2001, and Dixon et al., 2003).
Throughout the world, supply of water to the rural
population has been a challenging risk. In India, the
‘water shortage’ is one of the major issues coming from
the rural area. Due to this, the government of Andhra
Pradesh has designed and constructed a number of
slow sand filtration for rural water supply schemes in
the state (Rao et al., 2003). Our designed waste water
treatment process is like a low technology systems, also
called extensive or natural systems, are based on the
imitation or adaptation of processes that occur
naturally in soils and water bodies. The various
conventional intensive technologies are in competition
with natural systems to treat the waste water of
medium and small size communities. In big cities, the
sophisticated technologies are used by authorities and
plants operated by highly skilled personnel to abide by
discharge regulations and prevent the failure that could
damage the environment. Large town can afford high
treatment expenses, which is not the case for rural
communities (Brissaud, 2007).
Experiences of treating waste water by natural
treatment systems have not been widely reported. In
general terms, waste water has lower concentration of
organic matter, nutrients and microorganisms. The
concentration of phosphorus, heavy metals and
xenobiotic organic pollutants are around the same
levels (Lopez-Zavala 2007, Erikson et al., 2002, Garland
et al., 2004). The pollutants of waste water are reduced
by a natural treatment system (laboratory scale) was
the aim of this study. This is a socio-economical
treatment method gives the wide significant in the rural
development.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Laboratory scale waste water treatment plant has been
designed for 50 lit/hr capacity restricted four stage
physical operations such as primary settling with
cascade flow of water has 20 liters capacity, aeration
has 20 liters tank capacity, agitation has also 20 liters
and filtration unit of 20 liters.
The laboratory scale waste water treatment plant is
explained in figure 1(a) contained the operation of
primary settling tank with cascade flow of water as
shown in figure 1(b), aeration as shown in figure 1(c),
the agitation as shown in figure 1(d) and last major
operation of plant is a filtration. The gravitational force
was used for the flow of water from primary settling
tank with 04 steps of cascade system to the aeration,
agitation and filtration unit to the storage tank. The
0.18 m diameter agitator and 0.125 HP motor was used
in the agitation operation. The easily available and
natural materials were used as filter beds in the
filtration unit such as fine particles (equal size) sand
bed, course size bricks bed, charcoal bed, wooden saw
dust bed and bed of coconut shell covers. The bed
height of each material was determined and finalized
by the experimentation.
Fig. 1: Experimental set up of Lab scale wastewater
treatment plant, (a)Sedimentation (b) aeriation (c)
agitation (d) Filtration Unit and (e) collection tank.
Dhote et al., 2014
106 www.irjse.in
Fig.2(a):Primary Settling Unit (Sedimentation tank)
Fig. 2(b): Aeration Unit
Fig. 2(c): Agitation unit
Fig. 2(d): Recycling and Collection tank.
Sampling of Waste water: Municipal wastewater was
collected during January 2012 to December 2013 from
10 sampling stations of 10 Amba nallas, which cover
entire Amravati city. The surface water quality changes
from season to season and is easily polluted. For this
purpose, samples were collected from 10 nallas
throughout the year on a monthly basis. Samples were
collected during the first week of each month, between
7.30 am to 8.30 am in clean plastic bottles, labeled
properly and brought to the laboratory for analysis.
Methods of Sampling: Municipal wastewater sample is
collected from about 40-50 cm below the surface, to
avoid the collection of surface impurities, oils etc.
Before sampling, 30 L polythene bottles were rinsed
with 0.1N chromic acid, than washed twice with
distilled water. A separate sample was collected in
bottle to measure the Dissolved oxygen (DO).
Analysis of Sample: These samples were analyzed by
standard method for water and waste water analysis
(APHA, 1995) at laboratory. The following 18 water
quality parameters were analyzed: Temperature, pH,
Turbidity, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended
solids, Total hardness, Dissolved oxygen, Biological
oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand, Chromium,
Copper, Cadmium, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, Iron,
Arsenic, Iron, Zinc.
RESULTS
pH test for filter bed height calculation
In the filtration unit natural materials such as fine sand,
coarse sand, gravels and bricks, were used as an
adsorbent. The sample of water was taken before and
after filtration and the positive effect on pH level at 0.5
lit/min (LPM) of water flow rate. The filter fine sand
sand brick were given the maximum effect on pH level
from 6.69 to 7.20 and the minimum effect found for bed
of bricks. The bed of coarse sand and saw dust material
were found the fair change in pH level 6.69 to 7.96. The
deviation in pH by each filter bed was found because
each filter bed having the different capacity of
adsorption of ions.
For the further experiment the depth of each bed were
selected as 8 cm, 8 cm, 24 cm, 12 cm and 6 cm for
coarse sand, gravels, fine sand, bricks and saw dust
covers respectively set from bottom to top in the
filtration unit based on pH level effect. The maximum
pH effect found by fine sand bed was kept at top second
in position after brick from top in the filtration unit.
Design of Laboratory base waste water treatment plant
Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, 2014; Volume 2, No. 3. May-June 2014. 107
Table:1 : Average Characteristics of Physicochemical Parameters form 10 sampling station on Amba nalla, Amravati , Maharashtra.
Seasons
Temp
pH
TSS mg/l
TDS mg/l
Hardness mg/l
DO mg/l
BOD mg/l
COD mg/l
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
Rainy
21.0
20.0
7.98
7.38
518
41
950
178
615
166
Nil
4.5
128
32
189
46
Winter
19.0
19.0
7.37
7.44
415
32
718
168
702
172
Nil
5.2
112
26
156
28
Summer
23.0
21.0
6.91
7.24
422
35
887
172
1002
188
Nil
2.9
156
38
225
52
Rainy
20.0
18.4
7.69
7.31
503
38
903
176
620
166
0.2
4.8
132
30
127
23
Winter
19.0
18.4
7.33
7.30
420
32
712
167
705
172
0.2
3.8
130
34
159
28
Summer
24.0
21.6
6.98
7.33
415
30
884
172
1010
188
Nil
4.4
128
32
203
48
Rainy
20.0
19.6
7.72
7.37
510
38
927
177
610
166
0.2
3.9
130
32
131
24
Winter
19.0
18.2
7.52
7.39
324
30
720
168
700
170
0.2
4.0
122
30
171
33
Summer
22.0
20.3
6.89
7.32
328
30
877
167
947
182
0.3
5.1
112
24
199
47
Rainy
19.0
18.7
7.91
7.42
480
37
910
176
604
162
0.2
3.9
130
32
143
26
Winter
18.0
17.5
7.42
7.28
354
33
728
165
718
172
0.4
3.0
156
38
181
34
Summer
23.0
21.4
6.89
7.18
335
28
830
170
980
188
0.4
4.9
104
26
192
45
Rainy
20.0
19.2
7.96
7.35
452
37
900
174
628
169
0.3
5.3
97
23
141
25
Winter
19.2
18.8
7.54
7.33
353
31
730
167
711
175
0.3
4.2
86
23
185
34
Summer
22.0
21.3
6.95
7.27
330
30
843
174
992
188
0.2
5.9
104
24
193
46
Rainy
19.0
18.4
7.81
7.53
472
41
899
175
653
170
Nil
4.3
176
40
121
22
Winter
18.5
18.5
7.37
7.32
321
30
711
166
728
176
Nil
4.4
162
38
156
28
Summer
23.5
21.1
6.88
7.19
340
32
812
169
998
188
Nil
5.3
178
40
185
34
Rainy
20.0
19.6
8.02
7.59
520
44
882
172
682
170
Nil
4.1
166
38
189
34
Winter
18.0
17.9
7.28
7.30
431
34
702
165
754
172
Nil
4.1
166
38
163
29
Summer
23.0
21.7
6.69
7.20
468
37
811
170
1020
190
Nil
4.7
142
36
201
48
Rainy
20.0
19.8
8.22
7.54
504
40
988
183
682
170
Nil
3.6
156
38
183
45
Winter
19.4
19.1
7.64
7.45
418
33
753
169
763
175
Nil
3.2
188
42
167
32
Summer
23.0
21.2
6.76
7.11
422
34
888
175
1055
198
Nil
4.1
182
40
219
51
Rainy
20.0
19.3
8.15
7.55
508
41
1003
190
704
171
Nil
3.6
174
40
191
37
Winter
19.0
19.3
7.50
7.39
433
32
803
168
788
179
Nil
3.1
192
44
180
36
Summer
22.8
20.8
6.93
7.27
420
30
908
175
1102
210
Nil
3.2
204
48
257
57
Rainy
21.3
20.2
8.30
7.68
508
37
998
190
786
178
Nil
3.2
186
42
199
48
Winter
19.8
19.3
7.59
7.36
400
32
807
168
804
180
Nil
3.2
198
46
192
45
Summer
23.1
22.2
6.69
7.23
408
32
920
176
1250
245
Nil
3.0
208
56
289
67
Design of Laboratory base waste water treatment plant
Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, 2014; Volume 2, No. 3. May-June 2014. 107
Dhote et al., 2014
108 www.irjse.in
Table:1 : Average Characteristics of Heavy metal form10 sampling station on Amba nalla, Amravati , Maharashtra.
Site
Code
Seasons
Cr
Cu
Cd
Mn
Ni
Pb
Fe
As
Zn
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
S1
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.18
0.08
0.00
0.00
0.18
0.08
0.09
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.35
0.05
0.00
-
3.55
1.10
Winter
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.08
0.00
0.00
0.15
0.08
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.10
0.00
0.00
-
3.00
1.10
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.24
0.14
0.00
0.00
0.22
0.13
0.07
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.25
0.05
0.00
-
3.40
1.10
S2
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.10
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.34
0.08
0.00
-
2.81
0.71
Winter
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.09
0.01
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.30
0.08
0.00
-
2.00
0.38
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.15
0.07
0.04
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.28
0.08
0.00
-
2.85
0.80
S3
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.14
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.15
0.07
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.41
0.10
0.00
-
3.12
1.00
Winter
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.09
0.01
0.00
0.24
0.16
0.09
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.32
0.09
0.00
-
3.18
0.98
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.21
0.15
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.16
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.45
0.14
0.00
-
4.44
1.28
S4
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.20
0.09
0.05
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.30
0.09
0.00
-
3.43
1.10
Winter
0.05
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.10
0.00
0.00
-
2.47
0.53
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.08
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.35
0.28
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.09
0.00
-
4.56
1.32
S5
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.16
0.07
0.01
0.00
0.20
0.09
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.37
0.13
0.00
-
4.47
1.30
Winter
0.20
0.14
0.20
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.15
0.02
0.00
-
4.04
1.04
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.17
0.02
0.00
0.30
0.21
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.09
0.00
-
4.87
1.03
S6
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.31
0.21
0.15
0.07
0.32
0.21
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.33
0.09
0.00
-
3.83
1.02
Winter
0.15
0.08
0.31
0.21
0.04
0.00
0.21
0.13
0.01
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.21
0.07
0.00
-
3.72
0.88
Summer
0.05
0.00
0.35
0.19
0.20
0.09
0.40
0.29
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.35
0.13
0.00
-
5.82
1.77
S7
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.22
0.11
0.16
0.09
0.20
0.14
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.23
0.10
0.00
-
4.29
1.52
Winter
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.16
0.16
0.08
0.01
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.38
0.15
0.00
-
4.00
1.09
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.32
0.25
0.20
0.09
0.28
0.17
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.40
0.18
0.00
-
4.82
1.27
S8
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.22
0.14
0.00
0.00
0.10
0.02
0.03
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.23
0.03
0.00
-
3.86
1.09
Winter
0.04
0.00
0.24
0.15
0.10
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.34
0.07
0.00
-
3.00
0.90
Summer
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.15
0.00
0.00
0.29
0.18
0.03
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.41
0.18
0.00
-
4.16
1.18
S9
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.15
0.19
0.08
0.30
0.18
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.36
0.18
0.00
-
32.92
13.13
Winter
0.09
0.02
0.20
0.09
0.10
0.02
0.35
0.23
0.03
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.41
0.18
0.00
-
37.00
13.08
Summer
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.57
0.20
0.08
0.40
0.28
0.04
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.45
0.21
0.00
-
40.11
13.98
S10
Rainy
0.00
0.00
0.30
0.18
0.16
0.04
0.38
0.28
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.40
0.20
0.00
-
48.61
15.91
Winter
0.18
0.10
0.38
0.23
0.20
0.09
0.40
0.20
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.45
0.20
0.00
-
50.87
18.72
Summer
0.10
0.10
1.50
0.63
0.25
0.17
0.48
0.31
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.50
0.31
0.00
-
53.53
18.97
Dhote et al., 2014
108 www.irjse.in
Design of Laboratory base waste water treatment plant
Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, 2014; Volume 2, No. 3. May-June 2014. 109
Table 3: Average Removal of Organic Load from
waste water
Parameters
Before
treatment
After
treatment
%
Removal
pH
7.42
7.35
-
TSS
424.4
34.36
81%
TDS
846.8
172.73
80%
Hardness
810.43
179.86
78%
DO
0.26
4.09
-
BOD
150.16
35.66
77%
COD
182.9
38.4
80%
Chromium
0.029
0.015
52%
Copper
0.280
0.148
48%
Cadmium
0.073
0.031
58%
Manganese
0.229
0.138
40%
Nickel
0.035
0
100%
Lead
0.013
0
100%
Iron
0.324
0.112
65%
Arsenic
0
-
-
Zinc
11.76
3.976
66 %
Effect of flow rate on removal of waste water
pollutants
The samples of raw wastewater i.e. before cascade
stage and. after filtration stage were taken with varying
flow rate of water, shows the effect of flow rate of waste
water on pH level and the resultant pH were nearly
constant i.e. 7.27 (average) up to 1 lit/min, while
increases pH level for further increase in flow rate. The
characteristics parameters of wastewater such as TDS,
TSS, COD and total hardness were determined and all
these are pretentious by flow rate of water after flow
rate of 1 lit/min. The wastewater average organic load
removal was found 84 % at the water flow rate of 1.25
lit/min. The removal capacity of organic load of
wastewater was decreased by raising flow rate of
wastewater. Similar finding where observed by
Pangarkar et al. (2010).
Fig. 3: Average Removal of Reduction in Physico-
chemical parameters of waste water
Time effect on flow rate of waste water
The time required to flow the water from initial stage to
final storage tank at various water flow rates. The input
and output flow rates of water were nearly found the
equal rates because there were no accumulations of
wastewater.
Fig. 4: Average Removal of Reduction in Heavy metals
form waste water
Performance of each stage of the system
The pH of wastewater was changed by each stage of
system. The aeration, agitation and filtration stages
were found the involvement for change in pH of
wastewater. The pH level was changed mainly between
6.69 to 6.91 in agitation and 6.85 to 7.68 in filtration
stage.
Due to cascade, the course size and fine solid particles
are settled down by gravitational force and only clear
water flows towards aeration stage of the plant and
found 17 % of TSS was removed in the cascade stage.
The major role of aeration was controlled the TDS and
COD, BOD of wastewater. The Oil, soap, detergents
contained in wastewater was removed by agitation
operation. From the investigation, average pollutants
removal efficiency of agitation operation was found up
to 29 %.
All pollutants removal efficiency was increased by the
filtration stage and found 80 % of COD, 81 % of TSS.
The average removal efficiency of all pollutants for
filtration stage was increased from 26 % to 69 %. The
filtration stage found major role in the system for
removal of pollutants from wastewater. Hence the
filtration stage was studied here and data of removal of
load of pollutants on wastewater by each filter bed was
investigated.
Dhote et al., 2014
110 www.irjse.in
Performance of the laboratory based treatment
plant for removal of Heavy metals load
Heavy metals contamination in waste water is common
now days; in present investigation we found fare level
of 10 selected heavy metals in all the season of analysis.
The average highest level was found for Zn 11.76 mg/l
while after treatment it was 3.98 mg/l. Efficiency of
treatment plant to remove organic load of heavy metal
was found 66% which is its great achievements. At
different stages of cascade organic load removal
capacity may varied from 11% to 28 % but best parts of
this is filtration unit. Among 10 selected Heavy metals
Nickel and Iron were removed 100 %, while for other
load lies between 40 % to 80 %.
Performance of the laboratory based treatment
plant
The wastewater was collected from different spot
Amba nala, Amravati, India. Total 10 samples of
wastewater were taken at first day of morning and
evening of every week and the performances of system
were investigated for these 10 samples of wastewater
at steady state conditions and the average value data
are summarized in table 3. The highest organic load in
wastewater found 289 mg COD/lit and lowest were
found 121 mg COD/lit. The solids in wastewater were
found to have about 76% dissolved and 24%
suspended particles. From table 2, all the parameters
found in wastewater were reduced and found better
performance of the natural system. The average 75 %
of organic load was removed and 46 % anions and 49
% cations were found to be adsorbed by the natural
adsorbents used in filtration. The traces of potassium,
magnesium and calcium were found and removed fully
from wastewater.
DISCUSSION
The results presented in this study establish the
potential applicability of the developed methodology.
This laboratory scale waste water treatment plant is a
combination of natural and physical operations such as
settling with cascaded water flow, aeration, agitation
and filtration, hence called as hybrid treatment process.
All the natural and easily available low cost materials
were used for the treatment process. The coconut shell
covers are the waste materials, which can be easily
procured and used as an efficient adsorbent in water
treatment process for the removal of water pollutants
and heavy metal ions from waste water (Sekhar, 2008).
In economy of the plant, the power supply, which is an
important part of the operating cost of the conventional
system and it is a today’s major issues of India, was
required a minimum, because system works on the
natural force for flowing of water from first to last
stage. The easily explicable operation, less maintenance
of the plant and hence does not required the highly
skilled personnel. After the investigations due to the
low energy demand, low operation and maintenance
cost, lesser time consuming operation, this gives a
significant and efficient method for rural communities
and small industrial units for treatment and reuse of
waste water.
The laboratory scale model shows the better and
effective performance by the experiment and balances
advantages and disadvantages of the system. As per the
Indian standard, the treated water is used for
landscaping, gardening, toilet flushing, floor washing,
car washing and irrigation. Still, more research is
needed about soil structure of the area which over
applicable for irrigation and this will be presented
shortly.
CONCLUSIONS
The present study demonstrates the reuse and
treatment of waste water (sewage) for the purpose of
landscaping, gardening, irrigations, plant growths and
toilet flushing. Based on finding of this study, this
treatment technology can be considered as a viable
alternative to conventional treatment plants in rural
region since they are characterized by high potential
for COD, TDS, TSS, total hardness, oil and grease, and
heavy metals removal. The benefits found are low
energy demand, less operating and maintenance cost,
lower load on fresh water, less strain on septic tank,
highly effective purification, and ground water
recharge. Hence, this is an environmental friendly,
without chemical operation, cost effective and
resourceful plant for rural development.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We are Grateful to University Grant commission for the
funding this research under Major Research Project F.
no. 39-314/2010. We are grateful MNC, Amravati for
provide valuable information regards major sewer of
Amravati City. It’s our immense pleasure to
acknowledge our Principal Dr. V.G. Thakare for their
support and encouragement during work.
Design of Laboratory base waste water treatment plant
Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, 2014; Volume 2, No. 3. May-June 2014. 111
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© 2014| Published by IRJSE
... Due to paucity of funds of the local bodies discharge their domestic's effluents in nearby river through /local nalla without any treatment and it is a major source of surface water pollution. Scientists around the world are working on new strategy for water conservation (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013;Pangarkar et al., 2010Rao et al., 2003. It is an opportune time, to refocus on one of the technique to recycle water through the reuse of waste water by economical way. ...
... Waste water treatment is an environmental friendly process as a control of water pollution. Many people have investigated the various waste water treatment methods extensively on the international and national levels and many researchers tried to reduce the cost for recycling of the water (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013). The household waste water can be reused for other purposes, especially landscape irrigation, floor washing, car washing and toilet flushing. ...
... Due to paucity of funds of the local bodies discharge their domestic's effluents in nearby river through /local nalla without any treatment and it is a major source of surface water pollution. Scientists around the world are working on new strategy for water conservation (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013;Pangarkar et al., 2010Rao et al., 2003. It is an opportune time, to refocus on one of the technique to recycle water through the reuse of waste water by economical way. ...
... Waste water treatment is an environmental friendly process as a control of water pollution. Many people have investigated the various waste water treatment methods extensively on the international and national levels and many researchers tried to reduce the cost for recycling of the water (Ingole et al., 2013; Dhote et al., 2013). The household waste water can be reused for other purposes, especially landscape irrigation, floor washing, car washing and toilet flushing. ...
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American public health association, water works association and water Pollution control federation
APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American public health association, water works association and water Pollution control federation, 19 th Washington, DC, (1995).
  • J D Dhote
  • S P Ingole
  • A B Chavhan
Dhote JD, Ingole SP and Chavhan AB. Review on wastewater treatment technology, IJERT,2012, 4(5):19-