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Chemical composition, medicinal impacts and cultivation of camelina (Camelina sativa): Review

Authors:

Abstract

Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop and known as gold of pleasure and false flax. It holds promise as a source of human food and animal feed products and it is considered as a new source of essential fatty acids, particularly n-3(omega-3) fatty acids. The seed of Camelina can contain more than 40% oil, 90% of which is made up of unsaturated fatty acids, including a 30–40% fraction of alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3), another 15–25% fraction of linoleic acid (18:2n-6), about a 15% fraction of oleic acid and around 15% eicosenoic acid. Tocopherol content is about 700 mg kg-1. The oil is capable of improving the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in food. Alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) serves as a substrate for EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and hormones with important functions in human organism, particularly in the maintenance of immunity. A cholesterol reducing effect of Camelina oil was confirmed in trials with volunteers. The reduction of cholesterol in blood serum was ascribed to the synergistic effects of alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and antioxidants. An enrichment of food with α -linolenic acid appears extraordinary important for infants and children. Dietary α -linolenic acid promotes a healthy growth as well as optimal neurological development. The incorporation of Camelina oil in diet for children appears to be promising health promoting measure. Health promoting potential of Camelina oil has high contents of α -linolenic acid, tocopherols and other antioxidants make Camelina oil nutritionally very attractive.
Chemical Composition, Medicinal Impacts and Cultivation of
Camelina (
Camelina sativa
): Review
1Faten M. Ibrahim and 2El Habbasha, S.F.
1Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries
Division National Research Centre,33 El Bohouth Street, P.O. Box 12622,
Dokki, Giza, Egypt
2Field Crops Research, National Research Center, 33 El Bohouth Street,
P.O. Box 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Abstract: Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop and known as gold of pleasure and false flax. It
holds promise as a source of human food and animal feed products and it is considered as a
new source of essential fatty acids, particularly n-3(omega-3) fatty acids. The seed of
Camelina can contain more than 40 % oil, 90 % of which is made up of unsaturated fatty
acids, including a 3040% fraction of alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3), another 1525% fraction
of linoleic acid (18:2n-6), about a 15% fraction of oleic acid and around 15% eicosenoic acid.
Tocopherol content is about 700 mg kg-1. The oil is capable of improving the n-6/n-3 fatty
acids ratio in food. Alpha linolenic acid (18:3n-3) serves as a substrate for EPA
(Eicosapentaenoic acid), DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and hormones with important
functions in human organism, particularly in the maintenance of immunity. A cholesterol
reducing effect of Camelina oil was confirmed in trials with volunteers. The reduction of
cholesterol in blood serum was ascribed to the synergistic effects of alpha linolenic acid
(18:3n-3) and antioxidants. An enrichment of food with α -linolenic acid appears
extraordinary important for infants and children. Dietary α -linolenic acid promotes a healthy
growth as well as optimal neurological development. The incorporation of Camelina oil in
diet for children appears to be promising health promoting measure. Health promoting
potential of Camelina oil has high contents of α -linolenic acid, tocopherols and other
antioxidants make Camelina oil nutritionally very attractive.
Kay words: Camelina oil, dietary supplement, nutritional value, healthy food.
Introduction
Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually known in English
as Camelina, or false flax. Camelina is an oilseed crop belonging to family Brassicaceae with agronomic low-
input features1. Camelina is a low-input oilseed crop with very high nutrient efficiency that can grow with
limited nitrogen fertilization and often grown on marginal land. Camelina is a short-season crop that is well
adapted to production in the temperate climate zone. It is generally grown as an early summer annual oilseed
crop but can be grown as a winter annual in milder climates2. Camelina germinates at low temperature, and
seedlings are very frost tolerant3. It responds well under drought stress conditions and may be better suited to
low rainfall regions than most other oilseed crops2. Camelina is particularly competitive in semi-arid regions
and in relatively infertile or saline soils, and it is extremely resistant to adverse environmental conditions (e.g.,
drought). Moreover, Camelina has a rather short vegetative period of about 4 months, and thus, it can be
International Journal of PharmTech Research
CODEN (USA): IJPRIF, ISSN: 0974-4304
Vol.8, No.10, pp 114-122, 2015
Faten M. Ibrahim and El Habbasha, S.F.
/Int.J. PharmTech Res. 2015,8(10),pp 114-122. 115
incorporated into double cropping systems during cool periods of growth. Camelina produces antimicrobial
phytoalexins that confer resistance to plant pathogens and insect pests, and it is an allelopathic crop, producing
and releasing into the environment secondary metabolites that inhibit the development of neighboring plants4.
Due to high content of unsaturated fatty acids in Camelina oil its oxidative stability should be an
important factor, Camelina oil was found to be more stable towards oxidation than highly unsaturated linseed
oil but less stable than rapeseed, olive, corn, sesame and sunflower oils. Camelina oil has an unusual fatty acid
profile, consisting of higher levels of alpha-linolenic acid and comparatively low concentrations of erucic acid5.
Camelina oil can serve as an interesting source of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid due to its cholesterol-lowering
properties for the human diet6. The possible industrial applications of Camelina include its use in
environmentally safe paintings, coatings, cosmetics and low emission biodiesel fuels7,8. Although the presence
of polyunsaturated fatty acids make Camelina oil susceptible to lipid oxidation but it remains sufficiently stable
during storage due to the presence of antioxidants in the seed9,10. Camelina seed contains oil contents between
320 and 460 g/kg11 and concentration of alpha linolenic acid was in the broad range from 28 to 43% of total
fatty acids12,13,5. Seed quality characteristics of Camelina are important features for processing and marketing of
the crop in competition with other oilseeds. There are several reports that suggest Camelina is one of the most
cost-effective oilseed crops to produce due to search for the new sources of essential fatty acids, particularly n-
3(omega-3) fatty acids and multiple use values14.
Uses of Camelina
The crop is now being researched due to its exceptionally high levels (up to 45%) of omega-3 fatty
acids, which is uncommon in vegetable sources. Seeds contain 38 to 43% oil and 27 to 32% protein15. Over
50% of the fatty acids in cold-pressed Camelina oil are polyunsaturated. The oil is also very rich in
natural antioxidants, such as tocopherols, making this highly stable oil very resistant to oxidation and rancidity.
The vitamin E content of Camelina oil is approximately 110 mg/100 g. It is well suited for use as cooking oil.
There are some researches in human nutrition and health have determined the relationship between the diet and
the occurrence of various diseases among the population in the industrialized countries. The nutritional
deficiency due to the disproportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids can be alleviated by the addition of n-3 fatty
acid rich oils in the diet. In such a situation Camelina oil can be an excellent source of poly-unsaturated fatty
acids and n-3 fatty acid in particular. Camelina oil can enhance the biological value of diet by changing the
proportion of n-6/n-3 fatty acids16. Camelina is being marketed in Europe in salad dressing and as cooking oil
(it is not suitable as deep-fat fry oil). The specific dermatological effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids make
Camelina oil suitable for cosmetic applications, such as cosmetic oils, skin creams and lotions17.
The co-product (meal) obtained after oil extraction from the seed is valuable as animal feed18. To use
Camelina meal as a potential animal feed requires information on its chemical composition, nutritive value,
digestibility and product quality aspects. In this context, studies on using Camelina in the diet of beef heifers19
and dairy cows20 have been reported. Also, fish such as salmon, with the added benefit of increasing the omega-
3 content of the resulting meat, eggs and dairy products21,22,23. Camelina meal is rich in protein, fat and essential
n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, and could be incorporated into poultry rations as a source of energy, protein and
essential n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.
Due to high levels of essential fatty acids, particularly the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, Camelina
oil is also being investigated as a food ingredient10,24. In 2010, Health Canada approved the use of cold-pressed,
unrefined Camelina oil as a food ingredient in Canada. In some eastern European countries, Camelina oil is
used in folk medicine for the treatment of burns, wounds, eye inflammations, as well as to cure stomach ulcers
and as a tonic25.
Camelina Cultivation
Soil preparation, seeding rate, method of planting and seeding depth are all factors that have been found
to affect plant establishment and subsequent seed yields26,27. Camelina is drought-tolerant crop that can thrive
and produce reasonable yields in low moisture conditions1. It has better spring freezing tolerance and drought
tolerance compared to canola28.
Seeding date is an important management practice that can be adapted to optimize Camelina
production. Early seeding allows Camelina to flower before the usual summer heat and drought period that
Faten M. Ibrahim and El Habbasha, S.F.
/Int.J. PharmTech Res. 2015,8(10),pp 114-122. 116
would help prevent pod abortion and increase seed yield. According to28 the recommended seeding rate in
Montana is 5.55 kg ha-1 for a uniform, dense crop stand. Broadcast trials were not successful for Camelina and
resulted in poor and uneven crop establishment, which ultimately provided uneven stands and crop maturity at
harvest. Camelina is usually seeded in the spring15,29. Winter seeding is also being investigated1. Seeds are
planted at a shallow depth with good soil contact30,3. Seeds can be drilled using packer wheels to achieve this, or
if broadcast, a roller harrow can be used to mix seed and soil together30. The recommended sowing rate ranges
from 3 to 7 kg/ha (approximately 250 to 600 seeds/ m2), with the objective of producing a stand density in the
range of 125 to 200 plants/m2 31. Higher seeding rates can increase the competitiveness of the crop and decrease
time to maturity31,32. The rate of emergence for Camelina has been observed to range from 12% to 70%, with an
average of approximately 40%, which is comparable to canola31. As with other brassicas, it is generally
recommended that Camelina not be grown in a field more than once every three to four years3. Due to its short
growing season, Camelina also has the potential to be incorporated into double cropping systems, particularly in
warmer climates1. Like other crops in the mustard family, Camelina responds to nitrogen, sulfur, and
phosphorus fertilizer application.
Camelina is a short-season crop that requires a modest amount of nitrogen3. Studies have shown that
yield is improved through the application of nitrogen and the recommended application rate ranges from 60 to
100 kg N/ha31. Depending on soil levels, application of phosphorous and sulphur may also improve yield32;
however, at this time the optimal application rate has not been determined. In the absence of this information,
fertilizer application for Camelina may be modeled after canola production practices. Camelina can survive
conditions of dry soil, low rainfall and frost due to a short growing season; for example, Camelina matures 21
days earlier than flaxseed33. Camelina being a low input crop does not require great amounts of fertilizers. It has
low response to Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K)28. 34reported that to achieve maximum yield in
a study in Montana, Camelina required 78.5 to 100.9 kg N ha-1. In Romania, seed yield of Camelina was
increased by 14% and 27% with applications of 40 kg P ha-1 and 60 kg P ha-1, respectively, while applications
of 50 and 100 kg N ha-1caused an increase of 37% and 58% in seed yield35. Further, phosphorus increased the
oil content from 39.2 to 41.9% and nitrogen decreased oil content from 40.9 to 40.1% respectively. The highest
dose of N significantly reduced oil content36,37. Different agronomic and quality parameters responded to
nitrogen application. Plant height, total nitrogen content in plant tissue and seed yield increased with increased
nitrogen application, but oil content decreased38.
Camelina shows good weed competitiveness, especially when plant stands are dense, although this has
not been directly measured. This may in part be due to the early emergence and rapid growth of this crop, as
well as its cold tolerance, which allows it to be planted early3. Camelina can be swathed for field drying prior to
harvest, or it can be direct combined if varieties that are resistant to shattering are used3. Swathing is
recommended if there is a high degree of lodging or green weeds in the field30. Swathing should be done when
two-thirds of the pods turn from green to yellow3.
Early trials of Camelina conducted in Canada showed seed yields of 1200 to 1500 kg/ha39. Recent trials
in Canada indicated that seed production may not be affected by seeding date but can be affected by seeding
rate producing 1338 kg ha-1 at a seed density of 200 seeds m-2, 1496 kg ha-1 at 400 seeds m-2 and 1599 kg ha-1at
600 seeds m-2 38. Different seeding rates did not affect seed size significantly29 Field trials in Germany indicated
that seed production of Camelina was affected by seeding date and soil enrichment. Early seeded plants
produced an average seed yield of 1600 kg ha-1 as compared to 1150 kg ha-1 with late sowing. Variation in
thousand-seed weight ranged between 0.8 and 1.3 g40. In France, Camelina sativa cultivars produced a
maximum yield of 2.3 t ha-1 with late sowing and nitrogen applied at 100 kg/ha41. 42achieved a maximum seed
yield of 3 t ha-1 through breeding for marginal, poor soil with nitrogen application rate of 80 kg ha-1. Generally,
the seeding and harvesting equipments used for canola and mustard crops are suitable for Camelina15.
Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Camelina
Camelina oil is the main product from Camelina seeds and the average yield of oil from the seeds is
about 40% on dry matter basis43. It is a golden yellow colour liquid with a mild nutty and characteristics
mustard aroma. Some of the physical properties of Camelina oil reported are: refractive index 1.4756, density
0.92 g/cc both measured at 25°C, iodine number 105 (g I2/100 g oil) and saponification value 187.8 (mg
KOH/g oil)10.
Faten M. Ibrahim and El Habbasha, S.F.
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Camelina oil is highly unsaturated. The oil contains about 64% polyunsaturated, 30% monounsaturated
and 6% saturated fatty acids (FAs). Fatty acid (FA) content in Camelina oil depends mainly on the varieties and
on the conditions under which the crop was grown43. The main FAs are: α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) (ALA),
linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) (LA), oleic acid (18:1 n-9) (OA) and gondoic acid (20:1 n-9) (GA). The presence of GA
is a curiosity of Camelina oil. The role of this fatty acid in human metabolism is not known. The content of
erucic acid was 2.3-3.7%43. This was below the limit of 5.0% allowed in vegetable oils for human
consumption43. The ratio of linoleic acid (LA) (15%) and α -linolenic acid (ALA) (40%) is unique among the
common vegetable oils such as soya oil, sunflower oil, rape oil, olive oil etc. The oil also contains high levels of
gamma-tocopherol (Vitamin E) which confers a reasonable shelf life without the need for special storage
conditions. The total content of tocopherols in Camelina oil ranged 800-900 µg/g. This was higher than flax oil
and rape oil. From the nutritional point of view, Camelina oil is a rich source of essential fatty acids (LA and
ALA). Animal research suggests that Camelina oil may have a significant effect on the reduction of
triglycerides and cholesterol in pig serum. 44concluded that the Camelina oil diet increased omega-3 long chain
FAs, in particular eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and improved the ratio omega-6/ omega-3 FAs in plasma.
Potential health benefits of omega-3 from Camelina oil are being evaluated in a breast cancer risk study for
overweight or obese postmenopausal women. Because of its nutritional effects, the oil could attract
considerable attention for use in the production of health promoting foods10.
Camelina meal consists of 13% residual oil, 6% ash, 12% crude fibre, 30% crude protein, 27% non-
nitrogenous matter and other substances such as vitamins etc. In Camelina meal, protein content is about 30-
35% DM basis. A large part of this percentage is seed storage proteins. They constitute 60 and 20%
respectively, of the total proteins in mature seeds45. In Camelina meal, carbohydrates of Camelina include
monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and fibre. Monosaccharides and
disaccharides are easily digestible and in the human body provide easily metabolisable energy. The content in
Camelina is very small, for example sucrose is about 5.5%, it was twice as high as flaxseed (2.8%) but lower
than rapeseed (6.8%)46. Oligosaccharides: raffinose and stachyose are very low in Camelina (below 1%)47.
Polysaccharides: starch, pectin and mucilage. Starch is a polysaccharide consisting of different chain length and
straight chained amylase and branch chained amylopectin. The content in Camelina is very low (1%)47. Starch
is incompletely digestible in the small intestine, but it is fermented by microbes in the large intestine. Pectin is a
heteropolysaccharide consisting mainly by d-galacturonic acid linked with fucose, xylose and galactose. This
fermentable fibre is very low in Camelina less than 1%48. Mucilage is a water soluble fibre that forms gel.
Soluble fibres delay gastric emptying and transit through the colon. Soluble fibres interfere with the absorption
of sugars and fats. They absorb potentially noxious carcinogenic compounds of the ingesta49. The content of
mucilage in Camelina is 6.7%, lower than flaxseed (8%)47. Crude fibre, include cellulose and hemicelluloses.
Cellulose is a non-digestible glucose polymer. It is found in the cell wall of all vegetation. Hemicellulose fibres
are cellulose molecules substituted with other sugars such as xylan galactan, mannan, etc. Cellulose and
hemicelluloses are microbially fermented in large intestine. A mixture of short chain fatty acids, such as acetate,
butyrate and propionate are produced48. Lignin is a polyphenolic compound associated with dietary fibre. It is
water insoluble and in the gastro intestinal system, it increases the amount of stool and absorption of water50.
The content of lignin in Camelina is (7.4%)47. The content of crude fibre in Camelina meal is about 15% dry
matter basis. The substantial part of crude fibre was cellulose. The proportionally high content of mucilage,
crude fibre and lignin indicates that Camelina meal, when incorporated in food, can exert positive effects on
gastrointestinal processes. A long term human consumption of bread with added Camelina meal confirmed that
beneficial role of the ingredient in digestion47.
Camelina meal is a good source of vitamins B1 (thiamin), B3 (niacin) and B5 (pantothenic acid).
Thiamin in nature exists as thiamine pyrophosphate. It functions as a coenzyme in transketolation and is
important in neural transmission. It is directly involved in maintenance of normal appetite and healthy
attitude51. The content of thiamin in Camelina is considerable higher (18 µg/g) respect than flaxseed (6 µg/g)
and rapeseed (8 µg/g)47. Niacin occurs in two forms as nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. It is widely distributed
in nature but it does not occur in large amount in free form. Most often it is found as the coenzyme NAD+
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). Niacin is one
of the most important vitamins in human and animal nutrition52. The content of niacin in Camelina (194 ìg/g) is
predominant among the vitamins, it results also about twice as high as in flaxseed (91 µg/g)47. Panthotenic acid
has diverse metabolic functions as a structural component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein. The
CoA supports the transmission of nerve impulses, haemoglobin synthesis, synthesis of sterols and steroid
hormones, maintenance of normal blood sugar, formation of antibodies etc. 51. The content of panthotenic acid
Faten M. Ibrahim and El Habbasha, S.F.
/Int.J. PharmTech Res. 2015,8(10),pp 114-122. 118
is identical to flaxseed (11 µg/g) and lower than rapeseed (16 µg/g)47. Analyses of CS reveal a prevalently low
content of macro-minerals. The highest content between 1.0-1.6 % is calcium, potassium, phosphorus47. Among
micro-minerals, Camelina presents markedly high content of iron (329 µg/g), manganese (40 µg/g) and zinc (69
µg/g) 47. Camelina meal is characterized by the presence of minor substances that affect the value of this by-
product. Especially plant secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates (GSLs), sinapine, inositol phosphates
and condensed tannins belong to widespread anti-nutritive compounds which are generally present in oilseeds.
GSLs and sinapine have usually been associated with members of Brassicaceae whereas inositol phosphates and
condensed tannins are more generally distributed in flora53.
Health Promoting Application of Camelina Oil
Human body cannot synthesize α -linolenic acid (ALA) and its deficiency may result in clinical
symptoms including neurological abnormalities and poor growth. Therefore, α -linolenic acid (ALA) should be
included in the diet. α -linolenic acid (ALA) can be elongated to EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA
(Docosahexaenoic acid), because their metabolic products have beneficial effects which help in preventing
coronary heart disease, arrhythmias and thrombosis54. The consumption of Camelina oil can help to improve the
general health of the population to the desired level55,56,57. Camelina oil is helpful in the regeneration of cells,
skin elasticity and slenderness recovery58. The preventive and curative effects were ascribed primarily to a
reinforced immunity of human organism. The immunity was apparently deriving from biochemical processes in
which linoleic acid, α -linolenic acid, tocopherols and phytosterols were involved59,60.
Both the linoleic acid and α -linolenic acid are precursors for pure unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and
are the substrates for important hormones with various functions in the human organism61,62. Motivated by
unique nutritional quality and beneficial properties of Camelina oil43, flax oil in the diet was replaced with
camelina oil. The major ingredients (ca. 80 percent v/v fermented milk and 20 percent v/v camelina oil) were
mixed to obtain emulsion. The fermented milk was a source of essential amino acids and microorganisms e.g.
Lactobacillus acidophilus, with well known positive dietary effects. The oil provided linoleic acid, α -linolenic
acid, tocopherols, phenols, phytosterols, etc. During testing with adults, 8 table spoons of fermented milk and 2
table spoons of Camelina oil were used per serving. To improve the nutritional value and taste, oats flakes and
seasonally available small fruits, minced fruits or vegetables, dry fruits, grape raisins, jam, sugar, etc., were
mixed with the emulsion. The complex mixture was consumed with 2-3 slices of toast. The most convenient
was the consumption of the diet at breakfast.
Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Camelina Oil
The high contents of α -linolenic acid (ALA), tocopherols and other antioxidants make Camelina oil
nutritionally very attractive. Besides being a substrate in human metabolism, ALA is capable of improving the
n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in food63. A mixed fat product consisting of butter fat and Camelina oil (1: 1), was tested
by mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. The volunteers aged 25-75 years (14 males and 31 females) during 4
weeks consumed 50-60 g /d of the mixed fat. Their habitual diet was maintained, only fats (butter, margarine,
oil) were substituted with the tested product. Blood analyses were performed during morning hours in the
intervals of 2 weeks by using Reflotron Boehringer, Manheim. The initial mean content of total cholesterol in
blood serum of the subjects was 6.3 ± 0.25 mmol/L. After 2 weeks on the diet, the volunteers experienced a
decreasing cholesterol level. At the end of the trial, their cholesterol in blood serum was reduced to 5.8 ± 0.23
mmol/L. The cholesterol reducing effect was ascribed to Camelina oil. A similar cholesterol reducing effect of
Camelina oil was achieved in a test with mildly and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. The volunteers
consumed 33 mL Camelina oil per day during 6 weeks. Their total cholesterol in blood serum was reduced from
5.9 to 5.6 mmol/L and LDL (low density lipoprotein) decreased by 12.2 percent6. In another trial, volunteers
during 4 weeks consumed 12 g/d α -linolenic acid in the form of ground flax seed (50 g/d) or flax oil (20 g/d).
The content of long chain n-3 fatty acids and erythrocyte lipids in blood serum of the subjects increased
significantly. Simultaneously was lowered serum total cholesterol by 9 percent and LDL (low density
lipoprotein) cholesterol by 18 percent64. A provision of functional oil with flax oil reduced the total cholesterol
by 12.5 percent and LDL (low density lipoprotein) by 13.9 percent60. Meanwhile, unusually high content of
cholesterol in camelina oil, amounting to 188 mg/g, was reported65. 6Karvonen HM et al determined
cholesterol reducing effect of Camelina oil in a test with mildly and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.
The volunteers consumed 33 mL Camelina oil per day during 6 weeks. Their total cholesterol in blood serum
Faten M. Ibrahim and El Habbasha, S.F.
/Int.J. PharmTech Res. 2015,8(10),pp 114-122. 119
was reduced from 5.9 to 5.6 m mol L-1 and LDL (low density lipoprotein) decreased by 12.2 percent.
Experimental evidence, however, proves that Camelina oil possesses a cholesterol reducing property. Besides
the effects of α -linolenic acid and tocopherols also phytosterols were found effective in lowering cholesterol66.
Preliminary unpublished experimental results indicate that the amount of cholesterol in blood serum is not
proportional to the dietary intake. The major determinants of cholesterol level in blood serum are saturated fatty
acids (C12:0 - C16:0). The development of atherosclerosis actually is deriving from the oxidation of LDL (low
density lipoprotein)67.
Dietary Supplementation by Camelina Oil as a Source of α -linolenic Acid
Dietary supplementation of α -linolenic acid in European countries, USA and Canada was estimated to
be between 0.8 and 2.2 g/d per person68. The dietary provision of α -linolenic acid was a subject of numerous
investigations. Recommendations for dietary intake of α -linolenic acid, however, are somewhat inconsistent. A
supplementation of ca. 2 g α -linolenic acid (20 g rape oil) and 7-10 g linoleic acid for the daily intake by
healthy persons was suggested. The conversion of α -linolenic acid to EPA was found to be about (10 %)69.
Other studies show that intake of 3.5 g/d α -linolenic acid increased the proportion of EPA (Eicosapentaenoic
acid) but not DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) in plasma phospholipids70. A supplementation of 4.5 and 9.5 g/d α -
linolenic acid was used experimentally71. On the basis of studies with volunteers was proposed an intake of 12 g
α -linolenic acid, corresponding to 20 g flax oil per day64.
The exploitation of α -linolenic acid as a substrate for EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) depends on the n-
6/n-3 fatty acids ratio. The conversion of α -linolenic acid to EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) can be inhibited by
the excess of linoleic acid. An appropriate supplementation of α -linolenic is needed to ensure the conversion of
α -linolenic acid to EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid)62,72. An enrichment of food with α -linolenic acid appears
extraordinary important for infants and children. Dietary α -linolenic acid promotes a healthy growth as well as
optimal neurological development73. The incorporation of Camelina oil in diet for children appears to be
promising health promoting measure. Health promoting potential of Camelina oil has high contents of α -
linolenic acid, tocopherols and other antioxidants make Camelina oil nutritionally very attractive. Besides being
a substrate in human metabolism, α -linolenic acid is capable of improving the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in food.
Experimental documentation shows that linoleic acid and α -linolenic acid are in human metabolism convertible
to pure unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) through desaturation and chain elongation metabolic pathway63.
α -linolenic acid is a precursor for prostaglandins and other eicosanoids and hormones involved in wide
range of body functions including the immune system61. Additional health effects may be ascribed to
antioxidants and phytosterols in Camelina oil. Specific studies disclosed that phytosterols, incorporated in
functional fat with flax oil, had beneficial effects on lipids and cholesterol in blood serum60. A dietary intake of
13.7 g/d α -linolenic acid from flax oil significantly increased the content of α -linolenic acid in blood serum.
The concentration of α-linolenic acid increased approximately eightfold in the serum lipid fractions
(phospholipids, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides) and 50 percent in the neutrophil phospholipids. The
concentration of EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) in plasma phospholipids increased 2.5 fold. A supplementation
of α -linolenic acid from vegetable oils can elevate EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) in tissues to concentrations
comparable to those achieved with fish oil74. Another investigation shows a conversion of linoleic acid to n-6
metabolites ranging from 1.0 to 2.2 percent. The conversion of α -linolenic acid to n-3 metabolites was 11.0 -
18.5 percent and to DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) it was 3.8 percent62. A significant increase of a-linolenic acid,
EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) in blood serum in a trial with volunteers was
reported. At the same time, the saturated FA (C14:0, C15:0, and C16:0) decreased6. The trial demonstrated that
a supplementation of Camelina oil had about the same effects as flax oil.
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Janick, J. and Simon, J.E. eds. New crops. Wiley, New York, 1993; 314-322pp
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72. College of Agricultural Sciences, Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University
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EM 8953-E, January
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*****
... The mono-and di-saccharide levels are very low (sucrose content is about 5.5%). Oligosaccharides namely raffinose and stachyose are below 1% (Ibrahim and El Habbasha 2015). The polysaccharides present are pectin, starch, and mucilage. ...
... The polysaccharides present are pectin, starch, and mucilage. The mucilage is produced after the addition of water, which forms a gel and the content is about 6.7% (Berhow et al. 2014;Ibrahim and El Habbasha 2015). The starch and pectin content is less than 1% each (Ibrahim and El Habbasha 2015). ...
... The mucilage is produced after the addition of water, which forms a gel and the content is about 6.7% (Berhow et al. 2014;Ibrahim and El Habbasha 2015). The starch and pectin content is less than 1% each (Ibrahim and El Habbasha 2015). ...
Chapter
Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz., Brassicaceae] is also known by the names of false flax and gold of pleasure. Historically, camelina oil was used in cooking and as fuel. Additionally, the seed meal was used as livestock feed. Currently, the crop is produced commercially in the United States and utilized as biodiesel. The phytochemical potential of camelina has renewed the interest in this crop for health and food applications. Mechanical extraction is the oldest method for oil extraction. Newer and greener methods like the supercritical-CO2 extraction method have also been studied for oil extraction from camelina. The oil content in camelina seed ranges from 30 to 50%, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids (25–50% of total fatty acids) and antioxidants. The health-promoting attributes of camelina oil arise due to the presence of alpha-linolenic acid and antioxidants. The major antinutritional compounds in camelina are glucosinolates, tannins, and erucic acid. The oil can be used for skin ailments, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and chronic diseases. Additionally, camelina oil has the potential in food applications such as edible oil and as a functional ingredient, feed applications, and industrial applications.
... Because of the presence of natural antioxidants, camelina oil remains sufficiently stable during storage despite its susceptibility to lipid oxidation (Ibrahim and El Habbasha, 2015), and its stability is between that of rapeseed and linseed oils (Crowley and Fröhlich, 1998). The oxidation stability index of the n-hexane-extracted camelina oil is twice higher than that of the pressed oil, which was ascribed to higher antioxidant levels (Kiralan et al., 2018;Waraich et al., 2013). ...
... However, Popa et al. (2019) found only γ-tocopherol in the range of 400-476 mg/kg depending on the type of camelina cultivar. The vitamin E content of camelina oil is among the highest of the natural tocopherol sources ranging from 1.10 g/kg (Ibrahim and El Habbasha, 2015) to 7.2 g/kg (Ostrikov et al., 2021). ...
... Camelina seed mucilage can be a new source of hydrocolloid that possesses thickening and stabilizing properties with possible uses in the food and pharmaceutical industry (Ubeyitogullari and Ciftci, 2020). Ibrahim and El Habbasha (2015) have reported that camelina meal contains sucrose (5.5%), starch (1%), pectin (less than 1%), crude fiber (15%, cellulose being the main part), mucilage (6.7%), and lignin (7.4%). Due to its high content of crude fiber, mucilage, and lignin, camelina meal can exert positive effects on digestion when incorporated into food products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] is cultivated worldwide as a rotational oilseed crop under a range of agronomic and environmental conditions. In recent years, interest in camelina has increased due to its short vegetation season, modest agricultural and environmental requirements for cultivation, high seed and biomass (straw) yield, high seed oil content, high polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the oil, and multiple uses. This paper is an overview of the initial steps of any camelina-based production process, such as plant cultivation and harvesting, seed pretreatment, and oil recovery. The main features of the camelina plant and seed are shortly described. The prominent issues of harvesting, cleaning, drying, storing, and pretreating of camelina seed are discussed. The main part of the paper is focused on oil recovery from the pretreated seed. The traits of various camelina oil recovery methods are stressed. The physicochemical properties and composition of camelina oil, with an emphasis on fatty acid profile and bioactive substances (tocopherols, vitamins, polyphenols, sterols, glucosinolates, etc.) contents, are considered. The traditional, actual, and prospective uses of camelina seed, oil, meal, and straw are briefly overviewed. Based on the fatty acid profile of the oil, the bioactive constituents of the meal, and the lignocellulosic content of straw, the camelina plant can be utilized in the biofuels, food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries. Future valorization of camelina should be based on full exploitation of its whole biomass in a biorefinery as it will give the high-added-value to its oil, meal, and straw.
... Such metabolic changes are thought to not only protect against cardiovascular risk factors, but also improve mental health in patients suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [183]. C. sativa oil was also used in folk medicine to treat burns and wounds to the skin and eyes [184,185]. The high levels of tocopherols, phytosterols, and carotenoids in C. sativa oil protect it from oxidation, imparting extended shelf life [185,186]. ...
... C. sativa oil was also used in folk medicine to treat burns and wounds to the skin and eyes [184,185]. The high levels of tocopherols, phytosterols, and carotenoids in C. sativa oil protect it from oxidation, imparting extended shelf life [185,186]. C. sativa oil displays antioxidant activities similar to those found in sunflower oil, which can effectively limit oxidation in food products, such as salad dressings and mayonnaise [156,187]. For example, C. sativa oil and rapeseed meal prevented the oxidation of lipids and proteins in cooked pork patties [188]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. is an annual oilseed crop within the Brassicaceae family. C. sativa has been grown since as early as 4000 BCE. In recent years, C. sativa received increased attention as a climate-resilient oilseed, seed meal, and biofuel (biodiesel and renewable or green diesel) crop. This renewed interest is reflected in the rapid rise in the number of peer-reviewed publications (>2300) containing “camelina” from 1997 to 2021. An overview of the origins of this ancient crop and its genetic diversity and its yield potential under hot and dry growing conditions is provided. The major biotic barriers that limit C. sativa production are summarized, including weed control, insect pests, and fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. Ecosystem services provided by C. sativa are also discussed. The profiles of seed oil and fatty acid composition and the many uses of seed meal and oil are discussed, including food, fodder, fuel, industrial, and medical benefits. Lastly, we outline strategies for improving this important and versatile crop to enhance its production globally in the face of a rapidly changing climate using molecular breeding, rhizosphere microbiota, genetic engineering, and genome editing approaches.
... Camelina is an unconventional oilseed crop of spring and winter form. Interest in camelina is due to the fact that it successfully combines the high potential seed yield (up to 2.5 t/ha) with a high content of drying oil (39-45 %) for both food and technical use [3,4]. ...
... The optimal ratio (2:1) of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids favorably distinguishes this oil from the oils of other plants. This ratio is recommended for the diet of people with high cholesterol in the blood [2,4]. Camelina oil, due to the relatively high content of long chain fatty acids (eicosenic and erucic, totaling up to 17-24 %) is used to produce renewable fuel-biodiesel [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the results of a study of non-traditional oilseeds of the family Brassicaceae (camelina, crambe) and the Asteraceae family (safflower, ramtil) in the Middle Volga region. The crop productivity was studied, which was high and varied in the range of 1.35–2.77 t/ha. The oil content in the seeds ranged from 28.3 % in safflower to 43.1 % in crambe. The fatty acid composition of these crops is used for various applications. A high content of erucic acid of 59.3 % was noted in the oil seeds of crambe, 2.92 % in the seeds of camelina. A high content of erucic acid (58.9 %) in the oil of crambe allows it to be used for the production of biodiesel. A sufficiently high content of linolenic (35.6 %), oleic (13.7 %) and a low content of erucic (up to 3.1 %) acids allows using camelina oil for food purposes. The content of erucic acid in safflower oil is reduced to trace values 0.03 %, which allows it to be attributed to valuable edible oils. The fatty acid composition of ramtil oil seeds is represented by a high content of linoleic acid (79.3 %). Ramtil oil can be considered as a valuable source of omega-6 essential fatty acids.
... This is due to its unique agronomic features, promising and sustainable oilseed quality and it is being a condensed source of nutritive fatty acids. In the literature, Camelina Sativa (L.) has been described mostly as an ancient crop, hence it has been highlighted by the same authors as a good source of edible vegetable oil, which for decades was neglected in industrial and commercial usage [1][2][3][4][5]. As early as 3000 years ago the cultivation of this crop was documented in Europe [6], and in his early study on camelina, Budin et al. [1] mentioned its cultivation in central Europe as an oil-bearing crop from 600 B.C. onwards. ...
Article
There is growing interest worldwide in the use of camelina oil for food as well as for biofuel purposes. For both of these applications, oxidative stability is an important feature of the oil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the thermal resistance to oxidation of three different cultivars of camelina oil i.e. Omega, Luna and Śmiłowska by means of isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) oxidation measurement. For isothermal DSC analysis, different temperatures were tested (120, 140, 160 °C) and in the non-isothermal mode different scanning rates (1, 2, 5, 10, 15 °C min-1) were used. To support the DSC data, chemical analyzes were also performed i.e. fatty acid composition, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, acid value and radical scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (RSA DPPH). The isothermal test indicated that for all camelina oils the oxidation induction time (OIT) decreased with an increase in temperature on average from 69.83 min for 120 °C to 5.13 min for 160 °C. The OIT values corresponded very well with non-isothermal DSC results, for which the onset temperatures (Ton) increased with the increase of heating rate on average from 142.15 °C for 1 °C min-1 to 185.75 °C for 15 °C min-1. The parameters of DSC oxidative stability i.e. OIT as well as Ton values were negatively correlated with some unsaturated fatty acids content e.g. α-linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3) and positively with yellowness b* and RSA DPPH. Oil from camelina seeds of Śmiłowska cultivar, which was characterized by the lowest content of α-linolenic acid and the highest b* value of color and RSA DPPH, was the most thermally stable oil.
... Camelina oil is a rich source of both linoleic acid (18:2, 15-23%) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3, 35-45%), the two essential fatty acids (FAs) for human health (Zubr & Matthaus, 2002). Additionally, camelina oil is one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants called tocopherols (e.g., vitamin E), with an average concentration of 1.1 g kg −1 (Ibrahim & El Habbasha, 2015). Consumption of camelina oil has been shown to decrease cholesterol levels and increase essential FA levels in blood plasma of humans (Karvonen et al., 2002;Zubr, 2009). ...
Article
Erucic acid concentration in oil of most camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) genotypes exceeds the 2% threshold allowed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive. Lowering erucic acid concentration below the FDA threshold enables marketing camelina as edible oil for human consumption, greatly expanding potential uses to include food ingredients such as marinades, salad dressings, spreads, and dips. A mutant camelina line, LE1914, created via ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis at one FAE1 locus (FAE1‐B), produces seed oil with low (∼0.6%) erucic acid concentration (LE). This mutant trait was introgressed into elite camelina breeding lines to create LE lines adapted to Pacific Northwest dryland agriculture. These LE lines were evaluated in a large, replicated field trial in Pullman, WA, in 2019. One line, ‘WA‐LE1’ (Reg. no. CV‐15, PI 699653), exhibited agronomic performance similar to check cultivars while maintaining the low (∼0.6%) erucic acid concentration necessary for FDA approval as a food additive. WA‐LE1 is an edible oil camelina cultivar that also contains the Group 2 herbicide resistance trait of WA‐HT1 that was released in 2018. WA‐LE1 should expand marketability and increase profitability of camelina crops in the Pacific Northwest. A mutation causing low erucic acid content was incorporated into a highly productive camelina cultivar, ‘WA‐LE1’. The low erucic acid trait is required by the FDA for food use. A food market will expand the utility of camelina beyond biofuels. ‘WA‐LE1’ carries a gene for tolerance to Group 2 herbicides.
... It can be easily incorporated into crop rotations; it has a short growing season (100-120 days); it tolerates cold weather, drought, and low-fertility soils; it can be grown on marginal farmland, with low water and nutrient requirements [6][7][8]. For all of the above characteristics, camelina seed oil has been widely recognized as a potential alternative source for biodiesel [9,10] and jet-fuel production [11], whereas the seed cake (a by-product generated after the seed oil extraction), rich in proteins (30-40%), a considerable amount of residual oil (10-15%), carbohydrates, and other phytochemicals [12,13], has been suggested as a new potential ingredient in livestock rations [14,15]. In addition, differently from other widely cultivated Brassicaceae (e.g., rapeseed) camelina owns a unique oil profile, rich in α-linolenic acid (>35%) and tocopherols (800-1000 ppm) [16,17]; thus, making its seeds highly suitable for a variety of feed, food, or non-food applications [4]. ...
Article
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Although camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] is a good source of protein, antioxidants, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, its antinutritional compounds limit its use in animal feeding. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of feeding laying hens with up to 20% of camelina cake from a breeding line containing a low level of glucosinolates on performance, welfare, and eggshell quality. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line® hens from 18 to 51 weeks of age were divided into three treatments: control (C), camelina cake 10% (CAM10), and camelina cake 20% (CAM20). Egg number was recorded daily, while egg weight, feed consumption, and mortality were recorded weekly. At 24 and 43 weeks of hen age, shell resistance to fracture was measured. Our results demonstrate no detrimental effects for CAM10 and CAM20 diets on feed intake, growth performance, and welfare. No difference in egg production was detected among the diets. The significant (p < 0.05) interaction of diet and age factors suggest that the addition of camelina cake, up to 20%, likely protects the eggshell of older hens. Our findings confirm that camelina cake might be an alternative and sustainable protein source for hens.
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Arı ürünleri hakkında bilgilendirme yapılmış olup biyolojik önemleri ile ilgili araştırmalara yer verilmiştir.
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Tarım, bitkisel ve hayvansal ürünlerin üretilmesi, bunların kalite ve verimlerinin yükseltilmesi, bu ürünlerin uygun koşullarda muhafazası, işlenip değerlendirilmesi ve pazarlanmasını ele alan bir bilim dalıdır. Diğer bir ifade ile de hızla artan insan nüfusuna bağlı olarak artan gıda talebini karşılayabilecek insan besini olabilecek ve ekonomik değeri olan her türlü bitkisel ve hayvansal ürünün bakım, besleme, yetiştirme, koruma ve mekanizasyon faaliyetlerinin tamamına verilen isimdir. Hem tarım alanlarının hem de doğal kaynakların artan dünya nüfusu ve hızlı kentleşme nedeniyle azalması ve artan gıda talebinin sağlanabilmesi için yürütülen yoğun tarımsal uygulamalar sürdürülebilir agroekosistemlerde çevre kirliliği, doğal kaynakların azalması ve yeni bitki hastalıklarının ortaya çıkmasına zemin hazırlamaktadır. Dünya çapında bu sorunlara çözüm üretebilmek amacıyla geleneksel uygulamaların yerini; doğal kaynaklarımızın korunması, erozyonun ve orman yangınlarının önlenmesi, biyolojik çeşitliliğin korunması, tarım ve gıda sektörünün inovasyon yeteneklerinin geliştirilmesi, tarım sektörünün teknoloji entegrasyonunu ve dijital dönüşümünü destekleyecek, ulusal ve küresel tarım ve gıda pazarlarında rekabet gücünü yükseltecek çalışmalar, nesnelerin interneti, makine öğrenmesi, sensörler, yapay zeka ve simülasyonlar yardımıyla tarımsal üretim optimizasyonu, inovatif tarıma yönelik araştırma ve geliştirme çalışmaları gibi birçok yenilikçi tarımsal üretim sistemleri almıştır.
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In the article, on the basis of regression analysis of the data, a forecast of the most important elements of the structure of productivity for the maximum specified yield of camelina sativa in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in conditions of climate change is made. According to the assessment of the correlation relationships between the economically valuable breeding traits of camelina sativa, the studied indicators differ among themselves in terms of the level of interaction. The indicators of seed collection from one plant (r=0.98), the number of pods per plant (r=0.84) and plant safety (r=0.71) have a significant influence on the formation of productivity. The average correlation effect on productivity is the number of seeds per pod (r=0.44), the number of branches per plant (r=0.60), plant height (r=0.37) and the duration of the growing season (r=0.38). The mass of seeds per plant strongly depended on the number of pods per plant (r=0.85), but had an average positive correlation with the number of seeds per pod (r=0.48), the number of branches per plant (r=0.59), plant height (r=0.37), plant safety (r=0.62) and duration of the growing season (r=0.37). There is a weak negative relationship between the number of seeds in a pod and plant height (r=-0.29) and the duration of the growing season (r=-0.18), between the mass of a thousand seeds and the number of pods per plant (r=-0.08). Regression analysis of the entire array of experimental data made it possible to predict the value of the most important elements of the productivity structure for the maximum specified yield. For a maximum yield of 3.0–3.5 t/ha, the weight of seeds per plant should be 2.1–2.4 g, while the plant should form 13.4–15.9 branches, 159.5–182.1 pods and 16.8–19.5 seeds per pod. The mass of a thousand seeds should have 2.34–2.95 g, plant height 90.7–105.8 cm and plant safety at the level of 98.9 %, and the duration of the growing season should be in the range from 103 to 110 days.
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Large international differences in rates of cancer, as well as results from migratory studies that find individuals take on the cancer demographics of the population to which they migrate, suggest a strong role for environmental factors, including diet, on cancer incidence. Dietary carbohydrates may be protective against cancer, as is the case for many studies with dietary fiber. Other research suggests that intake of refined carbohydrates, such as sugars, may be linked to a higher risk of cancer, especially if intake of carbohydrates results in obesity. Finally, recent studies suggest that intake of food with a high glycemic index or glycemic load may be linked to increased risk of certain cancers.
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A process of aqueous protein extraction from Brassicaceae oilseed meal, such as canola, commercial canola meal or yellow mustard, to obtain a napin-rich protein extract, a cruciferin-rich protein extract, and a low-protein residue. The process comprising the steps of performing aqueous extraction of the Brassicaceae oilseed meal at a pH of from about 2.5 to about 5.0 to obtain a soluble napin-rich protein extract and a cruciferin-rich residue followed by performing aqueous extraction of the cruciferin-rich residue to obtain a soluble cruciferin-rich protein extract and a low-protein residue. The cruciferin-rich residue may be treated with cell wall degrading enzymes to obtain a cruciferin-rich fraction The cruciferin-rich protein products may be substantially free of napin protein and may be useful as a non-allergenic food product for human consumption.
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False flax or gold of pleasure, which isa Crucifer, is a very old European oil crop. Two pure line varieties Epona and Celine reach regularly 2,5 Mt/ha in continental France if farmers follow up few agricultural practice recommandations. Their oil contain around 70% of unsaturated, especialy alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid and gadoleic acid, plus a meal rich in proteins. These two types of products can be utilised in many applications of the agricultural food companies tin France, the oil just obtained its food label from D. G.C.CR.F) the chemical industry, the cosmetics: and the pharmacy.
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The influence of joint applications of N and S on false flax (Camelina sativa L.) growing was studied in a pot experiment. Nitrogen was applied as NH(4)NO(3) at rates of 0.6 (N(1))- 0.9 (N2()) - 1.2 (N(3)) g per pot. Sulphur was applied as (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to achieve levels of 35 ppm (S(1)) and 55 ppm (S(2)) S-SO(4)(2-). The number of branches per plant increased with the nitrogen doses (10.62-12.41-15.38). The N(2) and N(3) rates (4.91 g and 4.79 g, respectively) significantly increased the seed yields (g/plant) as compared to Ni (3.77 g). Straw yields (g/plant) and thousand-seed weight (g) increased significantly only with the highest level of nitrogen N(3) (18.23 and 1.17, respectively) compared to Ni (16.52 and 1.06, respectively). Increasing levels of nitrogen (N(1)-N(2)-N(3)) reduced the oil content of seeds (40.79-38.40-37.66%), but increased the protein content (23.93-25.63-28.19%). The level of sulphur 53 significantly stimulated only the oil content to 39.36% compared to 38.54% with Si. At the same time a negative correlation was discovered between the oil and protein content in the seeds (r=-0.8164). The applied doses of nitrogen N(2) and N(3) significantly increased the total oil yields (1.88-1.80 g/plant) as well as the total protein yields (1.25-1.35 g/plant) compared to N(1) (1.53 and 0.90 g/plant, respectively).
Article
Renewed interest in Camelina sativa is primarily due to the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil and its potential value in industry, cosmetics and human nutrition. To exploit C. sativa in western Canada, more information is needed on the performance of this crop in this region. Following a preliminary evaluation in 2001, replicated agronomic trials were conducted in 2002 and 2005 with 19 C. sativa and three oilseed Brassica accessions at Saskatoon and Scott, Saskatchewan and Beaverlodge, Alberta. The C. sativa accessions matured relatively early and were more tolerant of drought and flea beetle infestations than the Brassica oilseeds. Some C. sativa accessions had seed yields competitive with those of the Brassica oilseeds, but seed size was significantly smaller. Seed yields and oil contents of all crop species tested were highest at Beaverlodge, the most northern location. The Brassica oilseeds generally had higher oil contents than C. sativa; the highest oil contents of each crop species tested were associated with the lowest protein contents. In general, average oil and protein contents for C. sativa ranged from 38 to 43% and from 27 to 32%, respectively; for the Brassica checks, oil and protein contents ranged from 38 to 53% and from 21 to 33%, respectively, across all species. Variation in fatty acid composition was higher among the C. sativa accessions than among locations, but overall the ranges of individual fatty acids were relatively narrow. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (12.8-14.7%), linoleic (16.3-17.2%), linolenic (36.2-39.4%) and eicosenoic (14.0-15.5%). The prospects of developing improved C. sativa germplasm for particular western Canadian environments are good; of primary importance are increased seed size and oil content. Additionally, stand establishment, fertility requirements and broadleaf weed control options need to be investigated. Acceptance of this species as a new oilseed crop for western Canada will also require developing sustainable markets for the oil and meal.
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Poor stands of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz., Brassicaceae] usually result from poor seedbed conditions or unfavorable environmental conditions. A 2-yr field study was conducted under dryland conditions near Huntley, MT to evaluate the effects of stand reduction at rosette and bolting growth stages on camelina grain yield and quality and to determine if camelina has compensatory ability for grain yield aft er a stand loss. Camelina exhibited tremendous compensatory ability to maintain grain yield across a wide range of plant populations. Stand reduction up to 50% either at rosette or at bolting stage had no effect on grain yield over 2 yr. A 90% stand reduction reduced grain yield by 50% when it occurred at bolting, but only 19% when stand was reduced at rosette stage. In general, stand reduction treatments increased seed protein content while reducing seed oil content. This change in protein and oil content was consistent and greater for bolting stage stand reduction treatments. Stand reduction resulted in reduced plant height and delayed plant maturity, however the response was not consistent over years and stand reduction treatments. Stand reduction at rosette stage had little effect on camelina maturity (1-2 d), while stand reduction at bolting stage delayed maturity up to 6 d. This implies that stand loss due to hail damage or other environmental conditions at bolting or later growth stages may cause delayed and uneven maturity which may result in harvesting problems and/or increased shattering losses.
Article
Seed of false flax (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a source of edible oil with specific properties. Camelina oil (CO) was obtained from the seed by pressing. Laboratory analyses revealed the content of oil in seed of winter varieties (W) 41.8 ± 1.3 percent and in seed of summer varieties (S) 42.2 ± 0.46 percent on dry matter basis (DM). The content of linoleic acid 18:2n-6 (LA) in W was 12.4 ± 0.09 percent and in S it was 15.3 ± 0.43 percent of the total fatty acids (FA). The content of a-linolenic acid 18:3n-3 (ALA) in W amounted to 40.8 ±0.16 percent and in S 36.8 ± 0.84 percent. The content of gondoic acid 20:In-9 was 15.7 ± 0.11 percent in W and 15.4 ± 0.23 percent in S. Erucic acid 22: ln-9 was 3.10 ± 0.14 percent and 2.8 ± 0.10 percent in W and S, respectively. Tocopherols were found in amounts ranging from the mean of 806 m̈g/g in S to 1,021 m̈glg in W. The content of the prevalent γ-tocopherol was 742-935 m̈g/g. Oxidative stability of the oil was examined and evaluated.