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Video Games in Adolescence and Emotional Functioning: Emotion Regulation, Emotion Intensity, Emotion Expression, and Alexithymia

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... Moreover, similarly to other addictive behaviors, IGD has been associated with many dysfunctional personality traits like impulsivity (Gentile et al., 2011), sensation seeking (Mehroof and Griffiths, 2010), or low self-esteem (Lemmens et al., 2011), and neuroticism (Müller et al., 2014;Braun et al., 2016). Like other studies that have demonstrated that failures in emotion regulation are associated with SUD (Fox et al., 2007) and pathological gambling (Williams et al. , 2012), two recent studies have shown an association between gaming and dysfunctions in emotion regulation (Gaetan et al., 2016;Estévez et al., 2017). Gaetan et al., (2016) have shown that compared to irregular gamers, regular gamers express their emotions less, present higher levels of alexithymia and have more difficulty being 4 emotionally reactive. ...
... Like other studies that have demonstrated that failures in emotion regulation are associated with SUD (Fox et al., 2007) and pathological gambling (Williams et al. , 2012), two recent studies have shown an association between gaming and dysfunctions in emotion regulation (Gaetan et al., 2016;Estévez et al., 2017). Gaetan et al., (2016) have shown that compared to irregular gamers, regular gamers express their emotions less, present higher levels of alexithymia and have more difficulty being 4 emotionally reactive. In the study by Estévez et al. (2017), low levels of emotion regulation appeared as a risk factor for IGD, and lack of emotional clarity and control predicted IGD (Estévez et al., 2017). ...
... anxiety and depression) and IGD is in line with previous studies showing that some individuals may play to cope with distress more than to succeed in the game (Billieux et al., 2013). Furthermore, our results are also in line with a previous study on regular gamers, showing that their alexithymia level was higher than that of irregular gamers (Gaetan et al., 2016). Like previous studies on addictive behaviors (e.g. ...
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) (while controlling for depression and anxiety), explore the presence of gender differences, and the potential differences between MOBA and MMORPG gamers. A total of 429 young adults (mean age 20.7 years) recruited from different forums dedicated to video games took part in the study and filled a questionnaire including type of video game use, the Game Addiction Scale, the TAS-20 (evaluating alexithymia) and the HADS (evaluation anxiety and depression). In the whole sample, being alexithymic, depression scores, and anxiety scores were associated with IGD. Nevertheless, results differed depending on gender and type of games played. In male gamers, being alexithymic, being young, and having high anxiety and depression scores was associated with IGD. In female gamers, having less than a high school education and a high depression score was associated with IGD. In MOBA gamers, only the difficulty describing feelings factor was associated with IGD while in MMORPGs gamers, graduation from high school and anxiety scores were associated with IGD. Playing MOBA games could be a strategy to regulate emotions while playing MMORPG appears to be a maladaptive coping strategy to deal with negative affective disturbances. Gender and gaming type are important factors in the relationship between alexithymia, depression, anxiety and IGD. These results have some interesting clinical implications, which are discussed.
... Preliminary findings suggest that problematic involvement in video games may be associated with a desire to escape negative emotions (Li et al. 2011;Kneer and Glock 2013), and some researchers have postulated that the virtual environments in which games take place provide a controllable atmosphere in which emotions can be experienced (Gaetan et al. 2016). However, it appears that only two studies to date have specifically examined the association between problem video gaming and emotion dysregulation. ...
... Similar to discrepancies across age groups, research also suggests that females and males employ different emotion regulation tactics (Nolen-Hoeksema and Aldao 2011; Zimmermann and Iwanski 2014). For example, males may be less inclined to explicitly identify and express emotions compared to females and instead more likely to attempt to supress and avoid their emotions (Zimmermann and Iwanski 2014;Gaetan et al. 2016). Alternatively, females may be more likely to ruminate than males, but also more likely to seek social support as a means to regulate emotions (Nolen-Hoeksema and Jackson 2001; Nolen-Hoeksema and Aldao 2011; Zimmermann and Iwanski 2014). ...
... Furthermore, research on problem gaming has revealed that escapism (i.e. the feeling that one is evading real-life stress; Li et al. 2011) appears to be a key motivator for many individuals with problematic gaming behaviours (Yee 2006;Kneer and Glock 2013), which supports the possibility that some individuals play video games to attenuate negative emotional states. Finally, it seems reasonable that individuals might turn to video gaming as a mode of distraction given that they are easily accessible and entertaining, and it has also been suggested that video games may provide a sense of control to players that they do not derive from real life experiences (Gaetan et al. 2016). ...
Article
Background and Purpose: Emotion dysregulation is characterised by difficulties monitoring, understanding, and accepting uncomfortable emotions and may lead some individuals to attempt to attenuate or escape emotional experiences by engaging in distracting activities, such as video gaming. Preliminary findings suggest that some dimensions of emotion dysregulation may be related to problem video gaming, but these findings are not generalisable to the general English-speaking population. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether dimensions of emotion regulation were associated with problem video gaming in a sample of self-reported video gamers from the general English-speaking adult population. Method: Self-identified adult video game players (N = 928) completed an online survey including the Problem Video Game Playing Scale (PVP) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Results: A sequential regression analysis revealed age and gender as statistically significantly predictors of problem gaming in the full sample, as well as two dimensions of emotion dysregulation: (1) difficulties with impulse control; and (2) perceived limited access to emotion regulation strategies. A second sequential regression analysis was conducted to explore if gender moderated the relationship between any DERS subscales and problem gaming, and no significant moderations were found. Conclusions: This study represents the first examination of emotion dysregulation and problem gaming in English-speaking adults and expands upon existing evidence supporting associations between specific dimensions of emotion dysregulation and problem video gaming.
... Few studies have evaluated emotion regulation among gamers (Marchica et al., 2019). For example, Gaetan et al. (2016) showed that regular gamers regulated their emotions more than non-regular gamers. This finding led the authors to consider the possibility that the virtual environment may promote or facilitate emotion regulation, regardless of the strategy used. ...
... In contrast, however, PGs had significantly higher scores of negative emotions than NPGs. These results contradicted the results of Gaetan et al. (2016) study in which regular and non-regular gamers did not differentiate themselves in terms of positive or negative emotions. These discrepancies may be linked to the tools used in the study. ...
... Indeed, video game environments are particularly helpful in dealing with negative affect (Blasi et al., 2019;Hemenover and Bowman, 2018;Villani et al., 2018). As Gaetan et al. (2016) suggested, adolescents who are unable to recognize their own emotions (labelled as alexithymia in the study and lack of emotion awareness and clarity in ours) may use the virtual environment of video games as an opportunity to experiment with and regulate their emotions. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the process of identity formation, emotion regulation (intrapersonal and interpersonal), avatar identification, and gaming in adolescents and young adults. Data (from eight standardized questionnaires) were collected from 37 non-gamers (NGs), 133 non-problematic gamers (NPGs), and 37 problematic gamers (PGs). The results showed that PGs had higher scores in lack of emotional consciousness, lack of emotional clarity, and expressive suppression, while also having lower scores in cognitive reappraisal and interpersonal emotion regulation than NPGs or NGs. They also had higher scores in ruminative exploration and lower scores in exploration in depth. In addition, factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) differed by gender. In females, lack of emotional clarity, interpersonal emotion regulation, commitment, and in-depth exploration were associated with IGD. In males, however, negative emotions, lack of emotional consciousness, lack of emotional clarity, suppressive expression, and ruminative exploration were associated with the disorder. These results highlighted the need to consider gender specificities when caring for video game-players and using of therapies or psychotherapeutic techniques to improve their emotional processes and promote their identity-construction.
... Few studies have evaluated emotion regulation among gamers (Marchica et al., 2019). For example, Gaetan et al. (2016) showed that regular gamers regulated their emotions more than non-regular gamers. This finding led the authors to consider the possibility that the virtual environment may promote or facilitate emotion regulation, regardless of the strategy used. ...
... In contrast, however, PGs had significantly higher scores of negative emotions than NPGs. These results contradicted the results of Gaetan et al. (2016) study in which regular and non-regular gamers did not differentiate themselves in terms of positive or negative emotions. These discrepancies may be linked to the tools used in the study. ...
... Indeed, video game environments are particularly helpful in dealing with negative affect (Blasi et al., 2019;Hemenover and Bowman, 2018;Villani et al., 2018). As Gaetan et al. (2016) suggested, adolescents who are unable to recognize their own emotions (labelled as alexithymia in the study and lack of emotion awareness and clarity in ours) may use the virtual environment of video games as an opportunity to experiment with and regulate their emotions. ...
Article
Résumé Objectif L’objectif de cette étude est d’investiguer les relations entre les processus de régulation émotionnelle (intra- et interpersonnelle) et la construction identitaire, selon le niveau d’usage des jeux vidéo, dans une population tout venant d’adolescents et de jeunes adultes. Méthode Trois groupes ont été constitués à partir de la Game Addiction Scale : des non-joueurs (NJ, n = 37, âge moyen = 19,70), des joueurs non problématiques (JNP, n = 133, âge moyen = 18,60) et des joueurs problématiques (JP, n = 37, âge moyen = 20,16). Les participants ont complété des questionnaires évaluant la construction identitaire et différents processus émotionnels intrapersonnels et interpersonnels. Résultats Les résultats de notre étude montrent : 1) de nombreuses relations entre les processus de régulation émotionnelle (intra- et interpersonnelle) et de construction identitaire ; 2) des spécificités dans les processus concernés selon le niveau d’usage ; les joueurs non problématiques étant le groupe dans lequel on retrouve le plus de liens ; et 3) des spécificités selon le genre. Conclusion Nos résultats confirment l’interdépendance de la régulation émotionnelle et de la construction identitaire. Cependant, tenir compte du genre et du niveau d’usage des JV est essentiel dans la compréhension de ces liens. Nos résultats fournissent des perspectives intéressantes quant à l’accompagnement psychothérapeutique des adolescents/jeunes adultes ayant un usage problématique des JV.
... Emotional processing and emotion regulation have been widely analyzed in previous studies of smartphone, social networks, and general Internet use, showing both a positive effect on well-being (Elhai et al., 2018;Hoffner & Lee, 2015;Kardefelt-Winther, 2014a) and a link to problematic Internet use (Casale, Caplan, & Fioravanti, 2016;Hormes, Kearns, & Timko, 2014;Schimmenti, Starcevic, Gervasi, Deleuze, & Billieux, 2018;Yildiz, 2017). In the context of online gaming, many studies have reported a higher use of video games for emotion regulation purposes (Gaetan, Bréjard, & Bonnet, 2016;Hemenover & Bowman, 2018;Hussain & Griffiths, 2009;Villani et al., 2018). For example, Villani et al. (2018) suggested that some video game features, such as interactivity, the sense of mastery, and the ability to deal safely with failure and experiment with identity, may play a part in facilitating emotion regulation. ...
... Consistent with H1, individuals reporting higher ED were more likely to show problematic involvement in WoW. This finding supports the view that ED is related to PG Estévez et al., 2017;Gaetan et al., 2016). Moreover, our results are consistent with other research showing that difficulties in emotion regulation are a part of, or give a rise to, psychological symptoms such as depression and social anxiety (Klemanski, Curtiss, McLaughlin, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2017;Paulus, Vanwoerden, Norton, & Sharp, 2016), which have been established as risk factors for PG (Maroney et al., 2018;Yen et al., 2018). ...
... Our findings are also well aligned with recent literature suggesting that video game environments are particularly suited to experimenting and coping with negative affect (Gaetan et al., 2016;Hemenover & Bowman, 2018;Villani et al., 2018). For example, Gaetan et al. (2016, p. 347) suggested that video games may function as a means of rendering emotions psychologically meaningful and to "curb alexithymic dynamic;" that is, they can help gamers to reduce difficulties in identifying, describing, and processing their feelings (Schimmenti, Passanisi, et al., 2017). ...
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Article
Background: A positive relationship between problematic gaming and escapism motivation to play video games has been well established, suggesting that problematic gaming may result from attempts to deal with negative emotions. However, to date, no study has examined how emotion dysregulation affects both escapism motives and problematic gaming patterns. Methods: Difficulties in emotion regulation, escapism, and problematic involvement with video games were assessed in a sample of 390 World of Warcraft players. A structural equation modeling framework was used to test the hypothesis that escapism mediates the relationship between emotion dysregulation and problematic gaming. Results: Statistical analyses showed that difficulties in emotion regulation predicted both escapism motives and problematic gaming, and that escapism partially mediated this relationship. Conclusion: Our findings support the view that problematic players are likely to escape in online games as a maladaptive coping strategy for dealing with adverse emotional experiences.
... Gaetan, Bréjard, Bonnet (2016) [103] Cross-sectional survey ...
... • Study of importance; •• study of major importance GD gaming disorder and not problematic gamers displayed higher social anxiety and loneliness compared with normative gamers [45]. The other study did not explicitly assess GD [103] but found that adolescent regular gamers (playing significantly more than irregular gamers) reported a better emotional regulation compared with irregular gamers. At the same time, regular gamers displayed more deficits in emotional expression and higher alexithymia compared with those with less usage. ...
... Most studies on the emotional self-concept revealed that addicted gamers rated themselves as having more difficulties in emotional intelligence, such as recognizing and expressing own emotions as well as in emotional regulation [65,85,90,96,119,141]. However, one study showed that gamers with higher usage showed improved emotional regulation but displayed more deficits in emotional expression and higher alexithymia as compared with those with less usage [103]. The authors concluded that gamers might improve their emotional functionality by learning coping strategies that help them to deal with problematic emotional situations. ...
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Article
Purpose of Review Gaming disorder (GD) appears to be associated with self-concept deficits and increased identification with one’s avatar. The goal of this literature review is to highlight study findings assessing psychological and neurobiological correlates of self-concept-related characteristics and avatar identification in GD. Recent Findings The review was based on three literature researches on GD: (1) self-esteem, (2) emotional, social, and academic self-concept domains and avatar identification, and (3) neurobiological correlates of self-concept and avatar identification. The results indicate that GD is associated with decreased self-esteem as well as deficits in physical, social, and emotional self-concept domains. A relatively stable relationship between higher avatar identification and GD was reported in addicted gamers. Furthermore, addicted gamers showed increased activation of brain regions associated with Theory-of-Mind processing while contemplating their own avatar. Summary The results point towards impairments in self-concept and increased identification with the virtual gaming character in addicted gamers. This virtual compensation fosters the formation of an idealized self-concept, which grows increasingly distant from their own self-image. Thus, additional empirically based psychological interventions should focus on the development of a realistic self-image by reducing the dysfunctional discrepancy between the ideal self and the real self.
... a multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of gender, age, household arrangement, time spent online playing wow, alexithymia factors (dIF, ddF and eot) and impulsivity domains (attentional impulsiveness, motor impulsiveness and non-planning 2016). accordingly, it has been proposed that video games can be used to aid emotion regulation in people who display alexithymic traits and emotion dysregulation (di Blasi et al., 2019;Gaetan et al., 2016;hemenover & Bowman 2018;Hussain & Griffiths, 2009;Villani et al., 2018). ...
... subsequently, the correlations between the online can be used to access emotions and to reduce alexithymic dynamics (di Blasi et al., 2019;Gaetan et al., 2016;hemenover & Bowman, 2018;villani et al., 2018). however, playing mmorpGs may also trigger an excessive emotional involvement and a need to excessively and continuously play the game in some vulnerable people (Gentile et al., 2011), thus increasing the risk of problematic and dysregulated gaming patterns. ...
... Finally, a linear regression analysis showed that time spent online playing WoW, difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and attentional impulsivity predicted the scores on pIu in our sample. this suggests that video games may represent a facilitating environment to cope with negative feelings for some individuals, and that gaming might also help some players to reduce their difficulties identifying, describing and processing their feelings (Gaetan et al., 2016). In fact, research suggests that playing Bressi, C., taylor, G., parker, J., Bressi, s., Brambilla, v., aguglia, e., … Invernizzi, G. (1996). ...
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Article
Objective: Symptoms of problematic Internet use (PIU) may be increased in people who display an excessive involvement in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). Notably, impulsivity and alexithymia have not been investigated together in the literature addressing the predictors of PIU among gamers, despite evidence that these personality traits may play a pivotal role in the development of problematic gaming patterns. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between facets of alexithymia and impulsivity and PIU scores among MMORPG players. Method: In the current study, 364 World of Warcraft (WoW) players (272 males, 74.7%) aged 18 to 48 years old provided socio-demographic information and completed questionnaires on PIU, time spent online playing WoW, alexithymia, and impulsivity. Results: PIU scores were negatively associated with age and positively associated with alexithymia scores, impulsivity scores, and time spent online playing WoW. A linear regression analysis showed that PIU scores were predicted by time spent online playing WoW, the alexithymic features concerning difficulties identifying and describing feelings, and attentional impulsivity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MMORPG players with difficulties concerning affect awareness and a tendency to be distracted by novel stimuli may spend an excessive amount of time playing video games and may also show prominent symptoms of PIU.
... These studies were mostly cross-sectional research (i.e., employing questionnaires and large samples) and two qualitative studies using focused interviews. For example, Gaetan et al. 42 conducted a survey to explore videogame playing and its relationships with emotional functioning features, such as ER, emotion intensity, emotion expression, and alexithymia. Authors found that regular gamers regulated their emotions more than irregular gamers did, but also felt emotions more intensely and expressed their emotions less often. ...
... A group of studies employed cross-sectional and qualitative research finding consistent results: videogame playing may enhance emotional intelligence and the mastering of ER strategies. 42,48,54 Nevertheless, excessive videogame playing may negatively influence such competences. 54 This is in line with other studies 72 showing a curvilinear relationship between videogame playing and mental health outcomes, with ''moderate'' gamers showing better mental health and psychosocial functioning. ...
... Additionally, the identification with a character constitutes a critical affordance to enhance emotional skills. 42 Exploring gaming motivations, several studies agree on the fact that people usually play videogames to recover from stress and negative emotions. 49,51,52 This can be regarded as the simplest way videogames can interact with players' emotions and mood, and it is the specific phenomenon investigated by mood repair. ...
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Article
Introduction: Emotion regulation (ER) supports multiple individual functions and promotes mental health and wellbeing. Among the tools that may be used to help people in managing their affective states, videogames are reaching attention and are showing positive effects. Yet, little is known about their effectiveness. Objective: This study aims to assess the amount and quality of studies investigating the effects and modalities of the use of videogames for ER. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search according to PRISMA guidelines was performed. Subsequently, according to expert advice other few studies have been added. Results: Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review; they can be categorized into three groups, namely (1) cross-sectional and qualitative studies, (2) experimental studies investigating the effects of videogame experience on ER and (3) ER intervention with serious games. Discussion: Discussion of the reviewed studies highlights that frequent gaming with commercial games offers more opportunities for ER improvement (related to gameplay and enjoyment of fictional properties) than limited-time experiences, such as those supported by bespoke serious games. This research area is still in its infancy and findings need to be interpreted with caution; furthermore, future reviews are encouraged to include clinical populations. Conclusion: Videogames offer several opportunities for ER and a challenge for educational and psychological interventions.
... Based on the most recent investigation, the prevalence rate of IGD in China ranges from 3.5% to 17%, and most individuals with IGD are male youths (Long et al., 2018). IGD is linked to poor cognitive functions such as deficiency of emotion regulation (Gaetan et al., 2016;Gibbons and Bouldin, 2019;Seo et al., 2012), compromised cognitive control (Lee et al., 2015), difficulty in concentration (Panagiotidi, 2016), and impulsivity (Marchica et al., 2020). Although IGD has been included in the 5 th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) (APA, 2013), and been defined as a kind of disorders due to addictive behaviors in the 11 th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases and Related Health (ICD-11) (Reed et al., 2019), the pathological mechanisms of which still remain ambiguous. ...
... Among individual's predisposing characteristics in development of IGD, emotional competence plays a critical role (Che et al., 2017;Seo et al., 2012). Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals with IGD shows poorer emotional regulation compared to healthy controls (Gaetan et al., 2016;Marchica et al., 2020). Besides, the results of longitude studies have also indicated that emotional regulation deficits could predict future IGD symptoms (Estevez et al., 2017;Wichstrom et al., 2019). ...
Article
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been defined as a specific behavioral disorder, associated with abnormal interactions among large-scale brain networks. Researchers have sought to identify the network dysfunction in IGD using resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). However, results across studies have not reached an agreement yet and the mechanism remains unclear. The present research aimed to investigate network dysfunction in IGD through a meta-analysis of rsFC studies. Twenty-two seed-based voxel-wise rsFC studies from 25 publications (594 individuals with IGD and 496 healthy controls) were included. By categorizing seeds into seed-networks based on their location within a prior functional network parcellations, we performed a Multilevel kernel density analysis (MKDA) within each seed-network to identify which brain systems showed abnormal interaction with particular seed-network in individuals with IGD. Compared to healthy control groups, individuals with IGD exhibited significant hypoconnectivity within the default mode network, and enhanced connectivity between the default mode network and insula within the ventral attention network. IGD was also associated with increased connectivity between the ventral attention network and somatomotor regions. Furthermore, the IGD groups showed hyperconnectivity between the limbic network and regions of the frontoparietal network. The results suggest that individuals with IGD show large-scale functional network alteration which underpins their core symptoms including poor emotional competence, cue-reactivity and craving, habitual addictive behaviors and impaired executive control. Whether the compensation mechanism exists in IGD is discussed, and further research is needed. The findings provide a neurocognitive network model of IGD, which may serve as functional biomarkers for IGD and have potentials for development of effective diagnosis and therapeutic interventions.
... Alexithymia is a personality trait that is emphasized as a risk factor in the development of technology, internet and game addiction (1,10), as well as development of many psychiatric disorders such as somatoform disorders (11), depression, anxiety disorders (12), impulse control disorders (13), obsessive and compulsive disorder (14). The main characteristics of alexithymia are problems in describing and expressing of emotions. ...
... Because of these type of limitations, individuals with alexithymia experience serious difficulties in establishing friendship relationships and usually have low social functioning (17). Gaetan et al. (1) suggested that, as alexithymia usually presents with flat emotional profile, and the virtual environment facilitates emotion regulation, for adolescents with alexithymia, online gaming may serve an attempt to control the alexithymic characteristics. ...
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Article
Objective: Digital game addiction has become a diffuse problem among adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between digital game addiction, alexithymia personality traits and metacogni-tive problems in adolescents. Method: 664 adolescents (51% male, n=339, 49% female, n=325) from three secondary school in Istanbul were included in this study. The mean age of male and female participants was 12.89±1.29, and 12.58±1.53 respectively. Digital game addiction scale for children (DGASFC), 20 item Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20), and the metacognition questionnaire for children and adolescents (MCQ-C) were applied to participants. The correlation coefficients between the scales were analyzed with Spearmen's rank order correlation test. The predictability of TAS-20 and MCQ-C subscale scores, gender and age on the status of digital game addiction was tested with binary logistic regression analysis. Results: There were positive correlations between DGASFC and TAS-20 total (r=.275), factor 1 (r=.250), factor 2 (r=.159), factor 3 (r=.175) scores, and MCQ-C total (r=.180) and factor 1 (r=.109) scores. Results of the binary regression analysis revealed that TAS-20 factor 1 and factor 3, and MCQ-C factor 1 scores, and the gender predict the status of digital game addiction , significantly. Discussion: It is suggested that addressing the problems of identifying and expressing the emotions, and metacognitive problems may increase the treatment success of the adolescents presenting with digital game addiction.
... Difficulty with emotion regulation could be a general risk factor for developing problematic video game use (Billieux et al., 2011;Gaetan et al., 2016;Estévez et al., 2017;Yen et al., 2018;Blasi et al., 2019). Alexithymia is one of the most studied psychological constructs connected to affect dysregulation. ...
... On the other hand, having a poor capacity to identify and describe emotions is a characteristic of all the identified clusters. This result is in line with research by Gaetan et al. (2016), who found that regular gamers have more difficulty identifying and expressing emotions and suggested that video game environments may function as a tool to "curb alexithymic dynamic" (p. 347), transforming chaotic emotions into psychologically meaningful events. ...
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Article
Background: A need exists to increase our understanding of the association between maladaptive personality traits, psychopathological symptoms, game preference, and different types of video game use. In the present study, we used a person-centred approach to identify different subtypes of video game players and we explored how they differ in personality profiles, clinical symptoms, and video game usage. Methods: We assessed problematic gaming via the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale and self-reported screen time playing video games in a sample of 366 adolescents and young adult gamers. Participants also completed measures on maladaptive personality domains (Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form), alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale—20 items), and psychopathological symptoms (DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure) and reported which genre of video games they preferred. Results: Using a person centred, cluster-analytic approach, we identified four clusters of video game players (Occasional, Passionate, Preoccupied, and Disordered) presenting peculiar combinations of problematic gaming scores and time spent online playing video games. Non-problematic gamers (Occasional and Passionate) represented the majority of the sample (62.3% of the participants). Highly involved gamers who exhibited excessive screen time playing (Disordered gamers) presented the highest level of maladaptive personality traits and psychopathological symptoms, and were characterized by the greatest use of Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games. Conclusion: These results have clinical implications on suggesting the importance to determining whether or not problematic gaming activities reflect a dysfunctional emotion-focused coping strategy to avoid inner unpleasant emotional or a more generally compromised emotional and social functioning.
... In recent years, researchers have paid more attention to the emotion and emotion regulation of IGD. Numerous clinical studies found that IGD has a high comorbidity rate with emotional problems such as depression and anxiety (Liu et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2018), and the emotional dysregulation plays an important role in it (Barrault et al., 2017;Estevez Gutierrez, Herrero Fernandez, Sarabia Gonzalvo, and Jauregui Bilbao, 2014;Gaetan et al., 2016). In addition, studies also found that difficulties in emotion regulation could positively predicted IGD behaviors (Cimino and Cerniglia, 2018;Estevez et al., 2017;Wichstrom et al., 2019). ...
Article
Background: Abundant clinical studies have suggested that emotion dysregulation seems to be the essential pathogenesis for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanism of emotion regulation for IGD is still unclear. Methods: Subjective evaluation and fMRI data were collected from 50 subjects (IGD: 24; recreational game user (RGU): 26) while they were performing an emotion reappraisal task. We collected and compared their brain features during emotion processing of different visual stimuli. Results: Higher activation in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), right ventral ACC, left claustrum and bilateral insula was observed in participants with IGD during emotion reappraisal relative to that of the RGU participants. In addition, generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis also showed that IGD participants had stronger functional connectivity between the right insula and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than the RGU participants. Conclusions: The results suggest that IGD participants could not down-regulate their negative emotional experiences as efficiently as the RGU participants, although they engaged more cognitive resources. These results reveal the special neural circuits of emotion dysregulation in IGD individuals and provide new neural perspective for the intervention of IGD.
... On the other hand, commercial games offer more promise and opportunities for ER improvement, since they offer advantages in terms of interaction, control, and narrative features (Kuo et al. 2016;Villani et al. 2018). Initial findings also show that regular gamers use ER strategies better than irregular gamers (Gaetan et al. 2016). Nevertheless, we do not yet have a complete understanding of how ER works for players who engage with commercial digital games. ...
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Chapter
Escapism is usually defined as avoidance of the real. Digital games are conducive to escapism because they take place in a temporally and spatially bounded virtual space that is separated from the real. Moreover, most games contain artificial conflicts and actions that have no effect on the real life. Availability of digital games on a broad range of devices (i.e., desktop, mobile, VR) also makes them an easily accessible tool for escapism in daily life. Consequently, escapism is one of the common reasons for playing digital games.
... 19 Another psychological factor associated with internet, technology and game addictions may be alexithymia personality characteristic. 20,21 Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions, extrovert cognitive characteristics and limited imagination. 22 It has been reported that due to lack of empathy, individuals with alexithymia may experience problems in interpersonal relationships and social interaction and, may have high risk of social isolation. ...
... Lazarus, 1999), it has been treated within MM/ER mostly as an adaptive regulation (e.g., Stevens & Dillman Carpentier, 2017). Similarly, media use was mostly seen as an adaptive choice and described as facilitation of regulation (Gaetan et al., 2016;Hoffner & Lee, 2015)-as a tool that "affords a highly flexible and personalized form of affect regulation" (Greenwood & Long, 2009, p. 616). Several articles in our sample have shown that the MM/ER's emphasis on emotionfocused and avoidance coping and distraction can be also expanded on problemfocused and approach strategies by integrating MMT or the process model of emotion regulation with other theoretical approaches (Nabi et al., 2006;Reinecke et al., 2012;Stevens & Dillman Carpentier, 2017). ...
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Article
Mobile phones, television, internet services, games, and social media offer diverse and numerous opportunities for coping with stress in everyday life. Different disciplines have contributed to answering how these media are used for coping. Consequently, fragmented and disconnected research perspectives have evolved. To improve integration, we conducted a scoping review. A total of 318 articles met the inclusion criteria. Three main perspectives on media use for coping were identified: (1) stress and coping, (2) mood management and emotion regulation, and (3) media addiction and problematic media use. Each perspective has contributed to different aspects of the use of media for coping. Six advancements are proposed, which attempt to integrate perspectives and to guide future research on coping using media.
... However, gaming can also be beneficial in developing emotion regulation strategies in non-clinical populations (Villani et al., 2018). For example, adolescents who play regularly are better at regulating their emotions, though they also tend to experience emotions more intensely and express them less frequently than irregular players (Gaetan, Bréjard, & Bonnet, 2016). Interactivity and immersion within the game allow for more intense experience of emotion due to rich game narratives and connection with one's in-game character acting as emotional stimuli (Villani et al., 2018). ...
Article
Research suggests that gaming can play an important role in dealing with life difficulties , but few studies have examined this directly. Building on recent research, the current study set out to develop a measure of gaming in difficult life situations (GDLS) and explored the role of emotion regulation and coping self-efficacy as predictors of this behaviour. A total of 667 gamers completed the online survey. Initial analyses demonstrated validity and reliability of the GDLS scale (α = .92), with players turning to gaming as a distraction from life difficulties, to feel a sense of achievement, to connect with others, and for in-game connection and simulation. Multiple regression analysis showed that younger age, more time spent gaming in general, and lower coping self-efficacy predicted GDLS, but emotion regulation was non-significant. The study presents novel insights and a new measure for future research in this area.
... A failure of emotional regulation and control associated with high levels of alexithymia have been demonstrated by several studies which investigated the features underlying the development of a pathological gaming (12,48,49). Alexithymia might explain the engagement in and the maintenance of video game use amongst those individuals with poorly regulated emotions. ...
Full-text available
Article
Alexithymia (from the greek αλεξιθυμία: α-(a)=absence, λέξις (lexis)= word, θυμός (thymos)= emotion) represents the difficulty in identifying, describing and communicating emotions and in discriminating own emotional experiences from the underpinning physiological activation. The incapability in modulating emotions, due to a cognitive elaboration, may explain the higher levels of impulsivity and compulsive behaviours (i.e., binge eating, drug and/or alcohol addiction, sex addiction, internet addiction and gambling) observed amongst the alexithymic subjects. Problems in emotion regulation have been widely implicated in the aetiology and treatment of substance use disorders, alcohol use disorders and behavioural addictions. A more insightful perspective and assessment regarding the presence of alexithymic traits/state should always be performed amongst individuals with an addiction, in order to personalize and identify the best preventive strategy and therapeutic approach to apply.
... , it has been treated within MM/ER mostly as an adaptive regulation (e.g., Stevens & Dillman Carpentier, 2017). Similarly, media use was mostly seen as an adaptive choice and described as facilitation of regulation (Gaetan et al., 2016;)-as a tool that "affords a highly flexible and personalized form of affect regulation" (Greenwood & Long, 2009, p. 616). Several articles in our sample have shown that the MM/ER's emphasis on emotion-focused and avoidance coping and distraction can be also expanded on problem-focused and approach strategies by integrating MMT or the process model of emotion regulation with other theoretical approaches (Nabi et al., 2006;Reinecke et al., 2012;Stevens & Dillman Carpentier, 2017). ...
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Thesis
Being a parent of young children is associated with both joy and stress. High parental stress was shown to be associated with decreased parental wellbeing and negative child outcomes. Thus, it is important that parents successfully cope with stress. Research has shown that becoming a parent often results in constraints on time allocation and a perceived state of isolation, making it harder to cope with stress. Smartphones might be a useful tool for parental stress management. For most parents, smartphones are always and easily accessible. Moreover, smartphones can provide many resources such as social support and information and can be used for short periods. Accordingly, first studies show that parents often use their smartphones to cope with stress. However, parental smartphone use has been widely problematized in academic and public discussions because smartphones are said to distract parents from interacting with their children. Research on how parents use smartphones to their benefit is still limited. Moreover, we do not know yet whether and under what circumstances coping using smartphones effectively reduces parental stress. To fill this knowledge gap, I examined in my dissertation how mothers of young children use their smartphones for coping with stress and under what circumstances coping using smartphones is effective. As mothers are still the primary caregivers, my dissertation mainly focuses on mothers. In a first theoretical step, I conducted a systematic scoping review summarizing and integrating the previous literature on media use for coping. Many studies assessed how media are used for coping. However, the literature had not clearly identified where media have their place in stress management models. In the scoping review, I suggested placing media in the transactional model of stress and coping by differentiating between coping strategies, such as social support or distraction and coping tools, such as talking to a friend or using a smartphone. When confronted with a stressful encounter, individuals choose a combination of coping tools and coping strategies to cope with stress. The fit of this combination with the situational circumstances determines whether the coping efforts are successful. Based on this conceptualization, I conducted a qualitative focus groups study and a quantitative experience sampling study (ESS). In the focus group study, building on a synthesis of the literature on digital media use for parenting and smartphone use while parenting, I interviewed parents in a medium-sized city and a parent-child health retreat clinic about how they use their smartphones for stress management. In the ESS, I additionally drew on theoretical conceptualizations from mobile communication and digital wellbeing research. Over 200 mothers filled in four questionnaires a day for one week and answered questions about a stressful situation that had happened in the last two hours. Both studies showed that when mothers are in stressful situations with their children, they mainly use their phones to distract themselves from the stressful encounter and to find information and support. In the focus groups study, parents reported many instances in which they successfully used their phones for stress coping. In the ESS, mothers, however, experienced a smaller stress decrease in stressful situations in which they used their phone than in situations involving no phone use. Using positive phone content, though, was related to increased coping effectiveness. My dissertation also demonstrated that social norms around maternal smartphone use play an important role when mothers use their phones for coping with stress. To explore this, I suggested a social constructivist viewpoint on media use and media effects. This viewpoint posits that the perception of and feelings around ones own media use are just as important for media effects as characteristics of objectively measurable media use, such as usage time. Further, I argue that these media use perceptions are influenced by what others say about media use and are, thus, socially constructed. Confirming the value of this viewpoint, I show in the ESS that mothers who perceived stronger injunctive norms against parental phone use experienced increased guilt when they used their phone for stress coping. Feelings of guilt around phone use in turn were related to a diminished coping effectiveness. Overall, my dissertation shows that by using positive content, mothers can use their smartphones to their benefit when they are confronted with stressful situations. Negative social norms against parental smartphone use can, by inducing guilt, be associated with diminished coping effectiveness when mothers use their phone to cope with stress. Therefore, academic and public discussions around smartphone use should consider the benefits of smartphone use for parents so that a more nuanced debate does not lead to social pressure and feelings of guilt among parents.
... ‫األلكسيثيم‬ ‫بين‬ ‫ربطت‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫ُجد‬ ‫و‬ ‫السابقة‬ ‫الدراسات‬ ‫وباستقراء‬ ‫كان‬ ‫سواء‬ ‫عام‬ ‫بشكل‬ ‫واإلدمان‬ ‫يا‬ ‫ًا‬ ‫سلوكي‬ ‫ا‬ ً ‫إدمان‬ ( Bonnaire, Bungener, & Varescon, 2013;Gao, et al.,2018 ) ‫مخدرة‬ ‫مواد‬ ‫إدمان‬ ‫أو‬ ‫؛‬ Evren, Cınar, & Evren, 2012 ( Bonnaire, et al., 2017;Stasiewicz, et al., 2012 .) ‫دراسات‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫توصلت‬ ‫كما‬ ( Allerdings & Alfano, 2001;Buelow, Okdie & Cooper, 2015;Tabibnia & Zaidel, 2005 ( Ferguson, Coulson& Barnett, 2011;Kuss, van ( Müller et al., 2015, Przybylski, Weinstein& Murayama, 2017, Rehbein, Kliem, Baier, Mößle& Petry, 2015 ( Bolat, Yavuz, Eliaçık, & Zorlu, et al., 2017;Bonnaire et al., 2017;Gaetan, Bréjard& Bonnet, 2016;Gervasi, al., 2019 ) ‫الش‬ ( Buelow, et al., 2015;Ma, et al., 2019;Zhou, Zhou& Zhu, 2016 ) ( Saunders, et al., 2017;Long, et al., 2018 ) ( Zhong, Du& Vladimir, 2018;Saunders, et al.,2017;Long, et al., 2018 .) ( Ricciardi, et al., 2015;Hornak, et al., 2003;Paus, Keshavan& Giedd, 2008;Romei et al., 2008;Li & Sinha 2006 .) ...
... This is a vicious circle because PIU also limit their socialization and inhibit their learning process of understanding the others' emotions and cognitions. Additionally, individuals with alexithymia experience higher levels of emotional dysregulation (Taylor, Bagby, & Parker, 1997), impulse control (De Berardis et al., 2009), and anger management problems (Berenbaum & Irvin, 1996), and these problems increase the risk of game (Gaetan, Brejard, & Bonnet, 2016) and internet addiction (Aricak & Ozbay, 2016). As alexithymia can interfere addiction treatment success (Cleland, Magura, Foote, Rosenblum, & Kosanke, 2005;Morie, Nich, Hunkele, Potenza, & Carroll, 2015;Thorberg, Young, Sullivan, & Lyvers, 2009), psychotherapeutic interventions about improving emotional awareness and regulation, impulse control, social skills, and social anxiety of the individuals with alexithymia may result in better treatment success for PIU. ...
Full-text available
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between attachment characteristics, alexithymia and problematic internet use (PIU) in adolescents. The study was performed on 444 high school students (66% female and 34% male). Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Short Form of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA) scales were used. The adolescents who scored ≥50 on IAT were considered as the PIU group and <50 were considered as control group. There was a moderate positive relationship between TAS-20 and IAT scores (r = .441), and a moderate negative relationship between TAS-20 and s-IPPA scores (r = −.392), and a negative weak relationship between IAT and s-IPPA scores (r = −.208). S-IPPA scores were significantly lower in the PIU group compared to the controls (p < .001). TAS-20 scores of the PIU group were significantly higher compared to the controls (p < .05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that s-IPPA scores and TAS-20 significantly predict the PIU development (p < .05). The results indicate that alexithymia increases the risk of PIU and higher attachment quality is a protective factor for both alexithymia and PIU. These results suggest that it is important to focus on the insecure attachment patterns and alexithymic characteristics when studying adolescents with PIU.
... In addition, this age group seems to benefit in general from gaming as regular adolescent gamers showed superior emotional regulation abilities compared to non-gamers [93]. ...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED Globally, depression and anxiety are the two most prevalent mental health disorders. Depression and anxiety occur both acutely and chronically, with various symptoms commonly expressed sub-clinically. The mental health treatment gap and stigma associated with mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety are common issues encountered worldwide. Given the economic and healthcare service burden of mental illness, there is a heightened demand for accessible and cost-effective methods that prevent and facilitate coping with mental health illness. This demand has only become exacerbated following the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent increase in incidence of mental health disorders. To address these demands, a growing body of research is exploring alternative solutions to traditional mental health treatment. Commercial video games have been shown to impart cognitive benefits to those that play regularly (ie attentional control, cognitive flexibility and information processing). In this paper, we specifically focus on mental health benefits from the use of commercial video games for tackling depression and anxiety symptoms. In the light of the current research, we conclude that commercial video games show great promise as an inexpensive, readily accessible, internationally available, effective and stigma free resource for the mitigation of some mental health issues in the absence of, or as an addition to, more traditional therapeutic treatments.
... The association between alexithymia and IGD symptoms has already been documented previously (Bonnaire & Baptista, 2019;Gaetan et al., 2016;Li et al., 2021), and a decade of studies have also shown a quite robust association between the gamer-avatar relationship and IGD (Green et al., 2020). The present study aimed to provide an integration of these two research lines by proposing and testing a model that explains how people who report "empty feelings" (i.e., emptiness and difficulties in identifying and expressing their feelings) develop IGD symptoms. ...
Full-text available
Article
The literature suggests that alexithymia and emptiness could be risk factors for various addictive behaviors. The present study developed and tested a model that proposes a pathway leading from emptiness and difficulties in identifying emotions to Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms via an intense gamer-avatar relationship and bodily dissociative experiences. A sample of 285 (64.2% M; mean age = 30.38 ± 7.53) online gamers using avatar-based videogames was recruited from gaming communities, and they were asked to complete a survey that included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Subjective Emptiness scale, the Scale of Body Connection, the Self-Presence Questionnaire, and the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form. The structural model evaluated produced a good fit to the data [ χ 2 = 175.14, df = 55, p < .001; RMSEA = 0.08 ( 90% C.I. =0.07–0.09), CFI = 0.96, SRMR = 0.08] explaining 28% of the total variance. Alexithymia was indirectly associated with IGD through the serial mediation of the gamer-avatar relationship and body dissociation. Emptiness was associated with IGD symptoms at the bivariate level, but did not predict IGD directly or indirectly. The current study identifies a potential pathway toward IGD by integrating different lines of research, showing the importance of considering aspects such as the difficulty in recognising and expressing one’s emotions, the gamer- avatar relationship, and the mind-body connection in the context of IGD.
... A previous study found that regular gamers exhibited higher levels of alexithymia than irregular gamers [30]. Gaetan et al. proposed that, because alexithymia typically displays with a flat emotional profile and the virtual environment facilitates emotion regulation, online gaming may serve as an attempt to control these characteristics in adolescents with alexithymia [31]. In addition, previous research found that adolescents with IGA exhibited more comorbid psychiatric disorders and difficulties expressing emotions, indicating the adoption of avoidance strategies [10]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is a serious condition that can significantly impact personal and social functioning. Many studies of IGA have been conducted in adolescents and young adults, but there are limited data available in children. We investigated the time spent using internet gaming apps in children and its association with behavioral problems, sleep problems, alexithymia, and emotional regulation. Methods The research populations (N = 564) were categorized based on the number of hours spent using online gaming applications. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire Abbreviated, the Children's Alexithymia Measure (CAM), and the Clinical Evaluation of Emotional Regulation–9 were used to assess all participants. Results Compared to other groups, children who used internet gaming applications for more than 6 h had a higher proportion of abnormal responses on the emotional symptoms and hyperactivity scales. Children who used internet gaming applications for more than 6 h had the poorest sleep quality (75%), while children who used internet gaming applications for 1–2 h had the best (36.7%). Participants who used internet gaming apps for 1–2 h had significantly lower mean total scores on the emotional regulation scale and total CAM, whereas those using internet gaming apps for more than 6 h had the highest mean scores in the CAM. Conclusions Excessive use of internet gaming apps during childhood may be associated with hyperactivity, peer problems, high socioeconomic level, alexithymia concerns, shorter daytime sleep duration, and a delayed morning wake-up.
... Games have also been implicated in areas of SEL, such as understanding, reflecting on, and regulating one's own emotions. For instance, Bréjard et al. (2016) observed those who frequently play digital games being more adept at regulating their emotions than those who report occasional play; however, those same players may "express their emotions less than irregular gamers" (p. 347). ...
Full-text available
Article
This working paper grapples with questions related to the intersection of digital games and empathy. Many people are playing games—but are they also engaged in empathy-related skills such as perspective-taking, communication, reflection, relationship-building, and choice-making as part of their game playing? Are games “empathy machines” that support greater insight into our human condition? In this paper, we seek to (1) identify strengths and weaknesses of games in relation to empathy, (2) consider how player agency, transportation, perspective-taking, communication, and other factors may affect the practice of empathy, and (3) develop initial questions, guidelines, and recommendations for creating policies and programs around using games to inspire empathy.
... Hemenover and Bowman (2018) and Rieger et al. (2014)), and regulating strong emotional experiences (e.g. (Gaetan, Bréjard, and Bonnet 2016;Zayeni, Raynaud, and Revet 2020)). These positive outcomes of videogame engagement might be beneficial to individuals during difficult life situations, such as COVID-19. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic caused tremendous economic and social disruption devastating people’s livelihoods and wellbeing. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended people engage in enjoyable activities such as videogames, helping them relax during difficult life situations. Using Self-Determination Theory as a lens, this interview study (N = 11) examined how people’s videogame behaviours were influenced by life context, and their impact on wellbeing during COVID-19. Findings established that videogames were a compensatory response to the stressors of the pandemic. Playing videogames satisfied participants’ needs for social connection, serving as a coping mechanism to distract them for a short time; following an initial prioritisation of gaming and spike in gaming hours, many returned to their regular gaming behaviours. This study contributes to the games for health literature, identifying the effects of videogames on wellbeing, and provides much needed knowledge for health practitioners and families on how videogames are used and their impact on players’ wellbeing during the pandemic as a societal stressful life event. The findings have clinical and policy implications both to identify a positive tool, and to dispel negative stigmas surrounding videogames.
... This might indicate turning into social media for compensatory of coping behavior for burnout (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014) indicating also that school burnout and social media networking orientation are reciprocally related. In addition, both elevated school burnout and lower academic performance predicted higher gaming orientation, indicating that gaming seems more likely to be a coping behavior to counter increased study demands or poor performance using gaming as an emotion regulation tool (Gaetan, Bréjard, & Bonnet, 2016, Villani et al., 2018 instead of the other way around. ...
Preprint
The years of adolescence form a crucial period in students’ academic path, as it is during these years that the maladaptive or adaptive academic pathways begin to diverge. Simultaneously, the unsupervised engagement with digital media begins a sharp increase during these years. The dynamics between these have been a recent topic of concern – does engagement with digital media contribute to maladaptive academic pathways? By applying the demands-resources framework we examined the longitudinal within-person relations among social media networking and gaming orientations, school burnout, and academic performance from 7th to 9th grade (age 13 to 16). The participants were 1,834 (41% male) Finnish students. The data were analyzed using multiple-indicator random-intercept cross-lagged panel models. The results indicated that when students showed elevated social media networking orientation, they showed increased school burnout later in adolescence, and vice versa. Further, both elevated burnout and poorer academic performance predicted increased gaming orientation. Controversially, poorer academic functioning appeared to predict increased digital engagement.
... The result gave ten different types of format. In order to establish the weightings for emotionality for each format, an inter-rater reliability test was used, applying a Likert scale: (1) little emotion; (2) some emotion; (3) moderate emotion; (4) a lot of emotion; (5) maximum emotion, levels used in previous research (Adelaar et al. 2003;Gaetan et al. 2016;Guadagno et al. 2013;Powers et al. 2011). The inter-rater reliability test of the codifier process, the formula for Scott's Pi (π), using a sample of N = 288; 46.08%, by means of three coders A-B-C, gave values of AB (π 739, 86%), AC (π 708, 78%) and CB (π 698, 73%), so the data in the three vectors were bigger than the 0.60 established in other referential exploratory studies (Neuendorf 2002;Krippendorff 1990). ...
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Article
This is a study on videos generated or shared on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram by the main political parties’ candidates during the general election campaign for the government of Spain in April 2019. Using a quantitative analysis and a statistical approach, the means of audiovisual persuasion used by the candidates are analysed, addressing their emotional nature. It is shown that the traditional political parties in their campaigns use audiovisual formats that are less emotional than those of the new emerging parties. Secondly, a clear difference can be seen among the leaders in their use of audiovisual formats to convey their messages.
... Research results on the positive influence of games on cognitive states present that game factors, such as levels, rewards, and narrative, help improve mental health [5,28,35]. Also, studies show that games can have a positive effect on their emotional state by providing other space for emotional expression to adolescents [14] and even children with autism [19,34]. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are only few games for the emotional development of adolescents. ...
... In addition, Carissoli and Villani proposed a school program using video games in order to enhance emotional intelligence in students and help them to reinforce their emotional regulation and expression [17]. Similarly, the study of Gaetan et al. [18] has proven that there is correlation between video game playing and the emotional operating features, which include emotion regulation, feeling potency, feeling expression and alexithymia. Moreover, they asserted that normal gamers control their emotional states greater than irregular gamers, however they perceive emotions more deeply and express their emotions less frequently than the irregular gamers do; this is because the regular gamers are less inclined to emotional reactivity. ...
... Playing games has also been demonstrated to assist in the re-evaluation of one's ability to manage or cope with a situation (Gross and John, 2003). Gamers who engage with games on a more regular basis have been found Complimentary Contributor Copy to regulate their own emotional states more than less regular players (Gaetan, Bréjard and Bonnet, 2016). We agree with Kukulska-Hulme and Jones (2011) who have argued that an integrative approach needs to be adopted across areas of research endeavour, incorporating the context of learning, technologies and individual learner practices. ...
Chapter
Mobile Learning: Students' Perspectives, Applications and Challenges, edited collection, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Editors: David René and Corentin Aubin, 2017
... As early as in the preschool age, the presence of ED has been shown to be a predictor of media use and GD symptoms 5 years later (at about age 9) (414). Difficulties in impulse control and a limited access to emotions is associated with problem video gaming (415,416). Wichstrom et al. (417) showed that ER deficits in 8 year olds predicted symptoms of internet gaming disorder at 10 years. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background: Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a transdiagnostic construct defined as the inability to regulate the intensity and quality of emotions (such as, fear, anger, sadness), in order to generate an appropriate emotional response, to handle excitability, mood instability, and emotional overreactivity, and to come down to an emotional baseline. Because ED has not been defined as a clinical entity, and because ED plays a major role in child and adolescent psychopathology, we decided to summarize current knowledge on this topic based on a narrative review of the current literature. Methods: This narrative review is based on a literature search of peer-reviewed journals. We searched the databases ERIC, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX on June 2, 2020 for peer reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2020 in English language for the preschool, school, and adolescent age (2–17 years) using the following search terms: “emotional dysregulation” OR “affect dysregulation,” retrieving 943 articles. Results: The results of the literature search are presented in the following sections: the relationship between ED and psychiatric disorders (ADHD, Mood Disorders, Psychological Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Non-suicidal Self-Injury, Eating Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Disruptive Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Personality Disorders, Substance Use Disorder, Developmental Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Psychosis and Schizophrenia, and Gaming Disorder), prevention, and treatment of ED. Conclusion: Basic conditions of ED are genetic disposition, the experience of trauma, especially sexual or physical abuse, emotional neglect in childhood or adolescence, and personal stress. ED is a complex construct and a comprehensive concept, aggravating a number of various mental disorders. Differential treatment is mandatory for individual and social functioning.
... Some studies have reported that the interaction of internal and external factors may facilitate the development of GD, including deficient emotional regulation and impulsive decision-making, as well as a poor family environment and poor social skills [5]. Alexithymia as a type of emotional dysregulation may explain engagement in and maintenance of online gaming [6,7]. Based on self-determination theory [8], the motivation to engage in online gaming may be to meet individuals' psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, and competency) and to escape negative affect (e.g., loneliness and boredom). ...
Article
Background and aims Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that negative affect (e.g., depression, anxiety, and loneliness) and low level of emotion regulation (i.e., alexithymia) are risk factors for internet gaming disorder (IGD). Research utilizing a network analysis approach to psychopathology has increased rapidly, and is used to examine the pattern of interactions between causal factors of mental health disorders. Previous research has investigated the relationship between gaming disorder (GD), depression, alexithymia, boredom, and loneliness by pair-wise correlation and correlation of three or four variables. However, to date, network analysis has rarely been utilized to examine the relationship between the aforementioned multi-variables. Therefore, the present study used network analysis to examine the relationship between GD, depression, alexithymia, boredom, and loneliness among a sample of Chinese university students. Methods A sample comprising 1635 Chinese university students (913 males) completed a survey including the Gaming Disorder Test, Patient Health Questionnaire, and Toronto Alexithymia Scale, alongside single-item measures of loneliness and boredom. Results Depression, alexithymia, boredom, and loneliness were significantly and positively associated with GD. Loneliness and boredom had the closest edge intensity, and loneliness was the strongest central node in the domain-level network. The facet-level and the item-level network analysis also showed that GD was connected with depression, alexithymia, boredom, and loneliness. The domain-level network comparison test (NCT) showed the global strengths had significant difference among gender group (males = 1.90 vs. females = 1.77, p = 0.013). Conclusions The findings indicate that there is a close relationship between GD, depression, alexithymia, boredom, and loneliness. Negative affect and low emotion regulation may induce or worsen GD, resulting in a vicious cycle. Practitioners developing interventions to overcome GD should consider aspects aimed at adjusting and improving negative emotion, especially loneliness and related negative affect as well as facilitating positive emotion.
... In this regard, a study conducted with adolescents showed that greater emotional awareness was associated with a better emotion-regulation process (Riley et al., 2019). In other behavioral addictions such as gaming addiction, previous studies also indicate that regular gamers obtain higher scores in alexithymic traits, as well as showing more difficulties to express emotions than irregular gamers (Gaetan et al., 2016). In the same way, higher scores in alexithymia have been related to emotional dysregulation, greater dependency severity, and a decreased capacity to remain abstinent in individuals with alcohol use disorder (Ghorbani et al., 2017;Stasiewicz et al., 2012). ...
Full-text available
Article
Alexithymia, difficulties in emotion regulation, and negative affect play an important role in adolescents who present pathological gambling. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were, firstly, to analyze the differences between alexithymia, difficulties in emotion regulation, and positive and negative affect in adolescents with and without risk of gambling problems. Secondly, the relationships between all the variables of the study in adolescents with and without risk of problem gambling were analyzed separately. Thirdly, we analyzed the mediating role of positive and negative affect in the relationship between alexithymia and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies (ERS) in adolescents at risk of gambling problems. The sample was composed of 206 adolescents with ages ranging from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.52; SD = 1.43). They were divided into two groups according to the score obtained in the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Thus, 84 were included in the group without risk of gambling problems and 122 in the group at risk of gambling problems. The results obtained revealed higher scores in negative affect and pathological gambling in the group at risk of gambling problems. Likewise, positive relationships between alexithymia, maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (MERS), and affect were found. Mediation analyses showed that difficulties in identifying feelings were indirectly related to greater use of dysfunctional ERS through their relationship with negative affect in at-risk gamblers.
... Conversely, playing digital games has also been suggested to support the development of self-regulating skills [13], and digital games have been used as a tool for learning emotion regulation skills [14]. Also, children themselves have reported improved self-regulation skills, such as frustration tolerance, by playing digital games [15]. ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Gamer rage, rage induced by digital games, is an understudied area, especially from children’s perspective. This study explores children’s stories of the reasons and manifestations of their gamer rage. Data consisted of 31 children’s essays which were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that children explain their own in-game failures, incompetence of teammates, and technical problems as the main reasons for their gamer rage, and they express their rage verbally, physically, and by quitting. This article is the first attempt to study gamer rage from children’s perspective and it provides new insights on the topic in general.
... In addition, overall improvements in depressive mood with commercial video game use are seen with the use of the Wii racing game Mario Kart among adolescents [76]. In addition, this age group seems to benefit in general from gaming, as regular adolescent gamers showed superior emotional regulation abilities than nongamers [78]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Globally, depression and anxiety are the two most prevalent mental health disorders. They occur both acutely and chronically, with various symptoms commonly expressed subclinically. The treatment gap and stigma associated with such mental health disorders are common issues encountered worldwide. Given the economic and health care service burden of mental illnesses, there is a heightened demand for accessible and cost-effective methods that prevent occurrence of mental health illnesses and facilitate coping with mental health illnesses. This demand has been exacerbated post the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent increase in incidence of mental health disorders. To address these demands, a growing body of research is exploring alternative solutions to traditional mental health treatment methods. Commercial video games have been shown to impart cognitive benefits to those playing regularly (ie, attention control, cognitive flexibility, and information processing). In this paper, we specifically focus on the mental health benefits associated with playing commercial video games to address symptoms of depression and anxiety. In light of the current research, we conclude that commercial video games show great promise as inexpensive, readily accessible, internationally available, effective, and stigma-free resources for the mitigation of some mental health issues in the absence of, or in addition to, traditional therapeutic treatments.
... Unlike other addictive disorders, it is possible that virtually every adolescent from developed countries use the Internet at least occasionally. Although this activity has several well-known benefits like emotion regulation or developing cognition (Bediou et al., 2018;Gaetan, Bréjard, & Bonnet, 2016;Russoniello, O'Brien, & Parks, 2009;Wang et al., 2017), Internet gaming also produces deleterious effects with excessive use. Indeed, it is now commonly admitted that some people develop significant problems related to Internet gaming, that their gaming has certain features of addictive disorders, and that it should be diagnosed as a disorder (Saunders et al., 2017) called Gaming Disorder (ICD-11;World Health Organization, 2018) or Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) (DSM-5;American Psychiatric Association, 2013). ...
Full-text available
Article
Background and aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a prevention intervention on French adolescents' Internet and video games use and on their beliefs concerning gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), in order to adjust prevention programs further. Methods: The study comprised a prevention intervention group (PIG) and a control group assessed at three times - baseline, post-test, and 4-month follow-up. At baseline, a total of 434 junior high adolescents from five secondary schools were assessed (Mage = 13.2 years; SD = 0.5). The main outcome measures were adolescents' gaming and Internet use (amount of time spent during the week and the weekend), the number of adolescents with IGD, and beliefs about gaming and IGD. Results: The results showed significant effects of the prevention intervention on Internet and gaming use (at T2, time spent was significantly lower in the PIG), an important increase of IGD prevalence between baseline and follow-up in the control group, and decreased rates of IGD among adolescents in the PIG between post-intervention and follow-up. Between baseline and follow-up, the control group showed a more significant increase of minutes per day during the week and the weekend on Internet versus during the week on video games. The impact of the prevention intervention on adolescents' beliefs varied according to gender. Girls had a better understanding generally of the potential dangers of and reasons for IGD. Discussion: Implications for future research and prevention approaches are discussed in this study.
Article
Smartphone use has become an indispensable aspect of daily life for billions of people. Increasingly, researchers are examining the impact of smartphone use upon psychological well-being. However, little research has investigated how people deliberately use their smartphones to shape affective states; in other words, how smartphones are used as tools to support everyday emotion regulation. In this paper, we report a study that uses quantitative (experience sampling) and qualitative (semi-structured interview) methods to examine when and how people use smartphones to regulate emotions in everyday life, and the associated psychological consequences. Participants report spending a significant amount of time using their smartphones for emotion regulation, in particular to cope with unpleasant feelings such as boredom and stress. They report that smartphone-mediated emotion regulation is effective for attaining desired affective states. However, the perceived emotional benefits of smartphone emotion regulation do not emerge in lagged analyses predicting changes in momentary mood across a few hours, suggesting that emotional benefits may be transient or may reflect self-report biases. Participants discuss their perceptions of smartphone-supported emotion regulation in relation to smartphone addiction. This study provides evidence on how people use their smartphones for emotion regulation, and contributes to better understanding the complex relationship between smartphone use and emotional wellbeing.
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This article argues that augmented reality (AR) games such as Pokémon Go are beneficial in enhancing the mood and mental well being of players. Whilst developed purely for entertainment purposes, AR games can offer a number of social and emotional benefits. Within this article Pokémon Go is used as an example. Whilst benefits from playing such as increased physical activity have been found to be short lived, the combination of active participation, positive reinforcement and nostalgia that are central to Pokémon Go ’s gameplay appear to have a longer impact upon mental well being. Using survey data, this research considers three key aspects of mood in relation to the experience of gameplay: activity, relationships and environment. This highlights the impact playing Pokémon Go has on mood, and shows broader implications for the use of AR games in self-help strategies and developing mental well being on an individual level.
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Many experiences influence or develop emotional skills, among which we highlight the interaction with games. This work aims to discuss the games and how they can influence the development of emotional skills, trying to describe what to reveal or the game as an alternative to create experiences that help, especially children, to deal with their emotions. To this end, a narrative literature review was conducted, observing procedures such as the survey of theoretical references that describe the concepts related to the problem in question, a definition of central references, reading, and systematization of these references, analysis, and discussion. The review enlightened that emotional competence involves how we express and deal with emotions and that competence can be improved. The results reinforce the games, as activities that involve rules, challenges, objectives, and consequences, can contribute to its development. It is concluded that intentional activities based on the use of games and mediation can offer significant contributions in contexts of school intervention.
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eSport games have become a significant trend among modern society. Many related peripheral products have been launched in large numbers, and the craze has brought huge consumer market, especially in China with its large population. However, there is currently little research on the purchase motivation of eSports. Therefore, based on the Self-determination theory and the Theory of planned behavior, a research model is proposed and the structural equation model is verified. In this study, the Chinese eSports players were invited to fill in the online questionnaire by means of intentional sampling. The effective data was 361, and the effective recovery rate was 81.5%. The data was tested using SPSS for reliability and validity, and then tested by AMOS. The results showed that eSport addiction had a positive impact on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Moreover, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation had a positive influence on perceived behavioral control, while perceived behavioral control had a positive impact on the continuous to purchase.
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The COVID-19 pandemic was stressful for everyone, particularly for families who had to supervise and support children, facilitate remote schooling, and manage work and home life. We consider how families coped with pandemic-related stress using the video game Animal Crossing: New Horizons. Combining a family coping framework with theorizing about media as a coping tool, this interview study of 27 families (33 parents and 37 children) found that parents and children individual coped with pandemic-related stress with media. Parents engaged in protective buffering of their children with media, taking on individual responsibility to cope with a collective problem. Families engaged in communal coping, whereby media helped the family cope with a collective problem, taking on shared ownership and responsibility. We provide evidence for video games as coping tools, but with the novel consideration of family coping with media.
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Chapter
Bu bölümde; dijital oyunların kişilik, duygu ve davranışlar üzerindeki etkileri ele alınmış, dijital oyun oynama alışkanlıklarının oluşmasında ve devam etmesinde rol oynayan, güdüleyen unsurlar, özellikle de psikolojik ihtiyaçlar çerçevesinden teorik olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Dijital oyun oynama alışkanlıklarının kişilik üzerindeki olası etkileri ve tartışmalı bir konu olan dijital oyunlar ve saldırganlık ilişkisi ele alınarak dijital oyunlar ve kişilik arasındaki ilişkiler karşılıklı olarak incelenmiştir. Dijital oyun oynamanın olumsuz ve olası olumlu sonuçları ele alınmış, bu konudaki tartışmalar gözden geçirilmiştir. Sonuç kısmında ise dijital oyunların olumsuz sonuçlarını azaltmak için bağımlılık düzeyindeki dijital oyun oynama alışkanlıklarına dair yapılması gerekenlerden söz edilmiştir ve bu konularla ilgili olarak çocuklara, gençlere, yetişkinlere, anne babalara ve öğretmenlere yönelik önerilere yer verilmiştir.
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Abstract: (1) Background: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) shares many similarities with substance use disorder (SUD), contributing to its recognition as an addictive disorder. Nevertheless, no study has compared IGD to other addictive disorders in terms of personality traits established as highly co-occurring with SUDs. (2) Methods: We recruited a sample of gamers (massively multiplayer online role-playing games) (MMORPGs) via online in-game forums. We compared 83 individuals with IGD (MMORPG-IGD group) to 47 former heroin addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT; MMT group) with regard to alexithymia, impulsivity, sensation seeking and aggressiveness assessed through self-administered scales, being TAS-20, BIS-10, Z-SSS and BDHI, respectively. (3) Results: Our results draw a relatively similar personality profile between groups but indicate that the subject traits are generally more pronounced in the MMT cohort. The overall lesser intensity of these traits in the MMORPG-IGD group might reflect the greater variability in the severity of the IGD. (4) Conclusions: IGD shares personality traits with MMT, and intensity may be influenced by the severity of the addiction or by certain direct environmental factors, and might also influence the propensity towards one behavior rather than another.
Conference Paper
The world of online gaming can have a strong emotional impact on children that parents often do not understand or even acknowledge. However, parental understanding can be vital for the emotional development of adolescents. However, conveying emotions can be challenging and thus can benefit from mediators which facilitate parent-child communication. In order to help raise parental awareness, we designed Motiis, a novel system that measures and tangibly visualizes children’s emotions experienced during gaming sessions. Haptic feedback allows users to ’feel’ the extent of the exhibited emotions. We assessed our system with 17 parent-child pairs through on-site evaluations. Results indicate a benefit of Motiis for raising emotional awareness among parents. The tangible and haptic aspects of the system help to engage with the data more consciously as the tangible visualization of the system requires active interaction with it. Motiis enabled parents to understand aspects of the emotional states of their children that are beyond the verbal communication skills of the children.
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As video games have attracted more critical attention and theoretical discourse and games play a more visible part in our media landscape, the modern video game community impacts the wider world of online culture and warrants more detailed study. Using the case of the Dickwolves incident from Penny Arcade.com, the authors address issues of hypermasculinity and sexism within the gaming community and how this lens brings to light issues with a hostile response to the expression of a female identity or femininity. The authors argue that this case highlights how the hypermasculine discourse encourages the overt privileging of masculinity over femininity and discourages women from engaging in gendered discourse within the community.
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The aim of this research is to establish the validity and reliability of the Bermond–Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ). The BVAQ consists of five subscales, each comprising of eight items. The subscales are denoted Emotionalizing, Fantasizing, Identifying, Analyzing, and Verbalizing. The validity of the instruments was investigated by comparing results of psychometric analyses in three language groups. In addition BVAQ scores were correlated, for comparison, with the TAS-20 test scores and with measures of psychological problems. Two studies were carried out.In the first study the BVAQ was administered to a sample of Dutch students (n=375), a sample of French-speaking Belgian students (n=175), and a sample of English students (n=129). Cronbach’s alpha was found to be about the same in the three samples (means of subscales about 0.79; total scales about 0.85). Principal components analyses of the 40 items revealed comparable five-factor solutions in the three samples. The mean total score of UK students differs about 0.29 SD from that of the Dutch and Belgian students. The intercorrelations of subscales were the same in the three samples. However, principal components analyses of the subscale scores of the English subjects revealed a different factor structure compared to that in the other samples.In the second study, the BVAQ and the Dutch version of the TAS-20 were administered to 430 Dutch students. Correlations between (sub)scales of the Dutch BVAQ and (sub)scales of the TAS-20 support the validity of the BVAQ. The validity of the BVAQ is further supported by correlations between BVAQ scores and measurements of psychological problems.
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A large-scale content analysis of characters in video games was employed to answer questions about their representations of gender, race and age in comparison to the US population. The sample included 150 games from a year across nine platforms, with the results weighted according to game sales. This innovation enabled the results to be analyzed in proportion to the games that were actually played by the public, and thus allowed the first statements able to be generalized about the content of popular video games. The results show a systematic over-representation of males, white and adults and a systematic under-representation of females, Hispanics, Native Americans, children and the elderly. Overall, the results are similar to those found in television research. The implications for identity, cognitive models, cultivation and game research are discussed.
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Based on a significant increase in correspondence to the author from parents, teachers and psychologists concerning “addiction” to online video games like World of Warcraft, this paper provides a brief overview of the main issues surrounding excessive video game playing among adolescents. As an aid to educational psychologists, and based on two decades of the author’s own research in this area, this paper briefly overviews: (i) online gaming addictions, (ii) the differences between online and offline video gaming, and (iii) video gaming benefits. The paper ends with some practical advice that educational psychologists can give to parents about the safe playing of video games.
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Alexithymia refers to the difficulties an individual has in experiencing and expressing feelings. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Bermond–Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) with two parallel versions of 20 items have been constructed to measure it. The present study compared the psychometric properties of these two self-report questionnaires in English (N=290) and French (N=322) language versions. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the fit between the hypothesized factors and the data. Results revealed a better fit to the data for the second version of the BVAQ (BVAQ-20B) for both language versions as compared to the TAS-20, the whole BVAQ, or the first version of the BVAQ (BVAQ-20A). Additionally, the factor comparison of both language versions indicated that only the factorial structure of the BVAQ-20B was replicable across languages. Concurrent validity of the questionnaires is discussed. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The present study extends prior research investigating psychological predictors of media preferences by examining various indicators of psychosocial functioning (self esteem, social anxiety, attachment anxiety/avoidance, negative affect, effortful control) in the context of two specific forms of media involvement: parasocial interaction with media characters and transportation into media programs. Results of a questionnaire study reveal that negative affect and decreased attentional/impulse control are most strongly predictive of both forms of media involvement. Additionally, attachment anxiety was found to predict increased transportation tendencies, and increased TV viewing hours predicted greater parasocial involvement with favorite characters. Results are discussed in light of the gratifications that may motivate individuals toward emotional involvement with entertainment media.
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The present study examines moods in which individuals are most likely to utilize various forms of entertainment media and the emotion regulation tendencies that are associated with such preferences. Results of a questionnaire study (n = 229) show that mood specific media use may be captured by three factors: turning to media in a positive mood, in a negative mood or in a bored mood. Findings also show that various forms of difficulty regulating emotion (e.g., feeling out of control when upset) predict media use in negative or bored moods only. More specific analyses show that music use in negative moods is predicted by both positive indices (e.g., reflection tendencies) and negative indices of emotion regulation (e.g., rumination tendencies), while television use in negative moods is only predicted by negative indices of emotion regulation. Results are discussed in light of the psychological needs that selective media use may serve.
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Electronic games are now an everyday part of childhood and adolescence. The debate has moved from whether children should play video games to how to maximize potential benefits and to identify and minimize potential harms. To do this, we must understand what motivates children to play electronic games and what needs the games meet. Drawing on a survey of 1,254 middle school children, focus groups with boys and their parents, and findings from other quantitative and qualitative research, the author describes a variety of motivations for video game play (including games with violent content) and how these may vary based on factors such as mood, environment, personality, and developmental stage. The findings are put into the context of normal development, and suggestions are given for parents, educators, and researchers.
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Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self. THOMAS J. CSORDAS, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. xii + 294 pp., contributors, illustrations, notes, references, index.
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Confusion surrounds the concept and definition of videogame addiction. There is an inherent tendency to categorize certain repetitive appetitive behaviours as addictive on the basis of adverse consequences without taking into account the core requirement of impaired control manifested as the failure to cease or limit behaviour despite the genuine motivation to do so. Value-based criticism of a behaviour or its associated harm is insufficient to pathologize that behaviour as a psychological disorder. Similarly, the simple act of applying one set of diagnostic criteria for one disorder to another is not scientifically or logically acceptable. The study of videogame play may shed light on the concept of non-substance addictions and the role of pre-existing mental health in its etiology. Richard Wood (Wood 2007 this issue) offers an interesting perspective on this topic.
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Two hundred twenty-five console video game covers obtained from online retail sites were examined for portrayals of men and women. We hypothesized that males would be portrayed more often, but that females would be portrayed in a more hyper-sexualized manner. Male characters were almost four times more frequently portrayed than female characters and were given significantly more game relevant action. However, in spite of their less frequent appearance, female characters were more likely to be portrayed with exaggerated, and often objectified, sexiness. Further, violence and sexiness was paired more frequently for female characters than violence and muscular physiques for the male characters. The potential influence these negative portrayals could have on gamers is discussed.
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This study assessed how problem video game playing (PVP) varies with game type, or "genre," among adult video gamers. Participants (n=3,380) were adults (18+) who reported playing video games for 1 hour or more during the past week and completed a nationally representative online survey. The survey asked about characteristics of video game use, including titles played in the past year and patterns of (problematic) use. Participants self-reported the extent to which characteristics of PVP (e.g., playing longer than intended) described their game play. Five percent of our sample reported moderate to extreme problems. PVP was concentrated among persons who reported playing first-person shooter, action adventure, role-playing, and gambling games most during the past year. The identification of a subset of game types most associated with problem use suggests new directions for research into the specific design elements and reward mechanics of "addictive" video games and those populations at greatest risk of PVP with the ultimate goal of better understanding, preventing, and treating this contemporary mental health problem.
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Peer victimization experiences represent developmentally salient stressors among adolescents and are associated with the development of internalizing symptoms. However, the mechanisms linking peer victimization to adolescent psychopathology remain inadequately understood. This study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer stress to changes in internalizing symptoms among adolescents in a longitudinal design. Peer victimization was assessed with the Revised Peer Experiences Questionnaire (M. J. Prinstein, J. Boergers, & E. M. Vernberg, 2001) in a large (N = 1,065), racially diverse (86.6% non-White) sample of adolescents 11-14 years of age. Emotion dysregulation and symptoms of depression and anxiety were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent construct of emotion dysregulation from measures of discrete emotion processes and of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Peer victimization was associated with increased emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. Increases in emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between relational and reputational, but not overt, victimization and changes in internalizing symptoms over a 7-month period. Evidence for a reciprocal relationship between internalizing symptoms and relational victimization was found, but emotion dysregulation did not mediate this relationship. The implications for preventive interventions are discussed.
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Although emotional expressivity figures prominently in several theories of psychological and physical functioning, limitations of currently available measurement techniques impede precise and economical testing of these theories. The 17-item Emotional Expressivity Scale (EES) was designed as a self-report measure of the extent to which people outwardly display their emotions. Reliability studies showed the EES to be an internally consistent and stable individual-difference measure. Validational studies established initial convergent and discriminant validities, a moderate relationship between self-rated and other-rated expression, and correspondence between self-report and laboratory-measured expressiveness using both college student and community populations. The potential for the EES to promote and integrate findings across diverse areas of research is discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) (alexithymia), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS) (anxiety), the Liste d'Adjectifs Bipolaires et en Echelles de Likert (LABEL) (personality-Big Five) and demographic data. Findings revealed that the adolescents of the offender group scored high on alexithymia and that proportion of disrupted family structure in the offender group is higher than in the control group. Logistic regressions confirmed that alexithymia and family structure are the strongest discriminatory factors for juvenile delinquency. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.
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Virtual Worlds and the Capacity for Illusion: The AVATARS of Relationships Struck by an unusual news item, the authors try to understand the processes involved when individuals invest themselves in so-called “virtual” worlds. They wish to show how virtual space fails as transitional space. Indeed, trying to create a space for illusion is unsuccessful to the extent that these virtual worlds do not leave enough room for experience’s tangible reality and, hence, for the process of disillusion necessarily connected to the capacity for illusion. The avatar, as a representation of the ideal I, is another way of imagining the virtual’s (almost) entirely imaginary world. However, with the case of an adolescent “addicted” to massively multi-player games, the authors invite the reader to see how using the virtual world may perhaps generate a particular kind of suffering, but may also represent an attempt to resolve other difficulties creatively. The authors therefore consider the use of these virtual platforms both as a subjective symptom, but also as one of contemporary society.
Article
Sexism toward women in online video game environments has become a pervasive and divisive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits, demographic variables, and levels of game play predicted sexist attitudes towards women who play video games. Male and female participants (N=301) who were players of networked video games were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and conformity to some types of masculine norms (desire for power over women and the need for heterosexual self-presentation) predicted higher scores on the Video Game Sexism Scale (i.e., greater sexist beliefs about women and gaming). Implications for the social gaming environment and female gamers are discussed.
Article
This study took a close look at the mechanism behind gender disparity in video game usage by examining two perceptual variables: perceptions about others' video game usage and perceived influence of unrealistic video game character images on others. Both men and women perceived that young women play video games far less frequently than young men and also considered themselves less influenced by the unrealistic images than others. In addition, women, in comparison to men, perceived the video game images to have stronger influences on others. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that perceived frequency of other women's video game play and perceived influence of the images on other women explained women's actual time spent on video games, but not men's time spent on video games. A discussion of these findings was provided, along with suggestions for video game developers, parents, educators, and video game researchers.
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This paper analyses Internet game practices following a double point of view, sociological and psychological. Technical and organisational game devices are presented in order to better understand how they do transform diverting practices. The authors present studies done on addiction, and especially discuss how addiction is presented in the medias as being the main topic of these online games. They propose another view on this phenomenon by analysing how the usages of these games do emerge and the meaning we can give to them. These diverting practices do transform the relationship to oneself, to the other, as well as the ambivalent connection to the body. They finally take part in a socialisation process that goes beyond the diverting level, and show the changes in our society.
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Massive Muti-user Online Role-Playing Games or MMORPGs as they are often called are one of the fastest growing forms of Internet addiction, especially among children and teenagers. Like an addiction to alcohol or drugs, gamers show several classic signs of addiction (Grusser, Thalemann, and Griffiths, 2007). They become preoccupied with gaming, lie about their gaming use, lose interest in other activities just to game, withdrawal from family and friends to game, and use gaming as a means of psychological escape (Leung, 2004). This paper explores the emergence of online gaming addiction and its impact on individuals and families. This paper reviews the nature of online games and what makes them addictive among some players. As computers are relied upon with greater frequency, detecting and diagnosing online gaming addiction may be difficult for clinicians, especially as symptoms of a possible problem may be masked by legitimate use of the Internet. This paper reviews the warning signs of online gaming addiction, adolescent issues involved in gaming addiction, especially as the industry targets youth, and parenting and therapy considerations for this emergent client population.
Article
The main purposes of this study were first to validate a French version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire [Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 2003 348–362], and second to access whether there are some interindividual differences on emotion regulation (sex and anxiety profile differences). A sample of 591 male and female adults completed a French translation of the ERQ, the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In the same way as in the original version, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that a two-factor model explained the data collected with the French version. Internal reliability scores (Cronbach’s alpha) were 0.76 for the cognitive reappraisal and 0.72 for the expressive suppression. In addition, the findings confirmed that men used more suppression than did women. For anxiety, high suppression and low reappraisal was related to trait-anxiety. Studying these two emotion regulation strategies have a strong interest for several domains such as health, work or education.
Article
Risk-taking behaviours often start and possibly remain throughout the teenage years and have become a major public health concern. Psychoactive substance use, dangerous driving, etc., are related to a significant mortality and morbidity. These risk-taking behaviours can be explained by sensation seeking. It seems that in some adolescents, dangerousness linked to an activity has an activating and/or stimulating function. After an analysis of the phenomenology and the significance of risk-taking behaviours during adolescence, we will study sensation seeking from a developmental point of view. In our analysis, we will discuss sensation seeking as a form of adaptation to the adolescence process, as a way of solving identity problems. Then we will consider sensation seeking as a personality dimension according to Zuckerman’s model. The implication of sensation seeking in substance use and risk-taking behaviour (dangerous driving, practice of extreme sports) is emphasized.
Book
Introduction Thinking through Emotion Theoretical Perspectives Recounting Emotion Everyday Discourses Emotions, Bodies, Selves The 'Emotional Woman' and the 'Unemotional Man' Emotions, Things and Places Conclusion
Article
Accession Number: 2008-06828-002. First Author & Affiliation: Bréjard, V.; Laboratoire PsyCLE, UFR de Psychologie, Universite de Provence, Aix-en-Provence, France. Translated Title: Emotion regulation, depression and risk-taking behaviour: Alexithymia as a moderating factor.. Other Publishers: Elsevier Science. Release Date: 20090504. Publication Type: Journal, (0100); Peer Reviewed Journal, (0110); . Media Covered: Electronic. Document Type: Journal Article. Language: French. Major Descriptor: Alexithymia; Depression (Emotion); Emotional Regulation; Risk Taking. Classification: Psychological Disorders (3210) . Population: Human (10); . Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300) Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320) . Tests & Measures: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; . Methodology: Empirical Study; Quantitative Study. References Available: Y.. Page Count: 9.. Issue Publication Date: May, 2008
Article
Accession Number: 2011-04761-004. First Author & Affiliation: Bonnet, A.; UFR Psychologie, Centre PsyCLE, Aix-Marseille Universite, Aix-en-Provence, France. Translated Title: Physiological dependence and emotional functioning in young adults: Affectivity, alexithymia and emotional intensity in the consumption of psychoactive substances.. Other Publishers: Elsevier Science. Release Date: 20110404. Correction Date: 20120827. Publication Type: Journal, (0100); Peer Reviewed Journal, (0110); . Media Covered: Electronic. Document Type: Journal Article. Language: French. Major Descriptor: Alexithymia; Drug Dependency; Drugs; Emotional States; Physiological Correlates. Classification: Substance Abuse & Addiction (3233) . Population: Human (10); Male (30); Female (40); . Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300) Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320) Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340) Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360) . Tests & Measures: Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20; Affect Intens
Article
Video games are part of our society's major entertainments. This is now a global industry that covers the preferential activity of adolescents. But for some, the practice goes beyond a game and becomes an addictive functioning. Clinical practice is then faced with a new problem. It is important to understand the special bond that develops between a player and his/her video game in order to understand the addictive process. The game consists of a virtual world, a graphical construction that is a simulation of reality and which reinvents the laws that govern it. It also consists of a character embodied by the player who controls it: the avatar. Through the virtual world and avatar, the game offers the player a virtual personification that matches his/her expectations and projected ideal. The avatar allows the subject to compensate, or even to modify some aspects of the Self and thus enhance his/her perception of him/herself; the virtual life become more satisfying than real life. The aim of this research is to propose, from the study of the relationship between psychosocial variables (self-perception and life satisfaction) and the adolescent's practice of video games, elements of construction of an explanatory model of video gambling addiction. The population of this research is composed of 74 adolescents aged 11-14 years (m(age)=12.78 and SD=0.921). Fourteen are identified as addicted to video games by the results of the Game Addiction Scale. The quantitative methodology allows measurement of the different psychosocial variables which appear important in the addictive process. The instruments used are: the Game Addiction Scale, the Self-Perception Profile and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The results show that adolescents addicted to video games see their virtual and current Self as being less proficient than other teenagers. Furthermore, teenagers addicted to video games see their virtual Self as more proficient and adapted to the environment than their current Self. Moreover, adolescents addicted perceive their lives as less satisfying than others'. Hence, virtual life is perceived as more satisfying than real life among teenagers addicted to video games. Finally, this virtual experience is thus one of the factors that explain the addiction to video games. Through the game, the teenager can "live" a new version of him/herself, becoming secondarily alienating. The virtual world supplants real life and becomes the source of a clash of identity.
Article
Prosocial and violent games were investigated in relation to empathy with avatars and amount of postgame donation. Participants who played a prosocial game demonstrated greater empathy, while those who played a violent game said they would donate a greater amount of money. Flow was found to be a function of the 3-way interaction between game type, self-perception, and regulatory focus. Higgins's (1987) regulatory focus and self-discrepancy (1997) theories are used to explain the underlying theoretical mechanisms behind these results.
Article
In Emotion-Focused Therapy for Depression, Leslie S. Greenberg and Jeanne C. Watson provide a manual for the emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. Their approach is supported by studies in which EFT for depression was compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy and client-centered therapy. The approach has been refined to apply specifically to the treatment of this pervasive and often intractable disorder. The authors discuss the nature of depression and its treatment, examine the role of emotion, present a schematic model of depression and an overview of the course of treatment, and suggest who might benefit. Written with a practical focus rather than the more academic theoretical style of previous books that established the theoretical grounds and scientific viability of working with emotion in psychotherapy, this book aims to introduce practitioners to the idea of using this approach to work with a depressed population. The book covers theory, case formulation, treatment, and research in a way that makes this complex form of therapy accessible to all readers. Particularly valuable are the case examples, which demonstrate the deliberate and skillful use of techniques to leverage emotional awareness and thus bring about change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[This book] also points out the need for a major reevaluation of prevalent, but futile, treatment methods and of harmful public policies, all based on incorrect assumptions about addictive behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines the relationship between emotion regulation and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. Although externalizing disorders have traditionally been conceptualized as problems of behavior and cognition rather than affect, these conditions are inextricably tied in with emotional processes, and emotion and emotion regulation would appear to be centrally involved in such conditions. As we emphasize throughout this chapter, it is crucial to consider specific forms of the relevant behavior patterns when examining emotional and emotion regulatory processes, as it increasingly appears that deficits in emotion regulation are relevant to some but not all forms of externalizing behavior. Because global portrayals of externalizing behavior as indicative of emotion dysregulation may obscure rather than clarify important associations, we emphasize specificity of linkages to the extent allowed by the current literature. Topics include: models of emotional regulation and relations with psychopathology (emotion regulation: definitions and differentiations, externalizing psychopathology: dimensional and categorical perspectives), emotion regulation and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, emotion regulation and conduct problems/aggression, and future directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Larsen (1984) developed the Affect Intensity Measure (AIM) as a measure of a theoretical unidimensional construct referred to as affect intensity, or the characteristic strength with which people experience emotions. Study 1 investigated the goodness-of-fit of five different measurement models of the AIM, using two independent samples of undergraduates (Ns = 673 and 631). For both samples, the best-fitting model consisted of three factors (Positive Affectivity, Negative Intensity, Negative Reactivity) that explained roughly 80% of the common variance in responses to a subset of 27 AIM items. Additional analyses revealed that women scored higher on Negative Reactivity than did men and were more emotionally reactive to negative stimuli than to positive, whereas men were more reactive to positive stimuli than to negative. These gender differences are explained in terms of differential socialization, which makes females more willing or able to express negative emotions relative to males. Study 2 assessed the discriminant validity of the three-factor model, relative to unidimensional AIM total score, in predicting dimensions of dispositional empathy as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983). The three AIM factors together explained more variance in dispositional empathy than did AIM total score, with the increase inR2ranging from a low of 8% (for Fantasy) to a high of 125% (for Perspective Taking). Demonstrating discriminant validity, each AIM factor showed a different pattern of relations with the IRI subscales, and Negative Reactivity was more strongly predictive of dispositional empathy than were the other two AIM factors. These results corroborate the multidimensionality of affect intensity and highlight the importance of distinguishing between the characteristic strength of negative emotions when they are experienced (i.e., dispositional intensity) and the characteristic strength of emotions expressed in response to aversive stimuli (i.e., dispositional reactivity).
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Computer game playing is a popular activity among adolescents yet there have been no systematic studies in the U.K. on its prevalence and its demographics. A questionnaire study was undertaken with 387 adolescents (12–16 years of age) to establish the time spent playing computer games, who they first started playing with, the reasons why they first started and why they play now and negative consequences of play. Results revealed that for many adolescents, home computer game playing can take up considerable time with 7% of the sample playing for at least 30 hours a week. Although there were no differences between males and females in who played computer games, it was established that males were found to play significantly more regularly than females.
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In an Emotion-focused approach emotion is seen as foundational in the construction of the self and is a key determinant of self-organization. As well as having emotion people also live in a constant process of making sense of our emotions. Personal meaning is seen as emerging by the self-organization and explication of one's own emotional experience and optimal adaptation involves an integration of reason and emotion. In this framework therapists are viewed as Emotion coaches who work to enhance emotion-focused coping by helping people become aware of, accept and make sense of their emotional experience. Emotion coaching in therapy is based on two phases: Arriving and Leaving. A major premise is that one cannot leave a place until one has arrived at it. Three major empirically-supported principles of Emotion Awareness, Emotion Regulation and Emotion Transformation that guide emotion coaching are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This paper argues that the recent concerns about video game “addiction” have been based less on scientific facts and more upon media hysteria. By examining the literature, it will be demonstrated that the current criteria used for identifying this concept are both inappropriate and misleading. Furthermore, by presenting four case studies as examples it will be demonstrated how such claims of video game addiction can be inaccurately applied. It is concluded that the most likely reasons that people play video games excessively are due to either ineffective time management skills, or as a symptomatic response to other underlying problems that they are escaping from, rather than any inherent addictive properties of the actual games.