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A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive Muscular Relaxation Technique(PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing

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Abstract

Stress is defined as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand placed upon it”. The study seeks to assess the stress level among the Employed women and house wives and its management through Progressive muscle relaxation (PMRT) and Mindfulness breathing. It made use of purposive sampling in selecting the 100 women 50 employed (working) and 50 housewives. The sample responded to the valid and reliable instrument. Sings personal stress source inventory was used to assess the level of Stress. Pre and posttest research design was used. Here the ‘t’ stat was used to calculate the significance of difference t=7.280 which was significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results reveal that the stress level was high among the Employed women in comparison to house wives. Intervention sessions of Progressive muscular relaxation technique (PMRT) and mindfulness breathing were provided to the experimental group of 25 Employed women and no intervention was given to other 25 employed women i.e., control group. After the intervention posttest was taken t=23.778 significant at 0.05 level of significance in Experimental group and t=1.685 non-significant at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance in control group. This determined the significant decline in the stress level of Experimental group of employed women and no decline in the control group. The stress level was reduced from moderate to low level of stress.
Volume 6 • Issue 1 • 1000244
J Psychol Psychother
ISSN: 2161-0487 JPPT, an open access journal
Research Article Open Access
Kermane, J Psychol Psychother 2016, 6:1
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
Research Article Open Access
Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
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ISSN: 2161-0487
A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed Women and Housewives
and Its Management through Progressive Muscular Relaxation Technique
(PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing
Muntazir Maqbool Kermane*
Department of Psychology H.N.B Garhwal Central University Garhwal Uttarakhand, India
Keywords: Stress; Employed women; House wives; PMRT;
Mindfulness breathing
Introduction
Modern era is the era of science and technology where everyone is
striving to excel in his/her eld whether it is at home or at work place. In
this modern era, stress has become a universal phenomenon. Abrol [1]
discusses that every person wants more and more for the attainment of
pleasure, due to this competition is increased in every eld of life and this
competition generates stress among people, no doubt the competition is
must but we don’t ignore its result in the recent years as more and more
women are coming to take on many jobs. It is a general belief in many
cultures that the role of women is to build and maintain the homely
aairs like task of fetching water, cooking and rearing children. In the
traditional society, women’s role was naturally limited to the family.
Since she was the bearer of children, she was fully occupied with her
duties as a mother and homemaker. is was no small feat, since the
traditional household may be described as both a production and a
consumption unit. Man’s responsibility was to provide the household
with raw materials, which were then converted by the woman into
consumable products or conditions by means of rudimentary methods
and tools. Among the group of women, there is diversity of values.
Working women have dierent values than non- working women
and other adult women. In modern society the social and community
environment is full of social and moral pollution. Hence there are many
problems of working women in dierent elds [2].
Since the turn of the century, the status of women in India
has been changing due to growing industrialization, urbanization,
spatial mobility and social legislation. With the spread of education
and awareness, women have shied from kitchen to higher level of
professional activities. Rapid changes in traditional values, life styles,
competitiveness and industrialization are the few factors that have
changed the whole environment. is change in environment has
encouraged and motivated the women for search of work outside
the home, which creates stress in women who handled the role of
*Corresponding author: Muntazir Maqbool Kermane, Department of Psychol-
ogy HNBG Central University, Uttarakhand, India, Tel: 07895479866; E-mail:
peerzadamuntazir@gmail.com
Received January 04, 2016; Accepted February 17, 2016; Published February
26, 2016
Citation: Kermane MM (2016) A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed
Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive Muscular
Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing. J Psychol Psychother
6: 244. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
Copyright: © 2016 Kermane MM. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
housewife, mother and employed woman at a time. Many studies have
produced evidence to indicate that women report more psychological
distress than men [3].
In general, women are more likely than men to experience
physical symptoms of stress, such as fatigue, irritability, headaches and
depression. Women are also more likely than men to cope with job
stress with unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits [4,5].
Stress is dicult to dene precisely. e concept of stress was rst
introduced in the life sciences by Selye Hans in 1936. It was derived
from the Latin word ‘stringere’; it meant the experience of physical
hardship, starvation, torture and pain. Selye Hans, 1936 dened stress
as “the non-specic response of the body to any demand placed upon
it”. Further, stress was dened as “any external event or internal drive
which threatens to upset the organismic equilibrium” [6]. Another
denition given by Stephen [7] stress has been stated as “a dynamic
condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity,
constraint or demand related to what he/she desires and for which the
outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.” According
to Robbins and Sanghi [8] “A dynamic condition in which an individual
is confronted with an opportunity, constraints, or demand related to
what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be
Abstract
Stress is dened as “the non-specic response of the body to any demand placed upon it”. The study seeks to
assess the stress level among the Employed women and house wives and its management through Progressive
muscle relaxation (PMRT) and Mindfulness breathing. It made use of purposive sampling in selecting the 100
women 50 employed (working) and 50 housewives. The sample responded to the valid and reliable instrument.
Sings personal stress source inventory was used to assess the level of Stress. Pre and posttest research design was
used. Here the ‘t’ stat was used to calculate the signicance of difference t=7.280 which was signicant at 0.05 level
of signicance. Results reveal that the stress level was high among the Employed women in comparison to house
wives. Intervention sessions of Progressive muscular relaxation technique (PMRT) and mindfulness breathing were
provided to the experimental group of 25 Employed women and no intervention was given to other 25 employed
women i.e., control group. After the intervention posttest was taken t=23.778 signicant at 0.05 level of signicance
in Experimental group and t=1.685 non-signicant at 0.05 and 0.01 level of signicance in control group. This
determined the signicant decline in the stress level of Experimental group of employed women and no decline in
the control group. The stress level was reduced from moderate to low level of stress.
Citation: Kermane MM (2016) A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive
Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing. J Psychol Psychother 6: 244. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
Page 2 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 1 • 1000244
J Psychol Psychother
ISSN: 2161-0487 JPPT, an open access journal
both uncertain and important.” Stress aects not only our physical
health but our mental wellbeing, too.
Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique (PMRT)
Stress management programs such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis,
imagery, muscle relaxation, have shown improvement in positive coping
skills. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique developed by Dr.
Edmund Jacobson is a technique for reduction of stress and anxiety [9].
Jacobson theorized that anxiety and stress lead to muscle tension, which,
in turn, increases feelings of anxiety. When the body is in a relaxed state,
however, there is little muscle tension, leading to decreased anxious
feelings. Jacobson believed that if one’s body is relaxed, one’s mind
cannot be in a state of anger. Basically, a progressive muscle relaxation
exercise involves systematically constricting and relaxing various
muscle groups from your feet upward or your head downward. You
focus on tensing and relaxing muscle groups in the feet, legs, buttocks,
stomach, back, hands, arms, chest, shoulders, neck and face. To be most
eective, you should be sitting or lying down in a comfortable position.
Your eyes may be opened or closed, but most people nd closing their
eyes helps maintain focus during the exercise. is technique is easy to
learn and requires no constant guidance. Muscle tension accompanies
anxiety; one can reduce anxiety by learning how to relax the muscular
tension [10].
Mindfulness breathing
e denition of mindfulness in research, training and education is
evolving; the most popular denition is ‘‘paying attention in a particular
way; on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally”
[11]. Mindfulness training involves cultivating the ability to be aware
of our current thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations with kindness
and understanding. It creates a psychological ‘space’ between one’s
perception (e.g., stressful stimulus) and response (thoughts, speech and
actions). is enables us to respond wisely instead of react impulsively
with negative emotions [12]. In other words, mindfulness helps one to
mobilize the inner resources to face problems openly, to be aware of and
orient oneself to overcome the pressure, and propel oneself through it. It
is like a sailor positioning the sail and making use of the pressure of wind
to propel the boat [11]. erefore mindfulness training is potentially
useful in promoting well-being and stress management. Mindfulness
breathing means bringing your attention to your breathing. Instead of
letting your mind spin o into yesterday or today, take mindful breaths.
Focus on your breathing, and sense the eects of breathing throughout
your body [13].
Research on the benets of deep, meditative breathing reveals
immediate improved physical and mental health, in addition to the
well-known benet of physical relaxation [14-16]. is breathing
promotes mindfulness, which brings our focus to the present moment
without judgment. Mindfulness not only reduces stress, but can also
enhance positive emotions and quality of life [17].
A large number of studies have been done to study the stress
level of working women but little is done to manage this. Employed
women being present in every organization form an important part
of that organization as their work will aect the overall work of the
organization. erefore their stress level must be curtailed as far as
possible in order to get the desired output. Progressive muscular
relaxation technique and mindfulness breathing are easy to learn and
are eective and economic techniques of reducing stress. erefore
these techniques should be used in every private as well as in the
government organization to curtail the level of stress in order to get
the desired output. Present paper provides the empirical evidence that
stress can be managed by PMRT and mindfulness breathing among
employed women.
Review of related studies
Sanlier and Arpaci [18] studied the eect of stress on women
health. Results reveal that employed women in the stress scale have
a higher average score than that of the non- employed women. It has
been determined that total stress scores of employed women were
higher as compared to non- employed women and that there was a
signicant dierence between women’s working status and total stress
scores. Employed women had higher level of stress than non- Employed
women.
Hashmi et al. [19] found that working married women have to face
more diculties in their lives like they experienced more stress and
depression as compared to non-working married women.
Cruess et al. [20,21], Field et al. [22], found that relaxation
techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) [23], have
been proven to be reliable methods in reducing self-reported stress and
stress-related physiological activity in various non-pregnant clinical
populations, as well as in healthy subjects.
Bastani et al. [24], Field et al. [25,26], Nickel et al. [27] and Teixeira
et al. [28] studied that the immediate impact of relaxation on pregnant
women indicates a reduction in experienced stress or anxiety.
Chaudhari et al. [29] studied that increase in stress levels are found
in female health care professionals in the Eastern part of India due to
shortage of manpower, lack of infrastructure, long emergency duty
hours and inadequate remuneration for their hard work. Practicing
relaxation exercises had decreased not only the stress levels but also
increased the quality of their life and most important patient care.
Patel [30] revealed that in pretest most of the nurses 53.3% had
moderate stress, 40.0% had mild stress and 6.7% had severe stress. In
posttest most of the nurses had mild stress 73.3% and no stress 26.7%.
It is concluded that Progressive Muscle Relaxation erapy is eective
in reducing the stress level of the sta nurses.
Objectives
e main objectives of the study were stated as:
• To nd out the stress level of employed women.
• To nd out the stress level of unemployed women.
• To compare the stress level of employed and unemployed
women.
• To see the eect of PMRT and Mindfulness breathing upon
stress.
• To compare the pre and post test results of experimental and
control group of employed women aer intervention.
Hypothesis
For the present study following hypothesis were formulated.
H01: ere would be no signicant dierence in the mean score of
stress level among Employed women and house wives.
H02: ere would be no signicant dierence in the stress level of
Employed women and house wives.
Citation: Kermane MM (2016) A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive
Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing. J Psychol Psychother 6: 244. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
Page 3 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 1 • 1000244
J Psychol Psychother
ISSN: 2161-0487 JPPT, an open access journal
H03: ere would be no signicant eect of PMRT and Mindfulness
breathing upon the stress level in experimental and control group of
Employed women.
Methods
Sample
Sample consisted of 100 educated women 50 were employed and 50
House wives (unemployed). e age of the subjects ranges from 25 to 40
years with the mean age of 34.3 for employed and 28.5 for housewives.
e quota sampling method was used to select the sample.
Description of the tool used
For the present study Singh’s Personal Stress Source Inventory
(SPSSI) was used to assess the level of stress among employed women
and housewives. e stress scale (SPSSI) constructed and standardized
by Arun Kumar Singh was used. e test comprises of 35 items and
there are three given response options for each event namely, “Seldom”,
“sometimes, and “frequently”. Higher the score, the higher is the
magnitude of personal stress. Likewise, lower the score, lower is the
magnitude of personal stress. e maximum scores on SPSSI is 105.
Procedure
All the participants of the study were individually informed about
the purpose of the study and were asked to complete Sing’s Personal
Stress Source Inventory. e scores of both the groups i.e., employed
women and house wives were statistically analyzed. Aer the pre-test
the more stressed group (employed women) were randomly divided in
two equal groups of experimental and control group. e experimental
group was provided with the sessions of PMRT and Mindfulness
breathing twice a week for three months by the researcher. While on
other days they were instructed to practice the techniques by themselves
twice a day i.e., early in the morning and at bed time. e participants
were provided with daily record sheets which they were required to ll
up regularly and were checked twice weekly. e control group was
not provided with any interventions. Aer three months, post-test was
taken and the pre-test and post- test scores were statistically analyzed
using t test to test the signicance of dierence between the groups.
Statistical Analysis
e data was tabulated and analyzed using mean; SD and t test. e
results of analysis are presented in Tables 1-3.
Results
Table 1 shows the Qualitative description of scores on SPSSI and
among employed and un-employed women (Table 1).
Table 2 shows the Mean, SD, df and t ratio for Employed and un-
Employed women. From the Table 2, it is evident that mean of the
Employed women for stress level is higher than the mean of housewives.
e standard deviation in the scores of employed women is 11.957 and
for housewives are 12.051. When the same scores were put to the t test
the value of 7.280 was obtained which was signicant at 0.05 level of
signicance. Here the null hypothesis was rejected which interprets
that there is a signicant dierence in the stress level of employed
women and housewives. e stress level is high in employed women in
comparison to housewives.
Table 3 showing the Mean, SD, df and t ratio for the experimental
and control groups aer the intervention (Table 3).
From the Table 3 it is evident that the stress level among the
control group of employed women before intervention (pretest) was
54.64 which were little bit higher than the post-test scores of 53.2. e
SD of pretest was 12.964 and aer post-test it was 10.416. When the
same scores were put to t test the value of 1.685 was obtained which
was lower than the table values of 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels
of signicance and was insignicant at both the levels. So the null
hypothesis was accepted, which indicates that there was no signicant
dierence in the stress level of control group in the post test.
Table 3 also reveals that the stress level of experimental group of
employed women before intervention (pretest) was 66.92 which were
higher than the post-test scores of 29.76. e SD of pretest was 6.732
and aer post-test it was 2.350. When the same scores were put to t
test we get 23.778 which were greater than the table values of 2.01 and
2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of signicance and were signicant at both
the levels of signicance. So the null hypothesis was rejected. Which
indicates that aer the intervention of PMRT and mindfulness breathing
the stress level of employed women was signicantly decreased from
moderate level of stress to low level of stress.
Discussion
Nowadays stress becomes universal phenomenon. Every person
wants more and more for the attainment of pleasure, due to this
competition is increased in every eld of life and this competition
generates stress among people no doubt the competition is must but
we don’t ignore its result in the recent years as more and more women
are coming to take on many jobs. Stress is common among the career
women at workplace. In the present study it was hypothesized that there
would be no signicant mean dierence in the stress level of employed
women and house wives. Mean for the stress level of employed women
was 60.78 and for house wives was 43.3 which clearly indicate that mean
was higher among the employed women in comparison to house wives.
It was also hypothesized that there would be a signicant dierence
between in the stress level of employed women and house wives. Table
Range of Scores Qualitative
description Employed women Unemployed
women
80 or higher High level of stress 02=4% 0=0%
31-79 Moderate level of
stress 48=96% 37=74%
0-30 Low level of stress 0=0% 13=26%
Average 60.78 43.3
Table 1: It reveals that out of 50 employed women 02 falls in the high stress
category, 48 in the moderate and none in the low level of stress. Similarly out of 50
unemployed 0 fall in the high stress category, 37 in the moderate and 13 in the low
level of stress category.
Stress level
Employed
(N=50)
Unemployed
(N=50) t df P
Mean 60.78 43.3 7.280*98 P<0.05 (signicant)
SD 11.957 12.051
* =p<0.05
Table 2: Employment status.
Stress level of
control group
Pre-test
(N=25)
Post-test
(n=25) t df P
Mean 54.64 53.2 1.685*24 P>0.05
(insignicant)
SD 12.964 10.41
Stress level of
experimental group
Mean 66.92 29.76 23.778*24 P<0.05
Signicant
SD 6.732 2.350
* =p<0.05
Table 3: Employed women.
Citation: Kermane MM (2016) A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive
Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing. J Psychol Psychother 6: 244. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
Page 4 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 1 • 1000244
J Psychol Psychother
ISSN: 2161-0487 JPPT, an open access journal
1 shows the mean, standard deviation and t values for stress level of
employed women and house wives. e mean for employed women was
60.78, SD=11.957 and for house wives mean was 43.3 and SD=12.051.
e t value was 7.280 which were signicant at 0.05 level of signicance.
Hence here the null hypothesis was rejected which claries that there is
a signicant dierence in the stress level of employed women and house
wives. e stress is higher among the employed women in comparison
to house wives. Similar results were found by Hashmi et al. [19] that
working married women have to face more diculties in their lives
like they experienced more stress and depression as compared to non-
working married women. Sanlier and Arpaci [18] found that Employed
women in the stress scale have a higher average score than that of the
non- Employed women. It has been determined that total stress scores
of Employed women was higher compared to non- Employed women
and that there is a signicant dierence between women’s working status
and total stress scores. Employed women had higher level of stress than
non- Employed women. ese working women are stressed because
they have to perform various roles. ey have the pressure of balancing
work and family. e work load cause women to be aected from stress
even when women don’t work outside home, they are confronted with
high levels of stress. Such role of women as carrying out house hold
duties, motherhood and wife cause situations as overloading or role and
role conict and may become a reason for stress [31].
It was also hypothesized that there would be no signicant eect
of PMRT and mindfulness breathing upon the stress level of employed
women. To see the eect of PMRT and mindfulness breathing the
employed women were divided into two equal groups and were labeled
randomly as experimental and control group. e sessions of Progressive
muscular relaxation and mindfulness breathing were given to the
experimental group of employed women and not to the control group.
e pretest mean scores for experimental group of employed women
was 66.92, SD=6.732 and the post test scores aer the intervention was
mean=29.76, SD=2.350 and the t stat was 23.778 which was signicant
at 0.05 level of signicance. Hence here the null hypothesis was rejected
which signies that there was a signicant reduction in the stress level
of working women aer the intervention of PMRT and mindfulness
breathing. e stress level was reduced from moderate to low level of
stress. In the control group were no intervention sessions were provided
there was no such reduction in the stress level in posttest. e mean at
pretest was 54.64, SD=12.964 and post test scores was 53.2, SD=10.416
and the t stat was 1.685 which was insignicant at both the levels of 0.05
and 0.01 level of signicance.
Similar results were found by Patel [30] the ndings of the study
revealed that in pretest most of the nurses 53.3% had moderate stress,
40.0% had mild stress and 6.7% had severe stress. In posttest most of
the nurses had mild stress 73.3% and no stress 26.7%. It is concluded
that Progressive Muscle Relaxation erapy is eective in reducing the
stress level of the sta nurses. Bastani et al. [24], Field et al. [25,26],
Nickel et al. [27] Teixeira et al. [28], Studied that the immediate impact
of relaxation on pregnant women indicates a reduction in experienced
stress or anxiety. Chaudhari et al. [29] found that practicing relaxation
exercises has shown to improve not only the stress levels but the quality
of their life and most important patient care.
Conclusion
To successfully manage stress in everyday lives, individual can learn
to relax and enjoy life. e best way to manage stress is to prevent it. is
may not be always possible. So, the next best things are to reduce stress
and make life easier. For these purpose dierent stress management
techniques like meditation, yoga, hypnosis, guided imagery, muscle
relaxation, mindfulness breathing etc. should be used. So as to curtail
the stress level which is the cause of various fatal diseases like cardio
vascular diseases, Hypertension etc. women being the prime victim
especially employed women of stress therefore their stress management
is essential both in the Govt. and private organizations.
Acknowledgement
Candid thanks to all those women who participated in this study as the subjects
especially to the working ladies who gave us their ample time in the intervention
program. Special thanks to UGC New Delhi India for giving the nancial assistance
(fellowship) to the rst author. The authors are highly thankful to institutional heads
for permitting them to collect data from the female staff members.
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Citation: Kermane MM (2016) A Psychological Study on Stress among Employed Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive
Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing. J Psychol Psychother 6: 244. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
Page 5 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 1 • 1000244
J Psychol Psychother
ISSN: 2161-0487 JPPT, an open access journal
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Citation: Kermane MM (2016) A Psychological Study on Stress among
Employed Women and Housewives and Its Management through Progressive
Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and Mindfulness Breathing. J Psychol
Psychother 6: 244. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000244
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... Stress is most often described as a dynamic state that occurs when people face an opportunity, constraint, or requirement related to their desires. The outcome is perceived as uncertain and important (Kermane, 2016). The individual, organizational, and environmental domains of living are the primary sources of stress, consisting of different stress triggers, also called stressors (Edwards & Rothbard, 2005). ...
... Stress is generally defined as "the body's non-specific response to any demand for change" (Selye, 1956). It is a state in which an individual is faced with an opportunity, constraints, or demands related to what they desire, the outcome of which is perceived as uncertain and necessary (Kermane, 2016). People usually feel stressed when they cannot cope with specific demands that can arise from work, relationships, financial pressures, or other situations (Felman, 2020). ...
... This is consistent with previous research findings that showed the differences in stress levels between employed and non-employed women. As Nevin & Fatma (2007), Hashami et al. (2007), and Kermane (2016) found, working women experience higher levels of stress than non-employed women do. Women who spend more time on housework and childcare are more likely to report higher stress levels. ...
Full-text available
Article
This research examines the relationship between unpaid care work, financial well-being, and stress levels among women during the COVID 19 pandemic. The pandemic caused downturns in the economies of countries around the world and led to uncertainties and changes that created conditions for increased stress levels and consequently impaired well-being. In addition to social distancing and lock-down as measures to cope with the virus, working from home, home schooling, caring for sick and older family members, and financial problems have added burdens and have proven to be additional personal and family stressors. The findings are based on an online survey conducted among women during the second lock-down in Croatia. Additional unpaid care work and lower financial well-being affect the increased stress felt by women during the pandemic. This is especially pronounced among women who are more involved in paid work. During the pandemic, additional unpaid care work, increased involvement in paid work, and jeopardized financial well-being were found to be stressors for women. Our results clearly indicate the importance of women's free time for their own and their families' well-being.
... In the present study the psychiatric illness was more among homemakers this in contrary to study by Kermane et al. 2016 [28]. In the present study this may be due to low income and different education level. ...
... In the present study the psychiatric illness was more among homemakers this in contrary to study by Kermane et al. 2016 [28]. In the present study this may be due to low income and different education level. ...
Full-text available
Article
Aim of the study Psychiatric illness makes overall health weaker. Different types of Psychiatric illness causes various oral changes. The research aimed at assessing the oral health parameters among non-institutionalized psychiatric patients of private set up. Subject or material and methods In this cross-sectional study 250 psychiatric patients were examined. The parameters related to psychiatric illness were documented using their medical records. A questionnaire including demographic details, oral hygiene practices, habits, occupation, and income was used. A t full mouth examination was carried out to assess oral changes, oral dryness , plaque, gingival and periodontal status. Results The age of the participants ranged from 21 - 70 years with a mean age of 36 years.The majority of participants were suffering from psychiatric illness like depression, schizophrenia, mood disorders and mania respectively. Majority of the participants suffering from psychiatric illness were homemakers. This study showed a link between low income population to psychiatric illness. The participants also reported oral dryness which may be partly due to psychiatric medications. Gingival and plaque index scores showed statistically significant association to presence of psychiatric illness. Discussion The present study reported different oral conditions in the psychiatric patients. The3-4 decade were affected age group Conclusions Subjects with psychiatric illness were having poor oral health. Dental examination should be incorporated as a part general examination. Policymakers need to consider optimal methods of intervention for mental disorders among low-income individuals. This group of patients who are making major part of the population of the society should be attended with utmost care.
... Women are more likely than men to experience physical symptoms of stress, such as fatigue, irritability, headaches and depression. 1 Women are also more to cope with job stress like men. The stress is higher in working women in comparison to housewives. ...
... The stress is higher in working women in comparison to housewives. Working married women have to face more difficulties in their lives like they experienced more stress and depression as compared to non-working married women [1] . Relaxation technique is any method, process or activity that helps a person to relax; to attain a state of increased calmness or otherwise reduce levels of anxiety, stress or anger. ...
Full-text available
Article
Relaxation techniques are often employed as one element of a wider stress management program. Working women have to perform dual tasks at working place as well as at home which requires sufficient time and high level of energy and that increases not only physical stress but also mental stress. Hence our aim was to find out the prevalence of relaxation techniques in working women along with the commonest stress factor amongst them and the various relaxation techniques practiced by them. This was a cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling of 70 working women. Yoga (79%) was practiced majorly followed by meditation (71%). Despite of awareness, women were restricted from doing relaxation due to lack of time (75%) followed by lack of energy (69%). The present study concluded that relaxation techniques are helpful, cost-effective, and are most needed. It is very much advisable to all working women for their well-being.
... Employed women have to play their role as a wife, a mother, an earner, and they have to manage their vocation while maintaining traditional roles. 3 The espoused working women are performing around 64% of the total amplitude of household work and their contribution as compared to espoused men is exceptionally high in indoor work (78%) and childcare (67%). As the number of employed women is incrementing day-by-day, unlike their counterparts they have to play the role of a homemaker additionally. ...
Full-text available
Article
Aim of this study was: 1. To assess the level of stress among Married Working Women as measured by Perceived stress scale 2. To determine the Level of coping among Married Working Women as assessed by Stress Coping Resources Inventory. 3. To find out the association between the level of stress and Level of Coping among Married Working Women with their selected demographic variables. 93 married working women, randomly selected were assessed by Standardized tool (Perceived Stress Scale and Stress Coping Resources Inventory) and demographic Variables. Online Survey method was adopted in order to collect data for a period of three months from 21 September 2021 to 21 December 2021. : Findings revealed that 72% of married working women had High Stress Level, 22% had Moderate Stress Level and only 6% had Low Stress Level. However, maximum (58%) married working women had above average Coping Level, 41% had average Coping Level, 1% had below average Coping Level and none had High Coping Level. Data analysis was performed using SV26|IBM SPSS Statistics 26. Chi- Square test & Unpaired t-Test was used to find out association of Level of stress and Level of Coping with selected demographic variables. Stress Level among working women is significantly high and there is significant association between Level of stress & Level of Coping among married working women. The results of the study proclaimed association was found between Age and Level of Coping among married working women. Whereas no association was found between other demographic variables and coping among married working women. After study, we conducted that Maximum of working women have High stress level and no one had high Coping level.
... The Kermane (2016) was similar to the current study in terms of the number of sample members But it differed with the method of research as it used the method of experimental research and the application of tribal and remote measurement, but it differed with the method of research as it used the method of experimental research and the application pre and post measurement The results of the study showed an increase in psychological burnout among working women versus housewives, which is contrary to the current study. ...
Research
This study aimed to identify the levels of psychological burnout in a sample of working women and housewives at menopausal Stage. To achieve the objectives of the study, a scale of psychological burnout was built, which consists of 20 paragraphs, the study sample was obtained in cooperation with Raihanat Al-osrah Association in Amman, through the announcement of the study, a sample of 50 working women and 50 housewives was selected and applied. the psychological scale, the members of the study sample within the age range of 45-55, The results of statistical analysis " T-Test" showed that there were statistically significant differences in the psychological burnout of housewives was higher than working women, which indicates the positive effect of work in the lives of women, and the risk factors of psychological burnout is related to the physical dimension, and this corresponds to the nature of the menopause stage which is the age of the sample study. The study recommended to provide psychological counseling services for women in general, provide health and psychological care services for women in menopause, and the threat of community programs aimed to supporting and empowering Housewives.
... In comparison to housewives, stress levels are higher among employed women (Kermane, 2016). In a study by Sanlier and Arpaci (2007), it was found that working women are more susceptible to stress than non-working women. ...
Chapter
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease brought about by a newfound coronavirus. A great many people who fall wiped out with COVID-19 will encounter gentle to direct indications and recover without exceptional treatment. As a procedure to contain possibly tainted individuals and keep the infection from spreading further, in numerous pieces of world, outskirts are shut, organizations, air terminals, lodgings are closed, schools and colleges. Whole world is being set under isolate for safety measures and individuals are in alarm as are the legislatures. The impact of COVID-19 is significantly affecting the innovation area, influencing crude materials supply, disturbing the gadgets esteem chain, and causing an inflationary hazard on items. All the more decidedly, the interruption has caused an increasing speed of remote working, and technology upgradation. Technology upgradation implies an expansion in the effectiveness of an item or procedure that outcomes in an expansion in yield, without an expansion in input. The improvement in the nature of technology that encourage effectiveness in execution. Most likely, the whole world is confronting heaps of difficulties and issues because of Corona infection malady yet yes it carries lots of opportunities to technology sector- enables economy to advance, increment in effectiveness requiring little to no effort, improves profitability, diminishes dullness, serves to helps the GDP of the Indian economy. This research paper additionally covers different variables that influences the technology upgradation-Wider acknowledgment of online services, A humongous prerequisite for internet providers for traditional businesses, Boosted availability among assorted sorts of enterprises. Keywords: Covid -19, technology upgradation, GDP
... The Kermane (2016) was similar to the current study in terms of the number of sample members But it differed with the method of research as it used the method of experimental research and the application of tribal and remote measurement, but it differed with the method of research as it used the method of experimental research and the application pre and post measurement The results of the study showed an increase in psychological burnout among working women versus housewives, which is contrary to the current study. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study aimed to identify the levels of psychological burnout in a sample of working women and housewives at menopausal Stage. To achieve the objectives of the study, a scale of psychological burnout was built, which consists of 20 paragraphs, the study sample was obtained in cooperation with Raihanat Al-osrah Association in Amman, through the announcement of the study, a sample of 50 working women and 50 housewives was selected and applied. the psychological scale, the members of the study sample within the age range of 45-55, The results of statistical analysis “ T -Test” showed that there were statistically significant differences in the psychological burnout of housewives was higher than working women, which indicates the positive effect of work in the lives of women, and the risk factors of psychological burnout is related to the physical dimension, and this corresponds to the nature of the menopause stage which is the age of the sample study. The study recommended to provide psychological counseling services for women in general, provide health and psychological care services for women in menopause, and the threat of community programs aimed to supporting and empowering Housewives.
Article
SUMMARY. Introduction. Sexual coercion among married women is a widely concealed and a serious public health concern that may impede physical, sexual and psychological health of women. Purpose. We aimed to investigate the associations between sexual coercion, psychological distress and somatic symptoms among married women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2018 to March 2019 at the International Islamic University, Pakistan. A sample of 200 married women with equal proportion of working and home bound women was selected whilst using non-probability purposive sampling technique from the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan). Information about study variables were gathered through Sexual Coercion in Intimate Relationship Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Somatic Symptoms Scale. Linear regression analysis, a moderation analysis and a t-test was carried out using SPSS 23. Results. Sexual coercion was positively related to psychological distress and somatic symptoms among married women (p<.001). As a predictor variable, sexual coercion explained a variance of 53% in psychological distress and 35% in somatic symptoms. Additionally, home bound married women were more prone to suffer from sexual coercion, distress of psychological nature and somatic symptoms than married working women (p<.001). Discussion. Overall, women who experience sexual coercion have poorer psychological health. Study findings support the notion that husbands may act coercively to acquire or retain an impersonal sense of control and power more on home bound women. Additionally, working status might be a reason that work will positively contribute to the mental health of working women that needs further exploring. KEY WORDS: sexual coercion, psychological distress, somatic symptoms.
Article
Stress is the feeling made when the individual react on a certain case. This is the way one grows to fight against threat and constraints by focusing, preparing strength, stamina, and watchfulness. Stress may be good or bad for employees. The work efficiency depends very much on the good mental and physical condition of the employees. This research is aimed at identifying and analyzing the factors causing job stress of employees working at the medical records at Mataram District Hospital. The population of this research is all 57 employees working at instalation of medical records. The study has beenrestricted to medical records only, due to accessibility, time and other related factors The data were collected through questionnaires, interview and documentation. The data analysis is using factor analysis. The research showed that there are three factors casing work stress. The first is the uncertainty of economy, organizational structure, organizational leadership, and personal characteristics. Second is job demand, role demand,, and personal demand. Third is technology changes and family problem. The result of this research may be useful for the authority of the hospital to make decision in relation to human recourses and also for all staffs in general and the staffs of medical records in particular, especially in recruiting the employees. Keywords: job stress, hospital, employees of medical records, factor analysis.
Article
Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of lateral open bite and its gender distribution among the patients visiting Orthodontics department of de’Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at department of Orthodontics, de’Montmorency College of dentistry, Lahore, where orthodontic records of 200 patients were included to find out frequency of lateral open bite (LOB). The amount of LOB was confirmed by measuring vertical distance between cusp tips of posterior teeth affected by lateral open bite, with standardized digital vernier calipers on plaster models. Results: 200 patients were included (98 boys, mean age: 19.3 ±1.3 years; 102 girls, mean age: 19.0 ± 1.5 years) The frequency of lateral open bite was found to be 1 %. Male to female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion: It was concluded that male and female were equally affected by lateral open bite and frequency was find out to be 1 %.
Full-text available
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Background: Increasing population, fast paced industrialization, increased, competitiveness, unanticipated problems in the work place have increased the stress among the females working in health care in recent times. Aim: The aim of the following study is to detect the stress levels among female health care professionals in the age group of 25-35 years and its impact on health. Subjects and methods: A prospective cross-sectional pilot project was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern part of India, after receiving approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and informed consent form was taken from the subjects. Stress level in the subjects was assessed according to the presumptive life event stress scale. Females with scores above 200 were selected. For these, initial assessment of anthropometric measurement, electrocardiogram and lipid profile analysis, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, physical fitness index (PFI), breath holding time (BHT), isometric hand grip (IHG) test results were evaluated and recorded. All subjects were given training of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for 3 months. After 3 months, the lipid profile and vital parameters, Perceived Stress Scale values were re-evaluated and subjects were asked to repeat the same exercises and data thus recorded were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.). Results: Significant decrease in resting heart rate, blood pressure and Perceived Stress Scale levels was seen after PMR training in the subjects. Results of BHT, IHG tests and PFI were significantly increased after PMR training. There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects after practicing PMR for 3 months. Conclusions: Increasing stress among female health care professionals is a cause for concern and there is a need to adopt early life-style modification by practicing relaxation exercises to ameliorate stress and to improve not only their quality-of-life in general, but patient care in particular.
Full-text available
Article
Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Present study was carried out in Departments of Physiology and Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, JIPMER, Pondicherry. Ninety subjects (age 18-25 years) were randomized to fast pranayama (Group 1), slow pranayama (Group 2) and control group (Group 3). Group 1 subjects practiced Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkuriya Pranayama while Group 2 subjects practiced Nadishodhana, Savitri and Pranav Paranayama. Supervised pranayama training was given for 30 min, 3 times a week for the duration of 12 weeks to Groups 1 and 2 subjects by certified yoga trainer. Following parameters were recorded at the baseline and after 12 weeks of training; perceived stress scale (PSS), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rate pressure product (RPP), and double product (Do P). There was a significant decrease in PSS scores in both Group 1 and Group 2 subjects but percentage decrease was comparable in these groups. Significant decrease in HR, DBP, RPP, and Do P was seen in only Group 2 subjects. This study demonstrates that both types of pranayama practice are beneficial in reducing PSS in the healthy subjects but beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters occurred only after practicing slow pranayama.
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OBJECTIVE: To briefly review the effects of mindfulness on the mind, the brain, the body, and behavior. METHODS: Selective review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases (2003-2008) using the terms "mindfulness", "meditation", "mental health", "physical health", "quality of life", and "stress reduction." A total of 52 exemplars of empirical and theoretical work were selected for review. RESULTS: Both basic and clinical research indicate that cultivating a more mindful way of being is associated with less emotional distress, more positive states of mind, and better quality of life. In addition, mindfulness practice can influence the brain, the autonomic nervous system, stress hormones, the immune system, and health behaviors, including eating, sleeping and substance use, in salutary ways. CONCLUSION: The application of cutting-edge technology toward understanding mindfulness - an "inner technology" - is elucidating new ways in which attention, awareness, acceptance, and compassion may promote optimal health - in mind, body, relationships, and spirit.
Article
Abstract Purpose: According to the World Health Organization, stress is a significant problem of our times and affects both physical as well as the mental health of people. Stress is defined as a situation where the organism‘s homeostasis is threatened or the organism perceives a situation as threatening. Stress coping methods are the cognitive, behavioral and psychological efforts to deal with stress. Method: After a thorough literature review in major databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct) the following techniques were identified and are presented and briefly discussed here: progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, relaxation response, biofeedback, emotional freedom technique, guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, transcendental meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction and emotional freedom technique. Conclusion: These are all evidence-based techniques, easy to learn and practice, with good results in individuals with good health or with a disease.
Article
This study examined salivary cortisol and mood during relaxation training in 30 symptomatic, HIV+ gay men participating in a 10-week, group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention. Cortisol levels and mood were assessed within these sessions just before and after 45-min relaxation exercises given as part of each session. Participants also recorded their stress level and compliance with daily home relaxation practice. Presession cortisol levels decreased across the 10-week period and were related to decreases in global measures of total mood disturbance and anxious mood. Reductions in presession cortisol levels were also associated with decreases in self-reported stress level during home practice. Greater reductions in cortisol during the first three sessions were associated with more frequent relaxation practice at home. These findings suggest that salivary cortisol represents an objective neuroendocrine marker for changes in anxiety and distress observed during relaxation training in symptomatic, HIV-seropositive men.