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Abstract

The present study was carried out in Haraz basin (Iran) that is located in south of the Caspian Sea. The goal of this study was to establish correlations amongst total suspended solids concentration (TSS) and turbidity with total pollutant concentrations to evaluate the dissolved and particle-bound concentrations of major toxic metals. It also aimed to validate TSS and/or turbidity measurements as proxies to monitor pollutant fluxes. Eight metals, namely nickel, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, cobalt, arsenic and strontium were analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations in water at ten locations within the catchment. TSS and turbidity were also measured. Sampling campaigns were designed to cover both the rainy (December) and the dry (May) season within the basin. The robust relationship between TSS (202–1212 mg/l) and turbidity (63–501 NTUs) in both seasons warranted their interchangeable potential as proxies within the observed ranges. Total element concentrations were plotted in separate attempts versus TSS and turbidity for all locations and both events. Very good linear correlations were attained where the slopes represent the metals concentration on suspended solids and the intercept the dissolved concentration in water. The results achieved by these linear regressions were in very good agreement with independently measured values for dissolved concentration and concentrations on river bed sediments taken at the same locations. This demonstrates that turbidity and/or TSS measurements may be used for monitoring of metal loads if once calibrated against total concentration of metals. The results also revealed that in the lower Haraz catchment metal concentrations on suspended and river bed sediment were homogeneously distributed along the investigated river stretch. This is assumed to be due to intensive gravel and sand mining activities in the upper and middle part of the catchment.

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... Unfortunately, the presence in a reservoir of sediment with potentially toxic substances adsorbed may be harmful to both aquatic organisms and human health. Furthermore, total suspended particulate matter is a water quality parameter closely related to sediment concentration (Nasrabadi et al., 2016;Prathumratana et al., 2008) and turbidity Yaseen et al., 2018). It is also a key parameter affecting the water environment of rivers and lakes around the world. ...
... Moreover, sediment plays a pivotal role in the migration and transformation of nutrients and pollutants in water (Fabure et al., 2015;Nasrabadi et al., 2015). Therefore, TSS has been used as a key parameter to evaluate water quality in sediment-laden river systems (Nasrabadi et al., 2016;Prathumratana et al., 2008). ...
... Among the six key parameters that constitute our derived WQI min model, TSS is the most important, followed by NH 3 -N, NO 3 -N, and COD Mn . Many studies have shown that there is a good positive linear relationship between water turbidity and TSS in rivers (Nasrabadi et al., 2016), and the adsorption and sedimentation of sediment has a crucial influence on the TSS in water. Meanwhile, the S-TOC and S-TN in sediment are often negatively correlated with the TSS, and its promotional effect upon the transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds is greatest when the sediment is suspended. ...
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Water quality management of sediment-laden rivers is a challenging issue for global water security because sediment is a major carrier for the migration and transformation of biogenic elements and pollutants in river systems. A water quality index (WQI) based on multiple parameters is widely used when making water quality assessments. To reduce the analytical costs and time required for multi-parameter measurements, many minimum WQI (WQImin) models that rely on fewer key parameters are now being developed for river systems. However, no systematic study of WQImin has been conducted yet in sediment-laden rivers, such as China’s Yellow River which has the highest sediment concentration worldwide. This study assessed the spatiotemporal variation in water quality of the Yellow River’s main channel in the spring and autumn of 2019. The WQI was calculated based on 15 water parameters determined at 44 sampling points from 26 river sections and six reservoirs. A heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) was used to gauge the pollution level of eight heavy metals. Despite no distinct seasonal variation, the WQI values decreased from the Yellow River’s source region to its estuary, and higher values were observed in most reservoirs than in adjacent natural river sections. Values for WQI (>50) were mainly classified as being at “good” and “moderate” water quality levels, while the HEI values (<10) indicated a low pollution level. Four weighted and four non-weighted WQImin models were developed using stepwise regression. A model consisting of six parameters—total suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, permanganate index, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate-nitrogen—had the best modeling performance. Both the prediction accuracy and goodness-of-fit of the WQImin model were improved after adding parameter weights. Our study provides support data for water resource management in the Yellow River Basin, and contributes to the development of a robust WQImin in sediment-laden rivers.
... The use of a proxy forges a link between what is measurable and what is actually necessary to know. For example, turbidity probes are commonly used to estimate total suspended solids (TSS) (Line et al., 2013;Rügner et al., 2013), and it has also been linked to particulate carbon and nitrogen (Snyder et al., 2018), particulate phosphorus (Stubblefield et al., 2007;Jones et al., 2011) and total metal concentration (Nasrabadi et al., 2016). In order to make the connections between what an automated system can measure and what might be of environmental interest, a large number of physical samples typically need to be taken to find a relationship between the measured value and the variable of interest, which can partially defeat the purpose of an automated sampling system. ...
... For references that used only linear fits, the range of slope values is~0.8-5 mg*L −1 *NTU −1 for land uses ranging from agricultural to forests with various soil types and local topography (Nasrabadi et al., 2016;Schwarz et al., 2011;Stubblefield et al., 2007;Lin et al., 2011;Line et al., 2013;Rügner et al., 2013;Jones et al., 2011). The values used here for the slopes of the calibration curve (0.28 mg*L −1 *-NTU −1 and 0.60 mg*L −1 *NTU −1 ) are below the range found by others. ...
Article
Quantifying temporal variability and fluxes within hydrologic catchments is critical to understanding the underlying chemical and physical processes leading to material transport. Measuring variability and fluxes requires sampling at time scales similar to the time scale of process occurrence. This demand has led to the development of automated sampling systems designed to sample at high frequencies, on the order of minutes. While widely deployed in a variety of systems, we installed two high-frequency sampling devices in a single drainage comprised of restored prairie and agricultural land uses in temperate Eastern Nebraska. The sampling systems determined flow rate, conductivity, and turbidity at 15-minute intervals for a twelve-month period. Conductivity was used as a proxy for total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations and turbidity was used as a proxy for total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. Using the high-frequency data, estimates of solids flux were calculated, error on the estimates was constrained, the effects of sample timing were considered, and conductivity and turbidity changes during precipitation events were examined. Overall, TDS fluxes were about three times higher than TSS fluxes from the catchment as a whole. However, the TSS fluxes were higher in the agricultural section of the catchment than from the restored prairie. Sheet and rill soil loss estimates from both the restored prairie and agricultural settings were low (<0.060 mm/yr). For TDS flux calculations, sampling at a monthly frequency gave a value that was only 11% lower than sampling every 15 min. For TSS flux calculations, sampling only during precipitation events (0.7% of the time) would capture 67% of the annual flux. Thus, minimizing error in sampling strategies depends on the constituent being analyzed.
... The Pearson correlation between the two variables was 0.973 and the p value was found to be 0.000 (< 0.05), i.e., it represents an almost perfect positive linear relationship (Table 2). Similar results have been highlighted in a study by Shrestha, Shrestha, et al. (2017), Shrestha, Neupane, et al. (2017)), Daphne et al. (2011), Yao et al. (2016, and Nasrabadi et al. (2016). ...
... Dissolved salts of heavy metals are one of the causes of turbidity which supports the positive relationship observed between turbidity and heavy metals. Similar correlations between Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals were determined by Herngren et al. (2005), Yao et al. (2016), andNasrabadi et al. (2016). pH and EC were found to have a negligible effect on heavy metal concentration. ...
Article
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Industrial effluents are one of the major sources of environmental pollution. The major objective of the study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and concentration of heavy metals in industrial effluents of industries in Kathmandu Valley. Physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved salts, total suspended solids, hardness, calcium, magnesium, alkalinity, chloride, and nitrate were analyzed. Likewise, the concentration of heavy metals like arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) was also determined. On average, total suspended solids, calcium hardness, and nitrate were found above the permissible limits whereas the rest of the Physico-chemical parameters were found within the permissible limits. Regarding heavy metals, the total mean concentration of all the samples was observed in the following sequence: Fe > As > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. The levels of heavy metals particularly Fe, Pb, Zn, and As were found to exceed the national and international standard limits. The Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) between most of the metals in the samples of effluents. The result suggested that effluents discharged from various industries are of potential threat to surface and groundwater sources as well as to human health. Thus, the construction of wastewater treatment plants is recommended in every industry for reuse purposes or discharging into the environment. Moreover, strict environmental laws must be created among the industries concerning the potential hazard of industrial effluents to the environment.
... Mann et al. (2007) noted that outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases have been traced to excessive levels of turbidity in water. Nasrabadi et al. (2016) further reported that turbidity can be used as a proxy for monitoring heavy metals influx into water. Obviously, the high level of turbidity in the water samples confirm that shallow well water in the study area is unfit for consumption without treatment. ...
... Although chemical industry parks play a major role in economic development, they are regarded as high-risk developments due to the various hazards that many of the industrial activities of chemical parks present to environmental and human health (Li et al. 2010;Yu et al. 2019). These risks are particularly associated with the concentration, mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils surrounding the chemical industrial park (Afkhami et al. 2013;Karbassi et al. 2014;Nasrabadi et al. 2016). ...
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Soil pollution due to the activities of industrial parks, is becoming an increasingly serious issue, particularly throughout China. Therefore, it is essential to explore the soil pollution characteristics and its ecotoxicological effects on model species, such as higher plant species, in typical industrial areas. In this study, concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the soil collected from 10 sampling sites at a chemical industry park in Nanjing, China. The pollution index was used to assess the heavy metal pollution level of soils, while the hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk index (RI) were calculated to assess the human health risk of soil PAHs. In addition, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was used as the model species to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of polluted soil in pot experiments. Results showed that the content of heavy metals and PAHs varied greatly in soil samples, among which the heavy metal pollution at S1, S2 and S3 was the most serious. The health risk assessment of PAHs indicated that non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic values for all soil samples were below the threshold levels. Statistical analysis of the correlation between contaminated soil and toxic effects in wheat found that the significance values of regression equations were all less than 0.05 for chlorophyll content, peroxidase (POD) and amylase (AMS) activity. This indicates that the chlorophyll content, POD and AMS activity in wheat leaves could be suitable biomarkers for evaluation of the combined toxicity of multiple pollutants. This study provides a reference for future research on the risk assessment of soil containing multiple pollutants from industrial chemical parks.
... We know that the possible relationship between TSS and turbidity is affected by the density, size, and shape of the particles and color of the water. But if a good correlation between TSS and turbidity develops, turbidity can then serve as a substitute for suspended solids and concentrations of pollutants in a water basin (Nasrabadi et al. 2016). In addition, the study by Serajuddin et al. 2019showed that it is obvious that the regression model developed between the TSS and the turbidity for an analysis of the water of a river could not give satisfactory results allowing the use of turbidity as a parameter to then assess the TSS throughout the year because the correlation coefficient is not significant. ...
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the natural flotation process in reducing pollution with reasonable investment and operating costs of an industrial effluent of refining vegetable oils. Flotation tests were carried out in separating funnels and in drums of 30 l. The results obtained have shown that the volume of sludge produced during flotation is related to the pollutant load of the wastewater studied (process wastewater and acidic wastewater). The sludge volume is respectively 600, 12, and 120 ml/l for heavy, light, and medium loads respectively. Therefore, it is essential to find an effective way to remove oils and greases from polluted waters. Natural flotation eliminates on average 88% of COD for acid wastewater and 50% for process wastewater. However, the reduction of BOD5 showed 28 and 43% respectively for acid wastewater and process wastewater. In addition, the yield of fats and oils, TSS, and turbidity varies around 85%, 45%, and 88% respectively for acidic wastewater, while for process wastewater, elimination yields vary around 58%, 46%, and 46% respectively for the grease and oil parameters, the MES, and the turbidity. Flotation allows the elimination of 10659 Kg/day of greases and oils for process wastewater while it eliminates 5765 Kg/day for acidic wastewater. This reduces the cost of treatment related to chemicals and energy. Reducing pollution of wastewater by natural flotation could therefore help reduce the costs of treating wastewater, and recycling would then be more attractive for this purpose for the company.
... Therefore, the measurement of turbidity is often considered as a proxy for sediment concentration in the water body (Rügner et al., 2013;Wass et al., 1997). Further, TSS and turbidity can also be used to indirectly monitor heavy metal concentration in water bodies (Nasrabadi et al., 2016). ...
Article
Water resources are critical to the sustainability of life on Earth. With a growing population and climate change, it is imperative to assess the security of these resources. Over the past five decades, satellite remote sensing has become indispensable in understanding the Earth and atmospheric processes. Satellite sensors have the capability of providing data at global scales, which is economical compared to the ground or airborne sensor acquisitions. The science community made significant advances over recent years with the help of satellite remote sensing. In view of these efforts, the current review aims to present a comprehensive review of the role of remote sensing in assessing water security. This review highlights the role of remote sensing applications to assess water quality, quantity, and hydroclimatic extreme events that play an important role in improving water security. Four water quality parameters, namely, chlorophyll-a, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), are considered. Under water quantity assessment, we review three aspects, streamflow estimation, terrestrial water storage, and reservoir operations. Remote sensing applications in quantifying floods and droughts extremes are reviewed in this work. We present how satellite sensor information acquired from different spectral bands, including optical, thermal, and microwave ranges, along with gravity field measurements, have contributed towards the applications in the above areas. We also assess the role of physical models, empirical models, and data assimilation strategies, among others, in the above areas. Finally, possible future research pathways needed to address the issues faced by the science community are discussed. This work is the second of the two-part review series, wherein the first part deals with the applications of satellite remote sensing for agriculture management.
... TSS may also comprise of suspended metals in a water body, hence monitoring and controlling metal concentrations is important to maintain water quality. In a study by Ref. [32], sequential extraction approaches have been applied to obtain estimates of metal content distribution within sediments. The approaches used in this study apply various reagents continuously to remove defined solid phases. ...
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This research studies the implementation of artificial neural networks (ANN) in predicting the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) for the Fei Tsui reservoir in Taiwan. The prediction model developed in this study is designed to be used for monitoring the water quality in the Fei Tsui reservoir. High concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) have been a crucial problem in the Fei Tsui reservoir for decades. As the Fei Tsui reservoir is a primary water source for Taipei City, this issue impacts the drinking water supply for the city due to etherification problems in the reservoir. 10-year average monthly records and 13-year average annual records have been collected for 26 parameters and correlated with the TSS concentrations to determine the parameters that have a strong relationship with the TSS concentrations. The parameters that were shown to have a strong correlation with the TSS concentration are the trophic state index (TSI), nitrate (NO3) concentration, total phosphorous (TP) concentration, iron concentration (IRON), and turbidity. Linear regression was used to develop the model that estimates the TSS concentration in the Fei Tsui Reservoir. The results show that model 3, a three-layer ANN model that uses three-input parameters namely NO3 concentration, TP concentration, and turbidity, with five neurons, to predict the output parameter which is TSS concentration, produces the highest coefficient of determination (R²) and Willmott Index (WI), which are 0.9589 and 0.9933 respectively, and the lowest root mean square error, which is 0.4753. Based on these performance criteria, model 3 is concluded as the best model to predict TSS concentrations in this study.
... One of the useful indices used for water quality is the Total suspended solids since the solid structure may contain pollutants such as trace metals, chemical or biochemical, and other toxic materials adsorbed onto the surface of the solid [5]. These pollutants on the solids can be transferred to the water bodies which is not suitable for humans and the ecosystem [6]. It affects the growth of aquatic lives and by increased absorption, it can affect water temperature [7]. ...
Article
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Excessive discharge of pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIW) has become a global concern due to its unwanted impact on humans and the ecosystem. In this study, cost-effective adsorbents were developed to eradicate pollutants present in PIW. Activated carbon from seeds of Mangifera indica (MSA) and husks of Treculia africana (BFHA) was successfully synthesized using the carbonization-chemical activation method. The efficacy of the adsorbents was tested on the adsorption of Total dissolved and suspended solids (TDSS) from pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIW). The effect of process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time for the application of the adsorbent was studied using one factor at a time (OFAT) and Design of experiment (DOE) methods. The adsorbents are highly porous with a large surface area and pore volume which is suitable for their adsorption capacity. Among the adsorbent studied, BFHA-AC gave the best performance of 98% at optimum operating conditions of pH of 4, 1.0 g/L adsorbent dosage, and within 45 min. The most significant operating parameter is the stirring time which was determined using the DOE method. The PIW was analysed after treatment and the quality of the wastewater meets the standard for irrigation water, not drinking water. Thus, the adsorbents have proven effective in converting wastewater for a useful purpose.
... The metals can be dissolved in the water column, absorbed/adsorbed to the sediments/particulates or accumulated in biota. In comparison with other media, river bed and suspended sediments play a more significant role in overall pollution and environmental risks [1]. Total suspended solids (TSS) is a commonly used monitoring indicator of Non Point Source (NPS) pollution. ...
Article
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One of the environmental issues for the physical components of soil and water, is the potential risk of carrying soil particles by runoff. However, sedimentation and high TSS concentrations still occur in settling ponds before flowing into river, lake or sea. Transfer of such pollutants from solid to aqueous phase at the interface of sediments/particles facilitates their entry into the food chain and further bio accumulation in neighboring fauna and flora. A vast variety of geogenic (rocks weathering and soil erosion) and anthropogenic sources (mining activities, urban and agricultural run-offs, industrial and municipal sewer overflows, etc.) may cause toxic metals discharge into water bodies. The metals can be dissolved in the water column, absorbed/adsorbed to the sediments/particulates or accumulated in biota. In comparison with other media, river bed and suspended sediments play a more significant role in overall pollution and environmental risks. This research is improvement of USEPA recommendations for the installation of sediment traps in drainage channel. The advantage of using this additional modification is that it can significantly reduce TSS concentration. The results of the water samples test and statistical test show that this research provides significant result in reducing TSS concentrations.
... We focused on one pollution metric, total suspended solids (TSS), which is a commonly used metric to generally assess water quality, and includes a wide variety of materials that can be trapped on a filter, such as silt, decaying plant and animal matter, industrial waste, vehicle exhaust emissions, pavement wear, vehicle parts and oils, building materials and paints, and atmospheric particle deposition. Importantly, TSS does not fully capture water quality issues, as it does not account for dissolved pollutants; however, TSS is a useful indicator for urban stormwater pollution [53][54][55][56]. For this case study, we bounded our analysis to the northern portion of the California Current Ecosystem along the Pacific coast of the United States (hereafter referred to as the Northern California Current), which encompasses most of the home range of the SRKW and key portions of the Chinook salmon range (figure 1). ...
Article
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Despite their limited area relative to the global ocean, coastal zones—the regions where land meets the sea—play a disproportionately important role in generating ecosystem services. However, coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human populations. In particular, urban stormwater is an increasingly important threat to the integrity of coastal systems. Urban catchments exhibit altered flow regimes that impact ecosystem processes and coastal foodwebs. In addition, urban stormwater contains complex and unpredictable mixtures of chemicals that result in a multitude of lethal and sublethal impacts on species in coastal systems. Along the western coast of the United States, we estimate that hundreds of billions of kilograms of suspended solids flow off land surfaces and enter the Northern California Current each year. However, 70% of this pollution could be addressed by treating only 1.35% of the land area. Determining how to prioritize treatment of stormwater in this region requires a clear articulation of objectives—spatial distribution of appropriate management actions is dependent on the life histories of species, and management schemes optimized for one species may not achieve desired objectives for other species. In particular, we highlight that the scale of stormwater interventions must match the ecological scale relevant to species targeted by management. In many cases, management and policy will require mechanisms in order to ensure that local actions scale-up to efficiently and effectively achieve management objectives. In the face of rapid urbanization of coastal zones, failure to consider the match of management and ecological scales will result in the continued decline of coastal ecosystems and the species they support. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Integrative research perspectives on marine conservation’.
... The visible partial dependence of high Ca 2+ and Al 3+ concentrations on very low DO was unexpected and may be related to transport of low DO groundwater (Figures 6(d) and 7(d); Krause et al., 2013). The low importance of turbidity to prediction of any solute is not surprising because it is a common proxy for suspended materials rather than dissolved solutes (Nasrabadi et al., 2016;Rügner et al., 2014). Turbidity is likely to be the most important available predictor of P fluxes in our watershed where nearly all P is exported in particulate forms (Meyer & Likens, 1979). ...
Article
Stream solute monitoring has produced many insights into ecosystem and Earth system functions. Although new sensors have provided novel information about the fine‐scale temporal variation of some stream water solutes, we lack adequate sensor technology to gain the same insights for many other solutes. We used two machine learning algorithms – Support Vector Machine and Random Forest – to predict concentrations at 15‐min resolution for 10 solutes, of which eight lack specific sensors. The algorithms were trained with data from intensive stream sensing and manual stream sampling (weekly) for four full years in a hydrologic reference stream within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The Random Forest algorithm was slightly better at predicting solute concentrations than the Support Vector Machine algorithm (Nash‐Sutcliffe efficiencies ranged from 0.35 to 0.78 for Random Forest compared to 0.29 to 0.79 for Support Vector Machine). Solute predictions were most sensitive to the removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter, pH and specific conductance as independent variables for both algorithms, and least sensitive to dissolved oxygen and turbidity. The predicted concentrations of calcium and monomeric aluminium were used to estimate catchment solute yield, which changed most dramatically for aluminium because it concentrates with stream discharge. These results show great promise for using a combined approach of stream sensing and intensive stream discrete sampling to build information about the high‐frequency variation of solutes for which an appropriate sensor or proxy is not available.
... The study highlighted the potential for groundwater impacts that could affect domestic water use. The agitation and subsequent embedding of substrates were also linked to the spread of pollutants throughout river systems, with Nasrabadi et al. (2016) attributing homogeneous heavy metal concentrations in the Haraz basin in Iran to intensive sand mining activities. ...
Article
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Sand mining (used here as a generic term that includes mining of any riverine aggregates regardless of particle size) is a global activity that is receiving increasing media attention due to perceived negative environmental and social impacts. As calls grow for stronger regulation of mining, there is a need to understand the scientific evidence to support effective management. This paper summarizes the results of a structured literature review addressing the question, “What evidence is there of impacts of sand mining on ecosystem structure, process, and biodiversity in rivers, floodplains, and estuaries?” The review found that most investigations have focused on temperate rivers where sand mining occurred historically but has now ceased. Channel incision was the most common physical impact identified; other physical responses, including habitat disturbance, alteration of riparian zones, and changes to downstream sediment transport, were highly variable and dependant on river characteristics. Ecosystem attributes affected included macroinvertebrate drift, fish movements, species abundance and community structures, and food web dynamics. Studies often inferred impacts on populations, but supporting data were scarce. Limited evidence suggests that rivers can sustain extraction if volumes are within the natural sediment load variability. Significantly, the countries and rivers for which there is science‐based evidence related to sand mining are not those where extensive sand mining is currently reported. The lack of scientific and systematic studies of sand mining in these countries prevents accurate quantification of mined volumes or the type, extent, and magnitude of any impacts. Additional research into how sand mining is affecting ecosystem services, impacting biodiversity and particularly threatened species, and how mining impacts interact with other activities or threats is urgently required.
... Contaminated riverbed sediments can act both as the source and sink of dissolved metals in river water. The bioavailability of metals in river water can be affected by the chemical exchange between water and sediment, suspension, and/or colloidal particles (e.g., Ho et al., 2012;Lee et al., 2003;Woitke et al., 2003;Nasrabadi et al., 2016;Ciffroy et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2020). The transfer of metals from sediment to the water column is sensitive to several distinct parameters, for example, the redox potential, pH, and concentration of some anions, particularly phosphate and sulfate (e.g., Polizzotto et al., 2008;Frau et al., 2008;Postma et al., 2010;Rubinos et al., 2011;Ho et al., 2012). ...
Article
On January 25, 2019, a tailings dam at the Córrego do Feijão iron ore mine (Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, southern Brazil) ruptured and released ~12 million m 3 of mine tailings into the Paraopeba River, which is an important source of drinking water to a populous region. While water potability due to a strong increase in turbidity has been well documented, possible effects of metal contamination are yet to be addressed. We investigated the speciation of metals in the river water and desorption of metals from sediments as a means of supporting risk assessment, using the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique, desorption experiments and chemical speciation calculations. The results of the in-situ DGT monitoring revealed that the labile concentrations of metals were low in relation to the respective total and dissolved concentrations. Chemical speciation calculations showed that the heavy metals were not stable in the Paraopeba River. The desorption experiments suggested that sediments may release a limited amount of As and Cu, but large amounts of Mn into the river water. Higher concentrations of Fe and Mn indicated a possible association with the impact of mine tailings. In general, the total metal concentrations during the rainy season were higher than those during the dry season, whereas the reverse was generally the case for labile forms. This pattern reveals that metal speciation is intrinsically dependent on the seasonal variation of the hydrological conditions.
... In addition, water turbidity in the KRB has a significant positive correlation with both THg (R 2 = 0.68, P b 0.001) and PHg (R 2 = 0.75, P b 0.001) (SI, Fig. S3). Study has pointed out that water turbidity as a proxy of SPM and both of them are good indicators that can reveal pollutants combined with particulate matter and can determine the flux of pollutants (Nasrabadi et al., 2016). Therefore, the relationship between mercury and turbidity in the water of the KRB may also demonstrate the binding relationship between mercury and SPM. ...
... Table 5, a high correlation between turbidity and color is observed, with a correlation index of 0.908926. In the literature, color and turbidity have also been to be linearly correlated [50], as turbidity concentrations in water can be affected by the colored dissolved organic matter [51]. Apart from turbidity and color, turbidity and TSS are also observed to be highly correlated with a correlation index of 0.907. ...
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Despite the potential applicability of the combination between aluminium (anode) and graphite or titanium (cathode) for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment, their technical and economic feasibilities have not been comprehensively captured. In this study, aluminium (anode) and graphite and titanium as cathode electrode materials were investigated and compared in terms of their performance on poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. The wastewater samples collected from the Izhevsk Production Corporative (PC) poultry farm in Kazakhstan were treated using a lab-based electrochemical treatment plant and then analyzed after every 20 and 40 min of the treatment processes. Cost analysis for both electrode combinations was also performed. From the analysis results, the aluminium-graphite electrode combination achieved high removal efficiency from turbidity, color, nitrite, phosphates, and chemical oxygen demand, with removal efficiency ranging from 72% to 98% after 20 min, as well as 88% to 100% after 40 min. A similar phenomenon was also observed from the aluminium-titanium electrode combination, with high removal efficiency achieved from turbidity, color, total suspended solids, nitrite, phosphates, and chemical oxygen demand, ranging from 81% to 100% after 20 min as well as from 91% to 100% after 40 min. This means the treatment performances for both aluminium-graphite and aluminium-titanium electrode combinations were highly affected by the contact time. The general performance in terms of removal efficiency indicates that the aluminium-titanium electrode combination outperformed the aluminium-graphite electrode combination. However, the inert character of the graphite electrode led to a positive impact on the total operating cost. Therefore, the aluminium-graphite electrode combination was observed to be cheaper than the aluminium-titanium electrode combination in terms of the operating cost.
... Correlations between turbidity and total pollutant concentrations to evaluate the dissolved and particle-bound concentrations of major toxic metals are observed for rivers (Nasrabadi et al. 2016;Yao et al. 2016) and karst aquifers (Pešić et al. 2020). Yao et al. (2016) reported good linear relationship (R 2 in range 0.85-0.93) ...
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In recent years, the concentration of aluminium in the Iskar River occasionally exceeds the environmental quality standard (EQS). The river and the Iskar Dam, build on the river, are the main drinking water source of Sofia city (Bulgaria), with population exceeding 1.2 million. The average concentrations of aluminium in the raw water entering the drinking water treatment plants of Sofia city–Bistritza and Pancharevo–in 2018 were 0.148 mg/L and 0.199 mg/L, respectively which are very close to the limits set in Directive 98/83/EC. This study uses multifactorial analysis, taking into account the influence of the mineral and chemical composition of sediments of the Iskar Dam, the geological conditions at the dam`s catchment area, the relationship between the aluminium concentrations and precipitation in the region and also the relationship between the aluminium concentration and the turbidity at the inlet of the two treatment plants, to determine the origin of aluminium in the raw drinking water of Sofia city. The obtained linear regression models for the aluminium concentration and the turbidity at the inlet are significant (p≤0.001) with coefficients of determination (R2) for DWTP–Bistritza and DWTP–Pancharevo of 0.54 and 0.51, respectively.
... (8) Pengukuran terhadap TSS dan turbidity dilakukan untuk memonitoring padatan tersuspensi di sungai dan melihat adanya fluks partikel dari polutan seperti logam berat dan metalloids di daerah tangkapan air. (11) Peningkatan zat-zat mineral dan kuantitas pembuangan sampah sebanding dengan peningkatan TSS. (12) Shafizah et al. menyebutkan bahwa FOG (Fat, Oil, and Grease) perlu mengalami esterifikasi untuk mengurangi FFA. ...
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Background: Industry produces a lot of waste so that it can increase pollution, for exemplify is water. The purpose of writing this research is to determine the compliance of PT INKA (Persero) with the applicable legal rules, namely the Governor of East Java Regulation Number 52 of 2014 in the sustainable measurement period 2015 to 2019. Method: This study used a cross-sectional design with analysis using secondary data from monitoring the quality of domestic wastewater. The testing of domestic wastewater samples was carried out by a third party that had been trusted by PT INKA (Persero) and was by following legal regulations. Almost all of the outlet domestic wastewater quality in the 2015-2019 period was fulfilled by following the Regulation of the Governor of East Java Number 52 of 2014. Result: All measurements from 2015 to 2019 stated that all parameter measurement results (pH, BOD5, TSS, and oil and grease) had met the applicable regulations, namely the Governor of East Java Regulation Number 52 of 2014. However, the COD parameter had one result that exceeded, namely in the third quarter of 2015. The result was 99.16 mg / L, while the maximum value contained in the regulation was 50 mg / L. Conclusion: The majority of the results of PT INKA (Persero) 's domestic wastewater quality measurement have complied with the applicable regulations. However, further research is expected to carry out qualitative measurements related to the way PT INKA (Persero) maintains the quality of domestic wastewater.
... In the literature it is referred to variously as total suspended matter, suspended sediment concentration, and particulate matter, though the precise definitions of these terms sometimes vary. Monitoring TSS fluxes has strong implications for biogeochemical cycling in terms of nutrient transport [100], heavy metal loading [101], light conditions [102], and global carbon budgets [103]. Terrestrial carbon deposition into lakes and reservoirs, largely in the form of TSS, is double that of deposition into the ocean [104,105], despite lakes comprising only 3%-3.7% of the total land area [106,107]. ...
Article
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Remote sensing approaches to measuring inland water quality date back nearly 50 years to the beginning of the satellite era. Over this time span, hundreds of peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated promising remote sensing models to estimate biological, chemical, and physical properties of inland waterbodies. Until recently, most of these publications focused largely on algorithm development as opposed to implementation of those algorithms to address specific science questions. This slow evolution contrasts with terrestrial and oceanic remote sensing, where methods development in the 1970s led to publications focused on understanding spatially expansive, complex processes as early as the mid-1980s. This review explores the progression of inland water quality remote sensing from methodological development to scientific applications. We use bibliometric analysis to assess overall patterns in the field and subsequently examine 236 key papers to identify trends in research focus and scale. The results highlight an initial 30 year period where the majority of publications focused on model development and validation followed by a spike in publications, beginning in the early-2000s, applying remote sensing models to analyze spatiotemporal trends, drivers, and impacts of changing water quality on ecosystems and human populations. Recent and emerging resources, including improved data availability and enhanced processing platforms, are enabling researchers to address challenging science questions and model spatiotemporally explicit patterns in water quality. Examination of the literature shows that the past 10–15 years has brought about a focal shift within the field, where researchers are using improved computing resources, datasets, and operational remote sensing algorithms to better understand complex inland water systems. Future satellite missions promise to continue these improvements by providing observational continuity with spatial/spectral resolutions ideal for inland waters.
... In all the remote sensing-based techniques available in the literature for water quality analysis, the optical properties of surface water are the main input variables being used directly or indirectly in the algorithm, for which the clear and cloud-free satellite images are required (Ritchie and Cooper, 2001;Ritchie et al., 2003;Nechad et al., 2009;Dogliotti et al., 2015;Nasrabadi et al., 2016). However, during the monsoon (rainy) season in the tropical climate, it is nearly impossible to get the cloud-free satellite images. ...
Article
Recently, the optical remote sensing technique is effectively applied to monitor real-time water quality parameters at finer spatiotemporal scales that are mostly based on the surface reflectance of satellite images. However, during the rainy season due to cloudy or hazy satellite images, it is a great challenge to obtain the surface reflectances and to estimate the pollutant concentration. This study is specially focused on developing a novel approach to estimate the daily-scale pollutant concentrations in ungauged rivers during cloudy days. The developed approach integrates the simplified physically-based VPMM-AD(ΨDc) solute transport model with the remote sensing (RS)-based approach for assessing the non-reactive river pollutants in real-time. This integrated VPMM-AD(ΨDc)-RS approach is tested for simulating the in-situ heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd) and total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations in the Brahmani River during the tropical monsoon (rainy) seasons of the typical years 2010–2013. The study results reveal that the proposed integrated approach performed reasonably well with acceptable accuracy for real-time estimation of pollutant concentrations in the considered ungauged river reach during the cloudy period.
... However, too little suspended sediment can contribute to increased channel erosion, habitat degradation, nutrient depletion, and alter aquatic ecosystem functioning [9,10]. Suspended sediment also serves as an important mechanism of transport for many pollutants of concern [11][12][13]. ...
Article
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Suspended sediment is an important constituent of freshwater ecosystems that supports biogeochemical, geomorphological, and ecological processes. Current knowledge of suspended sediment is largely based on surface water studies; however, improved understanding of surface and in situ groundwater suspended sediment processes will improve pollutant loading estimates and watershed remediation strategies. A study was conducted in a representative mixed-use, agro-forested catchment of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of the northeast, USA, utilizing an experimental watershed study design, including eight nested sub-catchments. Stream water and shallow groundwater grab samples were collected monthly from January 2020 to December 2020 (n = 192). Water samples were analyzed for suspended sediment using gravimetric (mg/L) and laser particle diffraction (�m) analytical methods. Results showed that shallow groundwater contained significantly higher (p < 0.001) total suspended solid concentrations and smaller particle sizes, relative to stream water. Differences were attributed to variability between sites in terms of soil composition, land use/land cover, and surficial geology, and also the shallow groundwater sampling method used. Results hold important implications for pollutant transport estimates and biogeochemical modeling in agro-forested watersheds. Continued work is needed to improve shallow groundwater suspended sediment characterization (i.e., mass and particle sizes) and the utility of this information for strategies that are designed to meet water quality goals.
... In the non-city river stretch, an industrial sewer flows into the river Ganga (83.03°E 25.24°N). The industrial waste consists primarily of heavy metals, which can increase the river temperature (Kefford, 1998) as well as the turbidity (Nasrabadi et al., 2016). The sandbar increases the turbidity for the non-city river stretch also. ...
Article
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The fluctuation in the river ecosystem network due to climate change-induced global warming affects aquatic organisms, water quality, and other ecological processes. Assessment of climate change-induced global warming impacts on regional hydrological processes is vital for effective water resource management and planning. The global warming efect on river water quality has been analyzed in this work. The river Ganga stretch near the Varanasi region has been chosen as the study area for this analysis. The air temperature has been predicted using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and the Prophet model. The Prophet model has shown better accuracy with a root mean square percent error (RMSPE) value of 3.2% compared to the SARIMA model, which has an RMPSE value of 7.54%. The river temperature, turbidity, and nighttime radiance values have been predicted for the years 2022 and 2025 using the long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm. The anthropogenic effect on the river has been evaluated by using the nighttime radiance imageries. The predicted average river temperature shows an increment of 0.58 °C and 0.63 °C for the city and non-city river stretches, respectively, in 2025 compared to 2022. Similarly, the river turbidity shows an increment of 1.21 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) and 1.17 NTU for the city and non-city stretch, respectively, in 2025 compared to 2022. For future predicted years, the nighttime radiance values for the region situated near the city river stretch show a significant rise compared to the region that lies nearby the non-city river stretch.
... TSS (Total suspended substance) is an important part of the water environment, TSS is sensitive to pollution source, climate change and Land use/ cover change [5][6][7], it is better indicator material for regional environmental changes. Studies have shown that TSS plays an important role in ammonia nitrogen conversion [8], phosphorus adsorption [9], heavy metal transport [10] and fish habitat protection [11]. However, current researches on the urban river environment in Dianchi River Basin are [12][13]. ...
... In the literature it is referred to variously as total suspended matter, suspended sediment concentration, and particulate matter, though the precise definitions of these terms sometimes vary. Monitoring TSS fluxes has strong implications for biogeochemical cycling in terms of nutrient transport [100], heavy metal loading [101], light conditions [102], and global carbon budgets [103]. Terrestrial carbon deposition into lakes and reservoirs, largely in the form of TSS, is double that of deposition into the ocean [104,105], despite lakes comprising only 3%-3.7% of the total land area [106,107]. ...
Preprint
Remote sensing approaches to measuring inland water quality date back nearly 50 years to the beginning of the satellite era. Over this time span, hundreds of peer reviewed publications have demonstrated promising remote sensing models to estimate biological, chemical, and physical properties of inland waterbodies. Until recently, most of these publications focused largely on algorithm development as opposed to implementation of those algorithms to address specific science questions. This slow evolution contrasts with terrestrial and oceanic remote sensing, where methods development in the 1970s led to publications focused on understanding spatially expansive, complex processes as early as the mid-1980s. This review explores the progression of inland water quality remote sensing from methodological development to scientific applications. We use bibliometric analysis to assess overall patterns in the field and subsequently examine 236 key papers to identify trends in research focus and scale. The results highlight an initial 30-year period where the majority of publications focused on model development and validation followed by a spike in publications, beginning in the early-2000s, applying remote sensing models to analyze spatiotemporal trends, drivers, and impacts of changing water quality on ecosystems and human populations. Recent and emerging resources, including improved data availability and enhanced processing platforms, are enabling researchers to address challenging science questions and model spatiotemporally explicit patterns in water quality. Examination of the literature shows that the past 10-15 years has brought about a focal shift within the field, where researchers are using improved computing resources, data sets, and operational remote sensing algorithms to better understand complex inland water systems. Future satellite missions promise to continue these improvements by providing observational continuity with spatial/spectral resolutions ideal for inland waters.
... Fate and transport of metals in different environments is rather complicated due to their resistance characteristics against degradation (Qing et al. 2015;Nasrabadi et al. 2016;Saffari 2018). Furthermore, transformation mechanisms within various interaction statues (air, water, soil/sediments, rocks, and colloids) reinforce such complexity (Jamshidi and Bastami 2016). ...
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Multiple parameters may affect the fate of metals between solid and liquid phases in estuarine zones. The present investigation brings out the roles of salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO) in flocculation of colloidal metals and their subsequent remobilization during estuarine mixing. For this purpose, a series of aquaria containing river water with different salinity regimes under both natural and aerated conditions were set up. The same process was repeated in the second round of the experiments, while fine suspended sediments were added to the aquaria. Except for Cu and Zn, a remarkable increase in flocculation rate of metals was observed under aerated conditions (around 20% increase in DO value) in comparison with natural conditions. The flocculation pattern under natural conditions can be summarized as Zn (49.3%) > Cu (34.1%) > Ni (27.5%) > Mn (3.37%) > Pb (1.3%), while under aerated conditions, the pattern changes to Ni (62.5%) > Zn (53.4%) > Cu (34.1%) > Pb (20.7%) > Mn (18.7%). Most of flocculated metal contents were achieved in lower salinities (0.8 to 1.9 Psu). Mobility potential of all metals in sediments showed a decreasing trend at higher salinities from 5.9% for Zn to 30% for Pb. The reason behind the decreasing trend can be attributed to the lower metal concentrations reaching higher salinity regimes. In other words, much of metal contents floc at lower salinity regimes and very minute amount is left over for higher salinities. On the contrary, DO concentration has a remarkable effect on increasing the mobility potential of most of metals. The proportional increase order shows a decreasing pattern of Pb (80.1%) > Cu (54%) > Zn (23.3%) > Ni (14.1%). However, it should be noted that Mn due to its different affinity in fractionation schemes revealed relatively lower mobility under aerated conditions.
... However, if a good correlation between TSS and turbidity is developed, then turbidity may serve as a proxy for suspended solids and pollutant concentrations within a chosen basin. This was observed by Nasrabadi et al. [6] and Holliday et al. [7]. ...
Article
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A high concentration of total solids will make drinking water unpalatable and might have an adverse effect on people who are not used to drinking such water. Levels of total solids that are too high or too low can also reduce the efficiency of water treatment plants, as well as the operation of industrial processes that use raw water. The estimation of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) is very much important in relation to the selection of proper treatment process. The direct measurement of TSS is relatively costlier and time consuming than turbidity measurement. Though universal correlation does not exist, there are many investigations showing that turbidity is in relation with suspended sediments. For example, Model developed for Turbidity & TSS for the Sitnica river, Kosovo, shows the coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.8687, for fourteen rivers around Singapore R 2 = 0.80 & for urbanizing streams at Washington, USA, R 2 = 0.96. The aim of this work is to establish a regression model that would enable the measurement of TSS in the Shitalakhya river at Dhaka through the measurements of turbidity. TSS & Turbidity concentration was measured daily throughout the year 2017 and the regression model was developed to surrogate turbidity for TSS. It is found that for the year 2017 as a whole the R 2 = 0.48, for the dry and wet season they were 0.51 & 0.59 respectively, which are not excellent but fairly good correlation. When calculating the regression equation for every month we found that R 2 varies from 0.04 to 0.79, and half of the twelve values fall below 0.2. Thus for this particular site, the use of turbidity as a surrogate to TSS for individual monthly measurement is not effective throughout, however, to get an instantaneous idea of pollution during dry and wet season as a whole, the model can be used.
... Moreover, turbidity in meltwater runoff had a significant positive correlation with TSP, and both had a significant correlation with THg (Fig. 5, a and b). Nasrabadi et al. (2016) found that water turbidity could serve as a proxy of suspended solids, and both turbidity and TSP were good indicators of pollutants. Hence, water turbidity can be used for predicting the export of TSP and Hg in meltwater runoff in the future. ...
Article
Glaciers in the Himalayan region have been receding rapidly in recent decades, drawing increasing concerns about the release of legacy pollutants (e.g., mercury (Hg)). To investigate the distribution, transport and controlling factors of Hg in glacier-fed runoff, from June 2019 to July 2020, a continuous monitoring and an intensive sampling campaign were conducted in the Rongbuk Glacier-fed basin (RGB) on the north slope of Mt. Everest in the middle Himalayas. The total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations were 1.56 ± 0.85 and 0.057 ± 0.025 ng/L, respectively, which were comparable to the global background levels and were mainly affected by the total suspended particulate matter (TSP). In addition, THg and MeHg showed significant diurnal variations, with peak values appearing at approximately 17:00 (upstream) and 19:00 (downstream). Based on the annual runoff and average Hg concentration, the annual export fluxes of THg and MeHg were estimated to be 441 g and 16 g, respectively. The yields of THg and MeHg in the RGB were 1.6 and 0.06 μg/m²/year, respectively. Currently, the annual Hg export of meltwater runoff in the Himalayan region is approximately 337 kg/year. When flowing through the proglacial lake, the THg concentrations decreased by 32% and 15% in the proglacial lake water and in the outlet, respectively, indicating that proglacial lakes had a sedimentation effect on the Hg transport. The Hg export from meltwater runoff in the Himalayas will likely increase considering the meltwater runoff has been projected to increase in the future. Nonetheless, emerging proglacial lakes may exert ambiguous effects on the glacier exported Hg under changing climate. Proglacial lakes could lower the levels and amounts of Hg in the glacier runoff, whereas the outburst of proglacial lakes could lead to an instantaneous release of Hg stored in lake waters and sediments. Our analysis shed light on the environmental impact of glacier retreat in the Himalayas and highlighted the need for integrated monitoring and study of Hg in glacier runoff and glacial lakes.
... INTRODUCTION  Soil as a reciprocal media (both source and sink of metallic pollution) has been widely studied so far and a variety of detection, monitoring and reclamation techniques are introduced by different researchers (Mehrdadi et al., 2009;Nasrabadi et al., 2010;Afkhami et al., 2013;Karbassi et al., * Corresponding Author Email: tnasrabadi@ut.ac.ir 2014; Nasrabadi et al., 2016). Plants are used by many researchers to show the intensity of pollution in urban areas as well as road sides that are originated from various sources (Tomašević et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Urban soil pollution has become a major concern in megacities around the world. Due to their non-degradable characteristic, toxic metals are among the most notorious pollutants. In this study determination of total and bioavailable fraction of toxic metals Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb and Mn, in surface soils of district 16 th in Tehran municipality is considered. Furthermore, metals uptake potential of a variety of endemic plants is also investigated. Forty one surface soil samples and eleven composite leaf samples were collected within the study area in winter 2015. Except for Cd and Pb, other toxic metals showed generally lower concentrations in comparison with shale and mean earth crust values. Intensified traffic load within the district may be considered as the main reason for such augmented concentrations. The order of bioavailable fraction from total metal concentrations detected to be as: Zn(2.78%) > Cd(2.71%) > Co(1.92%) > Mn(1.79%) > Cu(1.59%) > Pb(.89%) > Ni(.7%) > Cr(.4%). Concentration of different metals in leaf samples revealed that berry, eucalyptus, plane and acacia are more capable in comparison with others in translocating toxic metals from soil. Paying more attention to pollution removal capability of urban plants may play a key role in sustainable municipal management of megacities like Tehran.
... As seen in Tables 7-9, a correlation between turbidity and color was observed. Color and turbidity are linearly correlated [50] as turbidity measurements may be affected by colored dissolved organic matter [51] and the formed iron monomeric species. The high correlation between turbidity and TSS is linked to the fact that TSS is among the primary factors affecting turbidity as turbidity is a measure of how well light passes through the liquid, while TSS is a quantitative expression of particles in suspension [52]. ...
Article
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Understanding the efficiency of different wastewater treatment technologies tested under real conditions is essential for successful decision making by engineers and managers. In this study, real poultry slaughterhouse wastewater coming from defeathering, cooling, and evisceration processes was treated using a lab-scale electrochemical process by use of iron-iron (Fe-Fe), iron-graphite (Fe-Gr) and aluminum-graphite (Al-Gr) electrode combinations. A water quality index (WQI) was developed and used as a tool for evaluating and classifying the effectiveness of different electrode combinations. The Al-Gr electrode combination showed an impressive performance achieving an “excellent” status for all of the three studied sources of wastewater with a WQI ranging from 13 to 34. The Fe-Gr electrode combination showed an “excellent” status performance for the wastewater from the cooling process as classified by the WQI and “good water” class for the defeathering and evisceration processes. The lower performance, which was highly affected by the increase in turbidity, was observed for the Fe-Fe electrode combination with a “poor water” status for the wastewater coming from defeathering and cooling processes and “good water” status for evisceration process.
... By causing light to be scattered, the concentration of suspended particles may have a meaningful correlation to turbidity. Although a variety of parameters, such as density, size and shape of particles as well as water colour, may affect the relationship between the values of TSS and turbidity (Nasrabadi et al. 2016). The correlations between TSS and turbidity have been discussed in detail in a wide range of case studies. ...
Article
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Background A landslide dam always has the potential for catastrophic failure with high risk for life, cost and, property damage at the downstream site. The formation of a landslide dam is a natural process; thus, minimizing the risk due to its failure is important. Landslide dam failure can be categorized into three types: seepage failure, overtopping and slope failure. As described by other researchers, the established premonitory factors of landslide dam failure are hydraulic gradients, seepage and turbidity as well as vertical displacement and inflow into the reservoir. Methodology This study only considered seepage failure and used flume experiments to understand it. Three groups of samples which represented fine, medium and coarse particle sizes, respectively, were prepared by Silica sand S4, S5, S6 and S8 of different proportion. These samples were used to conduct the flume experiments of failure and not failure case. Result For failure cases, it was found that GI samples have a higher hydraulic gradient and that the seepage water takes time to exit the dam body—however, the seepage water has more TSS. GII samples also had a higher hydraulic gradient, while the flow of seepage water was faster than that of the fine sample with a low TSS. For GIII samples, the hydraulic gradient was very low in comparison with the GI and GII samples. The GIII samples had TSS values that were quite a bit higher than those of the GII samples and lower than those of the GI samples. Experiments on GI samples failed at each attempt; however, the GI samples with kaolinite did not fail and had a higher TSS value. For a GII sample of a non-failed case, the hydraulic gradient was lower than for GI samples and the seepage water flow was faster but the vertical displacement was constant and TSS was on a decreasing order. For a GIII sample, the hydraulic gradient became constant after reaching its initial peak value and TSS was on a decreasing order with an initially increasing vertical displacement that would become constant. Conclusion Seepage failure of a landslide dam can be predicted by understanding the nature of its premonitory factors. These factors behave differently in different particle size samples. The TSS trend line may be the initial factor for checking the stability of a dam crest. A landslide dam with an increasing TSS order will fail and a decreasing order may not fail. Based on all experiments, it can be concluded that the hydraulic gradient has three stages: 1) it starts to increase and reaches a peak value; 2) it starts to decrease from the peak value and reaches a minimum; and 3) it starts to increase again where the seepage water begins to come out and the vertical displacement starts to increase. Dam failures always occur when seepage water comes out with an increasing TSS and an increasing vertical displacement. Repeated experiments on samples having more fine particles show that if a landslide dam is formed by fine particles, then there would be a high chance of its failure. In case of a constant hydraulic gradient, the landslide dam would be stable whenever there is an increasing vertical displacement and presence of TSS. Similarly, in case of a constant vertical displacement and a decreasing TSS, a landslide dam would be stable.
... Turbidity is a measure of soluble, suspended and colloidal particles, whereas TSS calculations typically only measure those particles greater than 0.45 µm diameter. Since there was a general relationship of y = 0.8x (Fig. 3a), it may be estimated that up to 20% of the turbidity values could be due to the presence of very fine particulates, including metal colloids and other contaminants, considering that water colour, particle shape and density also affect optical measurements (Nasrabadi et al. 2016). ...
Article
Historical water quality datasets from the Fitzroy Basin, a large river system that receives mine-affected water from more than 40 mines, and drains into the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, were analysed. There is great public and environmental interest in these waters that are used for agriculture, recreation and raw drinking water supplies. Aside from one AMD-impacted area, waters were generally alkaline. Turbidity data regularly exceeded the regional water quality objective (< 50 NTU), indicating the presence of particulates that may accumulate or transport metal contaminants within the waters. Analyses of data for 14 metals showed dissolved Cu and Al, followed by Zn, were the parameters that were most often greater than Australian toxicant guideline values. Analysis of coal mine-affected water samples and the receiving creek data, showed that median turbidity was greater downstream than upstream of the mine water release points, suggesting release-water may contain particulate-bound metals. Median dissolved Al and Cu concentrations were lower downstream than upstream and were above guidelines. Preliminary modelling using WHAM7 suggested downstream dissolved Cu (2–5 µg/L) was bound to fulvic acid and was likely not bioavailable. Dissolved Al (170–550 µg/L) may have existed as Al(OH)4⁻. Overall, suspended particulate matter appeared to be a water quality parameter of interest in this mine-affected river basin. Further targeted sampling, direct measurement of particulate-bound metals and multivariate statistical analysis are needed to help better understand metal partitioning in these turbid, alkaline waters.
... Conversely, turbidity is defined as the measure of relative clarity of water. The parameter is positively correlated with SS in which it assesses the intensity of light that can penetrate through the surface of water body [17]. Increased turbidity affects the growth of aquatic plants due to reduced amount of light required for photosynthesis. ...
Article
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p>Water quality plays a major role in issues related to public health and marine life. Hence, monitoring river for contaminations is vital for ensuring safe and sustainable water resources. Conventional method for assessing water quality index is costly as it requires considerable amount of time and laboratory resources. Therefore, this study proposes a water quality index model based on artificial neural network. A six-year data for Air Busuk River is obtained from the Department of Environment. Dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, and ammoniacal nitrogen has shown high correlation with water quality index. The water quality index model is then developed based on these parameters, employing the non-linear autoregressive with exogeneous input structure. Generally, the model which is based on three chemical parameters has shown satisfactory performance with overall regression of 0.8767 and passed the correlation function tests. The model offers a potentially efficient method for assessing water quality with cost-saving benefits for government agencies and monitoring authorities.</p
... and moderately correlated with Cr (r = 0.508, p = .002). In the urban context, heavy metals such as Pb are often attributed to traffic-related pollutants (Herngren et al., 2005) and the metals are often found to be attached to suspended solids (Bodo, 1989;Dong et al., 1984;Nasrabadi et al., 2016). In addition, the slightly alkaline environment of the river water favors the particulate metal phase over the dissolved one. ...
Article
Although a large number of river restoration projects have been implemented around the world, quantitative outcomes of the projects are often not well documented. The main purpose of this study is to assess changes in water quality of two completed river restoration projects, which convert heavily channelized streams into more natural conditions using nature-based solutions. Another purpose is to examine factors behind changes in water quality, based on which to identify possible ways to improve the design and operation management of similar projects in the future. An upstream-downstream sampling approach was used, making it possible to directly compare changes in water quality before and after the restored sites by reducing variations due to seasonality, land use, and other uncontrollable external factors. A number of water quality parameters were tested, and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the restored sites and the correlations of water quality parameters. General improvements in water quality were found at one of the restoration sites, but not at the other. It was found that not only water quality but also the effects of restoration on water quality is subject to seasonal variations. Correlations between certain water quality parameters point to some common sources of pollution in the urban context. Possible causes behind the performance difference of the two sites are discussed, and improvements on design and operation management practices are recommended.
... Such turbidity-based monitoring has been suggested in [9] which has inspired us to use in the model. Besides the proposed model in [10,11] has also done relatable work using turbidity and TSS values. The lab test conducted by the research team found relatable data with TSS and Turbidity values comparing unprocessed and processed data. ...
... The increase in zinc levels in water after the application of the tested precipitating preparations can be explained by the fact that they cause the formation of sludge and colloidal suspensions in the water, which, according to literature, can accumulate heavy metals in natural conditionsthe metals occur in absorbed forms on colloid particles (Anmar et al., 1993;Nasrabadi et al., 2016). Characteristics of pike eggs and larvae. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of iron coagulant (IC), aluminum coagulant (AC) and lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) on the embryogenesis of pike. Physicochemical indicators of the water were determined according to the methods recommended by APHA (1999). The applied precipitating agents (IC, AC, LMB) at appropriate concentrations were sprayed on the surface of water in aquariums with the pike eggs placed on nets. The eggs were observed under a microscope, documenting their development using digital photography NIS Elements Br software. The number of fertilized eggs, embryo survival, and the percentage of malformed larvae were determined. The pike eggs and hatched larvae were recorded and measured. The percentage of fertilized eggs was found to be the highest in the control sample (LW) and in the IC sample (94% and 93.3%, respectively), 85.9% in the AC sample and 81.8% in the LMB sample. The pace of pike embryogenesis in the samples was identical – the embryos in both the control and other samples reached individual stages of embryonic development with an equal number of degree days (DD). The IC group hatched the earliest, and the control sample was the last to hatch (LW). In the control sample, the hatched larvae were the longest and had the lowest percentage of malformed individuals. The control sample also had the highest rate of embryo survival (85.9%), while the lowest was in the LMB sample (68.6%). These results indicate that the application of precipitating measures to improve water quality should not coincide with the periods of fish reproduction.
... The Buddha Nala (drain) which drains into Satluj River is known to carry major effluent load of Ludhiana City, one of the most polluted industrial cities of India where industries are primarily engaged in the manufacture of machine parts, chemicals, hosiery, leather, dyeing, electroplating etc. [9,10]. The metallic toxicity depends on the nature and amount of element present in the ecosystem besides its water chemistry [11][12][13][14][15][16]. Some of the elements are required by aquatic organism/biota in trace amount for their biochemical life process [17,18]. ...
Article
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The study of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and concentration distribution of multielements including toxic elements in river–wetland ecosystem at different locations of Satluj River and Harike Wetland were carried out to understand the mobilization behavior of elements including toxic elements. The concentrations of multi-elements in water and sediments were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) utilizing reactor neutrons, respectively. The concentration values are found to be within permissible limit set by WHO and BIS. The concentration factors of selected common elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and As were evaluated utilizing their corresponding concentrations in water and sediment samples.
Article
Understanding the occurrence and fate of antibiotics from different categories is vital to predict their environmental exposure and risks. This study presents the spatiotemporal occurrence of 45 multi-class antibiotics and their associations with suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Xiaoqing River (XRB) and Yellow River (YRB) via 10-month monitoring in East China. Thirty-five and 31 antibiotics were detected in XRB and YRB, respectively. Among them, fluoroquinolones (FQs) had the highest total mean concentration (up to 24.8 μg/L in XRB and 15.4 μg/L in YRB), followed by sulfonamides (SAs) (14.0 μg/L and 15.4 μg/L) and macrolides (MLs) (1.1 μg/L and 1.6 μg/L). Significant spatial-temporal variations were found in both rivers where higher concentrations of antibiotics were observed in urban and densely populated areas during winter and spring. Hydrological factors such as river flow and water volume, instream attenuation and antibiotic usage may cause the observed variabilities in the seasonal patterns of antibiotic pollution. Using linear regression analysis, for the first time, this study confirmed that the total concentrations of MLs (p < 0.05), FQs (p < 0.001) and SAs (p < 0.001) were strongly correlated with the turbidity/total suspended solids in the studied rivers (except MLs in YRB). It is thus suggested that partitioning processes onto SPM might affect the distribution of detected antibiotics in rivers, which are largely dependent on SPM composition and characteristics. The risk quotient (RQ) determined for up to 87 % of individual compound was below 0.1 in both rivers; however, the high joint toxicity reflected by the mixed RQs of detected antibiotics may rise risk alarm for aquatic species. Further aspects regarding active mechanisms of SPM-antibiotic interactions and ecological risks of coexistence of multiple antibiotics need to be investigated.
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Twenty water samples from a river system in southern Caspian Sea basin were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters and metals (Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Mn). In order to evaluate the risk potential of metal pollution in river water, use of two indices namely heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and contamination index (Cd) accompanied by cluster analysis was taken in to consideration. Stations located within the upstream of the river (1 to 13) seemed to encounter low risk potentials while the downstream stations (14 to 20) approved to hold higher risks. The results also showed relatively meaningful correlation among different metals which may be attributed to their same entry source, mainly mining and quarrying activities in the central parts of the basin following by municipal and industrial wastewater discharge to the river in downstream. The convergence of both indices in this study was also of interest. Although the mean values of both indices were below the critical values, severe precautions must be taken into consideration especially in the stations holding high risk potentials. Extreme use of river water for drinking, agriculture and industrial purposes within the water basin, relatively biota-rich characteristic of the river and Caspian Sea as the final sink of the river are among the most significant reasons that make the river monitoring implementation inevitable.
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Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against TSS and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and TSS in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, TSS and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and TSS with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000NTU for the field samples and up to 8000NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and TSS vs. PAHs relationships - even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (>2000NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events.
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Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against TSS and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and TSS in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, TSS and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and TSS with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the field samples and up to 8000 NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and TSS vs. PAHs relationships — even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (> 2000 NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events.
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Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC–MS and GC–MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1300 m3 s− 1 and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L− 1. Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s− 1 (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s− 1 (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s− 1 (1038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s− 1 (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of organochlorine pollutants, thus reflecting different pollution origins.
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The usefulness of a differentiated approach to the interactive processes between water/biota and, even only operationally defned, solid phases has been clearly evidenced. The possible implications, e.g., during dredging operations, after land disposal of waste materials, from acid precipitation, for redoox changes in the subsoils, and for ingestion of polluted urban dust, can be quantitatively estimated, particularly when th physicochemical of the interacting environmental milieu are taken into consideration. The applications of the speciation approaches, as quoted in this chapter, are therefore convincing and increasing especially in the fields of civil engineering and geosciences. (1) Most of the instrumental techniques available are too sophisticated to be routinely included in trace elements speciation studies, though rapid progress has been achieved with analytical microscopy, PIXE, and the surface analysis techniques AES and SIMS. These are particularly valuable, providing collaborative information on the partitioning of trace elements in fine particles, and should be used in proving effectiveness of the sequential chemical extraction techniques. (2) The method of sequential chemical extraction is the least sophisticated and most conventional technique available for a speciation assessment. While geoscientists involved in environmental pollution studies have discussed this method extensively, it has also been shown that " a careless usage of the technique without an appreciation of its pitfalls and limitations must lead to further generation of erroneous or misleadinig data" (W.F. Pickering: Selective chemical exxtraction of soil components and bound metal species. CRC Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 12, 233, 1981): (3) We must be certain that we fully understand what is happening during extraction, minimize the possibility of producing artifacts, and choose standard procedures to ensure we are generating comparable results. Situations where extreactive techniques lack specificity and where application can cause erroneous results have been defined in this chapter. (4) The primary importance of proper sampling protocol has been emphasized, since the artifacts introduced by improper sample handling can override any limitations of the various reagents and extraction approaches. (5) The number of fractionation steps required depends on the purposes of the studiy. (6) Among the listed procedures, the scheme of Tessier et al. (A. Tessier, P.G.C. Campbell & M. Bisson: Squential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate metals. Anal. Chem. 51, 844, 1979) and its modifications has been most wiedely applied. It has proved adequate for the specific tasks being undertaken, ranging from estuarine sediment to waste material. and even to street dust. (7) This scheme is often too sophisticated for many purposes, leading to gretly enhanced time involvement and overall cost. A more sophisticated sequential extraction scheme such as Tessier's, however, significantly improves the specificity and efficiency of extraction, and the quality of information and comparability with other studies made in this field.
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