Effect of Crocus sativus extracti on the concentration of glutamic acid in the vitreous body in rabbits with chronic ocular hypertension

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• Aim: To explore the concentration of glutamic acid in vitreous body of rabbits with chronic ocular hypertension (OHT) and the inhibition effect of extract of Crocus sativus on the concentration of glutamic acid. • Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into control group, OHT group and two treated groups, with 5 rabbits in each group (5 eyes). The 3g/L carbomer into anterior chamber of the OHT group and the two treated groups. Rabbits in two treated groups were treated with extract of Crocus sativus every day. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to measure the concentration of glutamic acid in vitreous body. • Results: The concentration of glutamic acid in vitreous body of rabbits in the OHT group were significantly higher than those in control group and treated group (P<0.01). Significant difference appeared between the treated group I and treated group II (P<0.01). • Conclusion: Higher concentration of vitreous glutamate damaging ritina was induced by OHT. Extract of Crocus sativus can significantly inhibit the vitreous glutamate concentration.

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... 1,7 Hitherto, efficacy of Crocus Sativus (saffron) in the treatment of ocular diseases has been confirmed in many studies. [8][9][10][11] Saffron is rich in phytochemicals; however, its main components include crocin and crocetin. These carotenoid derivatives have anti-apoptotic properties. ...
... The antioxidant effects of saffron extract has been reported in several experimental studies. [8][9][10]13 In spite of numerous pharmacological studies on saffron, there is very little evidence of the beneficial effects of this medicinal plant in ARMD. In view of the lack of an effective treatment to control ARMD, the therapeutic effect of saffron in improving visual function of patients with ARMD was investigated in this study. ...
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The aim was to evaluate the impact of saffron supplementation on visual function in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Fifty-four participants, 23 male and 31 female, with dry ARMD were assigned to one of the following two groups. The treatment group (n=29) consumed 50 mg saffron daily during a 3- month period, while 25 subjects served as the control group. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and retinal thickness were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Quality of life was evaluated using the Melbourne Low Vision Index (MLVI) before and after treatment. Significant increases in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were found in the saffron group but not in the control group. Changes in macular thickness were not statistically different between the two groups. Short-term consumption of saffron may slow down the progression of disease and improve visual function, especially contrast sensitivity, in patients with dry ARMD.
... Present investigations show that saffron extract with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties can reduce ocular diseases such as cataracts (114), retinal degeneration (115), light-mediated photoreceptor cell death (116), and enhances ocular blood flow and retinal function (117). Saffron in rabbits with chronic ocular hypertension reduced glutamic acid concentration and reduced retinal damage caused by overproduction of glutamate (118). Also saffron with antioxidant effects reduced overproduction of ROS and reduced retinal damages in rabbits (119). ...
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Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases. © 2015, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
... In another study using retinal cell cultures from bovine and primate eyes, crocin protected the photoreceptors against blue light or white light-mediated damage in a concentration dependent manner (10-160 μM) (Laabich et al. 2006). Finally, saffron can significantly inhibit the elevation of glutamic acid concentration, fact that contributes to neurodegeneration of retina, thus, prevents retina damage (Yang X-G et al. 2006). For a different type of retinal malfunction, such as ischemic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, which are the leading ocular diseases that cause blindness, it has been studied that crocin analogs increase the blood flow in the retina and choroid and facilitate retinal function recovery, leading to the conclusion that crocin analogs could be used to treat this problem (Xuan et al. 1999). ...
... Recent experiments showed that higher concentrations of vitreous glutamate damage the retina, as induced by chronic ocular hypertension in rabbits. However, the extract of C. sativus significantly inhibited the vitreous glutamate concentration (Yang et al., 2006). ...
In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saffron is the dried stigmata of the flowers of saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae). Saffron has various pharmacological effects and is regarded as a potent drug. Thus research on the biological activities of saffron and its active constituents may have clinical and public health applications. To evaluate the basic and clinical pharmacology of saffron and its active constituents, the English papers in the data bases EMBASE, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, SCIENCE DIRECT, CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, English and Persian papers in the data base SID and proceedings of the Iranian physiology and pharmacology congresses and Iranian congresses concerning saffron were retrieved by using keywords comprising Crocus sativus, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic, memory, neuroprotective, analgesic, anticonvulsant, opioid dependence, antidepressant, cardiovascular, lipids, respiratory, gastric ulcer, immune system, ocular, antimicrobial and toxicity and their Persian equivalents from 1975 until November 2008. The investigations demonstrate that saffron and its active constituents have anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic, memory and learning enhancing, neuroprotective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, opioid abstinence syndrome alleviating, antidepressant, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, insulin resistance reducing, tissues oxygenation enhancing, bronchodilator, antitussive, gastric ulcer preventive, Immune-stimulator, retina protective and antibacterial effects. In view of the existing deficiencies in the conducted researches, further clinical trials, pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies concerning saffron are recommended.
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