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The Effect of Mind Mapping on Teaching and Learning: A Meta-Analysis

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To improve teaching and learning, it has become increasingly popular to use visualized tools for study. We try to find out the effect of mind mapping on teaching and learning considering the advantage of mind mapping. Although numerous research studies have shown the advantage, there aren't conclusive results yielding. To conform the effect, we adopt the method of meta-analysis by reviewing experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The meta-analysis shows that mind mapping has positive effect on teaching and learning and country, usage, subject and achievement can influence the results.
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Standard Journal of Education and Essay Vol 2(1) pp. 017 031, April 2014 (ISSN: 2310-7545)
Available online http://standresjournals.org/journals/SJERE/index.html
Copyright ©2014 Standard Research Journals
Accepted 18 April, 2014
Research Article
The Effect of Mind Mapping on Teaching and Learning
A Meta-Analysis
Ying Liu1Guoqing Zhao2,3*, Guozhen Ma4 and Yuwei Bo4
1Institute of Educational Psychology and School Counseling, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing,
China
2School of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
3Collaborative and Innovative Center for Educational Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
4School of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
*corresponding Author E-mail: guoqingzh@163.com
Abstract
To improve teaching and learning, it has become increasingly popular to use visualized tools for study.
We try to find out the effect of mind mapping on teaching and learning considering the advantage of
mind mapping. Although numerous research studies have shown the advantage, there aren’t
conclusive results yielding. To conform the effect, we adopt the method of meta-analysis by reviewing
experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The meta-analysis shows that mind mapping has
positive effect on teaching and learning and country, usage, subject and achievement can influence
the results.
Keywords: mind mapping, meta-analysis, teaching, learning
INTRODUCTION
One of the most important problem in education is to achieve a greater degree of utilization of mental abilities. One
approach to this problem is the use of so called mind maps, whose founder is Tony Buzan (Nebojsa et al.,
2011) .Although numerous studies are devoted to testifying the advantages of mind mapping in education, there are lack
of conclusive results representing the effect of mind mapping on teaching and learning. In order to shed light on a more
definitive conclusion on the potential effect, we hope that we can achieve it by using the technique of meta-analysis,
which is ―a procedure for integrating the results of empirical research studies (McGaw and Glass,1980, Pp.1)
Mind map was defined by Buzan (1993, Pp.59) as ―an expression of Radiant Thinking and is therefore a function of the
Stand J. Edu. Res. Essay Liu et al 018
human mind,‖ and ―a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlocking the potential of the brain‖.
The mind mapping has four essential characteristics: The subject attention is crystallized in a central image, the main
themes of the subject radiate from the central image as branches, branches comprise a key image or key word printed on
an associated line, and the braches form a connected nodal structure (Ibrahim, 2013).Similar to concept map, mind map
is also a kind of graphic organizer, which is described as two-dimensional visual knowledge representations, including
flowcharts, timelines, and tables. They show relationships among concepts or processes by means of spatial position,
connecting lines and intersecting figures(John and Olusola,2006).
Different from mind map, mind mapping means the technique for visualizing these relationships among different
concepts has distinctive features over concept mapping in terms of its colors and free form. By using such pictorial and
graphical design flourishes, mind mapping can make learning and teaching more vivid and thus can promote memory
retention as well as enhance the motivation of the learners. When it comes to free-form and unconstrained structure of
mind mapping, Martin Davies (2011) believe that if so, there are no limits on the ideas and links that can be made, and
there is no necessity to retain an ideal structure or format. Mind mapping thus promotes creative thinking, and
encourages ‗‗brainstorming‘‘.
According to Akinoglu and Yasar (2007), learning is accompanied by cognitive strategies for knowledge retention,
cooperative and collaborative learning, problem-solving, critical thinking and transformative learning. Many teachers have
faced difficulties in teaching their course effectively while many students have faced difficulties in learning the course
taught. Chin et al. (2011) also mention that mind mapping have been widely used in education in brainstorming ideas,
training and development, organizing ideas and problem solving. Based on these, we conceive that mind mapping has
positive effect on teaching and learning. Moreover, Mind Mappings (MM) (Buzan, 1974) are already frequently used in
educational practice. Therefore, it is necessary to study the mind mapping‘s effect on teaching and learning.
LITERATURE INTERVIEW
Constructivist theory
Different approach to account for the beneficial effects of mind mapping can be found in theoretical sources. Some
explanations focus on unique, intrinsic properties of mind mapping, for example, Nebojsa et al. (2011), based on the work
of human brain, hold that mind mapping is a brilliant expression of thought and therefore a natural function of the human
mind and it is a powerful graphical tool that provides a universal key to unlocking the potential of the human brain. Others
point to the properties that mind mapping share with other visual tools, such as concept mappings and flow mappings.
Constructivist theory is rooted in the subjectivist worldview, which emphasizes the role of the learner within the context
of his environment (Burrell and Morgan, 1979). According to the theory, when a learner is committed to the interaction
between him and his environment, he can better understand them, resulting in meaningful learning. In education,
according to Harkirat et al. (2011), it involves reconciliation of disparate prior conceptions with more scientifically
accepted new information through active student involvement in resolving inconsistencies, thus improving the
organization and scientific accuracy of conceptual representations during learning, often leading to improved students‘
science learning outcomes. Teaching for active construction of new knowledge, is a process of helping students mobilize
their prior understanding and reorganize them in light of current experience.
Visual tools, as their proponents argue, are deeply rooted in constructivist theory. (Eastman, 1977; Jones, 1977;
Novak and Gowin, 1984). Mind mapping is one kind of the visual tools and is also building on the theory. Mind mapping
Liu et al 019
emphasize the active engagement of the learner who can utilize the existing knowledge to construct new knowledge in
his mind resulting in the conceptual change. The changed concept can not only enrich the existing information, but also
enhance the application due to the richness of information retrieval.
Cognitive loading theory
Cognitive loading theory assumes that a limited capacity working memory as well as an effectively unlimited long-term
memory, holding schema that vary in their degree of automation. It also insists that working memory load should be
reduced and schema construction encouraged. Working memory is capable of holding only about seven items or
elements of information at a time (Miller, 1956). Thus, it is necessary to reduce the so-called working load. Standing as a
distinctive part of the theory, schema theory postulates that schema provide a mechanism for knowledge organization
and storage when knowledge is stored in long-term memory in the form of schema, resulting in the reduced working
memory load. Knowledge can be held and processed in working memory effortlessly because our restaurant schema acts
as a single element. The sub elements or lower-level schemas that are incorporated in the higher-level schemas no
longer require working memory capacity. Often, this acquisition of schemas is an active, constructive process (John et al.,
1998). That sounds like what the constructivist theory support.
Mind mapping is a technique of representing knowledge by organizing it as a network or other non-linear diagram
incorporating verbal and symbolic elements which are assumed as the schema. Students can condense their knowledge
by using mind mapping, thus reducing the working memory load and remembering the knowledge easier and clearer.
Furthermore, students involvement in the mind mapping can encourage the students active practice which in turn
consolidates their knowledge. Some students have problem in learning well in class because they cannot find good ways
like mind mapping to suit their learning style. By using mind mapping, they can personalize their notes so as to benefit for
their memory. According to Chin Sok Fun, compared to words, the human brain remembers images better than words;
mind mappings that show smooth flowing curves and variety of color can assist students to understand and remember
the subject matter. A study conducted by Christine, Donald and Thomas on students from business and other courses
shows that even students with different learning styles (verbal, logical, spatial or interpersonal) can make use of mind
mappings to explore learning opportunities.
Instrument differences
In the past, mind mapping was done using by paper and pencil, but until the advancement of information technology,
mind mapping nowadays can be easily constructed, processed, disseminated and presented by using computer
hardware and software. Nebojsa et al. (2011) find that mind mappings are nowadays created almost exclusively by
computer. There are several excellent softwares for creating mind mappings such as Mindmanager
(www.mindmanager.com) and Mindomo (www.mindomo.com).They allow students to create simple presentation of ideas,
knowledge and information and more efficient learning. These versatile products are designed to make education more
productive and improve the learning condition.
It is easier to edit by using the software instead of using the pen and pencil. Obviously, operation in the computer will save
more time thus will be more effective.
Liu et al 020
Subjects differences
Researches show that mind mapping is effective in several subjects. Buzan and Buzan (2003) reported that use of a mind
mapping technique improved students‘ achievement in science. Orhan (2007) showed significant positive outcomes in
students‘ concept learning, overcoming misconceptions, academic achievement and attitudes towards science courses
when students take notes using the mind mapping method. Science education emphasizes the engagement of students
in searching, implementing, experimentation or observation while mind mapping encourage the students‘ involvement in
learning.
Pehkonen (1997) stated that mind mapping benefits students taking mathematics education. Brinkmann (2003)
described that mind mapping can be used in mathematics education to organize information, act as memory aids, work
for repetition and summary, summarize the ideas of several students, meaningfully connect new information with given
knowledge, introduce new concept, let cognitive structure of students become visible and foster creativity.
Chei-Chang Chiou (2008) wrote that mind mapping help students in advance accounting courses. The mind mapping
can help the students to interact their accounting knowledge with their formal information as well as to raise the students‘
interest of accounting through color and free form.
Meta-analysis of concept mapping
Until now, there are no meta-analysis of mind mapping. Therefore, in order to analyze mind mapping, we need to review
meta-analysis of concept mapping which was once analyzed. Horton et al. (1993) conducted a meta-analysis of 18
classroom-based concept map studies. They reported (over 14 studies) that concept mapping helped students raise
posttest achievement scores with 0.42 standard deviations.
John C. Nesbit and Olusola O. Adesope (2006) extracted fifty five (55) studies from sixty seven (67) standardized mean
difference effect sizes and got five thousand eight hundred and eighteen (5,818) participants. It proved that concept
mapping studies split by educational level (the mean effect size of grades 4 to 8 is 0.905,the highest among all levels),
class setting(the mean effect size of not entirely in class is 1.039 ), subject(the mean effect size of humanities, law and
social studies is 1.265,the highest among all subjects), duration(less than 5 weeks reporting the mean effect size of
0.701,the highest among all duration) and the way of learning(the mean effect size of maps constructed is higher mean
effect size with 0.819 than that of maps studied).
Research questions
By reviewing all experimental and quasi-experimental studies on the teaching and learning effects of mind mapping that
met specific criterion in meta-analysis, we try to approach to the potential benefits of mind mappings in learning and
teaching and find out what are the key factors in the benefits so as to achieve the goal of improving teaching and learning.
Hence, the primary research questions of this meta-analysis are as follows;
Do mind mappings have positive effect on teaching and learning in comparison with other, non mapping teaching and
learning activities just like concept mapping?
What are the moderating variables that will affect the mind mappings‘ effect on teaching and learning?
How can we improve teaching and learning by using mind mappings?
Liu et al 021
METHOD
Locating the Studies
The literature search was conducted with the key words mind mapping or mind mapping and experiment, with the studies
published between 1999 and 2013.The database we searched included Web of Science, Eric, Proquest , PsycINFO,
Wiley Online, Google Scholar, Science Direct and CNKI. In terms of the select of the papers, we set up several criteria.
First, the study must be related to teaching and learning. Second, the study had to have treatment and control groups,
that is, the effect of mind mapping and other activities had to be compared. Third, the study must randomly assigned
participants to groups. Forth, the study had to report sufficient data to allow an estimate of standardized mean difference
effect size.
To ensure that the criteria of the including studies were reliable, one researcher read the abstract of each study in the
search and select the appropriate studies, then a second researcher randomly select from a sample of twenty (20) of the
one hundred and sixty three (163) studies. The decisions to include or discard showed 100% agreement, resulting in a list
of one hundred and sixty three (163) studies were obtained.
When it comes to the coding, we also assign two researchers to work. The first one code the studies in the current
meta-analysis, including twenty (20) menu items like the year of the study, source(journal or dissertation) ,educational
level, gender, country , subject, usage(paper and pencil or software),duration of the study and treatment, comparison
treatment and so on. Then the second one recode one third of the studies in the same way. The estimated interrater
reliability was 90%.The discrepancies were discussed between the authors and could be modified whenever necessary.
Statistical analysis
Computing the Effect Sizes
After finishing the selection above, we get fifty eight (58) studies that compared mind mapping and other activities without
any statistical control. So we need to calculate their effect sizes with Cohen‘s d, which was estimated by dividing the
differences in the means of the experimental group and control group with the pooled standard deviation (
sx-x
d21
,x1
and x2 respectively mean the experimental group and the control group using mind map while s means the pooled
standard deviation.
To get the unbiased estimate of the standardized mean difference effect size, we calculate Hedge‘s
g(
d
9-n4 3
-1g
,n means the total number of participants in the experimental and control groups)( Lipsey and Wilson,
2001).
During the process, 18 studies of the original fifty eight (58) studies were discarded because there was insufficient
information for estimation of effect size.
To avoid loss of information, we decided to include all the effect sizes first.
Liu et al 022
Combining Effect Sizes
Each effect size was first multiplied by the inverse of its variance to yield the weighted effect size
w(
2
21
2
21
2121
gnnnn nnnn
w
,n1 is the sample size of experimental group and n2 is the sample size of control group). Then
the sum of all the weighted effect sizes was divided by the sum of the inverse variances to generate the overall mean
effect size
ES
(
ES
=
i
ii
w
ESw
,) .To determine statistical significance, we need to calculate 95% confidence interval
(
SEESESL1.96-
,
,SE=
iw
1
,
LES
is the lower limit and
UES
is the upper limit, SE is the
standard error of the mean effect size) .
To avoid the sampling error resulting from the random sampling of participants from the population, we need to test the
homogeneity of variance statistic by calculating Q(
2
ii ES-w ESQ
),When Q exceeded the critical value of the
chi-square distribution (p<.05), the mean effect size was judged to be significantly heterogeneous.(Lipsey and
Wilson,2001).
During the process, we need to deal with the effect sizes which are statistically dependent that is one important
principle of meta-analysis to avoid according to Lipsey and Wilson (2001).For instance, if a study has one control group
and two treatment groups and it is inappropriate to divide them into two effect sizes considering that they share the same
control group.
Faced with such situation, we decided to calculate average effect sizes to get statistically independent effect sizes. Also,
if one study was compared on students‘ imagination and creativity, we average the two effect sizes so that one sample
contributed only one effect size which is therefore statistically independent.
Testing for Publication Bias
According to Lipsey and Wilson(2001),we should pay attention to the selection bias which is also the weakness of
meta-analysis, so it is necessary for us to consider the publication bias. Therefore, we generated some funnel plots. Our
impression was that there was little publication bias, since most studies were distributed symmetrically about the mean
effect size.
RESULTS
After dedicated selecting, we‘ve got forty (40) studies involving five thousand two hundred and thirteen (5,213)
participants, which is presented in Appendix1.The positive mean effect size reveal that mind mapping do good to improve
teaching and learning.
Liu et al 023
Differences in students’ countries
Table 1. Standardized weighted mean effect sizes of the differences in students‘ countries
Category
N of studies
Effect size
95%CI
homogeneity of effect size
Country
SE ESs
Lower Upper
Q df
China
41
0.74
0.49 0.99
590.12 40
Ex-China
8
0.22
-0.17 0.60
45.95 7
Turkey
1
0.71
0.41 1.00
0
UK
2
-0.09
-0.50 0.66
0.20 1
mixed
4
0.05
-0.57 0.67
23.06 3
unknown
1
1.2
0.59 1.82
0
Note. SE ESs= the standardized weighted mean effect sizes; CI=confidence interval.
Students from different countries may score distinctively by using mind mappings. From the table, we can find that the
mean effect size for mind mapping studies conducted in China was much higher than for other locations. Additionally, we
can find a large quantity of studies that meet the specific criteria in China. However, the results are to some degree limited
by the small sample of the countries abroad so that the certainty of the interpretation is also limited. After all, homogeneity
was rejected for all the mean effect sizes in Table1,indicating that varying individual effect sizes exist widely.
Heterogeneity was remarkably higher across studies in China.
Differences in the usage of mind mapping
Table 2. Standardized weighted mean effect sizes of the differences in usage
Category
N of studies
Effect size
95%CI
homogeneity of effect size
usage
SE ESs
Lower Upper
Q df
Paper&pencil
37
0.66
0.39 0.62
595.78 36
software
12
0.71
0.41 1.00
46.98 11
unknown
3
-0.02
-0.24 0.621
12.55 2
Note. SE ESs= the standardized weighted mean effect sizes; CI=confidence interval
This section addresses the second research questions: Are there any differences between the way of paper-pencil and
software in the use of mind mapping? The homogeneity tests of software and paper and pencil show that these effect
sizes varied significantly across studies since Q exceeded the critical value of the chi-square distribution, which means
that the mean effect size was judged to be significantly heterogeneous. Hence we adopt the random effects models to
calculate the effect sizes of software and paper and pencil (Lipsey and Wilson, 2001). On the contrary, the unknown
usage adopts the fixed effects models to deal with the results. Thus, the final standardized weighted mean effect sizes of
the fifty two (52) studies that measured students‘ achievement are presented in Table1.Generally speaking, students
using software had the highest overall achievement according to the result of SE ESs.
Liu et al 024
Differences in subjects
Table 3. Standardized weighted mean effect sizes of the differences in subjects
Category
N of studies
Effect size
95%CI
homogeneity of effect size
Subject
Social science
SE ESs
Lower Upper
Q df
Arts
4
0.95
0.72 1.19
7.36 3
English
Natural science
15
1.34
0.89 1.78
188.79 14
Biology
14
0.35
0.16 0.55
43.95 13
Chemistry
2
0.38
0.09 0.66
3.20 1
Geography
4
0.00
-0.41 0.42
14.06 3
Medicine
3
-0.59
-1.47 0.30
36.91 2
Others
5
0.32
-0.31 0.94
46.42 4
Note. SE ESs= the standardized weighted mean effect sizes; CI=confidence interval.
Table 3 shows that geography and medicine didn‘t have positive effect on teaching and learning by using mind mapping
and the mean effect size of English was much higher than other subjects. What‘s more, the social science seems to be
more effective in learning and teaching than natural science by using mind mapping.
Differences in the effect of mind mappings under various conditions
Table 4. Standardized weighted mean effect sizes of the differences in conditions
Category
N of studies
Effect size
95%CI
homogeneity of effect size
Educational level
SE ESs
Lower Upper
Q df
College
8
0.48
-0.01 1.08
71.31 7
Middle school
18
0.41
0.24 0.58
52.48 17
Primary school
7
1.52
0.66 2.38
3.2 6
Senior high school
11
0.97
0.56 1.37
106.10 10
Others
Duration
2
-0.34
-2.10 1.43
57.94 1
1-2months
13
0.39
0.14 0.64
56.31 12
3-6months
26
0.79
0.50 1.08
288.41 25
7months or more
Document type
7
0.39
-0.34 1.12
161.32 6
Dissertation
38
0.72
0.52 0.91
295.33 37
journal
14
0.42
-0.05 0.89
263.90 13
Note. SE ESs= the standardized weighted mean effect sizes; CI=confidence interval
Liu et al 025
The mean effect sizes for mind mapping were split by educational level, study duration and the way of publication. There
were no laboratory studies in which participants constructed mind mappings and students performed the learning activity
entirely in a classroom under the instruction of the teachers. From the table, we can find that the 3-6months of the training
of mind mapping made the teaching and learning most effective compared with other kinds of duration. Also, students in
primary school can be affected more than students in other schools by mind mapping. Here, others refer to some
unconventional schools like the vocational schools and its mean effect size was negative. In China, these schools are
always ignored since the majority regards them as the worst schools. Then, in terms of the form of studies, we can detect
that dissertation has more positive effect.
Differences in academic and affective achievement
Table 5. Standardized weighted mean effect sizes of the differences in conditions
Category
N of studies
Effect size
95%CI
homogeneity of effect size
Achievement
SE ESs
Lower Upper
Q df
Academic achievement
26
0.75
0.344 1.07
5384.96 25
Affective achievement
12
0.68
0.41 0.94
41.76 11
Note. SE ESs= the standardized weighted mean effect sizes; CI=confidence interval
From Table5, we detect that studies performing academic achievement are more effective than that of affective
achievement. Heterogeneity of academic achievement was noticeably higher compared with the affective achievement,
perhaps reflecting the greater diversity of treatments and lower experimental control in mind mapping research.
As to testing for publication bias, it is in Appendix2 and it shows that there is little publication bias, thus to some degree,
our statistics can be convinced.
DISCUSSION
This meta-analysis systematically combines the fifty two (52) studies investigating the effect of mind mapping on teaching
and learning. We acknowledge that a majority of the studies included were cross-sectional and cross-cultural and thus we
cannot make any strong causal claims. In the following sections, we discuss some potential implications of the findings.
Effect of usage and condition
Unlike concept mapping, mind mapping attach much importance to the process of conducting since nearly all studies we
found focus on students‘ drawing by their own instead of studying mind maps.
Then we can find that the usage of mind mapping has positive effect on students‘ learning and teachers‘ teaching.
Specifically, by introducing software, mind mapping achieve more effect on teaching and learning. By means of software,
it will save more time and be more vivid in both teaching and learning. Therefore, when we put mind mapping into use, we
should underlie the software and spare no efforts to improve the teaching facilities. However, according to the studies
analyzed, we discovered that most studies used paper and pencil, especially in China. Obviously, it‘s necessary to rise
the educators‘ attention to improve the education environment in the hope of progressing in teaching and learning.
Liu et al 026
As to the duration, we find that 3-6months would be the most effective. It gives us an important clue that it is best for
students to grasp the skill of mind mapping well after 3-6 months. Then teachers can have a good command of time to
guide students to learn mind maps well.
Effect of subjects and achievement
In Table3, it is obvious that the effect of social science(art and English) is greater than natural science(biology, medicine,
chemistry, biology) and geography as well as medicine don‘t represent positive effect. Mind mapping seems to be more
effective as to its memorizing and visualizing characteristics. This may be related to Buzan‘s starting point when he tried
to study mind mapping. He carefully studied human‘s brain and found that color and other vivid things can be helpful to
the working of left and right brain. Moreover, we can find that concept map and mind map are best applied in different
areas.
As to the achievement, we can find that mind mapping is more helpful to improve students‘ academic achievement
rather than affective achievement. There may be two reasons for explaining it. First, mind map is a kind of visualized tool
and it helps a lot in terms of information retention which is helpful to learning well in English. Second, most studies come
from China and China pay more attention to students‘ academic achievement and will try their best to improve it while
ignoring the ability, creativity or something.
Limitations
This meta-analysis is not without limitations. First of all, there exists considerable heterogeneity in the effect sizes across
sizes. Such heterogeneity may also reflect the variance in the quality of the studies selected.
Second, the sample of the studies was also limited, especially, most studies came from China, thereby raising concerns
about the internal validity of some studies.
Third, even though this meta-analysis attempted to examine the effectiveness of mind mapping on teaching and
learning, there are still some variables that can hardly be captured or controlled in the studies.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
From the insights of this meta-analysis, we have generated some recommendations for future research on the
effectiveness of mind mapping on teaching and learning.
Research from other countries except China is needed more and then we can compare and analyze the impact of all
kinds of factors. That is to say, broader study is required. High-quality research is needed on the use of mind mapping in
primary school and make the comparison across countries.
This meta-analysis, therefore, helps provide evidence about mind mapping‘s positive effect on teaching and learning
and we also try to find out the factors that affect the influence.
Liu et al 027
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Funding for this research work is supported by the Research on Application Modes of Expert Teachers' Synchronous Courses under the Beijing Digital
School Project (BDS2013-06).
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Appendix 2
... Buzan and Buzan (1994) defines MM as "an expression of radiant thinking and is therefore a function of the human mind," and he believes this is "a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlocking the potential of the brain" (p.59). MM is becoming a popular teaching and learning approach for various age groups in both eastern and western countries (Erdem, 2017;Mento et al., 1999;Zhao, Ma, Bo, & Liu, 2014). ...
... When applying MM in educational settings, Liu et al. (2014Liu et al. ( , 2018 find "the usage of mind mapping has positive effect on students' learning and teachers' teaching [in China]" (2014). By visualizing teaching material, especially abstract theoretic content, MM helps build a structured knowledge system, thus activating whole brain learning, reducing cognitive load (He et al., 2014), and enhancing memory effect (Liu et al., 2014 ...
... When applying MM in educational settings, Liu et al. (2014Liu et al. ( , 2018 find "the usage of mind mapping has positive effect on students' learning and teachers' teaching [in China]" (2014). By visualizing teaching material, especially abstract theoretic content, MM helps build a structured knowledge system, thus activating whole brain learning, reducing cognitive load (He et al., 2014), and enhancing memory effect (Liu et al., 2014 ...
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In Matthew 28:19-20, Jesus commanded the disciples, “go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.” Education (teaching) is a vital part of Jesus’ Great Commission. The target of education is the learner who can be transformed through information retained in the mind/brain (Malik, 2000). To aid in information retention, a brain-based teaching and learning technique, mind mapping (MM), was adopted in an online adult education program to support students’ learning. The purpose of this study was to explore whether MM, when utilized in online higher education, could increase student information retention. The research question was: Does mind mapping increase student information retention when used with online higher education course modules? An experimental research project was conducted among a group of eastern adult learners who were enrolled in a western online graduation program. Participants were divided into three groups: a control group and two experimental groups. Learner information retention was measured with a pre/post-test. T-test and ANOVA were executed to explore group differences. Significant difference was found between the control group and the experimental groups, and the two-way MM group demonstrated significantly higher score among the three. Participants’ attitudes were extremely positive toward the MM intervention, and demographic factors did not show significant effect on student gained scores in the study.
... Due to its flexibility and simplicity, mind mapping has been widely used in various contexts. Although past studies have revealed a generally positive impact of mind mapping on academic and affective outcomes, the effect varied across contexts (Liu et al., 2014). Thus, further empirical research is needed in this direction to identify effective interventions. ...
... Another relevant direction is to apply the mind mapping strategy with the support of digital technologies. Scholars (e.g., Liu et al., 2014;Hazaymeh and Alomery, 2022) suggested that applying mind mapping using software or an application led to more learning gains. It is likely because digital technologies make mind mapping an interactive fun-filled activity that enhances students' motivation and satisfaction (Rosba et al., 2021). ...
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Creativity is an important 21st Century skill that enhances students' ability to see new opportunities, confront new challenges, and adapt flexibly to the changing study, work and life situations. To nurture students with strong self-efficacy in creative thinking is as important as the contexts and strategies involved in its application. But how to develop sustainable interventions (without generating excessive workload for teachers) to promote students' self-efficacy in creativity is a long-lasting challenge. This study presents a simple and relatively cost-effective instructional intervention, i.e., self-assessment mind maps, and examines its effect on students' self-efficacy in creativity, self-efficacy in learning English, and academic performance in English language tests. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent design was adopted for the experimental and control groups of students in a Hong Kong primary school in 2021/22 Spring semester. The results show that students from the experimental group significantly outperformed those from the control group on self-efficacy in creativity after the intervention. However, the intervention did not improve students' self-efficacy and test performance in English learning. The findings demonstrate the potential of self-assessment mind maps as an effective and sustainable instruction intervention to promote students' higher-order abilities. This study sheds light on designing sustainable instructional strategies for empowerment in creativity.
... Sehingga hasil belajar mahasiswa pada ranah kognitifnya bisa meningkat pada siklus II ini. Penerapan metode mind mapping dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa pada ranah kognitifnya, hal ini juga didukung oleh pendapat Liu, Zhao, Ma, & Bo (2014) bahwa mind mapping lebih membantu untuk meningkatkan prestasi akademik siswa dari pada prestasi afektif. Mungkin ada dua alasan untuk menjelaskannya. ...
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Metode PTK pada penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar ranah kognitif mahasiswa program studi PGSD Universitas Nusa Cendana (UNDANA) dalam mata kuliah Keterampilan Berbahasa Indonesia dengan diterapkannya metode mind mapping berbasis daring di masa pandemi Covid-19. Terdapat dua siklus tindakan dalam penelitian ini dengan subjek penelitian ialah mahasiswa kelas IIIE berjumlah 48 orang. Analisis data diolah secara kuantitatif serta kualitatif. Di siklus I setelah diaplikasikan metode mind mapping berbasis daring dari 48 mahasiswa ditemukan data nilai hasil belajar ranah kognitif mahasiswa nilai rata-ratanya mencapai 75,26 kriteria baik. Pada siklus II nilai rata-rata hasil belajar mahasiswa di ranah kognitifnya meningkat sebesar 83 dikategorikan sangat baik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan metode mind mapping berbasis daring mampu meningkatkan hasil belajar kognitif mahasiswa PGSD UNDANA di masa pandemi Covid-19 dalam mata kuliah Keterampilan Berbahasa Indonesia.Kata-kata Kunci: Mind mapping, hasil belajar kognitif, mahasiswa PGSD.
... Mind mapping assisted learning is learning that is very appropriate to use on theoretical materials which are essentially rote (Liu et al. 2014). This learning method can help students classify learning material, and make it in a simple form that is easier to understand. ...
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... Based on research in China, mind mapping is also useful for improving students' academic achievement [5]. In another study also found, adopting a mind mapping strategy can significantly improve student achievement [6]. ...
... In the teaching and learning processes, the literature describes different types of schemas that allow this process to occur. Liu et al. (2014), establish that the low use of mental abilities is one of the most important problems in education and that the use of maps or mental schemas can contribute to boosting their use. ...
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