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Work, Family and Commuting in Europe: The Lives of Euro-commuters

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Abstract

Since the onset of the economic crisis, the migration of European citizens within the European Union – intra-European migration – has increased dramatically. Severe recession in some older Western EU countries has led to a sharp rise in labour migration of young Europeans from these countries to other EU states. But amid these shifting migration patterns, another group of migrants has emerged. A growing number of European citizens now work in one EU country, but live in another, shuttling between the two on a routine basis.Work, Family and Commuting in Europe examines this ever-expanding group of 'Euro-commuters'. It examines their lives betwixt-and-between two EU countries, and addresses the following questions: Who are these Euro-commuters? What are their motives for undertaking this particular form of migration? How does commuting across the EU influence their personal, family, and social lives? And, what is the future for this unorthodox type of European migration?
... Research on LDC (Schneider and Meil 2008;Ralph, 2015;Viry and Kaufmann 2015;Bissell, Vannini, Jensen, 2017) has only marginally addressed Italy, where a significant increase in LDC was detected from 2001 to 2011, National statistical data show an increase in daily trips over 150 km, from 6,072 in 2001 to 31,854 in 2011, although they still represent only the 0,2% of the total daily national commuter flows in 2011 (ISTAT, 2011). ...
... Long-distance commuting, along with job-related mobilities on national and international scales, multi-locality and mobility in atypical time slots, has been investigated in recent years as emerging workrelated mobilities by several authors, studying different aspects of these practices (Öhman and Lindgrend, 2003;Limtanakool, Dijst, Schwanen, 2006;Schneider and Meil 2008;Ralph, 2015;Viry and Kaufmann 2015;Bissell, Vannini, Jensen, 2017). ...
... Considering research on long-distance work-related travel and habits, a set of shared reasons for this mobility emerges from the literature, namely socio-spatial-temporal transformations in the labour market, fast modes of travel, efficient intermodal connections, and the spread of urban populations into peri-urban areas (Ralph, 2015;Viry and Kaufmann, 2015;Bissell, Vannini, Jensen, 2017). In this framework, particular attention has been paid to the role of new HSR connections in supporting residential mobility (Garmendia et al., 2012), of people working in metropolitan areas who moved to HSL accessible cities with lower housing prices (Guirao et al. 2018;Dobruszkes et al. 2022) and the social inequalities related to the uneven use of HSR (Dobruszkes et al. 2022). ...
Article
This research focuses on long-distance commuters (LDC) in Italy, defined as people who travel long distances for work-related reasons, mainly to avoid residential mobility. These mobility practices, which are still quantitatively insignificant compared to daily commuting flows, can be correlated to socio-economic and lifestyle transformations, resulting from the combined effects of changes in the labour market, family and personal attitudes and constraints, and the supply of transport and communication networks. This paper frames long-distance commuting on a national level to describe the relevance and the geography of this phenomenon in Italy, offering an in-depth analysis of long-distance work-related travel in the Milan Urban Region (North of Italy) to understand the profiles of LDCs, the factors influencing this mobility practice, and its evolution over time. To address these concerns, a series of quantitative analyses are combined with complementary qualitative survey data acquired from interviews with a sample of LDCs. This approach puts in evidence emerging needs, times, and conditions of this practice and helps to define some key LDC profiles that may orient more inclusive and sustainable mobility policies.
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... . A House of One's Own: Gender, Migration, and Residence in Rural Mexico. American Ethnologist, 35(1), 171-187.Ralph, D. (2015). Work, Family and Commuting in Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Ryan, L., & Mulholland, J. (2014). Trading Places: French Highly Skilled Migrants Negotiating Mobility and Emplacement in London. ...
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After a short review of research on Romanian transnational families, in this short chapter, we provide a summary of previous chapters. This is followed by a projection of the future of transnational family research with regard to families including Romanian members.
... η των μέσων και δικτύων μεταφοράς συνέβαλε στην εντατικοποίηση του φαινομένου, καθώς και στην επέκταση (απόσταση / διάρκεια) των μετακινήσεων (Retaillé, 1998), με την εμφάνιση μάλιστα μιας νέας κατηγορίας εργαζομένων, των "Eurocities" ή "Euro-commuters", πολιτών που εργάζονται σε μια χώρα της Ε.Ε. ενώ διαμένουν μόνιμα σε μια άλλη χώρα (Favell, 2008. Ralph, 2015. Η μελέτη του φαινομένου αποτέλεσε αντικείμενο πολλαπλών ερευνών, ιδίως από γεωγράφους οι οποίοι εξετάζουν σε βάθος το θέμα της κινητικότητας σε σχέση με τις εξελίξεις των μεταφορών και τη σχετίκη άρση των γεωμορφολογικών εμποδίων (Brocard et al., 2009). Όσον αφορά στις αιτίες της ανάπτυξης Ημερήσιων Μετακινήσεων για μετάβαση στον Τόπο ...
... Το πρώτο αφορά τις ατομικές φιλοδοξίες / επιθυμίες, όπως η αναζήτηση ποιοτικών συνθηκών διαμονής, με συνέπεια την έντονη επέκταση του περι-αστικου χώρου (Spectorsky, 1995;Nordregio, 2005), την αναζήτηση καλύτερων εργασιακών συνθηκών και αμοιβών (Goldner, 1955), καθώς και τις επαγγελματικές προσδοκίες (Guillaume & Pochic, 2007), ειδικά για τους εργαζομένους με ανώτερα επαγγελματικά προσόντα (Campell & Duffy, 1992). Το δεύτερο σχετίζεται με τις πολλαπλές μακρο κοινωνικό-οικονομικές αλλαγές (Ralph 2015), καθώς και με την «έλλειψη συμβατότητας ανάμεσα στην προσφορά και στη ζήτηση εργασίας» (Ευστρατόγλου, 2004: 110). ...
Book
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Οι τελευταίες δεκαετίες σηματοδότησαν σημαντικές αλλαγές στα πληθυσμιακά μας δρώμενα. Η μαζική εισροή οικονομικών μεταναστών της περιόδου 1990-2000 περιορίσθηκε αισθητά, ενώ νέα μεταναστευτικά ρεύματα αναδύονται (προσφυγική κρίση, μετανάστευση νέων σε αναζήτηση εργασίας σε άλλες χώρες). Η εσωτερική μετανάστευση ατονεί, ενώ αντιθέτως η χωρίς αλλαγή της μόνιμης κατοικίας συνδεδεμένη με την εργασία κινητικότητα αυξάνεται και ταυτόχρονα τάσεις απο-αστικοποίησης αναδύονται, και, πιθανότατα εντείνονται στη διάρκεια της οικονομικής κρίσης. Αυξάνεται σε σχέση με το παρελθόν επαγωγή των μεταναστευτικών εισροών εθνο-πολιτισμική σύνθεση του πληθυσμού μας, ιδιαίτερα των δυο μητροπολιτικών περιοχών της χώρας μας, ενώ ταυτόχρονα οι δραστηριότητες των οικονομικών μεταναστών διευρύνονται. Οι πρόσφατες προσφυγικές ροές έχουν σημαντικές επιπτώσεις στην καθημερινότητα των τόπων υποδοχής ενώ η εγκατάσταση στη χώρα μας νέων αλλοδαπών μετά το 1990 επιβραδύνει, χωρίς όμως να ανακόπτει, τη δημογραφική γήρανση του πληθυσμού μας. Ταυτόχρονα, η «γήρανση μέσα στη γήρανση» επιταχύνεται καθώς το πλήθος και το ειδικό βάρος όσων έχουν ξεπεράσει το μέσο όρο ζωής (τα 80 έτη) αυξάνεται πολύ ταχύτερα από αυτό των 65 ετών και άνω και η αναπαραγωγή του πληθυσμού μας μας προβληματίζει όλο και περισσότερο καθώς γεννήσεις και γονιμότητα συρρικνώνονται συνεχώς, ενώ ταυτόχρονα οι ρυθμοί της αύξησης της προσδοκώμενης ζωής μας επιβραδύνονται προοδευτικά. Η εξέταση της χωρικής διάστασης των προαναφερθεισών σημαντικών πληθυσμιακών αλλαγών σε εθνικό επίπεδο συγκεντρώνει στη χώρα μας, σε αντίθεση με το παρελθόν, όλο και μεγαλύτερο ενδιαφέρον καθώς έχει συνειδητοποιηθεί πλέον η αναγκαιότητα διερεύνησης των διαφοροποιήσεων που υποκρύπτονται συχνότατα κάτω από τους εθνικούς μέσους όρους. Ταυτόχρονα, όλο και περισσότερο, αναδεικνύεται και η αναγκαιότητα της μη μονο-επιστημονικής προσέγγισης στη μελέτη των αλλαγών αυτών. Τα άρθρα που περιλαμβάνονται στο θεματικό αυτό τεύχος, σε μικρότερο ή μεγαλύτερο βαθμό, πληρούν τις δυο αυτές προϋποθέσεις. Το τεύχος συγκεντρώνει κείμενα ερευνητών οι οποίοι, από διαφορετικές οπτικές γωνιές εξετάζουν κυρίως θέματα που άπτονται της κινητικότητας στο εσωτερικό της χώρας μας («Η επιστροφή στην Ύπαιθρο στην Ελλάδα μετά το 2000», «Η καθημερινή κινητικότητα των απασχολούμενων στην Ελλάδα»), των δυο διαδοχικών μεταναστευτικών ρευμάτων («Η οικονομική και επιχειρηματική δραστηριότητα των μεταναστών στην περιοχή της Αττικής» , «Μεταναστευτικές και Προσφυγικές Ροές στην Λέσβο»), των πρόσφατων εξελίξεων της αναπαραγωγής του πληθυσμού μας («Η συγχρονική γονιμότητα στην Ελλάδα κατά τα πρώτα χρόνια του 21ου αιώνα»), ή ακόμη της γήρανσης μέσα στη γήρανση («Η εξέλιξη των τύπων διαβίωσης των ηλικιωμένων 80 ετών και άνω στην Ελλάδα»). Δυο άρθρα διαφοροποιούνται εν μέρει της πρότερης θεματολογίας. Το πρώτο («Μετανάστευση και Εθνοπολιτισμική «Ποικιλότητα» των Ευρωπαϊκών Πόλεων» αμφισβητεί την εγκυρότητα της θέσης ότι η Εθνοπολιτισμική «Ποικιλότητα» των ευρωπαϊκών πόλεων σήμερα είναι πιο σημαντική από ποτέ, ενώ το δεύτερο («Γεωγραφία των Κόμβων και Πληθυσμός») παρουσιάζει έναν εναλλακτικό τρόπο μοντελοποίησης του χώρου διερευνώντας - μεταξύ άλλων -, τις δυνατότητες εκτίμησης του πληθυσμού και της κατανομής του στην Ελλάδα με την χρήση των Γεωγραφικών Συστημάτων Πληροφοριών . Ως επιμελητές θα θέλαμε τέλος να ευχαριστήσουμε όλους όσους συνέβαλαν στο τεύχος αυτό και ιδιαίτερα τους συγγραφείς και τους κριτές των κειμένων που συμπεριλαμβάνει
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... The book by Bruna Vendemmia focuses on a mobility practicelong distance commuting (LDC)which has been at the core of a small body of research in recent years. 1 In current research on long distance commuting, we find a set of shared reasons that originate this mobility, namely fast travel modes, efficient intermodal connections, transformations in the labour market and work programmes, and the spreading of urban populations in peri-urban areas (Ralph 2014;Bissell et al. 2017). At the same time, these studies do not offer converging interpretations on the impacts of these mobilities on daily life, the motivations of people involved in this daily travel nor on the attributes and criteria necessary to define long distance commuters. ...
... Reconstructing the societal shifts that may have propelled long distance commuting, Ralph (2014) examined a particular subset of the so-called Eurostar population: the 'Euro-commuters', distinguishing among them three typologies 2 strongly inflected by gender, age, family formation stage, education and specialised training. Becoming an alternative to more conventional forms of migration, this kind of transnational circular mobility depends on an individual's mobility capital and is affected by differing primary motivations, while representing nowadays a prospect for ordinary European professionals to consider as part of their attempts to achieve some sort of durable work-life balance. ...
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
Chapter
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This is a comparative study of two types of lodging in the transnational suspension of couples with a Romanian partner, pertaining to two distinct job categories: “low-skilled” (London, UK) and “high-skilled” (Mons, Belgium). In the course of the chapter, the difference between two strategies of living is construed, namely stealthy living and living lavishly, which underlines the impact of these strategies on transnational family members.
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, through the voices of those who departed and those still at home, some novel aspects of transnational relationships of these families are presented: gender roles in transnational communication, recreational visits, multinational relationships of families and the role of polymedia in the forming of couples.
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
Chapter
Here we briefly present the research methodology, the results of which are the basis of this book, underlining the challenges of two groups of data collection and recording methods: video and online interviews, on the one hand, and interviews with couples, on the other.
... In the delimitation of these strategies, I have drawn upon the model comprising "a three-part typology of Euro-commuters -'survivors', 'thrivers' and 'strivers' -based on their principal motivation for undertaking this mobility" (Ralph 2015, p. 37), but I have centered on the differentiation between the two ways of living in terms of lodging type. Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
... Ralph (2015) has shown how a partner's mobility type has an effect on the entire couple, as well as reflects on the perspective of the partner at home. In my approach, I chose couples as a direct object of analysis and emphasized, together with Ralph (2015), how belonging to one category or another impacts the gender roles in the couple, which is an issue we shall return to in this concluding subchapter. ...
Book
This book explores novel aspects of transnational family research through the study of Romanian transnational families. A range of topics are covered, including the impact of lodging type upon life strategies; understudied elements in transnational relationships; gender roles in transnational communication; multinational relationships; the role of polymedia in the formation of couples; and the lives of the children of Romanian transnational families. The author presents the experiences of ‘leavers’ as well as of ‘stayers’; of the ‘highly-skilled’ as well as the ‘low-skilled’; that of women and that of men - through individual testimonies and couple interviews. Romanian Transnational Families will be of interest to students and scholars across a range of disciplines, including sociology, politics, anthropology and geography. Chapter 3 and Chapter 5 of this book are available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com
... For instance, Cai et al. [8] suggest that men have higher ICT self-efficacy and hold more favorable attitudes toward technology than women. With respect to age, younger travelers are more likely to embrace new technologies and are more influenced by ICT than older cohorts [67,85]. As such, they tend to engage more in solitary media use (radio/mobile phone) while traveling than older travelers (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Time use during travel has been the subject of considerable research in recent years thanks to its crucial role in determining the utility of travel time. While most of these studies have documented the effects of demographics and trip characteristics on travel time use, the effect of gender is still ambiguous. To understand the role of gender in travel time use, we explore the effect of gender interaction with non-travel time use behavior (daily habits, multitasking and preferences), joint travel (travel companion), and economic situation (income and working hours) on various time use activities (reading, ICT use and talking) during travel. Moreover, we address the mixed and scant evidence from prior studies regarding the effect of sociodemographic, residential and trip characteristics on travel time use. The study used the cross-sectional German Time Use Survey 2012/13 data and employed multi-level binary logistic regression for analysis. The results indicate four important findings: (1) women's socializing during travel is principally influenced by primary time spent on interaction with children and ICT usage, while men’s socializing during travel is positively influenced by traveling with their partners and socializing habits; (2) both women’s and men’s solitary activities during travel (e.g. reading/ICT use) are influenced by their economic situation (e.g. income, working hours) and daily non-travel time use habits (reading habits/ICT use habits); (3) individuals’ solitary time use during travel is positively influenced by other potential determinants such as living in semi-urban areas/East Germany, driving or traveling by public transport; and (4) socializing during travel is positively influenced by living with partners, having young children, evening/night/weekend trips, maintenance/leisure trips, traveling by public transport and walking.
... A peculiar expression of this 'state of flux' is that of transregional or transnational commuters, who sometimes stay overnight (Ralph, 2014): they account for 1% of the total workforce in the EU (Eurostat, 2020). Another relevant category is that of 'digital nomads' -young professionals working solely in an online environment (Reichenberger, 2018) -a group which has grown considerably thanks to the pandemic, and is by definition very mobile, being particularly flexible in the choice of their place(s) of residence. ...
Article
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Temporary populations – tourists, temporary stayers, non-resident students – constitute a substantial share of many cities’ inhabitants. Their implications are normally the object of separate research, about over tourism, studentification, transnational gentrification. When viewed from the perspective of the sociospatial relations those populations have in and with the city, many similarities emerge in their urban practices, socio economic characteristics, locational and housing preferences. The paper aims to contribute to recent attempts to avoid traditional categorisations and investigate jointly how the inflow of temporary inhabitants produces effects at the urban and sub-urban scales. The COVID-19 pandemic will then be used as a natural experiment to estimate how they distribute in the city of Rome, Italy, which is crucial to a better understanding of their impact. Temporary populations, we argue, are a very visible source of both hard and soft urban changes, and a major driver of not only neighbourhood change but sociospatial polarisation at the whole city scale. The pandemic also offers an occasion to see how dependent cities are on temporary inhabitants and to reflect upon the ambivalence in how they see those populations as either a gain or a burden, something they struggle to attract or as a source of tensions and opposition.
... The process of European integration has created a specific, transnational space (Castro-Martin & Cortina, 2015;Verwiebe, 2008), with intra-European migrations being "increasingly short-term or temporary in nature, with examples including transnational migration, cross-border commuting, seasonal migration, circular migration and retirement migration" (Verwiebe et al., 2014, 131). Many qualitative studies give evidence of wide range of movements within the EU including student migrations (Murphy-Lejeune, 2002), love migration (Díez Medrano, 2020), retirement migration (Gustafson, 2002(Gustafson, , 2008, transnational commuting (Ralph, 2015), among others. However, we are interested here in another layer of intra-European movement, studying temporal and spatial patterns of migrations using quantitative data. ...
Article
Much migration research analyses one-off migration from origin to destination, of a more-or-less permanent character. This paper argues that the reality of international movements is more complex. Thus, the aim of our analysis is to shed light on the diversity of migration patterns involving repeat movements between origin and destination and multiple migration, which encompass more than one destination country within its migration trajectory. A review of the literature points to the gap between the literature on repeat migration and that on multiple migration. These two strands of literature developed separately; each took as a frame of reference one-off migration. In this paper we bridge this theoretical gap. Empirical analysis, based on the European Internal Movers’ Social Survey (EIMSS), quantifies the volume of one-off, repeat and multiple movements between selected European Union countries. The study also points to how the diverse patterns of migration are socially structured.
... In addition, scholarship struggles to come to terms with the increasingly variegated forms of migration in today's increasingly mobile societies. Especially the European migration context has changed drastically in recent decades and numerous questions remain regarding the characteristics and consequences of emergent trends of intra-EU mobility such as the above discussed (post)-crisis migration flows or the increasing number of so-called 'semigrants' or 'Eurocommuters' (Ralph, 2014) who divide their time between different countries to name just a few examples. As regards the motivations and behaviour of (temporarily) mobile individuals, most research thus far has focused on the complementary, symbiotic interplay between tourism and forms of voluntary mobility, such as second home ownership or migration driven by 'lifestyle aspirations' (Dredge & Jenkins, 2007, p. 309). ...
... Sticky care is conceptualized as inherently linked with mobility, because the stickiness is revealed when mobility is planned or enacted. Arguably there is particular stickiness associated with irregular workrelated mobility such as conferences; researchers have found that professionals with regular business travel patterns do struggle to manage care and family life on the move, but have shown that these professionals (who are often men) are able to establish routines of care based on their mobility patterns (Ralph 2015;Willis et al. 2017). Conferences, and indeed most short-term academic mobility, fit into the category of irregular travel; this form of travel is more of an interruption to routines than a routine in and of itself, and as such sticky care takes shape in this article around these mobility-related interruptions. ...
Article
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While there is increasing awareness of the contributing effect of the academic mobility imperative on gendered inequalities in the academic profession at large, there is a missing link in current research on this topic. Namely, while ‘care’ is often named as the explanatory factor for why women, and to an extent professionals of any gender at peak childrearing age, are less mobile, this article argues that care is insufficient as an explanatory factor for immobility. Care and other terms such as ‘family responsibilities’ and ‘domestic obligations’ come to serve as a shorthand or explanatory factor for gendered immobility, but these terms elide the complexity of the relationship between care and mobility. This article argues that, without a fuller understanding of how care and mobility intersect, inclusivity drives run the risk of misunderstanding or even reproducing the problem. The specific mobility addressed here is international conference travel as a form of short-term academic mobility which contributes to academic career success and the perpetuation of a mobile academic ideal. The article elaborates a novel conceptual construct, ‘sticky care’, which is applied to empirical data from a diary-interview study of the impact of caring responsibilities on academics’ conference participation. Two dominant mobility-related strategies are elaborated: ‘night/s away’ and ‘get back’. The overarching ambition of this article is at a conceptual level: to bring more complexity and nuance to the concept of care when it is mobilized as an explanatory factor for (gendered) immobility and indeed for inequalities in the academic profession at large.
... Conference mobility is accompanied by its own challenges for academics with caring responsibilities. Unlike regular commuting, which lends itself to the formation of a regular care routine (Ralph 2015;Willis et al. 2017), conferences constitute an interruption to the care routine, particularly as they do not occur in a regular pattern, and each conference requires its own tailor-made solution for care. Existing studies have shown that there are challenges (as well as some pleasures) involved in being accompanied to conferences by children (Hook 2016;Lipton 2018) or partners (Yoo, McIntosh, and Cockburn-Wootten 2016), while ensuring the smooth provision of care for non-accompanying caring responsibilities poses its own set of challenges (Henderson 2019). ...
Article
This article explores how academics with caring responsibilities negotiate the mobility imperative, with specific reference to attending conferences. We argue that, in the neoliberal and ‘careless’ context of higher education, negotiating conflicting identities of academic and carer are fraught with tensions for carers as they try to reconcile the mobility imperative with their caring responsibilities. We acknowledge and also challenge the naturalised relationship between care and femininity, and use a feminist poststructuralist approach to analyse the competing discourses surrounding academic and care work. We draw on two distinct, but related, research projects with predominantly UK-based participants. Moreau’s project (‘Carers and Careers’, 2015–2017) explored how academic carers negotiate academic cultures which tend to render care work invisible, using interviews with academic carers and policy staff. Henderson’s project (‘In Two Places at Once’, 2017–2018) focused on the impact of caring responsibilities on academics’ conference participation, using diary-interview method.
... While high mobility concerned 9-12% of the population aged 25-54 in 2007, 44% of the sample said they had already practised high mobility during their careers (Schneider and Meil, 2008). 5 The attributes and criteria in defining LDC are not unequivocal in the current research (Öhman and Lindgrend, 2003;Ralph, 2014;Viry and Kaufmann, 2015;Bissell et al., 2017;Schneider and Meil, 2008) in which LDC can be detected by considering both travel times and spatial distances covered to reach work places. In our research, we selected LDCs by considering travel distances over 75 km one way. ...
Article
Transport geography and mobilities studies share the same object of study – mobility - which nonetheless has been differently conceptualized by the two disciplinary fields. This difference impacts their analytical, interpretative and operational approaches as well as their actual contribution to transport planning, so that despite their proximity, mobility studies and transport geography still appear as bordering disciplinary fields. To deal with concerns that affect the way we address urban mobility issues, the paper suggests putting into practice what the heterodox economist Albert Hirschman famously called trespassing, as a tactic to cross disciplinary boundaries and progress with some puzzles through detours and forays into other fields. In doing so, the paper aims at exploring how trespassing enhances the way mobilities studies and transport geography may usefully cross-fertilize each other and enhance operational responses to mobility issues, by analysing the conceptual and operational innovations that could benefit from such a reciprocal interchange. To discuss forms of significant trespassing for mobilities, the paper proposes to detect and address emerging forms of everyday mobility, taking long distance commuters (LDC) in the Milan Urban Region as an example. Here, trespassing allows the merging of quantitative and qualitative datasets to understand the articulated nature of this and other forms of contemporary mobilities. Working on the interpretative and operational challenges posed by these emerging mobilities that question key principles of the traditional ‘utilitarian approach’ to transport planning, the paper discusses the conceptual, analytical and operational directions along which trespassing may be developed.
... The aforementioned patterns of family commitments as a determinant of academic mobility (especially for women) are also reflected in research on work-based travel in the form of weekly travel and overnight trips (Dubois, et al. 2015;Viry, et al. 2015). It is clear from Vincent-Geslin and Ravalet's (2015) participants' accounts, as well as from Ralph's (2015) study of Euro-commuters and Willis, et al.'s (2017) study of business travel, that regular business travellers develop well-honed strategies for managing caring arrangements while awayeven if these arrangements are a constant struggle and negotiation. While conferences mirror business travel, as noted by Parker and Weik (2014), there are some important differences. ...
Chapter
Conferences are important but neglected research sites in the research field that focuses on documenting and analysing academia and the academic profession (Henderson 2015). As sites where knowledge is constructed and shared, where careers are made and unmade, where important connections are formed, confer- ences play a vital role in the development of research fields (Basch 2001; McCulloch 2012). The issue of access to conferences is therefore much more than an issue of accessing an event for a few days; it is an issue of access to any number of potential future avenues. There are many factors which determine who accesses which conferences where, including funding, institutional support, and border politics (Henderson 2017); this chapter focuses on the impact of caring responsibilities on academics’ participation in conferences. The chapter is based on a research project entitled ‘In Two Places at Once: the Impact of Caring Responsibilities on Academics’ Conference Participation’1 (www.warwick.ac.uk/ i2po). In this project, access to conferences is framed in two senses, which reflect debates about access to education, where access is understood as access to and access within (Aikman and Unterhalter 2005). Access to conferences refers to an academic’s ability to attend conferences, while access within calls attention to the possibility of the academic fully participating in the conference while there. As with the equivalent debates on access to and within education, access to conferences has hitherto received more attention than access within. This chapter therefore focuses on the issue of access within conferences for academics with caring responsibilities.
... Through the practices of doing family, transnational family members create, negotiate and permanently reaffirm their belonging to the family (Kilkey and Palenga-Möllenbeck 2016;Ducu 2016, 2018), especially since, as with many other non-mainstream types of family (such as lone-parent families or lesbian and gay families), transnational families frequently find themselves questioned and hence often wish to display family (Finch 2007(Finch , 2011Almack 2008;Ducu , 2018. A growing amount of research on such families, with members on the move (see the volume edited by Kilkey and Palenga-Möllenbeck 2016, and the Pivot monographs by Ralph 2015 andDucu 2018) are centred on the concept of doing family. ...
Book
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This book describes children and youth on the one hand and parents on the other within the newly configured worlds of transnational families. Focus is put on children born abroad, brought up abroad, studying abroad, in vulnerable situations, and/or subject of trafficking. The book also provides insight into the delicate relationships that arise with parents, such as migrant parents who are parenting from a distance, elderly parents supporting migrant adult children, fathers left behind by migration, and Eastern-European parents in Nordic countries. It also touches upon life strategies developed in response to migration situations, such as the transfer of care, transnational (virtual) communication, common visits (to and from), and the co-presence of family members in each other’s (distant) lives. As such this book provides a wealth of information for researchers, policy makers and all those working in the field of migration and with migrants.
... Through the practices of doing family, transnational family members create, negotiate and permanently reaffirm their belonging to the family (Kilkey and Palenga-Möllenbeck 2016;Ducu 2016, 2018), especially since, as with many other non-mainstream types of family (such as lone-parent families or lesbian and gay families), transnational families frequently find themselves questioned and hence often wish to display family (Finch 2007(Finch , 2011Almack 2008;Ducu 2014Ducu , 2018. A growing amount of research on such families, with members on the move (see the volume edited by Kilkey and Palenga-Möllenbeck 2016, and the Pivot monographs by Ralph 2015 andDucu 2018) are centred on the concept of doing family. ...
Chapter
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The first decade of research on transnational families focused primarily on the perspectives of adult migrants, and departed mothers in particular, with the theoretical concept of care at its centre, especially within national and bi-national approaches. The second decade saw a major transformation following the obsolescence of the nuclear family as a unit of research. Methodological approaches have, on the one hand, become more complex (mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, cross-country comparisons, life course perspectives etc.), while children and the elderly have become more visible. These studies have acquired the following key elements: gender, co-presence illustrated through family practices and mobility. Besides offering a short review of the above, this chapter contains a detailed discussion on research addressing Romanian transnational families, in order to illustrate the application of these elements. Then, we offer examples of how research published in the present volume is inscribed with the new research perspective.
... In addition, scholarship struggles to come to terms with the increasingly variegated forms of migration in today's increasingly mobile societies. Especially the European migration context has changed drastically in recent decades and numerous questions remain regarding the characteristics and consequences of emergent trends of intra-EU mobility such as the above discussed (post)-crisis migration flows or the increasing number of so-called 'semigrants' or 'Eurocommuters' (Ralph, 2014) who divide their time between different countries to name just a few examples. As regards the motivations and behaviour of (temporarily) mobile individuals, most research thus far has focused on the complementary, symbiotic interplay between tourism and forms of voluntary mobility, such as second home ownership or migration driven by 'lifestyle aspirations' (Dredge & Jenkins, 2007, p. 309). ...
Article
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This article is concerned with the increasing role and relevance of tourism in processes of urban change as well as its overlap and interplay with other mobilities and place consumption practices. It responds to recent debates surrounding the extension and intensification of ‘touristification’ processes in urban areas and uses the case of Berlin to draw attention to a number of intricacies and complexities that complicate their interpretation. The main argument the article advances is that developments in Berlin which are currently discussed under the rubric of ‘touristification’ can by no means be exclusively attributed to tourism, however conceived, and instead illustrate the need to adopt new ways of approaching and understanding what is perceived as tourism-induced urban change. To this end, the article will present a preliminary heuristic portrayal of (tourism) mobility and place consumption as a pentagon with five interrelated but distinct dimensions and present several salient issues and questions that warrant further investigation. The paper will conclude with some brief reflections concerning the wider implications of the increased centrality of mobility flows and place consumption practices in today's cities. These, it will be argued, not only challenge the way we think about tourism. Rather, they also raise fundamental questions concerning our understanding of cities and neighbourhoods, the ‘legitimacy’ of particular claims over them, as well as several traditional precepts of modern urban planning and management.
Article
The article attempts to unpack the ambivalence and benefits of commuter marriages. The study applied a qualitative paradigm, as well as a qualitative approach to investigate 17 participants between the ages of 30 to 52 (13 women and 4 men), of various occupations including bankers, civil/public servants, businessmen and women, lecturers, lawyers, teachers, managers of private organisations politicians, sales representatives, and medical doctors. All of them were married, had children and engaged in commuter marriages, but with the men being commuters while the women remained in the primary residence. The participants had an average of two children each. Data was analyzed thematically. Findings established ambivalence in commuter marriages; and underscored the benefits of commuter marriages, such as improved quality of life, opportunity to focus on work, personal goals and offering respite for leisure, and lessened women’s bouts of stress to prepare meal for their husbands.
Book
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Transnational mobility in the EU has become a key factor for supranational integration, equal life chances and socioeconomic prosperity. This book explores the cultural and social patterns that shape people’s migration, the historical and contemporary patterns of their movement, and the manifold consequences of their migration for themselves and their families. Exploring the links between social and spatial mobility, the book draws attention to the complexity of moving and staying, as ways in which social inequalities are shaped and reinforced. Grounded in research conducted in Germany and Poland, the book develops the concept of "cultures of transnationality" to analytically frame the variety of expectations involved in migration, and how they shape migration dispositions, opportunities, and outcomes. Cultures of Transnationality in European Migration will be of broad interest to scholars and students of transnational migration, European development, cultural sociology, intersectionality and subjectivity. Specifically, it will appeal to scholars interested in the cultural ramifications of moving and staying as well as those interested in the interplay of gender, ethnicity and class, in the making of social inequality.
Article
A longitudinal and intergenerational perspective opens up possibilities of novel insights into the socio‐spatial practices and relations that constitute, and generate, transnational youth im/mobilities. This paper draws on research conducted over 10 years with young adults who had migrated to Ireland as children with their return‐migrant parents during the Celtic Tiger period. It explores how, as young adults, they envisage and navigate their unfolding im/mobility pathways. In a context where transnational mobility experience is highly valued and celebrated, they draw on their mobility capital as former migrants to self‐position as knowledgeable mobile subjects. However, precisely because of their personal and family mobility resources, their engagements with discourses of hypermobility are selective—simultaneously claiming the cultural capital of transnational mobility and de‐fetishising it by producing grounded interpretations that value place embeddedness. The paper sheds light on some of the tensions of contemporary youth mobilities in contexts of globalisation, uncertainty, and migration.
Chapter
Culture nowadays is a key concept in migration scholarship. The notion of culture is used as a factor to make sense of migration patterns in communities with long-standing traditions of migration (“cultures of migration”). Culture also pertains to the products of migration as cultural representations of the acts of migration or the cultural shifts and transformations taking place when people move from one place to another (“migration of culture”) (Levitt 2010). Scholarship on migration thus particularly draws on notions of culture as a driving force, or as the outcome and representation of collective action. This book extends this perspective by accentuating the performative and hierarchical effects of culture and thereby link culture to social inequality. By showing how cultural imaginaries and boundaries restrict and enable action, this book explores the many links between migration and inequality, which are usually assessed indirectly through topics like migration and development or social mobility of migrants in the immigration country (similar critique is raised by Faist 2016).
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This chapter introduces new research findings on mobility practices in Italy that suggest a transformative nexus for explaining the role of mobility in contemporary cities. Superseding simplified interpretations of mobility as movement through space, this chapter describes emerging mobility practices and their temporal space variability to highlight socio-economic and lifestyle transformations, with particular attention on long-distance daily commuting (LDC). As an emerging form of work-related mobility, LDC is the result of the combined effects of an evolving labour market, that requires more and more flexibility while also subjected to increasing degrees of uncertainty, as well as of the territory and the transport and communication networks that allow the lengthening of travel. The interest in these mobility practices concerns the conditions that determine them, the consequences in lifestyle and in the uses of a territory and its networks. Through a sequence of quantitative analyses, supported by complementary and qualitative surveys and several interviews, the chapter analyses the emerging needs, times and conditions of using spaces and networks. It also examines the intensity of interactions activated by these practices that question traditional mobility services and provisions, and generate emerging new goods and services.
Article
This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience for supercommuters by developing an understanding of embodied kinetic energy, commotion and quality. Exploring how experiences of supercommuters are constituted by a range of different material and bodily forces enables us to more sensitively consider the practical, technical, and affective implications of this increasingly prevalent yet underexplored travel practice.
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Commuter marriages are becoming more and more common for couples of various ethnic/racial backgrounds. However, little research examines the experiences of African Americans engaged in this lifestyle. This article reports the expressed experiences of four African American couples engaged in dual-career commuter marriages. As a qualitative study, focused in grounded theory, interviews were conducted with the participants as couples and as individuals. Specific cultural issues relative to ethnicity, gender, commuter relationship role, and duration of commuter lifestyle are discussed, and implications for theory, practice, and research are presented.
Article
Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted (during 1998) with persons who were part of a commuter couple at the time of the interview or shortly before. “Commuter couple” and “commuter relationship” are the terms used in this study to refer to people who are either married or in a long term relationship, but who are not able to live with their partners due to work, commitments. Some biographical detail was obtained from the respondents, after which the following areas pertaining to their commuter relationships were explored: living arrangements, daily activities, finances, careers, the emotional effects of the marriage or relationship, children, wider family relationships, friendships, and the future. A telephonic follow-up study was done approximately six months after the original interviews (during January 1999) The aim was to explore whether any changes in the relationships had taken place during that time. Although the study is exploratory in nature, a few suggestions are made for future research in this area.