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Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention

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Abstract

The use of nuts and seeds to improve Human nutritional status has proven successful for a variety of conditions including in the treatment of high cholesterol, reduced risk of Type-2 Diabetes, and weight control. This complete guide to the health benefits of nuts and seeds is the only single-source scientific reference to explore the specific factors that contribute to these potential health benefits, as well as discussing how to maximize those potential benefits. * Organized by seed-type with detailed information on the specific health benefits of each to provide an easy-access reference for identifying treatment options * Insights into health benefits will assist in development of symptom-specific functional foods * Includes photographs for visual identification and confirmation * Indexed alphabetically by nut/seed with a second index by condition or disease.
... e sunflower seeds are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, and vitamins (such as B1, B5, and B6), phosphorus, copper, manganese, folate, iron, zinc, amino acids, and lowcarbohydrate diets. ey are consumed as snack products, either alone or in the blends of different nuts and other components [2]. ...
... IR heating has many advantages over the conventional method such as (1) production of the high-quality food due to consistent and uniform distribution of IR energy; (2) high energy efficiency as a result of direct radiation transferring from IR emitters to the surface of product, without requiring any heating medium; (3) short process time; (4) precise controlling the IR heating process; (5) compact design and difference in types of IR emitters; and (6) environmentfriendly energy [10]. ...
... where E is the energy consumption (kW·h), P is the consumed power by the roaster system (W), and t presents the roasting time (min). Using (2), the specific energy consumption was calculated at different roasting conditions: ...
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Roasting sunflower kernels is a key process in production of nuts. In this study, the effect of roasting conditions, including hot air temperature (120–160°C), infrared (IR) power (400–600 W) and roasting time (3–10 min) on energy and specific energy consumption, color parameters ( L∗ , a∗ , b∗ , ΔE , BI , SI , WI , and h° ), texture, moisture content, chemical properties (pH and total phenolic contents, peroxide value ( PV ), and sensory properties of sunflower kernel were investigated. In addition, the best models for the responses were obtained, and the proper roasting conditions were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model was proposed for color change ( L∗ , ΔE , SI , and WI ), moisture and total phenol contents, linear relation for a∗ , b∗ , h° , and 2FI for BI , texture, PV , and pH. Roasting at 425.7 W IR power and 124.3°C for 3.7 min was found to be convenient or proper roasting conditions.
... In the tested bread, the permissible Cd concentration in one sample was slightly exceeded (sample 16), while in three samples, it was very close to this value (samples: 2, 23, and 27). A source of cadmium in food can also be grain grown in contaminated areas, e.g., in areas with high levels of industrialization (Preedy et al., 2011). ...
... The permissible mercury content in bread is 0.01 mg kg − 1 (Preedy et al., 2011;Deng et al., 2019). The highest content of Hg (8.63 μg kg − 1 ) was determined in a wheat semi-baguette (sample 7). ...
... The permissible lead content in bread is 0.3 mg kg − 1 (Preedy et al., 2011;Deng et al., 2019). The highest concentration of Pb, which was 98.62 μg kg − 1 , was determined in mixed bread (sample 1). ...
Article
In this study, metal(loid) contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion of the bread samples. The content of As, Al, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn in different types of fresh and deferred bread samples are reported. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure to trace elements were estimated in view of information on the adverse health effects of dietary intakes of trace elements related to the consumption of bread. The Target Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index values for the trace metals were lower than 1, suggesting no possible health concerns for people who consume bread consistently on a daily basis. It was found that four slices of bread would cover the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Mg (2.4–14.2%), K (18.4 –47.5 %), and Ca (3.1-19.2%) per person.
... The primary saturated fatty acids detected were palmitic acid (18.26%) and to a lesser degree stearic acid (4.57%). According to the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid percentage determined for A. natalia mesocarp oil, there are similarities with the results obtained by Preedy et al. [35] for nuts, seeds and currants. They concluded which one contained a lower level of saturated fatty acids and a greater level of unsaturated fatty acids, 25 and 75%, respectively. ...
... However, results differ given the predominant fatty acids in the nuts, seeds, currants and santalum kernels oils. In these plant families, they mainly found a content of 18:2n-6 and lesser amounts of 18:3n-3 [35]. Meanwhile, 18:1n-9 was detected in the A. natalia fruit oil as a main fatty acid, which is closer to the composition of olive oil, considered to be a high quality oil. ...
... Fatty oils containing mainly unsaturated fatty acids are used as nutraceuticals in the prophylaxis of hypercholesteremia and atherosclerosis [36]. Apart from these specific therapeutic uses, fixed oils are also utilised in the preparation of ointment, suppository and cream bases; in dermatological preparations; as oily vehicles for oil-soluble injectable drugs; and as demulcents, emollients, and lubricants [35,36]. There are studies that evidence a strong association between high concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids in olive oil and protection from cardiovascular disease [37,38]. ...
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The Aphandra natalia palm is a species of monotypic genus Aphandra belonging to the Arecaceae family and is native to South America, mainly in the western part of the Amazon basin in Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. In this study, we determined the physicochemical characteristics of A. natalia fruit mesocarp, as well as its fatty acid composition, the total polyphenol content (TPC), lipophilic antioxidant compounds and total antioxidant capacity. The fatty acids profile was determined using GC–MS analysis and TPC and antioxidant activity by Folin Ciocalteu’s reagent method and by radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical [DPPH]), respectively regarding their oil. A high value of 57.92% of total lipids was obtained, thus it can be considered as new source of vegetable oil. The oil extracted from A. natalia mesocarp had a high oleic acid content (71.92%), which is a characteristic closer to the composition of olive oil than traditional palm oil. TPC value (83.57 ± 1.84 mg GAE kg⁻¹ of oil) obtained from A. natalia fruit pulp oil is similar to some olive oil varieties. However, its oil presents smaller antioxidant activity than olive oils usually have.
... Among these, linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body, yet is necessary for health. It has an important role, e.g. in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (PREEDY et al., 2011). It is abundant in fatty seeds and their oils (e.g. ...
... It is abundant in fatty seeds and their oils (e.g. olive oil (7-13%), peanut oil (14-43%), sesame oil (35.5%), pumpkin oil (44%), and poppy seed oil (74.5%)) (BOZAN & TEMELLI, 2008;PREEDY et al., 2011). Our black cumin oil contains signifi cant amount of linoleic acid compared to other seed oils. ...
Article
Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) is well known for its benefi ts in the fi eld of traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and investigate the antimicrobial activity of cold pressed oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa L. on food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Nigella sativa crude oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) against 4 Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and 3 Gram-negative (Salmonella Hartford, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria occurring in food products. Total fatty acid composition of CO was analysed by GLC, while the EO was analysed by GC-MS to detect its active compounds. The results showed that the major fatty acid of CO was palmitic acid (C16:0), as saturated fatty acid, however, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the main unsaturated fatty acid. The major compounds of the EO were p-cymene and thymoquinone. The inhibition on all tested bacteria of EO was 10 times higher than of CO, and the lowest concentration value was observed in case of Bacillus subtilis (0.003%). Hence, results reinforce the ambition to apply Nigella sativa oils in food as natural preservative.
... The surface of the kernel is ridged and is furrowed and is about 1.23-1.75 cm in diameter (Preedy et al., 2011). Many parts of this plant have been conventionally used for many remedial purposes (Khare, 2004;Javed et al., 1994;Preedy, et al., 2011). ...
... cm in diameter (Preedy et al., 2011). Many parts of this plant have been conventionally used for many remedial purposes (Khare, 2004;Javed et al., 1994;Preedy, et al., 2011). Still the information about the C. crista seed outer coat polyphenolic and healing property is very inadequate. ...
... Similarly, in Korea, it is used to make tofu, soy milk, sauce, and sprouts (Y. J. Kim et al. 2013); in Indonesia, it is used as a traditional holy food in a variety of food preparations as well as in domestic and large-scale industries (Preedy, Watson, and Vinood 2011;Krisnawati, Gatut-Wahyu, and Muchlish Adie 1970); and in India's Northwestern Himalayan hill region, it is used as a pulse in ethnodietary recipes (Hipparagi et al. 2017). ...
Article
Black soybean (BS) is a nutritious legume that is high in proteins, essential amino acids, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and flavones. Traditional approaches for extracting BS bioactive compounds are commonly employed because they are simple and inexpensive, but they use toxic solvents and have lower yields. As a result, new extraction techniques have been developed, such as microwave, ultrasound, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Modern approaches are less harmful to the environment, are faster, and produce higher yields. The major anthocyanin in the BS seed coat was discovered as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, accounting for nearly 75% of the total anthocyanins. BS and its seed coat also contains phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillin, syringic acid), isoflavones (daidzein, glycitein and genistein), flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols. Bioactive compounds present in BS exhibit antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, cardio and neuroprotective activities. The characterization and biological activity investigation of these bioactive compounds has provided researchers and food manufacturers with valuable information for developing functional food products and nutraceutical ingredients. In this review, the nutritional makeup of BS is reviewed, and the paper seeks to provide an insight of bioactive compound extraction methods as well as bioactive compounds identified by various researchers. The biological activities of BS extracts and their potential applications in food products (noodles), biodegradable films (pH sensitive film), and therapeutic applications (wound healing and anti-inflammation) are also discussed in the study. Therefore, BS have enormous potential for use in developing functional foods and nutraceutical components. This is the first review of its sort to describe and explain various extraction methodologies and characterization of bioactives, as well as their biological activity recorded in diverse works of literature, making it possible for food manufacturers and scientists to get a quick overview.
... After being absorbed into the circulatory system, drugs move reversibly between different compartments within the body, dictating their biodistribution [120]. The plasma protein binding (QPlogKhsa) values for distribution showed that all the four D. orbita compounds are within the recommended range (−1.5 to 1.5, Table 4) [121]. Plasma proteinbinding influences the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of small molecules [122,123]. ...
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Citation: Rahman, M.M.; Junaid, M.; Hosen, S.M.Z.; Mostafa, M.; Liu, L.; Benkendorff, K. Mollusc-Derived Brominated Indoles for the Selective Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase: A Computational Expedition. Molecules 2021, 26, 6538. https://doi.
... Thus, polyphenols exert prebiotic actions and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria (26,28,29). As a widely used traditional medicine in China, gallnut (Galla chinensis) is rich in tannic acid (TA), even accounting for 50-70% of its weight (30). Gallnut TA belongs to the family of hydrolyzable tannins (31) and is a naturally occurring polyphenol compound of high molecular weight (500-3,000 Da). ...
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Stress exposure is a potential threat to humans who live or work in extreme environments, often leading to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, intestinal dysbiosis, and metabolic disorders. Gallnut tannic acid (TA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has become a compelling source due to its favorable anti-diarrheal, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the anti-stress effects of gallnut TA on the stress-induced inflammatory response, dysbiotic gut microbiota, and alterations of serum metabolic profile using beagle models. A total of 13 beagle dogs were randomly divided into the stress (ST) and ST + TA groups. Dietary supplementation with TA at 2.5 g/kg was individually fed to each dog in the ST + TA group for 14 consecutive days. On day 7, all dogs were transported for 3 h from a stressful environment (days 1–7) to a livable site (days 8–14). In our results, TA relieved environmental stress-induced diarrheal symptoms in dogs and were shown to protect from myocardial injury and help improve immunity by serum biochemistry and hematology analysis. Also, TA inhibited the secretion of serum hormones [cortisol (COR), glucocorticoid (GC), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)] and the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 to protect dogs from stress-induced injury, thereby relieving oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that TA stimulated the growth of beneficial bacteria (Allobaculum, Dubosiella, Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002, and Faecalibaculum) and suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Streptococcus), thereby increasing fecal butyrate levels. Serum metabolomics further showed that phytosphingosine, indoleacetic acid, arachidonic acid, and biotin, related to the metabolism of sphingolipid, tryptophan, arachidonic acid, and biotin, respectively, could serve as potential biomarkers of stress exposure. Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed strong relationships between the four potential serum biomarkers and differential bacteria. Overall, gallnut TA may be a potential prebiotic for the prevention and treatment of stress-induced metabolic disorders by targeting intestinal microbiota.
... As a matter of fact, some researchers have stated that the type and level of heavy metals may vary depending on the cooking techniques and the fuel used in cooking (Ahmed et al., 2000;Khaniki et al., 2005;Loutfy et al., 2012;Ghoreishy et al., 2019). Undoubtedly, one of the most important reasons for the difference in heavy metal levels among bread groups is the diversity in raw materials (Preedy et al., 2011). Many parameters, like what type it is, where it originates from, and whether it is husked or not, affect the heavy metal level in the grain (Cubadda et al., 2005). ...
Article
In this study, the manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) levels of 60 bread samples were determined by ICP MS, all of which belong to different brands and businesses, are sold with and without packaging at national and local levels in Turkey, and then the bread types were compared statistically. Then, the heavy metal exposure arising from bread consumption of >15 year-old individuals, assessed non-carcinogenic risks, was calculated by using a deterministic model. The average Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb levels of all bread types were determined as 13,500 ± 20000, 83 ± 62, 24,200 ± 8900, 14 ± 14, 380 ± 320, 3640 ± 900, 19 ± 11, 15 ± 8, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 34 ± 29 μg/kg, respectively. The heavy metal levels of the bread types included in the unpackaged local sales and classified as white bread group are lower than the others. Many statistically significant findings on heavy metals were obtained. The heavy metal exposure from bread consumption of >15-year-old individuals varies between <0.01 and 53.4 (mercury-manganese) μg/kg bw day. The target hazard quotient of heavy metals is less than 1. The fact that the hazard index value is calculated greater than 1 in all bread types brings some health concerns. Considering the health risks, industrial bread consumption could be limited, but bread consumption should not be abandoned.
... Trachyspermum copticum (TC) is an aromatic, grassy, annual herbaceous with promising pharmaceutical properties mainly growing in Mediterranean region and southwest Asian M A N U S C R I P T A C C E P T E D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 3 countries [30]. TC seeds contain 2-4% EO composed of a variable amount of phenols, monoterpenes, thymol, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, D-limonene, β-pinene, and α-pinene [31,32]. ...
Article
The Trachyspermum copticum essential oil (TCEO) has been incorporated into niosomes (NIO-TCEO). The chemical composition of the TCEO has been evaluated using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the antioxidant activity of the TCEO has been characterized by radical scavenging capacity (RSC). The niosomes have been characterized with respect to their size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and cell toxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The interaction of the TCEO with niosomes has been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our study has shown an excellent antioxidant activity of the essential oil with IC50 of 18.32 ± 3.6 μg/ml. The size of the niosomes has been around 151.06 ± 5.3 nm and the TCEO entrapment efficiency has been 87.41 ± 5.97%. Our results have demonstrated that niosomes loaded with TCEO have a potential application for cancer therapy.
... This may be due to higher nutritional content in wheat and sorghum grains when compared to that of maize grains. Wheat is able to provide immense energy source, in all parts of the grain kernel, including t he bran, germ, and endosperm (Preedy et al., 2011). This might have enhanced the wheat reared weevils' ability to withstand cypermethrin. ...
Article
The effect of food type on the response of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) to cypermethrin was investigated. Weevils were reared on maize, wheat and sorghum at ambient temperature (28€2•C) and relative humidity (75€6%). Twenty grams of each food type was doused with one millilitre of different concentrations (0.00001-0.1%) of cypermethrin. Twenty emerged weevils from each food were then exposed to each pre-treated food type. Two control experiments were also set up (one with neither cypermethrin nor methanol and the other with only methanol). The mortality was assessed after 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post-treatment. Weevil mortality varied with host food, cypermethrin concentration and exposure time. All weevils exposed to cypermethrin treated maize and sorghum grains, respectively exhibited complete (100%) mortality at 0.1% after 24 hours' exposure while there was incomplete mortality (96.88%) in weevils exposed to 0.1% cypermethrin after 24 hours' exposure. The lethal concentration values also showed that susceptibility of S. zeamais to cypermethrin was least in wheat-reared weevils (LC 75 : 0.052 g ml-1and LC 95 : 275.890 g ml-1) while highest susceptibility was observed in maize-reared weevils (LC 75 : 0.009g ml-1; LC 95 : 0.813 g ml-1). The sorghum-reared weevils however showed the median susceptibility (LC 75 : 0.018g ml-1; LC 95 : 106.530 g ml-1) to this pyrethroid. Also, irrespective of the host food, there was significant reduction and inhibition (p<0.05) in the adult emergence and developmental period of S. zeamais in treated grains when compared to that of untreated and solvent-treated grains. Similarly, weight loss in the treated maize grains was also significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of untreated and solvent-treated grains. This study reveals that the host food on which weevil developed influenced considerably the degree of tolerance to cypermethrin. It could therefore be recommended that crop merchants, peasant farmers and pest control managers should be mindful of host food on which S. zeamais is found when controlling them using cypermethrin insecticide. This will help to prevent the problem of pest resistance that is currently associated with other synthetic insecticides.
... This may be due to higher nutritional content in wheat and sorghum grains when compared to that of maize grains. Wheat is able to provide immense energy source, in all parts of the grain kernel, including the bran, germ, and endosperm (Preedy et al., 2011). This might have enhanced the wheat reared weevils' ability to withstand cypermethrin. ...
... Sve biljke Macadamia spp. kumuliraju cijanogene glikozide (proteacin i durrin) u sjemenju, ali u vrlo malim količinama (Balhorn, 2011.). U domaćinstvima se koriste kao poslastica ili kao začin, kao svježi, pečeni, slani ili oraščići u kombinaciji s čokoladom ili u kolačima (Gwaltney- Brant, 2013.). ...
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Pet poisoning is most common with human drugs and over-the-counter drugs, veterinary drugs, insecticides, rodenticides, household chemicals, fertilizers and houseplants. Another important source is poisoning with human foods that may be toxic for dogs and cats. Different foods that are not harmful to humans or that are harmful only in large quantities can cause severe poisoning or even death of animals. Animal owners are often unaware of this fact and inadvertently may keep potentially toxic substances, believing that what is not harmful to them cannot be harmful to their pets. Important sources of information on poisoning of dogs and cats are the periodical reports of emergency centres for pet poisoning from many countries. As a follow-up to a previous study that described poisoning with chocolate, coffee, grapes and raisins, as the most common sources of food poisoning, this paper describes the poisoning of dogs and cats with macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, i.e. plants of the genus Allium, which are among the 10 most toxic foods for pets. Apart from possible sources of poisoning, we describe the mechanisms of toxicity and the toxic dose, signs of poisoning, and recommended treatment of the poisoned animals. Signs of poisoning with macadamia nuts in may occur up to 12 hours after ingestion, and a characteristic symptom is weakness which is more pronounced in the hind legs. Poisoned animals generally recover completely within two days without treatment. Clinical signs of poisoning with onions in dogs and cats develops within 24 hours of ingestion or a few days later, depending on the amount eaten. The most common clinical signs are vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and depression, as well as the development of anaemia resulting in pale mucous membranes, weakness, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat. Jaundice and dark urine (reddish or brown) are the result of methemoglobinemia and haemoglobinuria. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness about potentially toxic substances for pets among veterinarians and animal owners, so they can act preventively, by avoiding their consumption or storage in places accessible to pets.
... where IR is the rate at which walnuts were ingested (5.5 ± 1.5 g/person/day) (Preedy et al. 2011); C is the concentration of each pesticide in walnut (mg/kg), BM is the average body mass (75.61 ± 18.06 kg) (Portier et al. 2007). The Target hazard quotient (THQ) for each of the 18 pesticides was calculated by dividing the estimated daily intake (EDI) by the relevent acceptable daily intake (ADI; mg/kg bm) (Eq. ...
Article
The concentrations of 18 organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid, and nicotinoid pesticides were measured, by use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry, in six cultivars of walnut from five geographical regions of Iran, including, Azarshahr, Damavand, Farouj, Shahmirzad, and Tuyserkan. Assessments of risks posed to humans were conducted by calculating the hazard indices (HIs), by use of the Monte Carlo Simulations. The 95th centile of HIs for humans based on exposure via ingestion of walnuts was estimated to be 1.68, which represented di minimis to moderate concern for human consumers. The most influential parameters, determined by sensitivity analysis conducted during the MCS, was concentration, which ranged from 0.71to 0.97. The results indicate that while the walnuts are, in general safe to eat, uses of organophosphorus, pesticides on walnut cultivation in Iran is not completely without risks so that guidelines should be established and a monitoring program should be established. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Cumulative evidence by modern medical science is followed by the increasing acceptability of ginkgo nuts in the western. [6] Ginkgo biloba L. originates in China and nowadays has been cultivated in East Asia, Europe, and North America. [7] China is the world's leading producer and exporter of ginkgo nuts. ...
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Storage is an important issue for ginkgo nuts industry because it is critical to enabling a year-round supply and the next year of cultivation. An investigation into the crude protein content and amino acids profile in ginkgo nuts after different storage times in terms of varieties was carried out in this work. The crude protein content was generally increased during storage while an opposite trend was observed for the concentration of total amino acids. The concentrations of almost all amino acids were more or less decreased except Cys, which was increased 42.13% after 5-month storage, and showed a significant positive correlation with storage time. The effect of storage seemed to be variety-dependent that the variety Tancheng-300 was less prone to fluctuations in amino acids profile amongst the varieties.
... They offer a myriad of nutritional and functional benefits for human health promotion. Apart from macronutrients and micronutrients, many of these PBPs provide a range of bioactive compounds to combat inflammation, strengthen antioxidant defenses, and general immune system [12][13][14]. ...
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Plant-based diets (PBDs) are associated with environmental benefits, human health promotion and animal welfare. There is a worldwide shift towards PBDs, evident from the increased global demand for fresh plant-based products (PBPs). Such shifts in dietary preferences accompanied by evolving food palates, create opportunities to leverage technological advancements and strict quality controls in developing PBPs that can drive consumer acceptance. Flavor, color and texture are important sensory attributes of a food product and, have the largest influence on consumer appeal and acceptance. Among these, flavor is considered the most dominating quality attribute that significantly affects overall eating experience. Current state-of-art technologies rely on physicochemical estimations and sensory-based tests to assess flavor-related attributes in fresh PBPs. However, these methodologies often do not provide any indication about the metabolic features associated with unique flavor profiles and, consequently, can be used in a limited way to define the quality attributes of PBPs. To this end, a systematic understanding of metabolites that contribute to the flavor profiles of PBPs is warranted to complement the existing methodologies. This review will discuss the use of metabolomics for evaluating flavor-associated metabolites in fresh PBPs at post-harvest stage, alongside its applications for quality assessment and grading. We will summarize the current research in this area, discuss technical challenges and considerations pertaining to sampling and analytical techniques, as well as s provide future perspectives and directions for government organizations, industries and other stakeholders associated with the quality assessment of fresh PBPs.
... One of the plants known to have positive effects on health is the peanut from the Fabaceae family. Peanut is rich in protein, fat, and fibers and has been extensively consumed in many African countries, especially in recent years [1][2][3]. Peanut sprouts are known to be richer in terms of phytochemical substances, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and resveratrol (RES) than them [4]. Some plant species are known to produce resveratrol and other stilbenes in response to stress, injury, fungal infection or ultraviolet radiation [5]. ...
Article
Recently, natural antioxidant substances have been purified in a significant increasing incline from different plants for diagnosis and treatment options. In the current study, Resveratrol (RES) was isolated and radioiodinated with iodine-131 ([131I]iodo-RES). Cell culture studies were conducted on neuroblastoma cells (SY-SH5Y and SK-N-AS) to investigate the bioavailability of [131I]iodo-RES. The radioiodination yield of RES was 98.81 ± 0.37% (n = 6). Uptake values up to 25% were observed notably on SK-N-AS cells until 24 h. Briefly; the current study will contribute to the development of novel radiolabeled plant origin agents for the imaging of neuroblastoma cells.
... Allium genus is a member of the Alliaceae family, formerly considered a part of Liliaceae, which includes more than 700 species widely distributed through temperate and warm temperate climate and boreal zones of the northern hemisphere. 1 Red onion (Allium cepa L.) is a perennial plant which has opposite leaves and globe-shaped bulbs formed from several leaf bases encased in thin, dry skins. 2 Owing to the typical pungent smell associated with sulfur-containing compounds, and its rich source of several phytonutrients, onion is an essential kitchen vegetable in many dishes. 3 It is also a folk remedy for various diseases of the heart, and headaches, bites, worms, and tumors. 1 According to prior investigations, A. cepa possesses various biological activities including anticancer, 4 antioxidant, 5 antiplatelet, 6 antidiabetic, 7 and anti-inflammatory activities. 8 Among the diverse secondary metabolites in A. cepa, sapogenins, saponins, and flavonoids are known as the major components. ...
Article
The onion, known as the bulb onion or common onion, is not only key ingredients in many tasty and healthy vegetarian meals but also many traditional medicines. Nine new flavonoids [cepaflavas A, B (5, 6), cepadials A–D (7–9, and 14), and cepabiflas A–C (10–12)] and six known compounds (1–4, 13, 15) were obtained from the outer skins of Allium cepa L.. Among them, compounds 5, 6, and 9 might be artificial products formed during extraction and isolation. New compounds were structurally-elucidated using various spectroscopy/spectrometry techniques, including NMR and HRMS, and computational methods. Their absolute configurations were determined using time-dependent density functional theory calculations, combined with ECD spectroscopy, optical rotation calculation, and statistical procedures (CP3 and DP4 analysis). The free radical scavenging assays revealed that the new compounds 10–12 possessed considerable antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 4.25–8.88 and 7.12–8.14 μM against DPPH and ABTS•+, respectively. Compounds 13–15 showed substantial inhibitory activities against both α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), with IC50 values of 0.89–6.80 and 1.13–6.82 μM, respectively. Based on molecular docking studies, 13 and 15 were predicted to have high binding capacity and strong affinity toward the active site of PTP1B.
... Where: M and E = RMM of Methanol and Ethanol; = molecular mass of the oil blend and alcohol blend; , = molecular mass of Moringa, Jathropha, and ester: m and ma = masses in grams of oil and alcohol blend: and = moles of oil blend and alcohol blend for the ith, run; x and y = proportions of Moringa and Jathropha. M= 927 g/mol and J = 902 g/mol [20,25,26]; M =32.04 g/mol and E= 46.07 g/mol [27] However, as shown in Table 2, the effect of the three alkaline catalyst type on the yield of biodiesel was significant at p=0.05. The significant differences in yield for the three catalyst indicated that NaOH cannot be used as a substitute for KOH if similarly high yields are to be achieved. ...
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The exhaustible nature of petroleum diesel has made biodiesel an attractive alternative to diesel, but efforts at reducing its high production costs through the use of cheap poor-quality oil feedstock are not sufficient. A careful choice of catalyst concentration and type is also necessary. Binary blends of oil-feedstock and alcohol-feedstock were used to increase the efficiency of transesterification process. The effect of changing alkaline catalysts on the yield of transesterification reactions was also examined for similar and varied process conditions. This allowed the examination of the impacts of catalyst on yield with changing feedstock type and processing condition. Results of oil and alcohol blending showed that the partial use of ethanol permitted reactions to be completed in 45 minutes instead of 60-120 minutes common to conventional ethanolysis. Yields were comparable to those of methanolysis. Ester yield increased with increase in the concentration of KOH and CaO catalysts within the 0.5-2.5 w/w% range. However, ester yield decreased with increasing concentration of NaOH beyond 0.2 w/w%. This indicated that reasonable contributions to cost saving were possible as smaller quantities of NaOH catalyst were required to increase ester yield when a Jatharopha-Moringa oil-feedstock blend was transesterified with an alcohol blend of 4:1 methanol to ethanol mix ratio. Results for varying catalyst type showed that differences in ester yield as the alkaline catalysts were varied was significant at p=0.05. Catalyst performance with regard to ester yield for Jathropha/Moringa feedstock, was in the order KOH>NaOH >CaO.
... Sunflower seeds contain several nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. e use of sunflower seeds for snack food is important for nutritional reasons, and it is used in combination with other nuts or alone [59]. Roasting is the typical shape of sunflower seed processing, and the purpose is to increase the total acceptability of the product [28]. ...
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Roasting is a key process in production of nuts. Improving the flavor and crispiness of texture in nuts is considered as a purpose of roasting, which increases the overall acceptance of the product. This review aims to introduce the infrared method as a new technique of roasting and evaluate the quality characteristics of some nuts after infrared roasting. Usually, the traditional roasting methods are time-consuming with high energy consumption and low production efficiency. One of the best ways to decrease roasting time and energy consumption is to provide heat by infrared (IR) radiation. However, the low penetration power of infrared radiation is one of the limitations of this method. The combination of infrared with other thermal methods can overcome this limitation. Studies have been done on roasting of nuts and other foods by different IR roasting methods such as IR, IR-hot air, and IR-microwave roasting methods. This paper reviews the effect of different IR roasting methods on the quality characteristics of roasted pistachio, peanut, hazelnut, almond, sunflower, soybean, and other food products. IR heating has been applied successfully to the roasting of some nuts. The use of infrared roasting has several advantages in comparison with traditional convective roasting methods. According to the results of most of these studies, the combination of infrared with other thermal methods to roast nuts has distinctly improved the potential of the technology as compared to the IR roasting alone.
... An increase in EO in limited water conditions relative to non-water-stressed controls and heating of soil has been reported earlier by Rebey et al. (2011Rebey et al. ( , 2012 in one genotype of cumin and an Apiaceae family, for example, ajwain (Azhar et al., 2011) and Carum carvi L. (El-Sawi and Mohamed, 2002). The EO content of the cumin seed ranges from 2.3% to 5%, of which 40-65% is mainly attributed to the odor characteristic (Parthasarathy et al., 2008;Preedy et al., 2011). The EO yield (based on dry matter weight) was found to be 1.40% for Egyptian (El-Sawi and Mohamed, 2002) and Turkish (Beis et al., 2000), 1.62% for Tunisian, and 1.21% for Indian cumin seeds (Rebey et al., 2011). ...
Article
The effect of water stress on the different physiological and biochemical traits, including the essential oil (EO) content, the relative water content (RWC) of leaf, soluble sugars, chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoid besides seed yield, was studied in 49 landraces of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). The genetic bases of distinct traits were estimated to get an overview of the genetic variability for cumin breeding programs. Heritability, genetic advance, and genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were determined for all the traits. The combined analysis of variance showed significant differences among all the sources of variation. The seed yield and EO content, as well as other traits, were affected by water stress. The GC–MS analysis of the elite landrace, Golestan (Jat), revealed that the main chemical compositions in both conditions were γ-terpinene, β-pinene, m-cymene and cuminic aldehyde. The landrace Golestan (Gonbad) was introduced as a good candidate for further breeding research on RWC. However, this landrace was clustered in medium-oil-yield group, while Semnan (Ivanakey), Yazd (Bafq) and Southern Khorasan (Ghaen) were grouped in the top-ranking landraces for EO. They were also suggested as suitable candidates for studying the physiological mechanisms and breeding involved in pigment and sugar accumulation. According to the results, we suggest carotenoid content, soluble sugars and RWC as drought-tolerance indices in cumin improvement programs.
... Nearly half of the world"s mangoes are produced in India, but the country accounts for a small percentage of the international trade because India consumes most of its own production [5]. While India is the largest producer of Mangoes in the world China and Thailand are the second and third largest producers, respectively [6][7]. The fruit pulp is high in dietary fiber, vitamin C and vitamin A [8]. ...
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The extraction of oil from mango seeds was investigated using a Soxhlet Extractor. Mango seeds were collected, dried and grounded into powder. Hexane and ethanol were used to extract the oil at varying time of extraction of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours, respectively. Result shows that yield is time dependent, as increase in time of extraction results into increase in yield where the least time of 4hrs yielded an average of 4.00 % and 8hrs yielded an average of 13.06 % for hexane. While the use of ethanol at 4hr and 8hrs only yielded 1.99 % and 8.22 %.Thus the use of hexane achieved the maximum yield (13.06 %) of oil extracted. The effects of time and extraction solvent on the yield of oil was investigated by using a 2 2 factorial design and, result shows that factor "A" which is time, produces the greatest effect (7.665) in the yield of mango than factors "B" (3.335) being solvent and "AB"(1.335) being interaction between solvent and time. The effect of the extraction solvent on the physicochemical properties was also investigated where the oil extracted with hexane was found to possess better overall quality than the ethanol extracts, acid value, saponification value, ester value, refractive index and specific gravity were 5.61mgKOH/gOil, 207 mgKOH/gOil, 201.39mgKOH/gOil, 1.443 and 0.909, respectively as against 30.30mgKOH/gOil, 205 mgKOH/gOil, 174.70mgKOH/gOil and 0.909, respectively of ethanol. The results didn"t only show that hexane gives a higher yield of oil than ethanol but also revealed that hexane is a much better solvent for the extraction of mango seed oil.
... Humankind has been fascinated with botanicals since antiquity because of their exceptional nutritional, cosmetic and medicinal characteristics [1]. A growing body of evidence shows that herbal medicines have fewer side effects than most synthetic treatments, making them an important source for the development of new pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and nutritional supplements [2]. ...
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Since ancient times, Mandragora autumnalis has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of numerous ailments. In light of this, the current study was designed to isolate and identify the chemical constituents of the flavonoids fraction from M. autumnalis ripe fruit (FFM), and evaluate its DPPH scavenging, anti-lipase, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antidiabetic effects. An ethyl acetate extract of M. autumnalis was subjected to a sequence of silica gel column chromatography using different eluents with various polarities. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were identified using different spectral techniques, including 1H NMR and 13C NMR. FFM’s anti-diabetic activity was assessed using a glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation assay, as well as an inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase using standard biochemical assays. The FFM anti-lipase effect against porcine pancreatic lipase was also evaluated. Moreover, FFM free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH test and antimicrobial properties against eight microbial strains using the micro-dilution method were also assessed. Four flavonoid aglycones were separated from FFM and their chemical structures were identified. The structures of the isolated compounds were established as kaempferol 1, luteolin 2, myricetin 3 and (+)-taxifolin 4, based on NMR spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicity test results showed high cell viability (at least 90%) for up to 1 mg/mL concentration of FFM, which is considered to be safe. A dose-dependent increase in GLUT4 translocation was significantly shown (p < 0.05) when the muscle cells were treated with FFM up to 0.5 mg/mL. Moreover, FFM revealed potent α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPPH scavenging and porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities compared with the positive controls, with IC50 values of 72.44 ± 0.89, 39.81 ± 0.74, 5.37 ± 0.41 and 39.81 ± 1.23 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, FFM inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains and showed the greatest antibacterial activity against the K. pneumoniae strain with a MIC value of 0.135 µg/mL. The four flavonoid molecules that constitute the FFM have been shown to have medicinal promise. Further in vivo testing and formulation design are needed to corroborate these findings, which are integral to the pharmaceutical and food supplement industries.
... Galla chinensis contains a large amount of tannins [13]. It is the term used to describe the gall caused by the Chinese aphid (family Pemphigidae) on the Rhus leaves of the family Anacardiaceae (mainly Rhus chinensis Mill, Rhus potaninii Maxim, and Rhus punjabensis var. ...
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Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is classically associated with acute secretory diarrhea, which induces 2 million people death in developing countries over a year, predominantly children in the first years of life. Previously, tannins (47.75%) were extracted from Galla Chinensis and prepared as Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS) which showed significant antidiarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Whether the tannins extract were also effective in treatment of ETEC-induced diarrhea was determined in this study. Methods Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 22). The mice in the normal and untreated groups were given normal saline. Three GOS-treated groups were received different concentrations of GOS (5, 10 and 15%, respectively) at a dose of 10 mL/kg. Mice in the positive control group were fed with loperamide (10 mg/kg). The treatment with GOS started 3 days before infection with ETEC and continued for 4 consecutive days after infection. On day 3, mice were all infected with one dose of LD50 of ETEC, except those in the normal group. Survival of mice was observed daily and recorded throughout the study. On days 4 and 7, samples were collected from 6 mice in each group. Results GOS could increase the survival rate up to 75%, while in the untreated group it is 43.75%. The body weights of mice treated with 15% GOS were significantly increased on day 7 in comparison with the untreated group and the normal group. GOS-treatment recovered the small intestine coefficient enhanced by ETEC-infection. The diarrhea index of mice treated with GOS was significantly decreased. GOS increased the levels of IgG and sIgA in the terminal ileum and decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) in serum. GOS could increase the amount of intestinal probiotics, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. GOS could alleviate colon lesions induced by ETEC-infection. GOS showed higher potency than loperamide. Conclusions GOS could be a promising drug candidate for treating ETEC infections.
... In this work, it was demonstrated that the administration of different doses of P. harmala seeds extract in rats, could be able to decrease immobility time and induce antidepressant effects. This may be due to the presence of β-carboline in the seeds extract and the most important alkaloids are the harmaline, harmine and the tetrahydroharmine [9]. ...
... The oil fraction, containing linoleic, oleic, palmitic, sterols, tocopherol, and phospholipids, is neglected components of S. marianum due to the focus on flavonolignans. Together with other substances such as betaine, apigenin, silybonol, and specific proteins, it can also contribute to the positive effects in addition to silymarin [6]. ...
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Milk thistle seeds contain a mixture of flavonoids known as silymarin, which consists of silybin, isosilybin, silychristine, and silydianin. Until now, there has been no evidence of monitoring the digestibility of silymarin complex in horses. The aim of the research was to evaluate the digestibility of silymarin complex and the effect of nutrient digestibility in horses. Different daily feed doses (FD) of milk thistle expeller (0 g, 100 g, 200 g, 400 g, 700 g) were administered to five mares kept under the same conditions and at the same feed rations. Digestibility of silymarin complex was monitored by HPLC-UV. Digestible energy (DE), crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), crude ash, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) were determined according ISO/IEC 17025:2017. The biochemical profile of blood plasma (total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triacyl glyceride (TAG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine, urea, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant status (TAS), glucose, calcium, and inorganic phosphate) was investigated. Moreover, the flavonolignans of the silymarin complex in plasma were detected. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between daily doses of milk thistle expellers in digestibilities. Our findings showed the digestibility of flavonolignans increased with the daily dose and then stagnated with the dose of milk thistle seed cakes at 700 g/day.
... w obrębie naczyń krwionośnych i skóry (12,13,21,22). W chorobie wrzodowej żołądka i dwunastnicy szczególne znaczenie terapeutyczne mają olej rokitnikowy oraz sok, ponieważ działają przeciwzapalnie, łagodzą podrażnienia, przyspieszają regenerację błony śluzowej żołądka i dwunastnicy oraz wspomagają usuwanie wolnych rodników z organizmu (13,23). ...
Article
Postępowanie fitoterapeutyczne oraz dietetyczne w chorobie wrzodowej żołądka i dwunastnicy Lek. med. nat. w Centrum Medycznym Healthy Life w Ustroniu Wprowadzenie Choroba wrzodowa żołądka i dwunastnicy (łac. morbus ulcerosus ventriculi et duodeni; ang. gastric and duodenal ulcer disease) jest najczęstszą chorobą przewodu pokarmowego (ryc. 1). Zachorowalność szacuje się na poziomie 5-10% w populacji osób dorosłych (1, 2). Schorzenie to zostało zdefiniowane jako cykliczne pojawianie się wrzodów trawiennych w żołądku lub w dwunastnicy. Wrzód trawienny charakteryzuje się ograniczonym ubytkiem, sięgającym w głąb błony śluzowej poza blaszkę mięśniową, któremu towarzyszą stan zapalny z naciekiem oraz skrzepowa martwica w bezpośrednim otoczeniu. Umiejscowienie wrzodów trawiennych najczęściej występuje w okolicy odźwiernika żołądka oraz opuszce dwunastnicy, czyli w tych odcinkach przewodu pokarmowego, w których błona śluzowa ma bezpośredni kontakt z kwasem solnym, pepsyną lub innymi wrzodotwórczymi substancjami chemicznymi (1, 2). Przyczyny Do powstania choroby wrzodowej, czyli uszkodzenia części powierzchni żołądka lub dwunastnicy, dochodzi na skutek zaburzeń równowagi pomiędzy wydzielaniem kwasu solnego, pepsyną lub działaniem innych substancji chemicznych (toksyn bakteryjnych, np. Helicobacter pylori, lub leków, np. salicylanów, leków przeciwreumatycznych, NLPZ) a odpornością błony śluzowej na ich wrzodotwórcze działanie (1, 2). Do częstych przyczyn zalicza się:-zakażenie bakteryjne, np. Helicobacter pylori, które może powodować stan zapalny oraz owrzodzenie żołądka i dwunastnicy,-niektóre leki, w tym NLPZ,-nadmierne wydzielanie soku żołądkowego (oso-by z grupą krwi 0),-długotrwały stres i przewlekłe napięcie nerwo-we, powodujące obkurczenie naczyń krwionośnych, wskutek czego następuje zmniejszone zaopatrzenie błony śluzowej w krew i zaburzona zostaje jej bariera ochronna, Ryc. 1. Owrzodzenia błony śluzowej żołądka i dwunastnicy
... However, there was limited information on which FAMEs had rendered bacterial inhibition. Also, trans FAMEs are of high concern because they have been linked to nutritional health issues (Tao, 2007), especially C18:1n9t (Preedy et al., 2011) while subjecting heat treatment. Cis and trans FAMEs have been stated to be hardly separated due to the same molecular weight except in the use of HP-88 column and GC/MS detection (Albuquerque et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the antibacterial activity of Carica papaya seeds due to their abundance in bioactive compounds and these seeds contain high levels of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). However, no report is available to indicate (1) which FAMEs are potent against pathogens and (2) the effect of temperature on the distribution of FAMEs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of temperature against the antibacterial activity of Carica papaya seed extract (CPSE) and its FAME profile via extraction of the seeds using methanol and the extract was subjected to test of antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Proteus mirabilis. FAME profiling was done using GC/MS incorporated with principal component analysis (PCA). The CPSE at 5.63 mg/mL was potent against these pathogens at < 40 °C. Although the CPSE was rich with FAMEs, the PCA result had identified individual FAMEs that inhibited the pathogen growth. Palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), and cis-vaccenic acid (C18:1n11c) had strongly inhibited V. vulnificus and P. mirabilis growths and moderately inhibit S. enteritidis growth. To avoid the formation of trans FAMEs, this study also suggested that the CPSE temperature should be held at < 150 °C.
... Galla Chinensis contains a generous amount of tannins, which even can reach 50-70% of its weight [18]. It is extremely abundant in China, especially in Sichuan. ...
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Background of the Study As a widely used traditional medicine, Galla Chinensis is rich in tannins. However, there are few detailed studies about pharmaceutical preparations of Galla Chinensis tannin extract (GTE). In the present experiments, for better application and to investigate the possibility that Galla Chinensis tannin extract can be used as an antidiarrheal drug, we prepared Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS). Materials and Methods GOS was prepared with GTE, and its physicochemical and microbiological stability was evaluated. The oral acute toxicity of GOS was calculated by the 50% lethal dose (LD50). The antidiarrheal activity was determined in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice through diarrhea symptoms, fluid accumulation ratio, and percentage of distance moved by charcoal meal. Results The tannin content of GTE was 47.75%. GOS could endure a high temperature without a significant decrease of tannin content. After storage for six months, the tannin content of GOS was still more than 90%. GOS was determined to be nontoxic. Meanwhile, GOS showed significant antidiarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice (P < 0.01). Conclusion The results suggested that GOS is an effective and stable antidiarrheal drug that can be used to complement other therapies.
... Squirting cucumber of Ecballium is poisonous wild decumbent perennial herb, restricted to the Mediterranean Basin 5 . The plant leaves are fleshy, prostate, covered by bristly and coarse hairs, the flowers have a yellowish petal leaf, the fruits are green hairy, have plum-shape and explode when they are ripe to scatter stream of mucilaginous liquid containing their brown egg shaped seeds violently to a considerable distance in response to light pressure 6 . Squirting cucumber of Ecballium occupied an important position in traditional medicine prescriptions and had a long tradition of uses in the Mediterranean region, as a natural remedy for several indications, especially as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiphlogistic, also was used as a emetic, purgative, for the treatment of jaundice, oedema, otitis, malarial fever and hydrophobia 7 . ...
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Background & aims: This study aims to provide GC-FID and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil of dried aerial parts of Ecballium elaterium L. grown in Jordan and examining its cytotoxicity capacity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger apparatus. MTT assay method was used to investigate the plant's in vitro antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, Caco-2 and Panc-1 cancer cell lines in addition to normal fibroblast cells. Results: E. elaterium hydrodistilled oil yielded thirty one components, accounting for 76.3% of the total oil content. High contents of nonterpenoidal compounds, sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene characterized the volatile fractions with hinesol (17.2%), the principal compound, benzaldehyde (12.3%) and E-β-ionone (7.8%) as the major constituents. E. elaterium ethanolic extract showed good activity against MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells (IC50 values=29.67 μg/mL and 17.64 μg/mL, respectively). Moreover, all extracts were safe on normal human cells. In conclusion: Evaluation of E. elaterium volatile oil has been conducted for the first time in Jordan; also various extracts were tested for the first time against Panc-1 cells. Furthermore, based on the obtained results, ethanol extract of E. elaterium may be advocated as candidate for breast and colorectal cancers management.
... In the last decade, a growing interest in seeds as significant ingredients of the daily diet has been observed, since seeds are placed next to legumes as a source of plant proteins [1]. In addition, seeds contribute to meeting the increasing food demand, and in many cases, are also used as traditional medicines [2,3]. Even more, their seed cakes are used for animal feed and as green manures in organic agriculture [4,5]. ...
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Seeds are major sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds for human beings. In this work, the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of 155 Indian seeds (belonging to 49 families) are reported. Moisture and ash were measured with reference protocols from AOAC; total polyphenols and flavonoids were measured with spectrophotometric methods after extraction with organic solvents, and mineral elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and mineral contents (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) were found to vary in the ranges 182–5000, 110–4465 and 687–7904 mg/100 g (DW), respectively. Noticeably, polyphenol contents higher than 2750 mg/100 g were observed in 18 seeds. In addition, mineral contents >5000 mg/100 g were detected in the seeds from Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Commiphora wightii, Parkia javanica, Putranjiva roxburghii, Santalum album and Strychnos potatorum. Botanical and taxonomical variations in the proximate characteristics of the examined seeds are also discussed
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The changes in the physical, chemical, and nutritional properties of ingredients during and post processing in a domestic mixer grinder are studied. Spices are powdered to release flavor but higher temperature during grinding and storage has deteriorative effects on its quality. Pastes and purees are prepared due to recipe requirements but grinding also releases characteristic flavors and some nutrient bioavailability. Storage leads to development of rancidity, off‐color, and off‐flavors. Batter from lentil and rice is ground and mixed before fermentation but storage leads to changes in acidity, nutrient content, taste, and texture of the final product. Flour is prepared from rice and chickpea lentil due to their versatility to be used in different food preparation applications. High speed grinding with increase in temperature leads to necessary starch damage but also has some drawbacks. Storage leads to color changes and reduces the suitability to some applications. Practical applications In this research paper, the authors analyze the current grinding practices of food ingredients like spices, puree, paste, batter, and flours by consumers in Indian kitchens. The findings of this paper will help the consumer understand the changes that occur in the physical, chemical, and nutritional properties of the ingredients. Based on such understanding, authors recommend grinding practices for the sensory and nutritional benefits. To further the understanding, future research projects can delve deeper to understand the changes that occur during high speed grinding and address the characteristics that affect the properties and cause detrimental reactions. Further research can also help understand the nutritional benefits of fresh grinding.
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Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) also called as Cilantro, Arab parsley, Chinese parsley, Kasbour is cultivated for its seeds and foliage for extraction of essential oil using hydrodistillation. The GC-MS compositional analysis of coriander seed essential oil showed the presence of many compounds viz linalool, camphor, geraniol, α–pinene, γ–terpinene, geranyl acetate and limonene. Essential oil of coriander is known to exhibit wide range of biological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, insecticidal and in addition it also exibit pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antimicrobial, diuretic, cognition improvement, antidiabetic, antiseptic, antihypertensive, lipolytic, myorelaxant, anticancerous, antimutagenic, and free radical scavenging activities. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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Der Artikel enthält folgende Abschnitte: • • Distribution • Morphology • Leaves, young shoots and buds • Flowers, fruits and seeds • Bark and wood • Rooting habit • Taxonomy • Growth, development and yield • Reproduction and regeneration, propagation, cultivation • Seed propagation • Seedling planting • Grafting • Ecology • Pathology • Uses • General uses • Culinary uses • Nutritional composition • Phytochemical composition • Antioxidants • Food and medicine • Anticancer effect • Further information •
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In order to germination induce and response of seedling traits Primvla vaulgar to The effects of mechanical and chemical treatments , an experimental was carried out as completely randomized design in 2013 at three replicates. The experimental treatments were control, seed scarification, warm water 70 and 90˚c, Potasium nitrate at the rate of 2 and 4%, giberlic acid at the concentration of 250 and 500 mg/lit. The result showed that treatments of seed scarification, warm water 70 and 90˚c and giberlic acid of 250 and 500 mg/lit increased the seedling emergence percentage compared to control, significantly. The maximum of the daily emergence percentage equal to 60% recorded from giberlic acid of 250 mg/lit. Seed treatment with Potasium nitrate of 2 and 4% decreased the mean emergence time by 61.2 and 51.7 compared with control, respectively. The highest of emergence rate coefficient equal to 0.094 and 0.092 was obtain from seed treatment with Potasium nitrate of 2 and 4% . the maximum of seedling length (5.53 cm), seedling dry weight (0.029 g), Seedling vigor weight index (1.15) was obtain from giberlic acid of 250 mg/lit. The seed scarification, warm water 70 and 90˚c, giberlic acid at the concentration of 250 and 500 mg/lit increased seedling vigor weight index compared to control, significantly. In general, the result showed that seed pre-treatment of Primvla vaulgar with giberlic acid of 250 mg/lit was induce improvement of germination and seedling traits.
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Sunflower is sensitive to drought and its hybrids have a limited cytoplasmic diversity. The wild cytoplasmic sources of sunflower are not well exploited to their potential for drought tolerance and hybrid development. In this respect, we carried out a Line into Tester based genetic study using 19 sunflower genotypes representing, 13 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines from wild and conventional sources, 2 maintainer lines, and 4 restorer lines. The CMS and maintainer lines were crossed with restorer lines to develop sixty one-way F1 hybrids. The parents and their hybrids were evaluated under two water regimes viz., normal irrigated and water stress. A total of twelve important plant descriptors were studied over a period of two years. The significant differences were observed between parents and hybrids in both water regimes. Hybrids were higher in average values for all the descriptors than parents. The role of female parent was more prominent in the expression of traits in hybrids as compared to male parents. The CMS sources varied significantly regarding seed yield per plant and other physiological traits. Proline content was three times higher in parents and their hybrids under water stress, and it was not correlated with any other descriptor. Accession CMS-PKU-2A was identified as the best general combiner for leaf area and specific leaf weight. Whereas, CMS-234A was the best general combiner for biological yield and photosynthetic efficiency under both the conditions. Overall, this study provides useful information about the cytoplasmic effects on important sunflower traits and drought stress tolerance when used in the different combinations.
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Drought stress is one of the major factors limiting crop yield in dry-lands. To investigate the effect of sources and different rates of selenium on physiological traits, yield and yield components of wheat and barley in dry lands a factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with three replicates was carried out at the Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, in 2014-2015. Experimental factors were selenium sources with two levels, (sodium selenate and sodium selenite), selenium rates with three levels, (0, 18 and 36 g.ha-1) and two crop plant (wheat and barley). The result showed that, foliar application of wheat with 18 g.ha-1 sodium selenite increased the grains per spike by 9.4% as compared to control and foliar application of barley with 18 and 36 g.ha-1 of sodium selenite increased the grains per spike by 8 and 12%, as compared to control, respectively. Two times foliar applications of these two plants with sodium selenate and sodium selenite increased their relative water content. Foliar application by 18 g/ha of selenium increased the grain yield from 1776.31 kg.ha-1 in control to 1889.92 kg.ha-1, while grain yield was decreased (about 1539.62 kg.ha-1) as compared to control when 36 g.ha-1 of selenium was used. It could be concluded that foliar application of 18 g.ha-1 selenium as sodium selenite or sodium selenite in wheat and barley during stem elongation and emergence of spike increases grain yield in dry land condition. Key words: Barley, Drought stress, Grain yield, Selenium, Wheat. (.
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In adipose tissues, the increment in ALA was 3.07 and 6.92 fold; and 3.00 and 7.54 folds in the subcutaneous and perirenal fats for L10 and L20, respectively, compared to L0. The proportions of beneficial long chain n-3 PUFA ecosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic in the muscles were Significantly increased; nevertheless, these FA were not detected in the adipose tissues. The PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio decreased from 8.86, 7.55 and 6.65 in LD, SS and ST, respectively for L0 to 1.68, 1.87 and 2.0; and 1.16, 1.8 and 1.32 for L10 and L20, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in the SFA in all tissues except for the LD muscle and perirenal. The CLA increased in all tissues except for the LD muscle. At 20% inclusion (L20), the PUFA:SFA ratio was significantly higher in all studied tissues compared to the control gI'Ol1p. The final weight, total weight gain, and apparent digestibility were not affected by the treatments (P >0.05). However, the goats fed the L20 diet had lower (P < 0.05) feed intake (669.30 g/ day) compared to L0 (705.21 g/ day) or L10 (698.51 g/ day). The gain: feed ratio (G:F) was higher (P< 0.05) in L20 compared to other treatment groups. The internal fat weight was heavier (P< 0.05) in L20 (550.57 g) compared to L10 (373.00 g), while in L0 was in between (469.40 g) with no difference (P>0.05). The percentage of lean was better (P< 0.05) in L10 (67.82%) compared to L0 (65.25%) or L20 (64.78%). There was no effect (P>0.05) on cooking loss, shear force or color for the different muscles at the 1-day postmortem aging time. However, at the 7-day aging time the color of all the muscles was significantly affected by the treatment diets. Subjectively, no differences were detected between the goat meat enriched in n-3 PUFA (L10 and L20) and the control (L0) in color, flavor or aroma. However, the tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of L20 meat were rated better than those of L0 and L10. 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Both inclusion levels of linseed in the diet (L10 and L20) significantly reduced the total bacteria, methanogens, and protozoa, in the rumen liquor compared to the L0. The effect of the dietary treatments on cellulolytic bacteria, varied between the individual species. Both inclusion levels of linseed resulted in a significant decrease in the population of the Fibrobucier succinogenes, and Rumunococus flavefuciens compared to L0, with no significant difference between the groups fed linseed diets (L10 and L20). Nevertheless, the population of Rumunococus ulbus was not affected by the different dietary treatments. The inclusion of linseed in diets also induced some changes in rumen mucosal morphology. The animals fed linseed (L10 and L20) had longer papillae in the atrium ruminis, dorsal rumen wall, and caudoventral blind sac regions compared to the control (L0) and it was only significantly higher in the ventral rumen wall for L20. In addition, feeding linseed significantly increased the papillae width in the caudoventral blind sac and the ventral rumen wall regions. The papillae area was greater in the most studied regions of the rumen (dorsal rumen wall, caudoventral blind sac, and ventral rumen wall) of L10 and L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of linseed as a source of n-3 PUFA in goats diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6:n~3 ratio without any adverse effect on the growth performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality. The inclusion of linseed at 10% (w/w) resulted in improving the goat carcass characteristics, while at 20% (w/w) resulted in improving G:F ratio and the eating quality of goat meat. Moreover, the inclusion of linseed decreased the rumen microorganism involved in methanogenesis, and increased the surface area of the rumen papillae.
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