Conference Paper

Comparison of the Potential Role of Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) for a Fully Sustainable Energy System in a Region of Significant and Low Seasonal Variations

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Abstract

In this work, a 100% renewable energy (RE)-based energy system for the year 2030 for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim 1 , and Eurasia was prepared and evaluated and various impacts of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) were researched on an hourly resolution for one year. To overcome the intermittency of RE sources and guarantee regular supply of electricity, energy sources are complemented by five energy storage options: batteries, pumped hydro storage (PHS), thermal energy storage (TES), (A-CAES) and power-togas (PtG). In a region-wide scenario the energy system integration is within a sub-region of the individual large areas of Southeast Asia and Eurasia. In this scenario simulation were performed with and without A-CAES integration. For Southeast Asia and Eurasia, the integration of A-CAES has an impact on the share of a particular storage used and this depends on the seasonal variation in RE generation, the supply share of wind energy and demand in the individual areas. For the region-wide scenario for Southeast Asia (region with low seasonal variation and lower supply share of wind energy) the share of A-CAES output was 1.9% in comparison to Eurasia (region with high seasonal variation and a high supply share of wind energy) which had 28.6%. The other impact which was observed was the distribution of the storage technologies after A-CAES integration, since battery output and PtG output were decreased by 72.9% and 21.6% (Eurasia) and 5.5% and 1.6% (Southeast Asia), respectively. However, a large scale grid integration reduces the demand for A-CAES storage drastically and partly even to zero due to substitution by grids, which has been only observed for A-CAES, but not for batteries and PtG. The most valuable application for A-CAES seems to be in rather decentralized or nationwide energy system designs and as a well-adapted storage for the typical generation profiles of wind energy.

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... Due to the expansion of the grid, installed capacities of batteries, PHS, A-CAES, heat storage, PtG and gas turbines decrease. An overview of the storage capacities, throughput of storage technologies, full cycles and utilization of available A-CAES potential for the four scenarios for Southeast Asia and Eurasia is presented in Supplementary Materials (Table S13 and S14, respectively) [63]. The electricity generation curves for the area-wide scenario are presented in Supplementary Materials ( Figure S7). ...
... However, this effect is more dramatic in Eurasia (a region with high seasonal variation and high wind share). A summary of the important system parameters taken from [63] for Southeast Asia and Eurasia is given in Supplementary Materials (Table S12). The utilization of low cost A-CAES decreases overall cost of the system by decreasing the share of other storage technologies used. ...
... Due to the expansion of the grid, installed capacities of batteries, PHS, A-CAES, heat storage, PtG and gas turbines decrease. An overview of the storage capacities, throughput of storage technologies, full cycles and utilization of available A-CAES potential for the four scenarios for Southeast Asia and Eurasia is presented in Supplementary Materials (Tables S13 and S14, respectively) [63]. ...
Data
Presentation on the occasion of the GÜNDER Workshop held as part of the 45th IEA PVPS Task 1 Meeting in Istanbul on October 27, 2015.
... In this study, an hourly resolved model, called the LUT energy system model, based on Matlab software (R2016b) [32] and the Mosek ApS optimizer [33] is used. This model has been introduced and applied to several regions so far [14,[34][35][36][37][38][39], and a detailed description of the model can be found in those studies. The model is based on a multi-node approach that is composed of power generation and storage technologies, the current installed capacities of RE conversion technologies and different operation modes of these technologies. ...
... Similar or some of the aforementioned scenarios have been assessed in other parts of the world [14,[34][35][36][37][38][39], which make these studies well comparable. ...
... The throughputs of the battery system, A-CAES and gas storage decrease by 58%, 100% and 32%, respectively, from the region-wide to the area-wide scenario. Therefore, A-CAES storage technology experienced the highest decline in comparison to other storage technologies, which had been already observed in other regions in the world [37] while the need for PHS technology increased from 7.9 TWh el to 8.4 TWh el in the area-wide scenario. The installation of HVDC lines leads to a reduction of the storage technology utilization as the transmitted electricity is lower in cost in many cases than storage options. ...
Article
In this study power generation and demand are matched through a least-cost mix of renewable energy (RE) resources and storage technologies for North America by 2030. The study is performed using an hourly resolved model based on a linear optimization algorithm. The geographical, technical and economic potentials of different forms of RE resources enable the option of building a super grid between different North American regions. North America (including the U.S., Canada and Mexico in this paper), is divided into 20 sub-regions based on their population, demand, area and electricity grid structure. Four scenarios have been evaluated: region-wide, country-wide, area-wide and an integrated scenario. The levelised cost of electricity is found to be quite attractive in such a system, with the range from 63 €/MWh el in a decentralized case and 42 €/MWh el in a more centralized and integrated scenario. Electrical grid interconnections significantly reduce the storage requirement and overall cost of the energy system. Among all RE resources, wind and solar PV are found to be the least-cost options and hence the main contributors to fossil fuel substitution. The results clearly show that a 100% RE-based system is feasible and a real policy option at a modest cost. However, such a tremendous transition will not be possible in a short time if policy-makers, energy investors and other relevant organizations do not support the proposed system.
... Due to the expansion of the grid, installed capacities of batteries, PHS, A-CAES, heat storage, PtG and gas turbines decrease. An overview of the storage capacities, throughput of storage technologies, full cycles and utilization of available A-CAES potential for the four scenarios for Southeast Asia and Eurasia is presented in Supplementary Materials (Table S13 and S14, respectively) [63]. The electricity generation curves for the area-wide scenario are presented in Supplementary Materials ( Figure S7). ...
... However, this effect is more dramatic in Eurasia (a region with high seasonal variation and high wind share). A summary of the important system parameters taken from [63] for Southeast Asia and Eurasia is given in Supplementary Materials (Table S12). The utilization of low cost A-CAES decreases overall cost of the system by decreasing the share of other storage technologies used. ...
... Due to the expansion of the grid, installed capacities of batteries, PHS, A-CAES, heat storage, PtG and gas turbines decrease. An overview of the storage capacities, throughput of storage technologies, full cycles and utilization of available A-CAES potential for the four scenarios for Southeast Asia and Eurasia is presented in Supplementary Materials (Tables S13 and S14, respectively) [63]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and levelized cost of electricity by reducing the need for storage technologies due to seasonal variations in weather and demand profiles. The intermittency of renewable technologies can be effectively stabilized to satisfy hourly demand at a low cost level. A 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality economically and technically in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives.
... It had been observed that geographic integration (area-wide) substitutes A-CAES almost completely, since within continental grids the wind resource fluctuations occur not in the total continental area and therefore can be balanced by continental grids. This effect is discussed in more detail in Gulagi et al. [70]. For seasonal balance hydro dams are well suited as well as PtG storage. ...
... The preliminary hypothesis for this deviation is that the enormous efficiency improvement of an energy system based on renewable electricity is underestimated in the recent estimates, since today's TPED per capita of Europe is extrapolated for a world population on the same wealth level. However the current energy system is very inefficient, which can be illustrated best by the low average efficiency of the installed base of thermal power plants of only 35% [9], the low efficiency of current combustion cars of less than 20% or the limited efficiency of heating systems to slightly less than 100% -compared to close to 100% utilisation of renewable electricity plants, 70-80% efficient electric vehicles or 300-400% efficient electric heat pumps. The shift to power megatrend may have the potential to increase the total energy system efficiency dramatically. ...
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... Decrease in utilization of storage technologies is observed as the subregions are interconnected. The biggest impact can be observed on A-CAES with installed capacities dropping to zero, as the grids are connected, these grids provide the lower cost flexibility to the system than A-CAES to balance the variation of the wind on weekly basis [29]. ...
Conference Paper
Energy is a key driver for social and economic change. Many countries trying to develop economically and socially and many developed countries trying to maintain their economic growth will create a huge demand for energy in the future. The growth in energy production will put our climate at risk, without change in the existing fossil fuel based energy system. In this paper, 100% renewable energy based system is discussed for East Asia, integrating the two large regions of Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia. Regional integration of the two regions does not provide significant benefit to the energy system in terms of cost reduction. However, reduction of 0.4-0.7% in terms of total annual cost of the system can be achieved for East Asia, mainly realised in optimising the bordering regions of South China and Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The idea of Australia being an electricity source for Asia, does not pay off due to the long distances and local storage of the generated electricity in the regions is more cost competitive. However, such an integration provides a sustainable and economically feasible energy system with the cost of electricity between 53-66 €/MWh for the year 2030 with the assumptions used in this study. The described energy system will be very cost competitive to the widely discussed nuclear and fossil carbon-capture and storage (CCS) alternatives.
... Assumptions are mainly taken from Pleßmann et al. [8] but also other sources: Li-ion batteries [3,4,9], silicon based PV cost development [10,11,12], biomass and biogas technologies [13], alkaline electrolyzers [14], HVDC grids [15], PHS [9], hydro power [9] and waste-to-energy [9]. The A-CAES storage technology is discussed on a broader basis in Gulagi et al. [16]. Urbanization level numbers used for biogas potential evaluation are taken from the UN [17]. ...
Conference Paper
Grid integration for renewable energy (RE) is in many studies observed as the major option to increase energy system reliability and decrease costs: overflows in the grid can support the system in case of component failure and decrease the need for balancing capacities. Energy transmission grids additionally increase capacity utilisation and efficiency by smoothing of total demand, especially for geographically wide expanded grids. Wherefore it had been often assumed that a development of close to 100% RE systems may be only possible with the installation of extended power grids as was discussed in the Desertec or Gobitec vision and other comparable centralised RE approaches. In this work impacts of the different levels of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid integration on cost optimized 100% RE system were researched for the example of Northeast Asia. Three grid scenarios were applied for the area: region-wide open trade, where the energy system integration happens only inside one region; country-wide open trade, where a HVDC transmission grid connects regions inside one country; and area-wide open trade scenario, where all the countries are interconnected. These scenarios were simulated using the LUT energy system model for the two cost years 2020 and 2030. The optimized energy system included solar photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar thermal power, wind onshore, hydropower, geothermal energy and biomass as energy sources. The storage options are batteries, thermal energy storage, pumped hydro storage, adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) and gas storage including power-togas. It was found, that grid integration leads to a significant decrease of total levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) for the years 2020 and 2030: LCOE for the area-wide scenario was 8% lower than the region-wide scenario for the year 2020 and 5% lower for year 2030. However, the cost spread for 2030 is 50% lower (3 €/MWh vs 6 €/MWh) because of expected storage cost development and consequently different storage and grid utilisation. The optimal storage structure for both years is 20% of long-term storage and 80% of short to mid-term storage. Short-term storage technologies, Li-ion batteries and PHS are insignificant for the Northeast Asian case. The cost development of storage technologies results in increased storage and reduced grid supply share of 16% to 22% and 14% to 9% for the year 2020 and 2030, respectively, i.e. reduced storage costs lead to a reduced relevance of long distance grid integration. The total share of the flexible power sources stays stable for both cost years at around 30%. Finally, the lower cost spread for the year 2030 makes it possible in some cases to take a transformation towards 100% RE into account without massive grid installations.
... The batteries provide 74% -91% of the total stored electricity. The other storage technology which plays a big role in the region-wide scenario is the A-CAES storage which acts as a mid-term storage for storing wind energy and discharging at the time of low solar radiation [50]. The impact of A-CAES on the system decreases as the level of grid integration increases due to transferring of electricity via grids in a larger area being more economical than mid-term storage. ...
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The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, access to all, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim of electricity generation. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is simulated for this region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis for an entire year. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand which was reflected as the system cost decreased by 5% and the total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives.
... respectively, from the region-wide to the area-wide scenario. Therefore, A-CAES storage technology experienced the highest decline in comparison to other storage technologies, which had been already observed in other regions in the world [27] while the need for PHS technology increased from 7.9 TWhel to 8.4 TWhel in the area-wide scenario. The installation of HVDC lines leads to a reduction of the storage technology utilization as the transmitted electricity is lower in cost in many cases than storage options. ...
Conference Paper
Renewable energy (RE) has been already viewed as a minor contributor in the final energy mix of North America due to cost and intermittency constraints. However, recent dramatic cost reductions and new initiatives using RE, particularly solar PV and wind energy, as a main energy source for the future energy mix of the world pave the way for enabling this source of energy to become cost competitive and beneficial in comparison to fossil fuels. Other alternatives such as nuclear energy and coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) cannot play an important role in the future of energy system, mainly due to safety and economic constraints for these technologies. Phasing out nuclear and fossil fuels is still under discussion, however the 'net zero' greenhouse gas emissions agreed at COP21 in Paris clearly guides the pathway towards sustainability. Consequently, RE would be the only trustable energy source towards a clean and sustainable world. In this study, an hourly resolved model has been developed based on linear optimization of energy system parameters under given constraints with a bright perspective of RE power generation and demand for North America. The geographical, technical and economic potential of different types of RE resources in North America, including wind energy, solar PV, hydro, geothermal and biomass energy sources enable the option to build a Super Grid connection between different North American regions' energy resources to achieve synergy effects and make a 100% RE supply possible. The North American region, including the US, Canada and Mexico in this paper, is divided into 20 sub-regions based on their population, demand, area and electricity grid structure. These sub-regions are interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) power lines. The main objective of this paper is to assume a 100% RE-based system for North America in 2030 and to evaluate its results from different perspectives. Four scenarios have been evaluated according to different HVDC transmission grid development levels, including a region-wide, country-wide, area-wide and integrated scenario. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is found to be 63 €/MWhel in a decentralized scenario. However, it is observed that this amount decreases to 53 €/MWhel in a more centralized HVDC grid connected scenario. In the integrated scenario, which consists of industrial gas production and reverse osmosis water desalination demand, integration of new sectors provides the system with required flexibility and increases the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. Therefore, the LCOE declines to 42 €/MWhel and the total electricity generation is decreased by around 6.6% in the energy system compared to the non-integrated sectors due to higher system efficiency enabled by more flexibility. The results clearly show that a 100% RE-based system is feasible and a real policy option.
... In the same time, integration leads to lower demand of all types of storage: short termbattery and PHS, midterm TES and A-CAES and long termgas storage. The biggest impact regional integration has on the A-CAESit gets completely excluded from the integrated system, since a continental grid can provide a lower cost flexibility for balancing wind energy with weekly characteristics than A-CAES [27]. ...
Conference Paper
The existing fossil fuel based power sector has to be transformed towards carbon neutrality in close future to limit global warming to 2ºC. The 100% renewable energy (RE) based system will be discussed in the paper. Such a system can be built using already existing energy generation, storage and transmission technologies. A regional integration of Europe, Eurasia and MENA energy systems will facilitate access to lower cost energy sources in neighboring regions, provide additional flexibility in the system and decrease the need in energy storage and increase the system stability because of more distributed generation. Additional demand from synthetic gas generation will additionally decrease the energy storage demand, additional flexibility enables the system to use lower cost energy sources and the primary energy generation cost decreases. Finally, such an integration can provide a sustainable and economically feasible energy system with total LCOE of about 50 €/MWh for the year 2030 cost assumptions. Even for a much higher energy demand in the system the total LCOE will be around 42 €/MWh – lower than coal-CCS or new nuclear options.
... Cette technique est déjà en fonctionnement depuis de nombreuses années sur les sites de McIntosh (USA) (Mehta, 1987) et d'Huntorf (Allemagne) (Crotogino et al., 2001). Actuellement, le principe du CAES fait l'objet de nouvelles recherches et développement, par exemple avec le CAES adiabatique (AA-CAES) permettant d'augmenter le rendement théorique jusqu'à 70 % (Bannach and Klafki, 2012;Gulagi et al., 2016;Sciacovelli et al., 2017;Réveillère and Londe, 2017). ...
Thesis
Les cavités salines représentent une technique prometteuse de stockage massif d’énergie, notamment pour les énergies renouvelables dont la production est par nature intermittente et imprévisible. Historiquement utilisées pour le stockage saisonnier d’hydrocarbures (méthane, pétrole...), les cavités salines sont aujourd’hui sollicitées pour le stockage de nouveaux fluides (hydrogène, dioxyde de carbone...) avec des scenarii plus exigeants. Les méthodes de dimensionnement des cavités doivent être mises à jour pour répondre aux nouveaux défis de la transition énergétique.Cette thèse propose une nouvelle méthodologie de dimensionnement des cavités salines, basée sur le développement d’un nouveau modèle constitutif pour le sel gemme incluant des critères de dilatance et de traction. Ce nouveau modèle permet d’ajuster avec un unique jeu de paramètres de nombreux essais de laboratoire différents, en particulier courts et longs.Des simulations couplées thermo-mécaniques de cavités, remplies de méthane ou d’hydrogène, et du sel gemme environnant sont réalisées pour différents scenarii d’exploitation, classiques ou se rapprochant des nouveaux besoins liés à la transition énergétique. On étudie en particulier les effets de la durée et de l’amplitude des cycles, du débit d’injection ou de soutirage. Les résultats obtenus avec la nouvelle méthodologie sont comparés avec ceux de la méthodologie classique.
... Fu et al. [15] described a new gas turbine power generation system coupled with conventional CAES technology to improve the thermal efficiency at least 5% over that of the existing system. Bouman [16] and Gulagi [17] discussed the environmental impacts and importance associated with a CAES or ACAES system as a means of balancing the electricity output. ...
Article
Full-text available
The compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively) are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; meanwhile, the larger compression ratio can lead to the higher efficiency for the KC-CAES system than that of ORC-CAES with the constant temperature of the exhaust gas. In addition, the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is conducted between the thermodynamic and economic performances to find the optimal parameters of the two systems. The optimum results indicate that the solutions with an exergy efficiency of around 59.74% and 53.56% are promising for KC-CAES and ORC-CAES system practical designs, respectively.
... It had been observed that geographic integration (area-wide) substitutes A-CAES almost completely, because within continental grids the wind resource fluctuations do not occur in the total continental area, and therefore can be balanced by continental grids. This effect is discussed in more detail in Gulagi et al. [75]. For seasonal balance hydro dams are well suited as well as PtG storage. ...
Article
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... The batteries provide 74%-91% of the total stored electricity. The other storage technology which plays a big role in the region-wide scenario is the A-CAES storage which acts as a mid-term storage for storing wind energy and discharging at times of low solar radiation [72]. The impact of A-CAES on the system decreases as the level of grid integration increases due to transferring of electricity via grids over a larger area being more economical than mid-term storage. ...
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The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable , universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.
... Low stored energy density and compression heat losses are the key issues to be addressed in the technology development . Gulagi, Aghahosseini, Bogdanov, and Breyer (2016) evaluated the energy system based on 100% renewable power generation in Southeast Asia, the Pacific Rim and Eurasia in 2030. The study showed that the market share of other energy storage methods will be reduced by the integration of A-CAES. ...
Article
Full-text available
Power generation from renewable energy has become more important due to the increase of electricity demand and pressure on tough emission reduction target. This has brought great impact on grid reliable operation. Wind curtailment often happens when grid can not accommodate more wind power. Various solutions are under investigation and energy storage (ES) is one of the recognized potential ways forward. Among all the ES technologies, Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) has demonstrated its unique merit in terms of scale, sustainability, low maintenance and long life time. The paper is to provide an overview of the current research trends in CAES and also update the technology development. The paper has also given a comprehensive review to the work conducted by the researchers in China.
... The uses of large-scale A-CAES plants involve grid applications for load shifting and frequency control, as well as bulk energy storage in order to store electricity globally for seasonal variation [42]. A-CAES is suitable for variable renewable energy, e.g., wind power [43,44] and is the least cost utility-scale bulk storage system that is currently available apart from PHS [45]. The major barrier for A-CAES was to find appropriate geographical locations [11]. ...
Conference Paper
As the transition to a 100% renewable energy (RE) system is meant to enhance sustainability, energy security should be taken into consideration. Energy security is an important situation in which the system can function optimally and sustainably, free from risks and threat. Part of the energy security consideration is the discussion about different energy system elements. And one of the most important elements of the RE system is storage. The aim of this work is to analyze energy storage technologies from an energy security perspective. Different storage technologies are studied. The portfolio of the technologies include: Pump Hydro Storage (PHS), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), batteries, Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES), and bulk storage for gas and liquid (biogas, H2, CH4, CO2, O2, liquefied gases, biodiesel, synthetic fuels, etc.) relevant for the energy transition. The results show clearly that not all storage technologies obtain the same level of energy security; TES is considered to have the highest level of security, and then the other storage technologies come in order from the highest to the lowest: batteries, gas/liquid storage, PHS, and the least secure energy storage technology is A-CAES. The conclusion is that all storage technologies show a positive relationship with energy security and all increase energy security, albeit at different levels. Therefore, it is recommended that manufacturers, energy system planners and policy makers adopt and improve storage technologies based on the need and the security of the system.
... The uses of large-scale A-CAES plants involve grid applications for load shifting and frequency control, as well as bulk energy storage in order to store electricity globally for seasonal variation [42]. A-CAES is suitable for variable renewable energy, e.g., wind power [43,44] and is the least cost utility-scale bulk storage system that is currently available apart from PHS [45]. The major barrier for A-CAES was to find appropriate geographical locations [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the transition to a 100% renewable energy (RE) system is meant to enhance sustainability, energy security should be taken into consideration. Energy security is an important situation in which the system can function optimally and sustainably, free from risks and threat. Part of the energy security consideration is the discussion about different energy system elements. And one of the most important elements of the RE system is storage. The aim of this work is to analyse energy storage technologies from an energy security perspective. Different storage technologies are studied. The portfolio of the technologies include: Pump Hydro Storage (PHS), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), batteries, Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES), and bulk storage for gas and liquid (biogas, H2, CH4, CO2, O2, liquefied gases, biodiesel, synthetic fuels, etc.) relevant for the energy transition. The results show clearly that not all storage technologies obtain the same level of energy security; TES is considered to have the highest level of security, and then the other storage technologies come in order from the highest to the lowest: batteries, gas/liquid storage, PHS, and the least secure energy storage technology is A-CAES. The conclusion is that all storage technologies show a positive relationship with energy security and all increase energy security, albeit at different levels. Therefore, it is recommended that manufacturers, energy system planners and policy makers adopt and improve storage technologies based on the need and the security of the system.
... Decrease in utilization of storage technologies is observed as the sub-regions are interconnected. The most significant impact can be observed on A-CAES with installed capacities dropping to zero as the grids are connected; these grids provide a lower cost flexibility to the system than A-CAES to balance the variation of the wind on weekly basis [46]. However, increased wind resources in the RE-SNG scenario and a decrease in electricity imports trigger some utilization of A-CAES. ...
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The Paris Agreement points out that countries need to shift away from the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system to limit the average temperature rise to 1.5 or 2 °C. A cost-optimal 100% renewable energy based system is simulated for East Asia for the year 2030, covering demand by power, desalination, and industrial gas sectors on an hourly basis for an entire year. East Asia was divided into 20 sub-regions and four different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage grid connection, and additional demand sectors: power, desalination, industrial gas, and a renewable-energy-based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG) trading between regions. The integrated RE-SNG scenario gives the lowest cost of electricity (€52/MWh) and the lowest total annual cost of the system. Results contradict the notion that long-distance power lines could be beneficial to utilize the abundant solar and wind resources in Australia for East Asia. However, Australia could become a liquefaction hub for exporting RE-SNG to Asia and a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in East Asia with the cost assumptions used. This may also be more cost-competitive than nuclear and fossil fuel carbon capture and storage alternatives.
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Conference Paper
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Supplementary Material for the publication "Hydropower and Power-to-Gas Storage Options: The Brazilian Energy System Case" at the 10th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES) in Düsseldorf, March 15-17, 2016
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In order to define a cost optimal 100% renewable energy system, an hourly resolved model has been created based on linear optimization of energy system parameters under given constrains. The model is comprised of five scenarios for 100% renewable energy power systems in North-East Asia with different high voltage direct current transmission grid development levels, including industrial gas demand and additional energy security. Renewables can supply enough energy to cover the estimated electricity and gas demands of the area in the year 2030 and deliver more than 2000 TW hth of heat on a cost competitive level of 84 €/MW hel for electricity. Further, this can be accomplished for a synthetic natural gas price at the 2013 Japanese liquefied natural gas import price level and at no additional generation costs for the available heat. The total area system cost could reach 69.4 €/MW hel, if only the electricity sector is taken into account. In this system about 20% of the energy is exchanged between the 13 regions, reflecting a rather decentralized character which is supplied 27% by stored energy. The major storage technologies are batteries for daily storage and power-to-gas for seasonal storage. Prosumers are likely to play a significant role due to favourable economics. A highly resilient energy system with very high energy security standards would increase the electricity cost by 23% to 85.6 €/MW hel. The results clearly show that a 100% renewable energy based system is feasible and lower in cost than nuclear energy and fossil carbon capture and storage alternatives.
Conference Paper
Increasing ecological problems provoked by human activities, including the fossil fuel based energy sector, emerge the development of a renewable energy (RE) based system as the way to stop pollution and global warming but also to reduce total energy system cost. Small population density and availability of various types of RE resources in Eurasian regions including solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy resources enables the very promising project of building a Super Grid connecting different Eurasian regions' energy resources to reach synergy effects and make a 100% RE supply possible. For every sub-region it is defined a cost-optimal distributed and centralized mix of energy technologies and storage options, optimal capacities and hourly generation. Charge and discharge profiles of storages are computed for regions interconnected by high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power lines. System cost and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for each sub-region are computed. The results show that a 100% RE-based system is lower in cost than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives.
Data
Presentation on the occasion of the GÜNDER Workshop held as part of the 45th IEA PVPS Task 1 Meeting in Istanbul on October 27, 2015.
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As renewable electricity generation capacity increases, energy storage will be required at larger scales. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) at large scales, with effective management of heat, is recognised to have potential to provide affordable grid-scale energy storage. Where suitable geologies are unavailable, compressed air could be stored in pressurised steel tanks above ground, but this would incur significant storage costs. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES), on the other hand, does not need a pressurised storage vessel, can be located almost anywhere, has a relatively large volumetric exergy density at ambient pressure, and has relatively low marginal cost of energy storage capacity even at modest scales. However, it has lower roundtrip efficiency than compressed air energy storage technologies. This paper carries out thermodynamic analyses for an energy storage installation comprising a compressed air component supplemented with a liquid air store, and additional machinery to transform between gaseous air at ambient temperature and high pressure, and liquid air at ambient pressure. A roundtrip efficiency of 42% is obtained for the conversion of compressed air at 50. bar to liquid air, and back. The proposed system is more economical than pure LAES and more economical than a pure CAES installation if the storage duration is sufficiently long and if the high-pressure air store cannot exploit some large-scale geological feature.
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Power-to-gas (PtG) technology has received considerable attention in recent years. However, it has been rather difficult to find profitable business models and niche markets so far. PtG systems can be applied in a broad variety of input and output conditions, mainly determined by prices for electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, heat, natural gas, bio-methane, fossil CO2 emissions, bio-CO2 and grid services, but also full load hours and industrial scaling. Optimized business models are based on an integrated value chain approach for a most beneficial combination of input and output parameters. The financial success is evaluated by a standard annualized profit and loss calculation and a subsequent return on equity consideration. Two cases of PtG integration into an existing pulp mill as well as a nearby bio-diesel plant are taken into account. Commercially available PtG technology is found to be profitable in case of a flexible operation mode offering electricity grid services. Next generation technology, available at the end of the 2010s, in combination with renewables certificates for the transportation sector could generate a return on equity of up to 100% for optimized conditions in an integrated value chain approach. This outstanding high profitability clearly indicates the potential for major PtG markets to be developed rather in the transportation sector and chemical industry than in the electricity sector as seasonal storage option as often proposed.
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Two diverse energy storage technologies, namely the compressed-air and hydrogen energy storage systems, are examined. In particular, a steady state analysis (IPSEpro simulation software) of four configurations of micro-CAES systems is conducted from the energetic and exergetic point of view. The hydrogen energy storage system is dynamically simulated using the HOMER energy software. Load and wind profiles for the island of Karpathos are used as input data to the program. The two-stage micro-CAES system without air preheating is selected to be investigated dynamically as it is proven to have high efficiency and zero emissions. The last part of the paper compares the two systems in terms of energy storage efficiency, includes an approximation of the costs and highlights the technological advantages and disadvantages of these technologies.
Conference Paper
Power systems have evolved as countries implement energy policies focusing on energy efficiency and increased share of renewable energy sources (RES). At the forefront is non-dispatchable generation such as wind and solar. Traditionally power systems were designed for fully dispatchable generating plant. However, these powers systems are under additional pressure due to the variable operational characteristics of RES. Consequently, capital investments in grid reinforcement, interconnection, additional gas generators and smart grid initiatives have been proposed and implemented. Moreover, an increased interest in energy storage technologies has evolved due to their various economic and operational benefits to power systems. Current compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants have shown economic feasibility and reliability. Thus, the main focus of this paper is to investigate and compare two scenarios; one without CAES and a second with CAES as an additional generator in the 2020 Irish power system using power systems simulation software PLEXOS.
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In this paper, an updated review of the state of technology and installations of several energy storage technologies were presented, and their various characteristics were analyzed. The analyses included their storage properties, current state in the industry and feasibility for future installation. The paper includes also the main characteristics of energy storage technologies suitable for renewable energy systems.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we discuss compressed air energy storage (CAES) units, and reflect on a demand-side management (DSM) technique including six generic load shape objectives in the Korea electric power corporation (KEPCO). The CAES technology has been considered for substitute energy utilization not only in regards to the management of large or small loads but also for use by emergency generators during a power failure. Recently, in the energy storage field, countries with CAES have developed small, medium and large units for storage roles. These units can be used for the dual-purpose applications of supplementary power generation and district heating supply systems. These units have an underground cavern or a modular-type pressurized vessel with large and small, micro containers. The storage and utilization time of the CAES are determined by the power between the lower limit and upper limit by the KEPCO load curve patterns over an entire day.
Article
Electricity generated from renewable sources, which has shown remarkable growth worldwide, can rarely provide immediate response to demand as these sources do not deliver a regular supply easily adjustable to consumption needs. Thus, the growth of this decentralized production means greater network load stability problems and requires energy storage, generally using lead batteries, as a potential solution. However, lead batteries cannot withstand high cycling rates, nor can they store large amounts of energy in a small volume. That is why other types of storage technologies are being developed and implemented. This has led to the emergence of storage as a crucial element in the management of energy from renewable sources, allowing energy to be released into the grid during peak hours when it is more valuable.The work described in this paper highlights the need to store energy in order to strengthen power networks and maintain load levels. There are various types of storage methods, some of which are already in use, while others are still in development. We have taken a look at the main characteristics of the different electricity storage techniques and their field of application (permanent or portable, long- or short-term storage, maximum power required, etc.). These characteristics will serve to make comparisons in order to determine the most appropriate technique for each type of application.
Article
Energy storage technologies may be electrical or thermal. Electrical energy stores have an electrical input and output to connect them to the system of which they form part, while thermal stores have a thermal input and output. The principal electrical energy storage technologies described are electrochemical systems (batteries and flow cells), kinetic energy storage (flywheels) and potential energy storage, in the form of pumped hydro and compressed air. Complementary thermal storage technologies include those based on the sensible and latent heat capacity of materials, which include bulk and smaller-capacity hot and cold water storage systems, ice storage, phase change materials and specific bespoke thermal storage media.For the majority of the storage technologies considered here, the potential for fundamental step changes in performance is limited. For electrochemical systems, basic chemistry suggests that lithium-based technologies represent the pinnacle of cell development. This means that the greatest potential for technological advances probably lies in the incremental development of existing technologies, facilitated by advances in materials science, engineering, processing and fabrication. These considerations are applicable to both electrical and thermal storage. Such incremental developments in the core storage technologies are likely to be complemented and supported by advances in systems integration and engineering. Future energy storage technologies may be expected to offer improved energy and power densities, although, in practice, gains in reliability, longevity, cycle life expectancy and cost may be more significant than increases in energy/powerdensity per se.
Article
World wind energy resources are substantial, and in many areas, such as the US and northern Europe, could in theory supply all of the electricity demand. However, the remote or challenging location (i.e. offshore) and especially the intermittent character of the wind resources present formidable barriers to utilization on the scale required by a modern industrial economy. All of these technical challenges can be overcome. Long distance transmission is well understood, while offshore wind technology is being developed rapidly. Intermittent wind power can be transformed to a controllable power source with hybrid wind/compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The cost of electricity from such hybrid systems (including transmission) is affordable, and comparable to what users in some modern industrial economies already pay for electricity. This approach to intermittent energy integration has many advantages compared to the current strategy of forcing utilities to cope with supply uncertainty and transmission costs. Above all, it places intermittent wind on an equal technical footing with every other generation technology, including nuclear power, its most important long-term competitor.
Article
For widespread renewable energy to become reality, it must be coupled with energy storage to match the intermittent renewable supply with customer demand. Hydrogen has been proposed as the energy storage medium of the future, but the utility industry might be better advised to consider such other methods as secondary batteries, flow batteries, compressed air, and pumped hydro.
Article
The storage of compressed air underground is a proven and acceptable technique. Solution mined salt caverns, hard rock conventionally mined caverns, and aquifers can be used to successfully store compressed air. This paper will review the experience of underground containers and will discuss the storage of compressed air for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) type facilities. Since the technique of storing air is identical to storing natural gas, the successful long-term experience of natural gas storage projects will be reviewed.
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Huntorf CAES: More than 20 years of successful operation, Solution Mining Research Institute (SMRI) Spring Meeting
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South-East Asia and the Pacific Rim Super Grid for 100% RE power supply
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