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A New Look at Faith-Based Marketing: The Global Halal Market

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... The halal food market is seen as the largest and most diverse sector of the global Islamic economy, which is expected to surpass $1.9tn in size by 2023 (Dubai Islamic Economy Development Centre, 2018). Likewise, there is a rising consumer power of Muslim millennials, which signals the importance of religious lifestyle (Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016). Rising per capita incomes in countries with significant Muslim population, as well as elsewhere, together with demographic shifts, has given rise to a demand for Shariacompliant products. ...
... The findings of research into Islamic markets tend to indicate that there has been a steady increase in the number of companies that are keen to invest in halal markets. Large multinational firms such as Nestlé, Unilever, Colgate, McDonald's and L'Oréal are world-known brands which have developed a well-recognised presence in Islamic markets supplying Islamic Sharia-compliant products to their consumers (Alserhan, 2010;Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016). There is also a sense of recognition in non-Islamic countries of marketing Islamic-compliant products. ...
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The purpose of this study is to systematically review the existing literature on Islamic marketing and its major impacts on consumer behaviours. In addition, this study seeks to shed light on global trends and dynamics beyond Islamic marketing and how Islam, as one of the most prominent religions worldwide, affects the consumption and purchasing choices of Muslim consumers. A systematic literature review of published peer-reviewed articles on Islamic marketing was conducted. A comprehensive search strategy was applied on different databases, including Google Scholar, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, MUSE and Directory of Open Access Journals, and the retrieved articles were then selected from 14 leading journals published between 2010 and 2018. Islam as a religion has been found to impact the ethical beliefs and behaviours of Muslim consumers from different countries, as well as consumers’ choice of services and some taboo products on the basis of Islamic Shariah law. The results show that Islamic marketing has a significant impact on the characteristics of Muslim consumers and therefore affects their key choices about certain products and services. The studies included in this review are extensively based on peer-reviewed articles published in high-ranked marketing journals (A* and A in the Australian Business Deans Council list), which may be perceived as a limitation in the present study. Another limitation is that this study only took into account peer-reviewed articles written in English. The important relationship between Islam and the heterogeneous Muslim consumer will have a considerable practical implication for companies that explore the marketing supply capacity in the Islamic world. The authors hereby expect the current review to significantly impact the identification of methodologies for the main trends in the academic analysis of Islamic marketing and Islamic consumer behaviour. This review provides a strong contribution to Islamic marketing literature by recommending the need to integrate the Islamic practices related to consumer consumption of goods and services in studies focused on consumer behaviour analysis.
... Bangladesh is the fifteenth country with the HFI index score 25 (Statista, 2018). Numerous studies (Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016;Aziz and Chok, 2013) showed the importance of the Halal concept in the non-Muslim countries also. The study of Mathew et al. (2012) revealed that non-Muslim consumers eagerly follow the Halal concept. ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify different factors affecting consumers' purchase intention (PI) towards certified Halal food products in Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to collect responses from consumers. Data were collected from 300 respondents using the conveniencesampling method. After assuring the reliability and validity of scale items, structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the model. Study revealed that perceived behavioural control (PBC) and consumer perception (CP) are important factors to explain the purchase intention of Bangladeshi consumers. The model proposed by this study showing the factors influencing purchase intention towards Halal foods will give the marketers an indication of which factors they should consider. Ideally, this study is important because of its contribution towards an insight on how consumers are becoming more conscious about certified Halal foods.
... Bangladesh is the fifteenth country with the HFI index score 25 (Statista, 2018). Numerous studies (Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016;Aziz and Chok, 2013) showed the importance of the Halal concept in the non-Muslim countries also. The study of Mathew et al. (2012) revealed that non-Muslim consumers eagerly follow the Halal concept. ...
... In the area of Halal, major reported articles have explored the attitude of the consumers towards Halal-certified products Ariffin and Wahid, 2017;Aziz and Chok, 2013;Bashir et al., 2018;Ali, Xiaoling, Sherwani and Ali, 2017;Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016;Lestari et al., 2018), their biological and chemical aspects to establish integrity and quality of Halal meat (Park et al., 2017;Premanandh and Bin Salem, 2017;Aghwan et al., 2016;Al-Kahtani et al., 2017;Farouk et al., 2014) and parametric evaluation of effect of stunning on ritually slaughtered animals and their welfare (Fuseini et al., 2016;Rahman, 2017;Nakyinsige et al., 2013;Grandin, 2010;Farouk et al., 2016;Farouk, 2013). However, it is observed that only the recently published literature have focussed on managing operational activities of Halal products (Khan, Khan, Haleem and Jami, 2019;Zulfakar et al., 2018;Alzeer et al., 2018;Soon et al., 2017;Haleem and Khan, 2017) and on developing Halal standards as a contemporary standard taking modern lifestyle into consideration (Ahmad et al., 2018;Chandia and Soon, 2018;Talib et al., 2017;Muhamad et al., 2017;Butt et al., 2017). ...
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Purpose Halal is an emerging business sector and is steadily gaining popularity among scholars and practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate and review the reported literature in the broad area of Halal using bibliometric technique and network analysis tools. Moreover, this paper also proposes future research directions in the field of Halal. Design/methodology/approach This paper employed a systematic review technique followed by bibliometric analysis to gain insight and to evaluate the research area associated with Halal. Furthermore, data mining techniques are used for analysing the concerned article title, keywords and abstract of 946 research articles obtained through the Scopus database. Finally, network analysis is used to identify significant research clusters. Findings This study reports top authors contributing to this area, the key sub-research areas and the influential works based on citations and PageRank. We identified from the citation analysis that major influential works of Halal are from the subject area of biological science and related areas. Further, this study reports established and emerging research clusters, which provide future research directions. Research limitations/implications Scopus database is used to conduct a systematic review and corresponding bibliometric study; the authors might have missed some peer-reviewed studies not reported in Scopus. The selection of keywords for article search may not be accurate for the multi-disciplinary Halal area. Also, the authors have not considered the banking/financial aspects of Halal. The proposed four research clusters may inform potential researcher towards supporting the industry. Originality/value The novelty of the study is that no published study has reported the bibliometric study and network analysis techniques in the area of Halal.
... Internalizing respect for religious diversity can help in communicating effectively with diverse stakeholders. In certain markets, faith-based marketing, including addressing consumers' religious sensibilities with faith-friendly offerings, could represent new opportunities for some companies (Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata 2016). An example of this would be Nestle's halal food marketing to cater to observant Muslim customers, but simultaneously marketing these as organic non-GMO products in Western markets. ...
Article
The rising number of non-religious people in Western countries can have major implications for organizations and their management practices. However, to date, this phenomenon has not attracted a great deal of interest among management scholars. In this paper, we outline how the rise of the non-religious could affect organizations in Western countries. We discuss three major issues. First, we elaborate on the phenomenon of rising non-religiosity. Next, we analyze how this rise of the non-religious population could affect businesses and organizations. We conclude by pointing out some ways in which managers can deal with this increasingly important phenomenon.
... Pada tahun 2013, diketahui terdapat 30% populasi muslim dari total populasi di dunia, dan bahkan diperkirakan akan terjadi peningkatan hingga 35% pada tahun 2025 mendatang. Maka tidak salah jika permintaan kosmetik halal semakin meningkat dari tahun ke tahun (Esfahani and Shahnazari, 2013;Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016). Terdapat penelitian yang menyatakan bahwa produk halal secara global mencapai angka USD 2,3 triliun dengan USD 230 miliar nya berasal dari kosmetik serta obatobatan. ...
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Peningkatan populasi muslim di dunia mengakibatkan adanya peningkatan terhadap konsumsi dan permintaan terhadap produk halal salah satunya adalah kosmetik. Kosmetik halal sudah bukan kata asing lagi bagi beberapa negara muslim, namun sayangnya masih banyak yang belum mengetahui definisi sebenarnya dari kosmetik halal. Masih banyak yang beranggapan produk kosmetik halal hanya yang mengandung babi dan alkohol saja. Review ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai kosmetik halal dan apa saja yang boleh terkandung di dalamnya serta analisis kimia yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi kandungan non halal dalam produk kosmetik.Kata kunci: Kosmetik halal, Kandungan non halal, Analisis kimia
... More often the term halal has been incorrectly confined to the domain that the consumables are free from alcohol, contains no pork or its derivatives, and the animals are slaughtered ritually (Izberk-Bilgin and Nakata, 2016). However, the domain of halal is much broader; it includes the purity of products and recommends consumers to consume products closest to their natural state (Azmi et al., 2018). ...
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Purpose Higher level of customer satisfaction for halal products can be achieved by the effective adoption of halal certification through assessment and accreditation (HCAA). There are certain issues that seem detrimental towards the adoption of HCAA. The purpose of this paper is to identify the major barriers towards the adoption of HCAA and evaluate inter-relationships among them for developing the strategies to mitigate these barriers. Design/methodology/approach The barriers towards the adoption of HCAA are identified through an integrative approach of literature review and expert’s opinion. The inter-relationship among the identified barriers is evaluated using fuzzy-based decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (fuzzy DEMATEL) technique, which categorises them into influential and influenced group. Findings The evaluation of inter-relationship among barriers using fuzzy DEMATEL indicates four influencing barriers and six influenced barriers towards the adoption of HCAA. Further, findings suggest an extensive government, and management support is vital in terms of commitment, resources and actions to realise the benefits attributed with HCAA. Research limitations/implications The inter-relationship among barriers is contextual and based on the perception of experts which may be biased as per their background and area of expertise. This study pertains to a specific region and can be extended to the generalised certification system. Originality/value The empirical base of the research provides the inter-relationship among the barriers towards the adoption of HCAA which can be effectively used as input in the decision-making process by producers, manufacturers and distributor. The policy maker can analyse the cause group and effect group of barriers to formulate policies that would help in the adoption of HCAA.
Preprint
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There is a new and growing interest in cross cultural marketing in the new millennium. It is fueled by several factors. First and foremost is the growth of consumer markets in emerging economies in general, and in China and India in particular (Sheth 2008). This chapter identifies and discusses seven timely areas that will present challenges and opportunities for twenty-first-century cross-cultural market researchers. These include: unbranded competition, faith-based consumption, diaspora marketing, social media marketing research, marketing to low-income consumers, sustainability marketing, and genetics, climate, and consumption. Beyond identifying these critical areas of inquiry, the chapter also addresses how technology will revolutionize the ways in which cross-cultural marketing research will be conducted.
Article
This article explores the political life of jello, or zheleh, among Basiji Shi‘i families in the contemporary Islamic Republic of Iran. Since the inception of the 1979 Constitution, Islamic laws concerning halal food, drink, and culinary etiquette have been heavily emphasized by state policy makers. This article focuses on jello, a popular gelatin dessert among state supporting Shi‘i families (here members of the Basij, Iran's paramilitary organization), to explore the scope and form of moral and religious foodways in the present-day Islamic Republic. I argue that jello reveals a complex milieu of sparring Western, cosmopolitan, national, and religious food practices that are connected with ideas and practices of (religious) citizenship. This article draws from fifteen months of ethnographic research in Fars Province of Iran and in Tehran, and from research of jurisprudence and popular media.
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Religious believes play an important role in choosing accommodation, travel and food. In this study, the effect of religious beliefs on export representatives, who frequently go abroad for various reasons was examined. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with exporters operating in Manisa to determine halal food and halal application preferences of the employees on their business trips. Information obtained through interviews was categorized by content analysis. Findings show that the participants give importance to halal practices especially for food in abroad, halal certificate in choosing accommodation isn't ranked in priority. Participants reveal that halal practices in many countries give relief while traveling. It was determined that the development of halal practices in the world will affect Turkey's export positively and that this effect would be echoed in sectors about food and beverage. It is also obtained that the existence of halal practices has no effect on target market selection.
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p class="zet"> Abstract Halāl is used by Muslims to mean religiously ‘not forbidden,’ ‘permitted,’ and as opposed to concepts like ‘harām’ and ‘makrooh’, similar to the concepts of ‘mubāh’ and ‘jāiz’. While it was easier to distinguish between halal and haram in the pre-industrial era, today it has become much more difficult due to complex products which are a result of innovations through industry and technology and their tremendous outreach. This has led to a loss of confidence in Muslims in the products they buy and increased the number of products whose halalness is doubted. While historically muhtasibs assumed the duty of preserving people’s confidence in markets by inspecting them, nowadays halal certificates are attempting to do the inspection and generate confidence. Although halal certificate activities have been going on and improving for almost half a century, they are not at a level to generate widespread and efficient halal guarantees. Opinion differences in fiqh, differences in institutions of certification, differences in halal certificates and logos, national and international legal gaps, and commercial competition between countries and institutions of certification affect the efficiency of the process negatively. The claim that the halal certificate is the best standard in terms of health, trustworthiness, and hygiene, its contribution to individual and societal religiosity, and the commercial advantages and disadvantages that it provides to Muslims is a remarkable field of inquiry. Öz Müslümanlar için helal, dini bakımdan yasaklanmamış, izin verilmiş manasında kullanılmakta; haram ve mekruh terimine karşıt, mubah ve caiz terimlerine yakın anlamlar ifade etmektedir. Sanayi öncesi dönemde helal ve haramı ayırt etmek günümüze göre daha basit iken günümüzde sanayi ve teknolojinin getirdiği yeniliklerle ortaya çıkan kompleks ürünler ve bu ürünlerin her yere ulaşabilmesi sebebiyle daha zor ve karmaşık hale gelmiştir. Bu durum Müslümanların satın aldığı ürünlere olan güvenini sarsmış ve giderek karşılaşılan helalliği şüpheli ürünlerin sayısını artırmıştır. Tarihte muhtesiplerin pazar denetimi Müslüman halk için bir güvence oluştururken günümüzde bu denetim ve güvence helal belgelendirme yöntemiyle sağlanmaya çalışılmaktadır. Yarım asırdan bu tarafa helal belgelendirme çalışmaları gelişerek devam etmesine rağmen bu çalışmalar henüz etkin ve yaygın bir helal güvence sağlayacak düzeyde değildir. Fıkhi ihtilaflar, sertifika kurumları arasındaki farklılıklar, helal sertifika ve helal logo farklılıkları, ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde yasal boşluklar, ülkeler ve sertifika kurumları arasında ticari rekabet, uygulamanın etkinliğini olumsuz etkilemektedir. Helal belgesinin sağlıklı, güvenli ve hijyenik en üst ürün güvencesi olduğu iddiası, ferdi ve toplumsal dindarlığımıza yaptığı katkılar ve ticari alanda Müslümanlara sağladığı avantajlar ve dezavantajlar, dikkat çekici bir araştırma alanıdır.</p
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Religion and ideology are prominent forces shaping consumption. While consumer researchers have studied both topics considerably, examinations of religious ideology remain scant. Notably lacking is research on how religion, myths, and ideology intertwine in the marketplace, informing attitudes toward brands. This ethnography investigates how the religious ideology of Islamism informs brand meanings among low-income Turkish consumers and identifies three discourses that construct global brands as infidels. Informants use the infidel parable to characterize market societies as devoid of social equality, morality, and justice. Their critique culminates in a consumer jihad against global brands. Through the consumer jihad, informants accommodate and protest the social crises posed by modernity and globalization as they seek to recreate the Golden Age of Islam. Exploring the relationships among economic means, cultural capital, and religious ideology helps this study bridge related domains of research on religiosity, ideology, and brand meanings that are often investigated separately.
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