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Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social-Ecological Systems

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Abstract

The concept of resilience has evolved considerably since Holling's (1973) seminal paper. Different interpretations of what is meant by resilience, however, cause confusion. Resilience of a system needs to be considered in terms of the attributes that govern the system's dynamics. Three related attributes of social-ecological systems (SESs) determine their future trajectories: resilience, adaptability, and transformability. Resilience (the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks) has four components-latitude, resistance, precariousness, and panarchy-most readily portrayed using the metaphor of a stability landscape. Adaptability is the capacity of actors in the system to influence resilience (in a SES, essentially to manage it). There are four general ways in which this can be done, corresponding to the four aspects of resilience. Transformability is the capacity to create a fundamentally new system when ecological, economic, or social structures make the existing system untenable. The implications of this interpretation of SES dynamics for sustainability science include changing the focus from seeking optimal states and the determinants of maximum sustainable yield (the MSY paradigm), to resilience analysis, adaptive resource management, and adaptive governance.

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... En el marco de los sistemas socio-ecológicos (SSE) las interacciones entre los subsistemas ecológicos y los subsistemas humanos se abordan de modo conjunta. Pese a la complejidad que encierran, es posible caracterizar a los SSE a partir de tres parámetros: resiliencia, capacidad adaptativa y capacidad de transformación(Walker, Holling, Carpenter y Kinzig, 2004). La resiliencia concierne tanto a la capacidad de recuperación ante disturbios, o cambios abruptos, manteniendo las funciones del sistema, como a la capacidad de renovación, reorganización, desarrollo y la emergencia de nuevas trayectorias(Folke, 2006, pp. ...
... 253 y 259). Una de las características de la resiliencia son las interacciones recíprocas y el efecto que ocurre entre niveles de organización y subsistemas, conocido como panarquía(Walker et al., 2004). La capacidad de adaptación se refiere a cómo los actores influyen en el manejo de la resiliencia del SSE; en tanto que, la capacidad de transformación es en esencia la capacidad de creación de un nuevo subsistema(Walker et al., 2004). ...
... Una de las características de la resiliencia son las interacciones recíprocas y el efecto que ocurre entre niveles de organización y subsistemas, conocido como panarquía(Walker et al., 2004). La capacidad de adaptación se refiere a cómo los actores influyen en el manejo de la resiliencia del SSE; en tanto que, la capacidad de transformación es en esencia la capacidad de creación de un nuevo subsistema(Walker et al., 2004). En este sentido, el desarrollo sostenible es "el objetivo de fomentar las capacidades de adaptación y, al mismo tiempo, crear oportunidades"(Holling, 2001, p. 399). ...
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El vestido artesanal es una actividad que se ha mantenido en un entorno dominado por las grandes marcas de la industria de la moda, pero en un contexto de estancamiento y precariedad económica-social. El objetivo de este documento es analizar la problemática que enfrenta el segmento del vestido artesanal desde el marco de los sistemas socio-ecológicos. La metodología fue analítica estadística a partir de la revisión de la literatura y datos secundarios, tomando como estudio de caso a Oaxaca. Entre los hallazgos se encuentra que, si bien el segmento del vestido artesanal de Oaxaca tiene potencialidad, se observa que los resultados de éste, traducidos en mejores condiciones de vida para las comunidades, son escasos. Palabras clave: capacidades, resiliencia, desarrollo sostenible, cadenas de suministro, vestido artesanal.
... Understanding the effect of biodiversity on resilience-the capacity of an ecosystem to maintain or recover the processes, functions and structures that define its identity when facing disturbances (Walker et al., 2004)-has been a fundamental objective in ecology (Macarthur, 1955;May, 1972;Pimm, 1984;McCann, 2000) and remains all the more relevant as global change is altering species diversity worldwide Hooper et al., 2012;Oliver et al., 2015). By linking diversity to processes, trait-based approaches are key to understanding and predicting the response of ecosystems to disturbances (Loreau and de Mazancourt, 2013;Oliver et al., 2015;Madin et al., 2016b). ...
... Decades of research have revealed a variety of ways (referred to hereafter as "effects") by which biodiversity can influence the functioning and resilience of ecosystems (McCann, 2000;Walker et al., 2004;Cardinale et al., 2012;Hooper et al., 2012;Oliver et al., 2015;van der Plas, 2019). Species can contribute individually to an ecosystem function via (i) "dominance" (or "mass ratio") and (ii) "identity" effects-the distinction being abundancedriven versus contribution to functioning, respectively (Grime, 1998;McLaren and Turkington, 2010;Longo et al., 2013). ...
... We defined four dependent variables that represent some of the numerous different definitions of resilience (Carpenter et al., 2001;Desjardins et al., 2015). Resilience cover and resilience rugosity are the 10 years post-disturbance total coral cover and reef rugosity, respectively; together they capture the definition of resilience provided by Walker et al. (2004) and provided above, namely, the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb disturbance and to reorganize while undergoing changes so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks. As it is relevant to estimate resilience by measuring its two complementary aspects resistance and recovery (Nyström et al., 2008;McClanahan et al., 2012;Hodgson et al., 2015), we defined resistance cover -one minus the proportional reduction of total coral cover caused by the pulse disturbance and recovery cover -the rate of recovery during the first 3 years after the disturbance (% cover year −1 ) represent two complementary aspects of resilience (Supplementary Figure 8). ...
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Within the Anthropocene the functional diversity of coral communities is changing rapidly, putting the resilience of many coral reef ecosystems in jeopardy. A better understanding of the relationship between coral functional diversity and reef resilience could reveal practical ways to achieve increased resilience. However, manipulating coral diversity experimentally is challenging, and consequently the links between coral functional diversity, resilience, and ecosystem functioning remain obscure. We used an ecologically detailed agent-based model to conduct a virtual experiment in which functional diversity was manipulated over the entire trait space of scleractinian corals. Using an imputed trait dataset of 798 coral species and eight key functional traits, we assembled 245 functionally distinct coral communities, which we subjected to a cyclone and bleaching event. We then measured four different aspects of their resilience and quantified for each measure the respective effect of (i) the functional richness (FRic), and (ii) community-weighted means (CWM) of four types of trait: effect, resistance, recovery, and competitive. FRic represents the volume occupied by a community in the functional space, while CWM indicates the location of the communities’ centroid in the functional space. We found a significant and positive effect of FRic on three measures of resilience: communities with higher FRic recovered surface cover faster and had more rugosity and cover 10 years after the disturbances. In contrast, the resistance of the coral community—i.e., the capacity to maintain surface cover when subjected to the disturbances—was independent of FRic and was determined primarily by the CWM of resistance traits. By analyzing community dynamics and functional trade-offs, we show that FRic increases resilience via the selection and the insurance effects due to the presence of competitive species in the functional space, i.e., those highly dominant species that contribute the most to the complexity of the habitat and recover quickly from disturbances. Building from the results of our experiment and the trait correlation analysis, we discuss the potential for FRic to serve as a proxy measure of resilience and we present a strategy that can provide direction to on-going reef restoration efforts, and pave the way for sustaining coral communities in a context of rapid global change.
... Resilience, as an emergent property, occurs after the adaptation stage and is defined as the tendency of a social-ecological system subject towards change to remain within a stability domain, continuously changing and adapting, but remaining within critical thresholds (Folke, 2010). The resilience of the coffee agroecosystem could become operational using the conceptual model proposed by Walker et al. (2004): ...
... • Panarchy: an influence on the system from the states and dynamics of (sub) systems at scales above and below (Walker et al. 2004). ...
... The number of plots inside and outside low impact areas, the areas outside the niche and high impact areas was quantified. Due to climate change acts as a driver of change (Walker et al., 2004;Gunderson, 2008;Rocha et al., 2018) AESs within low impact areas were considered as resilient within low impact areas, and those located in areas outside the niche and in high impact areas as non-resilient ( ...
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Background. Climate change puts pressure on the agroecosystems, and the cultivation of Coffea arabica may not be resilient under these conditions. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of climate change on coffee agroecosystem resilience. Methodology. Maxent software was applied to model current and future scenarios. The current scenario was developed using 19 bioclimatic variables obtained from the Worldclim database with climate records for the period 1960-1990. As for the future scenario, the impact of climate change was modeled based on climate projections for the year 2050 using 3 different global climate models: CCCMA, HADCM3, and CSIRO. The variables in this study were analyzed using Statistica and Gephi software. Results. The results showed under the climate change scenario that 15% of the plots were distributed in unsuitable / non-resilient areas and 85% in moderately suitable and suitable/resilient areas for the establishment of C. arabica. Also, the adaptation indicators showed a higher frequency (30) of negative values in coffee agroecosystem (C-AES) plots in areas of both high impact and low impact. Implications. The data could allow the redesign of the coffee agroecosystems to improve the weak elements of its structure. Even the structure reinforcement could be direct with farmers or by public politics, government institutions, organizations, and coffee businessmen. Conclusion. It was concluded that after 2050, the conditions for coffee cultivation will be reduced and as a consequence, the proportion of plots at lower altitudes will remain outside the optimal environmental conditions. On the other hand, there will be plots within the area with suitable conditions for cultivating C. arabica, therefore these will be resilient to climate change, but these will need to establish precise adaptation strategies for the disturbances that will take place in the immediate future.
... There are two specific, yet connected extensions of his work, namely the bridging of the ecological with the social (socio-ecological systems) and a theory of resilience, change and complexity called panarchy . The former refers to an abundant body of literature that extends the concept of resilience to include social systems (broadly defined), forming the so-called socio-ecological systems (SES) (Adger, 2000;Carpenter et al., 2001;Folke et al., 2002, Folke, 2006Walker et al., 2004;Adger et al., 2011). Most of these investigations seek to operationalise and broaden the use of the concept, but even more so to clarify it and make its employment in various contexts more appealing. ...
... In one of the most quoted articles on resilience, Walker et al. (2004) attempt to add more conceptual clarity to resilience in socio-ecological systems. Employing the concepts of state variables, domains (basins) of attraction and stability landscape, they seek to operationalise the various aspects of resilience such as latitude, resistance, precariousness or panarchy. ...
... Adaptability is therefore the capacity to manage the resilience of a system, so as to be able to prevent moving into an undesirable domain of attraction (by modifying its latitude, resistance, etc.). Transformability is the capacity to create a new system when the conditions (social, ecological, economic) become untenable (Walker et al., 2004). ...
Thesis
This thesis is concerned with what it means to govern through resilience, with emphasis on flood governance. Resilience has become a pervasive idiom of global governance and has grown in popularity over the last decade in UK policy making. It is increasingly seen as a policy ideal, a benign attribute whose fostering appears appropriate for dealing with many contemporary predicaments. While many academic contributions agree that resilience is a policy ideal that needs fostering, others regard it as politically problematic. Resilience is said to represent a neoliberal strategy that seeks to responsibilise individuals, away from state-centred forms of protection. However, I contend that these contributions, while welcome, are general interpretations of the meaning and uses of resilience, derived mostly from official documents and rhetoric. This thesis makes a contribution to knowledge by analysing a full length policy initiative centred on resilience, from policy design to implementation. As resilience gradually moves from high-level official rhetoric to actual policy, there is a need for critical investigations to shift from theoretical pronouncements of what resilience ‘is’, to what it ‘does’, or fails to do in practice. I argue that, in practice, the implementation of resilience is characterised by failure points and breakdowns, which signify severe disconnects between the goals of the policy and its mechanisms for implementation. These failure points challenge the substantiality of the argument that resilience is a form of neoliberal strategy. In fact, the findings of the research suggest that if resilience is to be produced at all on the ground, it requires substantial orchestration ‘from above’, by ongoing authority. Overall, I argue that the content of resilience policies is vacuous, and if resilience is to be transformed in more productive directions, the work needs to begin with an acknowledgement that resilience policies present themselves as a hollow shell.
... Therefore, many researchers have begun to explore and try new methods to solve the problem of the evaluation of infrastructure performance in the whole life cycle. Because resilience can describe the system variations in the whole process related to time, it has been researched by many investigators (Holling, 1973;Holling, 1996;Walker et al., 2004). Resilience was gradually developed from engineering resilience (Holling, 1973) to ecological resilience (Holling, 1996) and then to evolutionary resilience (Walker et al., 2004). ...
... Because resilience can describe the system variations in the whole process related to time, it has been researched by many investigators (Holling, 1973;Holling, 1996;Walker et al., 2004). Resilience was gradually developed from engineering resilience (Holling, 1973) to ecological resilience (Holling, 1996) and then to evolutionary resilience (Walker et al., 2004). Meanwhile, the connotation of resilience has been greatly enriched. ...
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The assessment of shield tunnel linings is a key activity for ensuring the operational safety of trains. This paper proposed an analytical model for evaluating the resilience of shield tunnel linings considering multistage disturbances and recoveries on the basis of resilience theory. The resilience metric of the tunnel linings was calculated according to a multistage resilience analysis model established by this paper. The diameter convergence and settlement of the tunnel were chosen as the performance indicators based on the different responses of the tunnel linings under loading and unloading conditions. The classification standard for the resilience of the tunnel linings was suggested according to existing research results. Then, the influences of the performance recovery degree and decision-making time on the tunnel linings resilience were discussed. Finally, the analytical model proposed in this paper was applied to the case of basement excavation beside existing tunnels. The results showed that the resilience metric obtained by different linings performance indicators was obviously different. For excavation beside existing tunnels, only taking diameter convergence as the performance indicator of the tunnel linings caused the calculation results to be high, that is, the linings resilience was overestimated. From the case in this paper, the settlement of the tunnel should be given more attention. In addition, the existence of the evolution stage in the performance degradation curve significantly reduced the resilience of the tunnel linings. The research results in this paper will provide important references for the safety assessment of shield tunnels and the performance recovery of damaged linings.
... Si tel est le cas, les îles des Antilles françaises pourraient être davantage en proie à ce genre de catastrophes dans les décennies à venir. Les habitants des îles de l'arc caribéen doivent faire face à des problématiques environnementales croissantes (risques naturels, ouragans, et cetera) qui vont défier dans les prochaines décennies leur capacité d'adaptation (Walker et al., 2004). La vulnérabilité (Jouannic et al., 2017) et la résilience (Walker et al., 2004) face aux catastrophes, naturelles ou non, (Moreau, 2017 ;Gargani, 2016) deviennent des sujets récurrents, que cela soit dans un but de prévention (Dupuy, 2002) ou de compréhension (Stengers, 2009 ;Walter, 2008). ...
... Les habitants des îles de l'arc caribéen doivent faire face à des problématiques environnementales croissantes (risques naturels, ouragans, et cetera) qui vont défier dans les prochaines décennies leur capacité d'adaptation (Walker et al., 2004). La vulnérabilité (Jouannic et al., 2017) et la résilience (Walker et al., 2004) face aux catastrophes, naturelles ou non, (Moreau, 2017 ;Gargani, 2016) deviennent des sujets récurrents, que cela soit dans un but de prévention (Dupuy, 2002) ou de compréhension (Stengers, 2009 ;Walter, 2008). Si les interrogations sur les interactions entre les êtres humains et leurs environnements (Liu et al., 2007) ou entre culture et nature (Latour, 1991) sont anciennes, elles se renouvellent et se spécialisent au fur et à mesure que les risques et les menaces évoluent. ...
Article
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Hurricanes are common in the French West Indies and particularly on the island of Saint Martin. One can question the inability of society to face up to and recover from the consequences of these events. In this study, we show that between 1954 and 2017 (before Hurricane Irma), Saint Martin had to adapt to numerous constraints, some of which were far more important than hurricanes. In almost 70 years, the population density of the French part of Saint Martin increased from 75 inhab/km² to 668 inhab/km². The majority of this increase occurred in a five years period following the Pons law of 1986 which favoured tax breaks for real estate investment. More than 12 000 buildings were constructed in Saint Martin to welcome the new inhabitants of the island as well as tourists. Many neighbourhoods experienced significant growth which started in the late 1980's. However we observe differences in urban planning, a result of social and territorial segregation which exists on the island. On the one hand, there are private residences in affluent neighbourhoods, on the other hand working-class neighbourhoods with vulnerable dwellings. The effect of hurricanes on this society, which has been highly unequal since the 1960's up to the 1980's, is to reinforce inequalities. The fragile habitats of the poorest populations have been more deeply affected than the richest parts of the population which have been financially supported for reconstruction.
... Social-ecological systems' resilience emphasizes the persistence of ecosystems with their allied social institutions (actors) (Anderies et al., 2004), it consists of the system's aptitude to apply necessary changes and reorganizations in order to absorb disturbance and maintain functionality (Jarzebski et al., 2016). Within SES studies, resilience is described by the stability landscape concept entailing ''basins of attraction'' that represent other favorable and stable conditions, as well as alternative less desirable states (Walker et al. 2004;Scheffer et al. 2012). A basin of attraction is defined by Jarzebski et al. (2016) as "an alternative state adjacent to the existing system state and is separated by the basin's edges, representing thresholds of state transformation". ...
... Latitude is the maximum amount of change a system can endure before transformation, it is the width of the basin; and resistance measures how difficult it is to modify the system's state (Jarzebski et al., 2016). Source: adapted from literature Jarzebski et al. (2014) and Walker et al., (2004) Individual and collective human agency emphasizes the community capacities to endure or adapt to continuous change in nature and society ( Magis, 2010;Jarzebski et al., 2016). Wilson (2010Wilson ( ,2012 refers to the capitalization approach, including the human domain as a key driver and a major agent to manage community "transition" in a changing environment (Jarzebski et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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Drylands of MENA regions have diverse agricultural production systems that are embedded under more global social-ecological systems (SESs). In order to meet population needs, food production intensification schemes in this area engender social and environmental costs because of the vulnerability of these systems, which orients current research to promoting sustainable intensification. Considering the complexity, vulnerability and diversity of systems, by this work, we propose, at a first level, a typology of social-ecological systems’ resilience profiles in MENA region, using an explanatory set of variables defining rural livelihoods and agricultural systems on one hand, as well as resilience determinants; buffer capacity, self-organization and capacity for learning, on the other hand. Consequently, we proceed to measure and scale precariousness (Pr) indicator, which represents the distance to collapse point, for the different social-ecological systems resulting from the typology using the Tri-capital Framework method which consists of developing and scoring composite indicators. By tri-capital, we relate to economic capital (EC), social capital (SC) and natural capital (NC). For data analysis; factor analysis, typology and indicators scoring, we used SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The study covers three countries: Jordan, Tunisia and Morocco; where data were collected by ICARDA in 2014 within Consortium Research Program on Livestock (CRP1.1). The results highlighted the diversity of and differences, or similarities, between production systems in the same country and between countries. The Pr indicator values start from zero to 5.3; while householders with Pr between zero and 3.50 are considered weakly resilient. Therefore, if the Pr indictor is ranged between 3.50 and 4.20, householders are considered moderately resilient and if the score is between 4.20 and 5.28, they are strongly resilient. It is revealed that a moderate resilience is engendered by balanced contributions of natural, economic and social capital which highlights the importance of a holistic approach in promoting sustainable intensification and making rural development policies. Keywords: Sustainable intensification; Social-ecological systems; Resilience; Precariousness; Tri-capital framework
... This ontological stance draws from pragmatism's iterative link between ideation, action, and outcome which is not surprising considering the connection with pragmatism via James' "radical empiricism" (Heft, 2001). Most prominently, the complex adaptive systems ontology is informed by, the empirical ecological research on how natural systems replicate and change as conceptualized by Holling (1973), and scholars associated with the Resilience Alliance, a consortium of scientists promoting "socio-ecological resilience" (Folke, 2006;Walker et al., 2004), and the Stockholm Resilience Center, "a major think tank promoting socialecological resilience policy-making to state and intergovernmental organizations" (Bothello & Salles-Djelic, 2018, p. 110 The complex adaptive systems ontology offers an uncertainty framing of the connection between ideation, action, and outcomes. The degree of uncertainty is causally dependent on the resilience of social systems (Holling, 2001). ...
... They show the relevance of considering the businesses engagement in Grand Challenges considering how efforts align with the multiple overlaying systems over time. They also underscore the dramatic difference between the original and the long durée dynamics of interest to the scholarship associated with research on the resilience of socio-ecological systems (Allison & Hobbs, 2004;Folke, 2006;Gunderson & Holling, 2001;Holling, 2001;Levin et al., 1998;Walker et al., 2004). ...
Article
We advance research on how businesses engage with the complex social problems currently known as Grand Challenges. We study the concepts that preceded the term Grand Challenges, the connected ontologies that ground them, and the diversity of perspectives they offered. We construct a knowledge map that includes well-researched obstacles, such as governance obstacles hindering engagement and sensemaking obstacles limiting the ideation of novel and creative efforts. But we also build on prior research to identify curation obstacles, which precede engagement and define which problems receive social attention, and adaptation obstacles, which create uncertainty over workable solutions and bias the momentum of social systems toward the status quo. Our broader view on the obstacles defining Grand Challenges opens new pathways and identifies underexplored levers by which to understand and influence business engagement with complex social problems.
... Resilience in socio-ecosystems has become an important research field in association with perceptions of increasing societal risk (Pike et al., 2010;Wilson, 2010;Scott, 2013). The definition of resilience applied here follows Walker et al. (2004): "the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks." Farmers generate agro-systemic resilience to risk in a range of ways including taking out insurance; diversifying livelihoods; cooperating; or adjusting their agro-ecosystems so that they are resilient to external shocks (Ashkenazy et al., 2018). ...
... Respondents' experiences elsewhere may also be why they so readily embrace the power of a local community that can enable effective regional adaptation networks. In the MV region, social actors have generated and benefited from cooperative networks to secure water and land resources, as well as facilitating production and marketing opportunities that enable them to exploit their own properties' unique characteristics to respond to risk without losing core productive values (Walker et al., 2004;de Roest et al., 2018). This finding supports arguments developed by Lebel et al. (2006) and Schmid et al. (2016) that mechanisms of resilience originating from and maintained by the people that will benefit from the success of those initiatives provide the most enduring successes. ...
Article
https://theconversation.com/grape-growers-are-adapting-to-climate-shifts-early-and-their-knowledge-can-help-other-farmers-183636
... La résilience fait partie des concepts de plus en plus fréquemment utilisés autant par les chercheurs scientifiques de différentes disciplines que par les opérationnels (décideurs, politiciens), afin de mettre en place des dispositifs de gestion des risques et d'amélioration du fonctionnement des systèmes (Vogel et al., 2007). La résilience d'un système socio-écologique renvoie toujours à la capacité interne à faire face à une perturbation exogène (Walker et al., 2004). Elle dépend de son adaptabilité qui est principalement déterminée par sa composante sociale, c'est-à-dire les individus ou les groupes et leur capacité d'action (Walker et al., 2004). ...
... La résilience d'un système socio-écologique renvoie toujours à la capacité interne à faire face à une perturbation exogène (Walker et al., 2004). Elle dépend de son adaptabilité qui est principalement déterminée par sa composante sociale, c'est-à-dire les individus ou les groupes et leur capacité d'action (Walker et al., 2004). Ainsi L'analyse des systèmes socio-écologiques et de leur résilience est une contribution majeure aux problématiques du développement durable. ...
... This means that more than one stable equilibrium state of the ecosystem exists for given environmental conditions. The related concepts of critical thresholds, tipping points, and resilience have been particularly influential and have stimulated research across disciplines as well as informed policy and management of ecosystems (Barnosky et al., 2012;Beisner et al., 2003;Dakos et al., 2019;Folke, 2006;Lenton et al., 2008;Ludwig et al., 1997;Scheffer, 2009;Walker et al., 2004). Beyond its sound conceptual core, the success of multistability theory has also been due to the appealing intuitiveness with which it has been propagated. ...
... In Figure 3, the vertical distance between the current value of the state variable (indicated by a black dot) and its threshold value (represented by the dotted line) may be interpreted as a measure of resilience (Kinzig et al., 2006). 3 In an elementary sense we understand resilience as a descriptive ecological concept meaning the amount of disturbance an ecosystem can absorb without changing its basic function, structure, identity, and controls (Gunderson & Holling, 2001;Walker et al., 2004). In the particular case of a single state variable we define resilience as the maximum possible magnitude of a perturbation of the state variable without entering an alternative basin of attraction. ...
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We construct a generic ecosystem model that features the basic mechanisms of alternative stable states as well as two different stochastic influences. In particular, we use a mean‐reverting jump‐diffusion process to model the evolution of the ecosystem state over time. We review key concepts of multistability theory and the simple heuristics commonly employed to illustrate them. We then provide mathematical definitions for these concepts in the model context. Our contribution to the literature is twofold: we improve the representation of stochasticity in, and clarify key concepts of, multistability theory. The simplicity of the model enables a number of applications, such as finding economically optimal management strategies, identifying criteria for sustainable ecosystem management in a stochastic viability framework, deriving the probability of a regime shift, or empirically identifying the factors which have caused a specific regime shift. Recommendations for resource managers: Stochasticity is an important feature of multistable ecosystems and may by itself cause abrupt regime shifts. This highlights the role of active resilience management. Previously deemed safe management strategies can trigger undesired regime shifts under changed environmental conditions. Hence, managers need to adapt to changing conditions. Different types of management actions come with different probabilities of (un)desired regime shifts.
... Adaptations of systems as responses to threats from social and environmental changes have been extensively debated; this study takes into account two theoretical approaches for assessing a comprehensive understanding of social and ecological factors of adaptation capacities of TAFS. From a Social-Ecological Systems (SES) framework, agroecosystems' adaptations are commonly analyzed based on the management capacities or abilities of farmers to face shocks, reduce risks, and resist or recover from adversities (Altieri and Nicholls, 2013;Walker et al., 2004;Holling, 1978;Folke et al., 2002Folke et al., , 2003. ...
... Adaptation in agroecosystem management is partly seen as a wide range of human interventions, including the use, conservation, and/or restoration of ecosystems (Casas et al., 2016a(Casas et al., , 2016b. In other words, an expression of management and innovations toward promoting sustainable systems (Walker et al., 2004;Holling, 1978Holling, , 1986Folke et al., 2002Folke et al., , 2003. Different forms of adaptation may allow the integration of livestock, agricultural, and forestry activities into the ecosystems without degrading them (Altieri and Hecht, 1990;Gliessman, 1990;Alcorn, 1993;Masera et al., 1999;Altieri, 2002;Gliessman et al., 2007). ...
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Traditional agroforestry systems (TAFS) are important areas for conserving biodiversity, ecosystems benefits and biocultural heritage, outstandingly local knowledge, management techniques, and domestication processes. These systems have adapted to environmental, social, technological, and cultural changes throughout history. However, contemporary drastic socio-environmental changes as climate variability, economic inequality, migration, among others, have caused a productive crisis, with several consequences as productive land abandonment, threaten the sustainability of TAFS and vulnerating livelihoods. In such context, the question arises of what kind of adaptations are needed to face these changes, and how access to water and land, should be managed to improve adaptation of TAFS? The study analyzes TAFS in the Tehuacán Valley, a region with high biological and cultural diversity and early signs of agriculture in Mexico, where TAFS have remained active until present. The study analyzes the capacity of TAFS to conserve biodiversity and sustain local livelihoods, despite socio-environmental threats. It is based on a political ecology approach, which proposes that socio-ecological systems degradation is linked to unequal access to land and natural resources. Looking for an integral study of adaptations of TAFS to socio-environmental changes, this study combines qualitative and historical research methodology with quantitative methods evaluating plant diversity and spatial analysis. The study findings show that differentiated access to resources, water, land, and forest, is a key factor that limits adaptation of TAFS, impacting livelihood strategies, changing management patterns, and constraining social capacities for coping with socio-environmental changes. TAFS have significantly higher species richness than forests but lower diversity. The main contribution of the study is the methodological approach looking for an integral analysis of natural resources management and biocultural conservation in agroecosystems, and the identification of the unequal access to resources, as a keystone to understand and act for improving adaptive strategies of TAFS to socio-environmental changes.
... Resilience is defined as a combination of attitudes and skills that can help people cope with their feelings and function after a traumatic incident or a long-term conflict has impaired their ability to cope (Shani, 2020). The resilience concept has a strong ecological foundation and has acquired widespread awareness through the work of Holling (1973Holling ( , 2001 and Walker et al. (2002Walker et al. ( , 2004. Resilience is the ability of an organisation to anticipate and respond to uncertainty in a complex adaptive environment, i.e. its adaptive capacity. ...
Article
Purpose-Using total interpretive structural modelling (TISM), this paper aims to "identify", "analyse" and "categorise" the sustainable-resilience readiness factors for healthcare during the Covid-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach-To obtain the data, a closed-ended questionnaire was used in addition to a scheduled interview with each respondent. To identify how the factors interact, the TISM approach was employed and the cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to a classification method was used to rank and categorise the sustainable-resilience readiness factors. Findings-This study identified ten sustainable-resilience readiness factors for healthcare during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study states that the major factors are environmental scanning, awareness and preparedness, team empowerment and working, transparent communication system, learning culture, ability to respond and monitor, organisational culture, resilience engineering, personal and professional resources and technology capability. Research limitations/implications-The study focused primarily on sustainable-resilience readiness characteristics for the healthcare sector. Practical implications-This research will aid key stakeholders and academics in better understanding the factors that contribute to sustainable-resilience in healthcare. Originality/value-This study proposes the TISM technique for healthcare, which is a novel attempt in the subject of readiness for sustainable-resilience in this sector. The paper proposes a framework including a mixture of factors for sustainability and resilience in the healthcare sector for operations.
... socioecological systems (SES), coupled human and natural systems (CHANS), and telecoupling/metacoupling. SES, as noted above, is a widely applied general framework for analyzing sustainability (Ostrom 2009). Prominent applications of SES are those that focus on resilience, vulnerability, and adaptability (Folke 2006;Folke et al. 2005;Walker et al. 2004;Young et al. 2006). Specifically, this field investigates the nested cycles of adaptive change in SESs in which persistence and novelty are intertwined, leading finally to transformations. ...
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The chapter’s purpose is to examine interactions between geographers of socialist countries with IGU and the world geographical community at large in 1945–1990. The authors consider some specific national trends in the development of geography in the former USSR, Poland, and China under the conditions of ideological constraints and geopolitical tensions. A special attention is paid to the forms and impact of internationalization on geography in these countries and the ways of the dissemination of scientific information. The authors show that participation of geographers from their countries in the activities of IGU was of particular importance in the extension of international contacts. It improved the positions of geography in the country and at the same time stimulated the use of new methods and approaches in geographical studies, and allowed spreading of national geographical concepts abroad. A particular role in internationalization belonged to academic leaders. In general, the development of geographical science in socialist countries follows the global paradigm.
... Taking insights from these studies, we defined farmers′ adaptive capacity as the extent to which they invest their knowledge and resources in conserving the muskmelon landrace 'Jaunpuri Netted' for better livelihoods (Figure 1). Resilience refers to the capacity of a social-ecological system to maintain its structure and functions when exposed to a variety of extraneous perturbations [43,44]. In the context of the present study, we considered resilience as enhanced livelihood opportunities provided by a set of enablers in the face of increasingly adverse social-ecological, climatic and policy stressors ( Figure 1). ...
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Crop landraces are vanishing alarmingly worldwide, posing serious risks to the livelihoods of the resource-poor farmers; this study, conducted using 'vulnerability' and 'resilience theory' frameworks, sought to delineate social-ecological, climatic and policy hindrances to the conservation of a muskmelon landrace 'Jaunpuri Netted' traditionally grown in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Our results showed that the blue bull menace, market constraints and erratic rainfall have gradually emerged as severe stresses to the conservation of this muskmelon landrace. Yet, a set of enablers including relative ease in crop management, pleasant fruit taste, perceived livelihood opportunities and the cultural legacy seem to offset these stresses, at least partly, keeping the farmers engaged in muskmelon cultivation. The Tobid regression analysis revealed that educated farmers with large landholdings were likely to grow muskmelon on relatively small acreages, and that market constraints, blue bull menace and erratic rainfall are the major future risks to the muskmelon-based livelihoods. A growing obsession with higher fruit yields has led to the virtual eclipse of traditional crop management practices, further enhancing the vulnerability of muskmelon growers. Addressing these challenges requires some major changes to the ways in which the muskmelon crop is managed and traded. While muskmelon growers need to revisit the present chemical-intensive practices, adequate research and policy support remain requisite to unveiling the unique nutraceutical properties of this muskmelon landrace, promoting organic farming, reviving seed-based business opportunities, and creating strong market linkages to enhance the livelihood resilience of the muskmelon growers.
... socioecological systems (SES), coupled human and natural systems (CHANS), and telecoupling/metacoupling. SES, as noted above, is a widely applied general framework for analyzing sustainability (Ostrom 2009). Prominent applications of SES are those that focus on resilience, vulnerability, and adaptability (Folke 2006;Folke et al. 2005;Walker et al. 2004;Young et al. 2006). Specifically, this field investigates the nested cycles of adaptive change in SESs in which persistence and novelty are intertwined, leading finally to transformations. ...
Chapter
Geography has historically enjoyed strong interactions with other disciplines in addressing major challenges related to social, economic, and environmental issues and in contributing overall to sustainability. More especially in the Anthropocene, issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, terrorism, poverty, refugees, environmental hazards, and pandemics have emerged that require an improved understanding of spatial and temporal patterns, processes, and impacts. Consideration of scale and place-based perspectives are essential in helping to resolve such complex issues. The chapter highlight five arenas of interaction between geography and other disciplines, viz. the natural sciences, socioeconomic sciences, humanities, human-environment relationships, and sustainability science. The International Geographic Union (IGU) provides a platform to unite geographers globally to share ideas, promote communication, and advance the interaction of geography with other disciplines, and also with different stakeholders from NGOs, governmental agencies, and international organizations. At this critical juncture, Geography must continue to develop through its vibrant connections with other fields and geographers should continue to exhibit interdisciplinary leadership by embracing different perspectives, by supporting institutional arrangements that foster interdisciplinary activity, and by seeking the knowledge and techniques that other fields can contribute to geographic perspectives, approaches, and insights to the collective effort. The IGU continues to play an important role in facilitating knowledge development and sharing, and in encouraging transformational actions that promote a just, peaceful, and sustainable planet.
... Meanwhile, transformative capacity reflective of transformational adaptation is viewed from the perspective of challenging the status quo by moving a system into a fundamentally different state when the when ecological, economic or social structures make the existing system untenable (Walker et al., 2004;Galvin, 2021). In this case, we identified actions that were either intentionally driven deliberate actions of people, autonomous as a result of spontaneity to extreme climate events and/or unintentional actions responding to thus forced transitions imposed from outside the system. ...
... The theory of resilience in ecological systems (Holling, 1973;Meyer, 2016;Walker et al., 2004) distinguishes the following relevant features of the basin (Fig. 3): ...
Article
We characterize living systems as resilient “chemical organizations”, i.e. self-maintaining networks of reactions that are able to resist a wide range of perturbations. Dissipative structures, such as flames or convection cells, are also self-maintaining, but much less resilient. We try to understand how life could have originated from such self-organized structures, and evolved further, by acquiring various mechanisms to increase resilience. General mechanisms include negative feedback, buffering of resources, and degeneracy (producing the same resources via different pathways). Specific mechanisms use catalysts, such as enzymes, to enable reactions that deal with specific perturbations. This activity can be regulated by “memory” molecules, such as DNA, which selectively produce catalysts when needed. We suggest that major evolutionary transitions take place when living cells of different types or species form a higher-order organization by specializing in different functions and thus minimizing interference between their reactions.
... Ferreira Júnior y colaboradores (2015), postulan que los sistemas se ven afectados por diferentes perturbaciones (biológicas, sociales, culturales), que amenazan el funcionamiento y su identidad. Estos disturbios pondrían en relieve la vulnerabilidad de un sistema, ya que de acuerdo a la capacidad que tenga el mismo de reorganizarse, absorber las perturbaciones y mantener su estructura e identidad, será más o menos resiliente (Walker et al., 2004;Ferreira Júnior et al., 2015). ...
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Peasant systems can be understood as complex systems where diff erent components interact with each other. In Santiago del Estero, peasant families use the forest to satisfy needs, being in continuous relationship with the environment and its components. However, various problems at the regional level, social and environmental, can aff ect relationships. A very important one is pollination, due to its direct and indirect contributions to ecosystems. It is proposed to analyze the vulnerability to the current crisis of pollinators of 4 Santiago peasant systems, using ethnobiological and ecological methodology, specifi cally networks of mutual interactions. By evaluating the plant species present at the edges of crops and orchards, their uses and the bees that behaved as fl oral visitors, it was determined that the diversity of bees is low (18 species) and they are associated with eight botanical families and four uses. Apis mellifera (the only exotic species) is the most frequent. The networks show to be robust in the face of eventual disturbances, such as the loss of bees and the satisfaction of any need is not compromised. This approach to the study of peasant systems through interaction networks allows us to understand the way in which the components of these networks are related and interacting at diff erent levels. Key words: pollinators - peasant systems – vulnerability - complex systems
... The complex and intertwined nature of marine ecosystems, together with the fundamental role played by human activity, has shaped a definition of resilience that considers this recursiveness and is based on human-nature interactions. From a social-ecological systems perspective, resilience expresses the capacity of a system to persist with and adapt to large external perturbations but also transform away from unsustainable social-ecological trajectories, without losing the capacity to guarantee and maintain the key ecosystem services (Holling 1973;Adger et al. 2005;Adger 2000;Walker et al. 2006;Rist et al. 2014;Folke et al. 2016;Nyström et al. 2019;Walker et al. 2004;Walker and Salt 2012). ...
... Essas intervenções, parte de um sistema integrado e complexo, alteram a sustentabilidade do Cerrado e a forma como os jalapoeiros se organizam, influenciando a resiliência comunitária ante o sistema socioecológico do Jalapão. Ou seja, esses três conjuntos de perturbações afetam o processo de desenvolvimento regional do Jalapão e a interação entre os indivíduos/instituições e como a resiliência pode ser percebida no resultado dessas interações (Walker et al., 2004;Ostrom, 2009). ...
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O Cerrado é o bioma brasileiro que mais sofreu alterações com a ocupação humana, principalmente com a crescente expansão agrícola, que tem ocasionado um progressivo esgotamento dos seus recursos naturais. É nesse bioma que está o Jalapão; uma região marcada por inúmeros projetos de desenvolvimento e por uma população que tem sido constantemente beneficiária de políticas públicas. A região viu-se afetada em tempos recentes pelo estabelecimento de unidades de conservação e pelos seus atrativos turísticos, que têm alterado em muito a dinâmica socioeconômica local. Aos vetores de câmbio temos que acrescentar a existência de grandes áreas do agronegócio destinadas ao plantio de soja. Este trabalho tem por objetivo compreender as adaptações da comunidade jalapoeira dos municípios de Mateiros e São Félix do Tocantins a este contexto desde a perspectiva do conceito de resiliência: como esta se manteve para se adaptar diante das adversidades que impactaram seus recursos comunitários e seu modo de vida no sistema socioecológico do Jalapão. A pesquisa incorporou três estratégias metodológicas: a análise bibliográfica, a documental e a pesquisa de campo. A consideração do Jalapão como um sistema socioecológico permitiu a identificação das interações entre as comunidades e a natureza para comparar com as mudanças acontecidas. A capacidade adaptativa dos jalapoeiros frente aos três grandes choques – a criação das unidades de conservação, o turismo e o agronegócio – demonstraram que a identidade do jalapoeiro pode ser entendida como uma metáfora da resiliência do sistema que passou por inúmeras transformações sociais, econômicas, ambientais e culturais. A perspectiva adotada é uma ferramenta útil frente à identificação das forças e potencialidades do sistema socioecológico e, portanto, uma forma de encontrar mecanismos para a superação das dificuldades e ajustes às transformações pertinentes para o Jalapão.
... The term "resilience" originally refers to the capacity of an (eco)system to remain stable in the face of crises, that is, to be able to return to its original state after a disturbance (Gunderson & Holling, 2002;Holling, 1973;Walker et al., 2004). However, with regard to social systems, it cannot be assumed that a system can return to its exact pre-crisis state after a crisis has occurred. ...
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This paper outlines the procedure of employing novel software tools within a series of participatory workshops designed for measuring and monitoring the resilience of Austria's socioeconomic system based on network analysis and systems research. This study employs the principles of the four-stage adaptive cycle to quantify the perspectives of major stakeholders regarding resilience readiness in Austrian society and to explore the implications. At the FASresearch company in Vienna, 278 representatives from 15 key sectors of Austrian society were asked to estimate the resilience of their respective sectors and identify the key resilience factors for each sector. Results pinpoint the most critical stakeholders and resilience factors, highlight the importance of quality relationships among stakeholders, and indicate that while stakeholders accurately perceive the stages of growth (r), equilibrium (K), and regeneration (α), they tend to underestimate the significance of the final (Ω) stage of the adaptive cycle, characterized by disturbance and collapse of outdated systems. Improved recognition and preparation for each stage may result in the increased resilience of each sector to potential crises in the future. Notably, perspectives regarding resilience in the face of a crisis were gathered prior to the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, in addition to fulfilling an analytic-diagnostic function, resilience monitoring techniques are also intended as an adaptive tool for novel resilience management. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10668-022-02430-3.
... The Galapagos Islands should also be approached as being a complex socio-ecological system, which implies that human action and social structures constitute elements of nature, where the socio-economic and ecological systems are linked by dynamic processes and reciprocal feedback mechanisms (Adger, 2006;González et al., 2008;Watkins, 2008). Here, we understand resilience as the system capacity to transform and reorganize while experiencing adverse conditions (Walker et al. 2004. In: Folke, 2006, acknowledging that interactions and feedbacks between the ecological systems and socio-economic systems can affect the resilience of social-ecological systems when subject to external shocks; interactions or exchanges between systems (social and natural) can build or erode resilience in social and natural systems (Adger & Hodbod, 2014;Van Oudenhoven et al., 2011;Liu et al., 2007). ...
Article
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The crisis caused by COVID-19 has profoundly affected human activities around the globe, and the Galapagos Islands are no exception. The impacts on this archipelago include the impairment of tourism and the loss of linkages with the Ecuadorian mainland, which has greatly impacted the local economy. The collapse of the local economy jeopardized livelihoods and food security, given that many impacts affected the food supply chain. During the crisis, the artisanal fishers of the Galapagos showed a high capacity to adapt to the diminishing demand for fish caused by the drastic drop in tourism. We observed that fishers developed strategies and initiatives by shifting roles, from being mainly tourism-oriented providers to becoming local-household food suppliers. This new role of fishers has triggered an important shift in the perception of fishers and fisheries in Galapagos by the local community. The community shifted from perceiving fisheries as a sector opposed to conservation and in conflict with the tourism sector to perceiving fisheries as the protagonist sector, which was securing fresh, high-quality protein for the human community. This study explores the socio-economic impacts and adaptations of COVID-19 on Galapagos' artisanal fisheries based on a mixed methods approach, including the analysis of fisheries datasets, interviews, surveys, and participant observation conducted during and after the lockdown. We illustrate the adaptive mechanisms developed by the sector and explore the changes, including societal perceptions regarding small-scale fisheries in the Galapagos. The research proposes strategies to enhance the Galapagos' economic recovery based on behaviors and traits shown by fishers which are considered potential assets to build-up resilience. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40152-022-00268-z.
... In contrast, dynamic, or ecological, resilience 28 broadens from the view that resilience is simply about resistance and recovery to the previous state. Instead, this alternative view incorporates the potential for change and shifting between equilibrium states: "the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks" 29 . A third category of definition has emerged in social and development contexts that includes a system's ability to transform. ...
Article
Why do we hear calls to separate and independently manage aspects of risk and resilience that are inherently related? These arguments are inconsistent with more holistic and integrated responses to wicked challenges—such as climate change—that are necessary if we are to find balances and synergies. The justification of such views is based on misconceptions of risk science that are no longer accurate. Rather than being irrelevant, the risk concept and related literature provide a wealth of resilience analysis resources that are potentially being overlooked. In this Perspective, we discuss how the modern view of risk can provide an integrated framework for the key aspects of resilience. In the face of growing calls to restrict risk analysis to narrow and specific events, this Perspectives argues instead for fully integrated frameworks that bring risk analysis into all aspects of resilience studies.
... Transformations of food systems are required to address complex sustainability challenges, such as biodiversity loss and climate change (Rockström et al. 2016;Gordon et al. 2017;Springmann et al. 2018;Willett et al. 2019). Deliberate food system transformations can broadly be described as fundamentally realigning key interactions and feedbacks in food-related social-ecological systems towards sustainability (Gunderson and Holling 2002;Walker et al. 2004;Olsson et al. 2014). However, the complexity and inertia of food systems make fundamental changes difficult (Ericksen 2008a, b;Allen and Prosperi 2016). ...
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Food is essential to people and is one of the main ways in which people are connected to the world’s ecosystems. However, food systems often cause ecosystem degradation and produce ill-health, which has generated increasing calls to transform food systems to be more sustainable. The Swedish food system is currently undergoing substantial change. A varied set of local actors have created alternative sustainability initiatives that enact new ways of doing, thinking, and organizing. These actors can increase the transformative impact of their initiatives through multiple actions and a variety of amplification processes. We analyzed the actions adopted by 29 food initiatives active in the Stockholm region using information available online. We conducted 11 interviews to better understand the amplification processes of speeding up (i.e., accelerating impact) , scaling up (i.e., influencing higher institutional levels), and scaling deep (i.e., changing values and mind-sets). Our results indicated that the initiatives mainly seek to stabilize and grow their impact while changing the awareness, values, and mind-sets of people concerning the food they consume ( scaling deep ). However, these approaches raise new questions about whether these actions subvert or reinforce current unsustainable and inequitable system dynamics. We suggest there are distinct steps that local and regional governments could take to support these local actors via collaborations with coordinated forms of initiatives, and fostering changes at the municipality level, but these steps require ongoing, adaptive approaches given the highly complex nature of transformative change and the risks of reinforcing current system dynamics.
... Regardless of the presence or absence of outside intervention, its essence is continuously adapting and changing over time (Davoudi et al. 2012). In other words, evolution resilience includes adaptability and convertible-namely, the ability to build a new system (Folke et al. 2010;Walker et al. 2004). ...
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This research uses panel data of cities in Jiangsu from 2009 to 2018 to construct a resilience framework that measures the level of urban resilience. A combination of the entropy method, Theil index, Moran ' sI , and the Spatial Durbin Model (SDM) is used to explore regional resilience development differences, the spatial correlation characteristics of urban resilience, and its influencing factors. The study finds that: (1) The spatial heterogeneity of regional resilience development is significant, as the overall level of resilience presents a spatial distribution pattern of descending from southern Jiangsu to central Jiangsu and to northern Jiangsu. (2) The total Theil index shows a wave-like downward trend during the study period. The differences between southern Jiangsu, central Jiangsu, and northern Jiangsu make up the main reason for the overall difference of urban resilience in Jiangsu Province. Among the three regions, the gap in resilience development level within southern Jiangsu is the largest. (3) There is a clear positive spatial correlation between urban resilience in the province and an obvious agglomeration trend of urban resilience levels. Among all subsystems, urban ecological resilience is the weakest and needs to be further improved. (4) Lastly, among the five factors affecting urban resilience, general public fiscal expenditure/GDP, which characterizes government factors, has the largest positive impact on urban resilience, while foreign trade has a negative impact. In the following studies, the theme of urban resilience should be constantly deepened, and more extensive data monitoring should be carried out for the urban system to improve the diversity of data sources, so as to assess urban resilience more accurately. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11069-022-05368-x.
... Thus, from the dynamical systems perspective, effective goaldirectedness appears equivalent to the resilience of the goal configuration. The literature on resilience in social and ecological systems (Beigi, 2019;Holling, 1973;Walker et al., 2004) further clarifies how the properties of the basin affect the persistence of the attractor. It distinguishes among others the properties of latitude (size or "width" of the basin), precariousness (nearness of the attractor to the border of the basin) and resistance ("depth" of the basin). ...
Article
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This paper attempts to clarify the notion of goal-directedness, which is often misunderstood as being inconsistent with standard causal mechanisms. We first note that goal-directedness does not presuppose any mysterious forces, such as intelligent design, vitalism, conscious intention or backward causation. We then review attempts at defining goal-directedness by means of more operational characteristics: equifinality, plasticity, persistence, concerted action and negative feedback. We show that all these features can be explained by interpreting a goal as a far-from-equilibrium attractor of a dynamical system. This implies that perturbations that make the system deviate from its goal-directed trajectory are automatically compensated—at least as long as the system stays within the same basin of attraction. We argue that attractors and basins with the necessary degree of resilience tend to self-organize in complex reaction networks, thus producing self-maintaining ‘organizations’. These can be seen as an abstract model of the first goal-directed systems, and thus of the origin of life.
... Resilience studies are based on the notion of systems, in which natural and human systems are linked in time and place to form a single complex system, and focus on the durability, adaptability, and transformability of social-ecological systems (Walker et al. 2004). Commonly cited assets for resilience are the ability to adapt to variable agroecological zones, food sovereignty (sensu Wittman 2011) and internal or external social security systems (Lallau 2016). ...
Article
Due to war conditions, the local farmers had to largely rely on their own crop production, mainly by subsistence farming, in Tigray, North Ethiopia. We assessed the crop stands in 2021 and evaluated the level of resilience of the indigenous farming system. Quantitative data were collected from 161 farm parcels in various ecoregions of this tropical mountain region, in order to detect the share of sown land, crop types and their status. This participatory monitoring was accompanied by semi-structured interviews. Farmers cultivated their farms late, left it uncultivated or marginally sowed oil crops as improved fallow (28%), due to lack of farming tools, oxen, fertilizer, seeds or manpower. As compared to peace years, only few lands were sown with sorghum as there was active warfare in the sorghum planting period. The relatively good stands of wheat and barley (47%) are in line with the farmers’ priority given to cereals. Teff got a large land share because it could be sown up to the middle of the main rainy season and because farmers had consumed the seeds of their major cereal crops (wheat and barley) when hiding for warfare. Seeds left from consumption were only sown by late June, when troops had retreated, and the communities could revive. With almost no external support, the local farming system has proven to be remarkably resilient, relying on indigenous knowledge and local practices, block rotation, manure, improved fallow, changes in relative importance of crops, seed exchange and support one another. This is the first analysis of the socio-agronomic roots of the 2021-2022 Tigray hunger crisis, with a cereal harvest that could not at all sustain the local population as the planting season had been largely missed. The ability of the indigenous farming system to partially rebounce in times of autarky is another novel finding.
... Resilience for every year (t) was then estimated as the sum of two components: vComp, the vertical component, measured along the system axis as the negative distance from the attractor, and hComp, the horizontal component, measured along the stressor axis as the distance from the tipping point (Vasilakopoulos and Marshall, 2015). vComp and hComp are related to the resistance and precariousness of the system, respectively (Walker et al., 2004). Resilience at a given year was therefore estimated as ...
Article
In the framework of global human-induced change, marine communities’ often respond to changing conditions abruptly reorganizing into new equilibria. These shifts are difficult to predict and often imply irreversible adjustments due to hysteresis. Unraveling the role of the forces leading regime shifts is a major challenge. We explored the temporal evolution of 63 fish species representing the Cantabrian bentho-demersal community in response to environmental changes and fishing pressure in the period 1983–2018, using survey data. Via multivariate analysis and non-additive modeling of a community index and the system's main stressors, two decadal-scale regimes were revealed, suggesting a non-linear response of the community to its environment. The Integrated Resilience Assessment framework elucidated the response mechanism to the candidate stressors and allowed quantifying resilience dynamics. The decline in fishing pressure in the 1990s was associated with a gradual transition of the system, while further decline during the 2000s eroded the resilience of the system towards changes in its stressors, leading to a discontinuous response expressed as an abrupt, possibly irreversible shift in the 2010s. Given the teleconnected character of marine ecosystems, this regional study endorses the scientific effort for actions facing the dynamic impacts of climate change on exploited marine ecosystems.
... Within the context of environmental sciences, Holling (1973) described resilience as the extent of a disturbance that can be absorbed before a system changes its structure. So, in times of stresses or crises, every system has an adaptive ability to absorb disturbance and to reorganise itself while undergoing change so as to retain the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks (Walker et al., 2004). This perspective rather puts a focus on establishing vital surroundings and capacities that enable self-organized adaptive learning processes with the aim of achieving new balances and contexts. ...
Chapter
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The chapter deals with the post-COVID-19 Future of Sustainable Tourism in Europe including reflections on post-COVID tourism and resilience and sustainability.
... TCSI is a joint effort of The Nature Conservancy; Sierra Nevada Conservancy; California Tahoe The Framework for Resilience defines resilience and describes the elements and metrics that can be measured to assess resilience and to monitor change over time. Resilience is the ability of the system to "absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks" (Walker et al. 2004). We defined socioecological resilience based on eight pillars during a TCSI partnership workshop in 2018. ...
Technical Report
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The purpose of this initial assessment, part two of the Roadmap to Resilience, is to understand key aspects of current forest and landscape conditions, including fire and beetle/drought risk and biomass-processing capacity, across the TCSI area to establish the need and urgency for restoration based on a scientific foundation. We defined resilience in the Framework for Resilience based on ten pillars. Building on that, this assessment evaluates key features of the landscape in terms of resilience by assessing current conditions (2018–2020) across six of the ten pillars of resilience.
... Martin & Sunley (2020) summarized four main types/definitions of resilience of a system into (i) resilience as "bounce-back" from a shock, (ii) resilience as "ability to absorb" shocks, (iii) resilience as "positive adaptability" in anticipation of, or in response to, shocks and (iv) resilience as "system transformation" in anticipation of, or in response to, shocks. Since the concept of resilience is stemming from different disciplines, so those different types of resilience "belong to different sciences and theories", from engeneering (Holling, 1973) and ecological science (Holling, 1996;Walker, Holling, Carpenter & Kinzig, 2004;Setterfield, 2010), to evolutionary theory (Martin & Sunley, 2015) and the various fields of science which describe social, ecological and economic changes and their mutual connections in developmental path (Martens & Rotmans, 2005), respectively. Finally, regarding the definition of resilience in a socio-economic context, Martin & Sunley (2020) argue that it is important to define resilience in dynamic and normative way, so as to recognize the importance of managing with the diverse shocks and of maintaining sustainable functioning. ...
Conference Paper
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Extensive and ongoing debate on regional economic resilience is present in the economic geography and regional studies since the global crisis in 2008. The debate underlined the complexity of definition, dimensions and measurement of regional economic resilience. The crucial question that still defines the debate is why some regions are more proficient at coping with shocks than others are. The answer to this question lies in the concept of adaptive resilience. Adaptive resilience is the ability of regional economy to absorb and recover from a shock. Within regional economic resilience dimensions (vulnerability, resistance, recovery, reorientation), reorientation dimension of regional economy presents its adaptive resilience, which merits higher empirical attention than already received. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the reorientation capacity of Croatian regions enhances their economic resistance and recovery performance. The dynamic panel data model is formed to estimate the economic reorientation effects on regional resistance and recovery in 21 Croatian NUTS 3 regions for a period of eleven years (2009-2019). The resistance and recovery performance of Croatian NUTS 3 economies was measured by the change of employment level in the period after the crisis compared to the year before the crisis. Reorientation captured the change in regional sectoral specialisation for the analysed period, and is measured by the structural shift in regional GVA. The results of our model have put regional adaptive capacitiy into positive correlation with its economic resilience performance. Furthermore, the expected positive impacts of regional development level, human capital, population density, tourism demand, trade-openness, innovation, and sectoral specilaization in construction are confirmed, whereas regional specialization in services and quality of governance on national level showed to have negative impacts on regional resilience. Since this paper is one of the rare attempts to investigate regional economic resilience in Croatian NUTS 3 regions, empirical results offer valuable insights for policymakers in order to boost regional resilience.
... Transformability: ability of the actors and components of the agroecosystem to create a functionally new system or structures of the system when the existing configuration is unsustainable [22,49]. ...
Article
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Agroecosystems are influenced by climate variability, which puts their productivity at risk. However, they tend to maintain a functional state through their resilience. The literature presents several methods for assessing general resilience, but for specific resilience to climate variability, there are very few methods. An index is proposed that assesses the resilience of agroecosystems to climate variability, based on approaches and indicators that consider the interrelationships of agricultural systems with the environment. The index is made up of a set of multidimensional indicators, which give weight to the role that these play in the resilience of an agroecosystem. As a result, decision-making is assisted in the attempt to adapt or modify components of a farm, technology, and the culture of farmers. This index conceptually introduces structural and linkage indicators that assess ecological connections within farms and between farms and their environment. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, an application was implemented to evaluate the resilience to climate variability of fifty-one farms, located in Colombia, dedicated to citrus production, and it was verified that the most resilient farms were those that have the best qualified indicators, as well as being the ones with the highest level of production and profitability.
... Graticule cells with less than 4 BM pixels were deleted assuming 4000 m 2 as minimum mapping unit in the area. In ecology, resistance is the ability of a forest to remain unchanged when a disturbance occurs (Grimm and Wissel 1997;DeRose and Long 2014); resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize itself to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks (Holling 1973;Walker et al. 2004). Taking in to account these issues, Chambers et al. (2019) highlight the need to implement a resilience-based approach for prioritizing areas of intervention after a forest disturbance. ...
... It also involves changes to the economic, social and political fabric of society, including 'power, politics, culture, identity and sense-making' and in the outcomes via 'societal change' -that is, in the context of climate change, eradicating or at least lessening the worst current and impending threats. In terms of its temporal dimensions, while transformational change may be spurred by the passage of major, path-departing policies that force changes in societal outcomes, it may also result from incremental changes that accumulate over time to produce societal transformation (Walker et al, 2004;Geels and Schot, 2007;Westley et al, 2011;Kates et al, 2012), often across multiple sectors or domains (Markard et al, 2012;Garcia et al, 2019). 1 Each of the articles in this special issue presents a somewhat different, often contextsensitive variation on the definition of transformational change, although all focus on the outcome of broader societal transformation as a result of formal or informal policy change. What is more important is that as a community of scholars of policy and politics, we need a common vocabulary to enable communication and learning among us, even if tentative. ...
Article
This article introduces the special issue ‘Transformational change through Public Policy’. After introducing the idea of transformational societal change, it asks how public policy scholarship can contribute to fostering it; the research questions we need to do so; what actors we need to study; who our audiences are; and how we need to expand our theories and methods. In our conclusion, we draw five lessons from the special issue articles. Transformational change (1) often results from many instances of policy changes over extended periods of time; (2) involves social movements that reconceptualise problems and possibilities; and (3) requires policy changes across sectors and levels of society, from local communities to national or global communities. As a field, Public Policy will (4) never offer detailed instructions to create transformational change in all circumstances, but (5) must involve scholars taking on different roles, from engaged scholarship to theory development that each provide unique contributions.
... Given the significance of human action in shaping multisector system risk, vulnerability, and evolution, several scientific communities have focused on representing human systems in multisector models including engineers working on infrastructure system planning (Harou et al., 2009;Reed, et. al., 2013;Brown et al., 2015), global change scientists examining energy-water-land futures amidst climate and socioeconomic change (Nordhaus, 1994;Fisher-Vanden and Weyant, 2020;Wilson et al., 2021), and ecologists interested in the resilience of social-ecological systems (Gunderson and Holling, 2002;Walker et al., 2004;Folke 2006;Biggs et al., 2015). However, efforts to represent human action in multisector models remain fragmented across disciplinary lines and research communities. ...
Article
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The role of individual and collective human action is increasingly recognized as a prominent and arguably paramount determinant in shaping the behavior, trajectory, and vulnerability of multisector systems. This human influence operates at multiple scales: from short‐term (hourly to daily) to long‐term (annually to centennial) timescales, and from the local to the global, pushing systems toward either desirable or undesirable outcomes. However, the effort to represent human systems in multisector models has been fragmented across philosophical, methodological, and disciplinary lines. To cohere insights across diverse modeling approaches, we present a new typology for classifying how human actors are represented in the broad suite of coupled human‐natural system models that are applied in MultiSector Dynamics (MSD) research. The typology conceptualizes a “sector” as a system‐of‐systems that includes a diverse group of human actors, defined across individual to collective social levels, involved in governing, provisioning, and utilizing products, goods, or services toward some human end. We trace the salient features of modeled representations of human systems by organizing the typology around two key questions: (a) Who are the actors in MSD systems and what are their actions? (b) How and for what purpose are these actors and actions operationalized in a computational model? We use this typology to critically examine existing models and chart the frontier of human systems modeling for MSD research.
... The first type considers the two concepts' synonyms and often uses them almost interchangeably. In this context, a resilient socio ecological system is synonymous with region that is ecological and socially sustainable [25]. The second type presents resilience as a necessary precondition for sustainability. ...
Conference Paper
Market disruption has made the freight transport activities more complex. For competitive reasons, it is important that companies operate in more resilient manners to solve problems related to changes with a least amount of damage. So, a communicative indicator to monitor the performance of freight transport and improve development by prioritizing improvements are crucial. However, the resilience measures of freight transport are not well addressed issue. This paper presents a systematic review on freight transport resilience with emphasis on its definitions, identifies its indicators and focuses on its synergies with sustainability. This paper will provide a comprehensive insight to understand the freight transport resilience and establish new directions.
Article
The concept of resilience has been increasingly adopted on the EU's policy agenda as a principle for agri‐food policymaking. However, resilience is an ambiguous concept, allowing for different understandings and uses in the context of agri‐food policymaking. This study analyses whether and how resilience is framed and contributes to framing in the CAP post‐2020 reform process by policymakers and stakeholders. Combining deductive and inductive coding, we analysed 123 policy documents of EU institutions and stakeholders related to the CAP post‐2020 reform debate and the associated Farm‐to‐Fork Strategy. Five distinct resilience frames were identified: (1) Income resilience frame; (2) Farmers’ supply chain position resilience frame; (3) Climate change impact resilience frame; (4) Disease resilience frame; and (5) Ecological resilience frame. Whereas the resilience concept has been deployed by various actors, they differ in preferred policy actions towards greater resilience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
The statement of Latency in management Strategy in the Mindset of disaster or crisis managers (management) can cause misunderstanding intentionally or unintentionally in distinguishing a Disaster from a Crisis. Mitigating the consequences depends on whether the cause of the disorder is understood clearly or not! Many serious accidents such as Fukushima, Bhopal, Chernobyl and Three Mile Island show vast consequences, although different but primarily related to a similar factor, which is “Human Deficiency”. Literature shows, although leadership and top management and processes and mechanisms and good strategies are existent, yet problems remain. The fact is that there are fewer studies formulated in this field, from the crisis management strategies point of view, this is the deficiency. The article aims to shed light on the Importance and how to better understand Latency in management Strategy at Management levels, and to better say by the Core Native Human Effective Components (CNHECs) for better knowing and understanding the reality to better act based on the real management strategy in the Mindset (Based on the mind bandwidth). In addition, to understand whether ignoring ignorance is a good management strategy in time of crisis and will it buy time and be effective in not accurate managers or the other way around. Core Native Human Effective Components (CNHECs) are extracted from the Native Human Effective Components (NHECs) that are refined among different Human Effective Components (HECs) based on the literature reviewed in an article recently published by the authors of this article which can help to better understand the latency in management. These components may be generated and be shaped in the crisis managers’ minds’ bandwidth which can be used as a precautionary action to be avoided not to cause more situations that are complex through increase of resiliency and decrease of distress. As a conclusion, we understand that reality may be completely different from what could be assumed, understood and seen. It should be considered that actions are always based on the disaster and crisis Managers’ understanding. For better understanding, the reality we propose a method, Model or a taxonomy that to some extent clarifies and focuses on the statement of latency in management strategy process. This Structure, model or taxonomy shows how and through which windows (Soft, Semi Soft and Hard Spheres) we can get into it and to say how to better understand the function of latency in management strategy by special consideration of CNHECs which can help us to distinguish a crisis from a disaster. It is important to know that by a good Recognition and revealing and also by Better Understanding Core Native Human Effective Components (CNHECs), the disaster and crisis managers can Increase Resiliency and Decrease Distress especially in time of occurrences of different kinds of sudden emergencies generated from different kinds of hazards.
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Climate change can bring about large-scale irreversible physical impacts and systemic changes in the operating environment of public organizations. Research on preconditions for organizational adaptation to climate change has produced two parallel lines of inquiry, one focusing on macro-level norms, rules and expectations and the other on meso-level culture, design and structure within the organization. Drawing on the meta-theory of institutional logics, this study proposes a configurational approach to link institutionally aware top managers with the combination and reconciliation of macro- and meso-level logics. We identify government authority, professionalism and market as macro-level institutional logics, and risk-based logic and capacity-based logic as critical meso-level institutional logics. Our theory proposes that 1) the macro- and meso-level institutional logics co-exist in systematic ways as to produce identifiable configurations, 2) the configurations are differentially associated with climate adaptation, and 3) the effects of each logic differ across the configurations. Using a 2019 national survey on approximately 1000 top managers in the largest U.S. transit agencies, we apply latent profile analysis to identify three distinct clusters: forerunner, complacent and market-oriented. Only the forerunner cluster is adaptive to climate change, while the two others are maladaptive. Findings from the multigroup structural equation modeling also demonstrate varied effects of each institutional logic on adaptation across the clusters, confirming institutional work at play to reconcile and integrate co-existing and potential contradictory logics.
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Resilience has become an important concept for the ski resorts of China, which have suffered heavy losses due to COVID-19. In order to help China's ski resort service industry successfully adapt to the crisis and achieve sustainable development, the goal of this paper is to develop the definition of resilience of the ski resort service industry through interviews based on the concept and general analysis framework of resilience. The ski resort resilience theory analysis framework is then constructed from the three basic elements (market, skiing, and stakeholders) and four system features (flexibility, adaptability, and collaborative learning ability). The results indicate several measures that can be taken to spread risk: enrich the product supply; eliminate risks and build a multi-agent networked industrial governance system; and establish a risk prevention and management mechanism based on a multi-organization alternative learning mechanism to overcome the difficulties encountered in the development of ski resorts.
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With the rapid growth of emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs), increasing interest has been focused on exploring the internationalization-performance (I-P) relationship of EMNEs. Yet findings on the relationship remain contradictory. Although researchers emphasize the home-country-bounded nature of EMNEs, less is known about how home-government features and the EMNEs’ political mindset affect their internationalization and performance. This study integrates and extends the literature on the I-P relationship of EMNEs using a meta-analysis covering a dataset of 218 effect sizes from 186 retrieved studies published between 1998 and 2021. Findings show that the I-P relationship is overall positive, yet it varies across diverse research designs and emerging markets and regions. Also, our findings indicate that home-country government quality and transformability exert significant positive impacts on the relationship, while nationalism negatively moderates the government’s impacts on the relationship. This study pushes the boundaries of EMNE literature through conceptualizing home-government features and incorporating consideration of nationalism in this research field.
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It is inevitable for organizations to face crisis. Resilience, at an organizational level, describes the inherent qualities which enable organizations to plan for, response to and recover from emergencies and crises. This qualitative research aims to study organizational resilience in businesses after crisis. Data were collected from high-level executives who are the key informants during the experience of significant crisis within organizations in diverse small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Critical incident technique (CIT) was employed to study situations from the viewpoints of executives and to look for the factors that contribute to organizational resilience. The results show that (1) Executives do not prepare and plan in advance in order to achieve organizational resilience, (2) The important factors of resilience is the organizations’ ability to adapt, including leadership, networking and relationships, staff engagement, innovation and creativity, and (3) Some executives believe that luck and mindfulness plays a role in the organizational resilience or in their ability to survive and recover from crisis.
Article
Full-text available
The statement of Latency in management Strategy in the Mindset of disaster or crisis managers (management) can cause misunderstanding intentionally or unintentionally in distinguishing a Disaster from a Crisis. Mitigating the consequences depends on whether the cause of the disorder is understood clearly or not! Many serious accidents such as Fukushima, Bhopal, Chernobyl and Three Mile Island show vast consequences, although different but primarily related to a similar factor, which is "Human Deficiency". Literature shows, although leadership and top management and processes and mechanisms and good strategies are existent, yet problems remain. The fact is that there are fewer studies formulated in this field, from the crisis management strategies point of view, this is the deficiency. The article aims to shed light on the Importance and how to better understand Latency in management Strategy at Management levels, and to better say by the Core Native Human Effective Components (CNHECs) for better knowing and understanding the reality to better act based on the real management strategy in the Mindset (Based on the mind bandwidth). In addition, to understand whether ignoring ignorance is a good management strategy in time of crisis and will it buy time and be effective in not accurate managers or the other way around. Core Native Human Effective Components (CNHECs) are extracted from the Native Human Effective Components (NHECs) that are refined among different Human Effective Components (HECs) based on the literature reviewed in an article recently published by the authors of this article which can help to better understand the latency in management. These components may be generated and be shaped in the crisis managers' minds' bandwidth which can be used as a precautionary action to be avoided not to cause more situations that are complex through increase of resiliency and decrease of distress. As a conclusion, we understand that reality may be completely different from what could be assumed, understood and seen. It should be considered that actions are always based on the disaster and crisis Managers' understanding. For better understanding, the reality we propose a method, Model or a taxonomy that to some extent clarifies and focuses on the statement of latency in management strategy process. This Structure, model or taxonomy shows how and through which windows (Soft, Semi Soft and Hard Spheres) we can get into it and to say how to better understand the function of latency in management strategy by special consideration of CNHECs which can help us to distinguish a crisis from a disaster. It is important to know that by a good Recognition and revealing and also by Better Understanding Core Native Human Effective Components (CNHECs), the disaster and crisis managers can Increase Resiliency and Decrease Distress especially in time of occurrences of different kinds of sudden emergencies generated from different kinds of hazards.
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Full-text available
Resilience has become a cornerstone for risk management and disaster reduction. However, it has evolved extensively both etymologically and conceptually in time and across scientific disciplines. The concept has been (re)shaped by the evolution of research and practice efforts. Considered the opposite of vulnerability for a long time, resilience was first defined as the ability to resist, bounce back, cope with, and recover quickly from the impacts of hazards. To avoid the possible return to conditions of vulnerability and exposure to hazards, the notions of post-disaster development, transformation, and adaptation (build back better) and anticipation, innovation, and proactivity (bounce forward) were then integrated. Today, resilience is characterized by a multitude of components and several classifications. We present a selection of 25 components used to define resilience, and an interesting linkage emerges between these components and the dimensions of risk management (prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery), offering a perspective to strengthen resilience through the development of capacities. Despite its potential, resilience is subject to challenges regarding its operationalization, effectiveness, measurement, credibility, equity, and even its nature. Nevertheless, it offers applicability and opportunities for local communities as well as an interdisciplinary look at global challenges.
Research
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The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive conceptual framework that defines territorial resilience from a holistic viewpoint. To this end, an initial reflection is made on the dichotomy between the rural and urban worlds and the consequences of the urbanisation model of the 20th century. Urban resilience is then analysed as a reference vision and a starting point for defining the scope and objectives of territorial planning and development. Finally, it proposes the vectors that facilitate the symbiosis between the rural and urban worlds, especially in a Post-COVID19 era. This paper is part of the Territorial Resilience research area and the Sustainable Transition Initiative promoted by the Euro-Mediterranean Economists Association. https://euromed-economists.org/download/territorial-resilience-pillars-for-a-holistic-approach-of-resilience-for-land-use-planning/
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Following the broad application of the concept of resilience, the interdisciplinary and multi-level formulations have been blurred, calling for further research to explore the commonalities and differences of the concept across disciplines and organizational levels of analysis. In this research, we studied interdisciplinary formulations of the concept of resilience to explore how critical infrastructure workforce training to build resilience can be incorporated across individual employee (micro-level), team (meso-level) and organization (macro-level) levels. Informed by a systematic literature review and content analysis, an interdisciplinary and multi-level framework for resilience in the workplace was developed to guide organization-wide resilience training of critical infrastructure employees. This research can be used to inform practice by directing the focus of resilience training initiatives at each level. The paper's recommendations highlight the need for resilience training to focus on capacities and traits associated with anticipation in organizations to ensure the protection and resilience of critical infrastructure.
Thesis
En Europe, les prairies semi-naturelles de moyenne montagne sont principalement des écosystèmes ayant évolués au cours de plusieurs décennies d’activité humaine. Ces écosystèmes présentent une biodiversité remarquable et dépendent de régimes traditionnels de perturbations par la fauche ou le pâturage. Cependant, dans l’objectif d’augmenter leur production de fourrage, les prairies semi-naturelles sont soumises à des régimes de perturbations de plus en plus importants ainsi qu’à de nouveaux types de perturbations. Ce travail de thèse propose d’apporter de nouveaux éléments pour suivre et comprendre l’impact des perturbations sur la diversité des communautés végétales des prairies semi-naturelles.Dans un premier temps, la comparaison de relevés de végétation anciens (2005 à 2009) avec des relevés récents (2019) a été réalisée dans des prairies de fauche de moyenne montagne. Cette comparaison a permis de mettre en évidence des évolutions contrastées de la diversité végétale et des régimes de perturbations entre deux massifs. Dans le massif des Vosges, la diversité végétale ainsi que les régimes de perturbations ne semblent pas avoir évolué. A l’inverse, dans le massif du Jura, la diversité végétale a fortement diminué, probablement en association avec une augmentation de la fréquence des régimes de perturbations et de la fertilisation.Dans un second temps, l’impact de perturbations de forte intensité sur la diversité végétale a été évalué. Dans les prairies de fauche, les perturbations par les pullulations de campagnols terrestres semblent permettre une augmentation de la richesse spécifique par la réduction de la compétition pour la lumière. A l’inverse, ces perturbations semblent favoriser des espèces proches phylogénétiquement et entraîner une diminution de l’équitabilité phylogénétique. Dans les pelouses sèches, les perturbations par l’utilisation de broyeurs de pierres ne semblent pas impacter la diversité végétale. En revanche, la composition en espèces des milieux perturbés évolue vers des végétations de prairies productives suite à la perte des espèces typiques des pelouses.Dans un troisième temps, l’utilisation d’espèces diagnostiques comme indicateurs des régimes de perturbations et de la diversité végétale dans les prairies pâturées du massif du Jura a été testée. Le nombre d’espèces diagnostiques dans un relevé de végétation s’est révélé être un bon indicateur de la diversité végétale et des régimes de fertilisation. Cependant, les espèces diagnostiques ne semblent pas être de meilleurs indicateurs que des espèces généralistes des prairies pour évaluer l’intensité des régimes de perturbations.Nos résultats confirment que les changements de pratiques agricoles sont une menace majeure pour la diversité végétale des prairies semi-naturelles de moyenne montagne, en particulier dans le massif du Jura. Nos travaux mettent également en avant que l’augmentation de la fréquence des régimes de perturbations est susceptible d’avoir davantage d’effets négatifs sur la diversité végétale que des perturbations de forte intensité mais peu fréquentes. Néanmoins, certaines perturbations de forte intensité, comme l’utilisation de broyeurs de pierres, peuvent entraîner des modifications très importantes et irréversibles de la composition en espèces des milieux perturbés. Dans l’objectif de concilier enjeux sociétaux et environnementaux, il convient de maintenir des parcelles productives ou les régimes de perturbations par la fauche ou le pâturage sont fréquents, ce qui permet d’assurer une production fourragère importante. Cependant, Il est également nécessaire de limiter la fréquence et l’intensité des perturbations dans des parcelles encore peu intensifiées afin de protéger leur composition en espèces ainsi que leur diversité végétale.
Book
Cette version doit être reliée avec l'ensemble du programme entrepris en 6 phases. En effet elle est en partie amputée. Pour une version complète choisir la version précédente dite définitive.
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The idea that alternative stable states may exist in communities has been a recurring theme in ecology since the late 1960s, and is now experiencing a resurgence of interest. Since the first papers on the subject appeared, two perspectives have developed to describe how communities shift from one stable state to another. One assumes a constant environment with shifts in variables such as population density, and the other anticipates changes to underlying parameters or environmental "drivers". We review the theory behind alternative stable states and examine to what extent these perspectives are the same, and in what ways they differ. We discuss the concepts of resilience and hysteresis, and the role of stochasticity within the two formulations. In spite of differences in the two perspectives, the same type of experimental evidence is required to demonstrate the existence of alternative stable states.
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Conservation decisions about how, when, and where to act are typically based on our expectations for the future. When the world is highly unpredictable and we are working from a limited range of expectations, however, our expectations will frequently be proved wrong. Scenario planning offers a framework for developing more resilient conservation policies when faced with uncontrollable, irreducible uncertainty. A scenario in this context is an account of a plausible future. Scenario planning consists of using a few contrasting scenarios to explore the uncertainty surrounding the future consequences of a decision. Ideally, scenarios should be constructed by a diverse group of people for a single, stated purpose. Scenario planning can incorporate a variety of quantitative and qualitative information in the decision-making process. Often, consideration of this diverse information in a systemic way leads to better decisions. Furthermore, the participation of a diverse group of people in a systemic process of collecting, discussing, and analyzing scenarios builds shared understanding. The robustness provided by the consideration of multiple possible futures has served several groups well; we present examples from business, government, and conservation planning that illustrate the value of scenario planning. For conservation, major benefits of using scenario planning are ( 1 ) increased understanding of key uncertainties, ( 2 ) incorporation of alternative perspectives into conservation planning, and ( 3 ) greater resilience of decisions to surprise.
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We describe existing models of the relationship between species diversity and ecological function, and propose a conceptual model that relates species richness, ecological resilience, and scale. We suggest that species interact with scale-dependent sets of ecological structures and processes that determine functional opportunities. We propose that ecological resilience is generated by diverse, but overlapping, function within a scale and by apparently redundant species that operate at different scales, thereby reinforcing function across scales. The distribution of functional diversity within and across scales enables regeneration and renewal to occur following ecological disruption over a wide range of scales.
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All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.
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THIS REVIEW EXPLORES BOTH ECOLOGICAL THEORY AND THE BEHAVIOR OF NATURAL SYSTEMS TO SEE IF DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES OF THEIR BEHAVIOR CAN YIELD DIFFERENT INSIGHTS THAT ARE USEFUL FOR BOTH THEORY AND PRACTICE. THE RESILIENCE AND STABILITY VIEWPOINTS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS CAN YIELD VERY DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES. THE STABILITY VIEW EMPHASIZES THE EQUILIBRIUM, THE MAINTENANCE OF A PREDICTABLE WORLD, AND THE HARVESTING OF NATURE'S EXCESS PRODUCTION WITH AS LITTLE FLUCTUATION AS POSSIBLE. THE RESILIENCE VIEW EMPHASIZES DOMAINS OF ATTRACTION AND THE NEED FOR PERSISTENCE. BUT EXTINCTION IS NOT PURELY A RANDOM EVENT: IT RESULTS FROM THE INTERACTION OF RANDOM EVENTS WITH THOSE DETERMINISTIC FORCES THAT DEFINE THE SHAPE, SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DOMAIN OF ATTRACTION. THE VERY APPROACH, THEREFORE, THAT ASSURES A STABLE MAXIMUM SUSTAINED YIELD OF A RENEWABLE RESOURCE, MIGHT SO CHANGE THESE CONDITIONS THAT THE RESILIENCE IS LOST OR IS REDUCED SO THAT A CHANCE AND RARE EVENT THAT PREVIOUSLY COULD BE ABSORBED CAN TRIGGER A SUDDEN DRAMATIC CHANGE AND LOSS OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF THE SYSTEM. A MANAGEMENT APPROACH BASED ON RESILIENCE, ON THE OTHER HAND, WOULD EMPHASIZE THE NEED TO KEEP OPTIONS OPEN, THE NEED TO VIEW EVENTS IN A REGIONAL RATHER THAN A LOCAL CONTEXT, AND THE NEED TO EMPHASIZE HETEROGENEITY. THE RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK DOES NOT REQUIRE A PRECISE CAPACITY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE BUT ONLY A QUALITATIVE CAPACITY TO DEVISE SYSTEMS THAT CAN ABSORB AND ACCOMMODATE FUTURE EVENTS IN WHATEVER UNEXPECTED FORM THEY MAY TAKE.
Article
Human institutions—ways of organizing activities—affect the resilience of the environment. Locally evolved institutional arrangements governed by stable communities and buffered from outside forces have sustained resources successfully for centuries, although they often fail when rapid change occurs. Ideal conditions for governance are increasingly rare. Critical problems, such as transboundary pollution, tropical deforestation, and climate change, are at larger scales and involve nonlocal influences. Promising strategies for addressing these problems include dialogue among interested parties, officials, and scientists; complex, redundant, and layered institutions; a mix of institutional types; and designs that facilitate experimentation, learning, and change.
Article
Ecosystems are prototypical examples of complex adaptive systems, in which patterns at higher levels emerge from localized interactions and selection processes acting at lower levels. An essential aspect of such systems is nonlinearity, leading to historical dependency and multiple possible outcomes of dynamics. Given this, it is essential to determine the degree to which system features are determined by environmental conditions, and the degree to which they are the result of self-organization. Furthermore, given the multiple levels at which dynamics become apparent and at which selection can act, central issues relate to how evolution shapes ecosystems properties, and whether ecosystems become buffered to changes (more resilient) over their ecological and evolutionary development or proceed to critical states and the edge of chaos.