This chapter reviews concepts of forensic mental health assessment (FMHA) that are relevant to capital sentencing. It first provides an overview of the legal and conceptual context of evaluations for capital sentencing and how such evaluations may inform critical considerations in the application of the death penalty. It then turns to a discussion of competing theories of free will vs. ... [Show full abstract] determinism as they apply to capital sentencing, along with FMHA concepts such as mitigation, criminal responsibility vs. moral culpability, statutory mitigating factors relating to mental state at the time of offense, violence risk assessment, and mental retardation. It also considers the empirical foundations and limitations of evaluations for capital sentencing as well as the steps involved in conducting an evaluation. Finally, the chapter outlines key aspects of report writing and testimony for capital-sentencing evaluations.