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IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM MANAGEMENT

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Abstract: Language has great importance in the dialogue and understanding between tourists and tourist facilities. And the English today is international language, and most of the tourist establishments require employees to speak English in addition the local language of the country because the English now has become the familiar language for almost all human beings. There are a lot of institutes that give courses in language. As the tourism need to friction with foreigners directly so we will focus in this paper on the importance of the English language in the bi Sector Development. This paper also encourages practitioners to pay attention on the language issue. Collaboration among educational providers and tourism organizations is required if they want to compete in the global market.
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Academic Journal of Accounting
and Economics Researches
www.worldofresearches.com
33
January 2015
© 2015, World of Researches Publication
Ac. J. Acco. Eco. Res.
Vol. 4, Issue 1, 33-45, 2015
ISSN: 2333-0783 (Online)
ISSN: 2375-7493 (Print)
IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Romania
* E-mail: dr.nawar30@yahoo.com
INTRODUCTION
The fast worldwide progression of tourism management has been a
significant advance within a tourism industry over the latest decades
1
Communication is essential to the management English language will be an
2
important means to communicate within tourism organizations and for tourism
management Language also activates the tourism organization to drive forward.
3
Buckley et al pointed out that the language plays role in facilitating
communication between head quarter and subsidiaries. Consequently, high-level
personnel with language skills are becoming more and more necessary to
corporate efficiency and success in tourism management in the global
4
environment. Personnel with language skills are needed as local agents of
tourism organization doing domestic tour business. Effective tourism
management is concluded that it is dependent partly on the use of language,
especially in the form of promotion, instructions and other written material . This
5
paper aims to analyze the roles of English language, to consider the definitions of
tourism management, to investigate tourism management and development, to
understand language policy and tourism management to examine the
6
characteristics of tourism management, to 185 discuss service quality in tourism
Abstract: Language has great importance in the dialogue and understanding between tourists and
tourist facilities. And the English today is international language, and most of the tourist
establishments require employees to speak English in addition the local language of the country
because the English now has become the familiar language for almost all human beings. There are
a lot of institutes that give courses in language. As the tourism need to friction with foreigners
directly so we will focus in this paper on the importance of the English language in the bi Sector
Development. This paper also encourages practitioners to pay attention on the language issue.
Collaboration among educational providers and tourism organizations is required if they want to
compete in the global market.
Key words: Language, Tourism, Management, English, Development
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
44
January 2015
organizations, to propose options for managing language problems, and to testify
concept for measuring effectiveness of tourism management.
Importance of language in general
Language is a system of spoken or written symbols that can communicate
ideas, emotions, and experiences
.Understanding the role of language,
organisations can improve the coordination skills
, operate better new
technology
,develop customer satisfaction and have effective management in
tourism industry. Domke-Damonte and Nurden referred to Willy Brantdt, a
former German Chancellor who once commented, “If I am selling to you, I speak
your language.” People cannot comprehend what someone else demands if
people cannot converse to other people on their own terms
.This indicates that
language creates greater interest
. It is a significant factor that influences
competitiveness. So, it is very crucial for an organization to have communicative
competence throughout the organization
. Buck & Communication is the
important linkage between consequence and action in tourism organizations
. If
people can make it at the organization, they can make it anywhere else. Daft and
described the relationship between language and tourism organizational
management. They indicate that in tourism organizational management, low
variety of language is simple. High variety of language is more complex and tends
to have more errors. In reality, in tourism organizational management, language
of description tends to have both accurate and error. This means that working
with high variety forms of language uses of language might benefit less to
organization. Communication to and from organizations will consist mainly of
high variety language in order to communicate meaningful statements about the
systems. They also emphasized that in tourism organizational management;
people necessitate and apply high variety forms of communication
in complex settings
. No matter what tourism organizational management
is, particularly at managerial level, it appears to aim for accuracy.
Thus, language roles are defined as “Factor that is related to tourism
organizational.
Management”; There is the need in language skills in organization
. Various
key dimensions were identified from the literature that appears to relate to
performance:
a) the ability to increase customers’ satisfaction;
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
b) the ability to enhance and maintain language competency of tourism
people;
c) the ability to motivate international tourists;
d) the ability in better understanding on demand;
e) the ability in understanding culture; and
f) the ability to create effective internal and external communication.
Table 1. Articles linking to Importance of language and tourism management
Article
Nature of
study
Study
method
Key finding (s)
Barker (2008)
Non
Empirical
N/A
Organizational management relates to cultures.
Language plays important roles since language is a part of cultures.
Barlas et al. (2002)
Non
Empirical
N/A
Language is listed as one of the organizational core
Competencies.
Batt (2008)
Empirical
Case Study
Strong communication skill in English is a must for
Management. Otherwise, it will be a cause of losing money and
business.
Collins
(1994)
Empirical
Survey
Language is a vital factor in management.
Crytal (1989)
Non
Empirical
N/A
Language competence leads to customer satisfaction.
Thus, must pay more attention on language.
Davies (2000)
Empirical
Survey
Language is considered the most relevant to
management. Particularly, it plays roles both internal and external
communication.
Leslie &
Russel (2006)
Empirical
Survey
Foreign language is considered important for tourism
. It brings about understanding of external communication. Need
to have available foreign language skills so as to support better
interrelationships.
Sullivan
(1988)
Empirical
Survey
Language reduces worker uncertainty, plays roles in
Tourism management, and brings understanding
of good tourism management.
Ignoring the important roles of English language may loss of resources and
limitations to tourism organizational and managerial development due to the lack
of communication and knowledge sharing
.To carry out the task, development
of tourism sector need to communicate across linguistic. Therefore, in tourism
organizational management, English language can be described as a required
communication means. It influences the organization’s ability to control
international activities
.As Lauring said expresses successful development of
tourism relates to the ability to manage the communication crossing English
language. It is claimed that tourism organizational management required a
process and supporting practices
Related to the sharing opinion and exchanging information
, Tourism
organizational management needs to concentrate on the tourists or customers,
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
44
January 2015
context, the community context, and the practitioners’ context
.The customers’
context involves customer request for service. The community context invites
participation, request offer, and clarification of issues. The practitioners’ context
confirms and/or rejects invitation
. In development of tourism, English language
also plays the role as a negotiated source of power. Its role is also described in
relation to the creation and maintenance of social structures and power
relations
. Moreover, language is to be understood as something used by and
for power
. It is analyzed as a tool, which is employed to improve the
effectiveness of organizations, particularly, in tourism organizational
communication
. English Language is a source that encompasses daily practice
and almost all other aspects of human life. The higher of language input, the
higher the level of tourism organizational management effectiveness
. Language
effects on power in organizations at times of radical change
. Language plays a
role in organizational change
. Furthermore, the current literature on language
tended to demonstrate that language played a structuring and socializing role for
individuals
. According to Domke-Damonte and Lester, a European study of
foreign language needs of small and medium enterprises found that nearly one-
fifth of 1,300 companies surveyed admitted to losing business because of the lack
of language skills. Yet, according to a research conducted recently, university
graduate who speaks fluent English can add another Japan $ 667 (TH20, 000 baht)
a month. Consequently, language plays very important role in tourism industry.
Language also makes the communication and decision-making went faster
through better understanding
.
Bloch (2005) pointed out that language skills are demanded in various
occupations within organizations such as General Management, Sales and
marketing management, Financial management, Supply and distribution
management, Administrative and support management, Information and
computer management, Insurance, legal and property management, Technology
management, Product and material management, and Trainee management.
Importance of language in tourism organizational management has not yet
to be fully investigated, however, it can be concluded that language is essential to
the creation of network and to the tourism organizational management. It is an
element of the effective organizational management
. Language is used as a
specific expression of the power relations between the individuals and groups
involved. Thus, policies of language use should be a part of tourism
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
organizations. In multinational corporations, they have adopted English as their
common corporate language to facilitate communication between headquarters
and foreign subsidiaries as they enter new markets
. Tourism organizational
management often takes place in English, and tourism organizations assume that
employees will be able to communicate in English effectively
. English
competence is a requirement for reaching managerial level at the tourism
organization. For this reason, in tourism organizational management, language is
to be understood as something used by and for power. It is analyzed as a tool,
which is employed to increase the effectiveness of organizations, principally, in
organizational communication. The current literature on language also tended to
demonstrate that language played a structuring and socializing roles for
individuals. Language certainly plays roles in organizational change
.
What is a tourism management?
Tourism management is a method of planning, organizing, controlling and
leading to accomplish the tourism organizational goal such as the satisfaction,
the effectiveness of delivering the needs, wants and expectations of the
international tourists. Luchien defined tourism organizational management as
ideas containing elements of management approach grounded in a value basis,
and equipped with language
. The adoption of management concepts involves
language, and it can be studied
by means of discourse analysis. Tourism organizational management is
based on communicative action
. It focuses on the basics of business, including
finance, human resources, an organizational culture, organizations’ structures,
job functions, role responsibilities, and accountability. The tourism organizational
management also involves problem solving, marketing, training staff, team
building, budgeting, and developing policies and procedures for their employer,
and leadership. It involves technology
, quality staff training
, and corporate
social responsibility (CSR) (O’ Higgins, 2009). People who are in charge required to
have skills in interpersonal communication
, and decision making
. Language is
seen as being common to the tourism organizational management. Success of
the tourism organizational management is based on the ability to interact
productively with international tourists or customers, suppliers, and government
officials. However, it is normal that people produce errors which will affect
comprehension. Miscommunications and conflict can result in damaged
relationships, lost business, unsatisfied customers and frustrated employees.
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
44
January 2015
The goal of tourism organizational management is the total quality
management which resulted from leadership, strategic planning, tourist focus,
human resource focus, process management and informational analysis
. The
total quality management
generates quality service, reduces costs, and creates
more satisfied customers or international tourists
. Language skills training is a
way which will lead to quality service
Normally, the relationship between language roles and tourism
organizational management outcomes should be examined. The expectation of
direct relationship between language roles and tourism organizational
management should be observed. Tourism organizational management is
expected by paying more attention on language roles that will gain more
international tourists. The past years, role of language has progressed from a
developing concept to a progressively
Universal function in tourism business organizations. As evidence shows
that there are numbers of journals devoted to tourism management, for example
International Journal of Career Management, Journal of Organizational Change
Management, The Academy of Management Review, and Corporate
Communications: An International Journal, and Journal of Management Research.
Still, little quantitative and qualitative empirical researches have been published.
The size of the published work in the language and tourism organizational
management field is limited. Empirical research relies major on knowledge
management and
Organizational performance. The objective for this study reported here is to
carry out an exploratory from articles, study to create a broader set of support
regarding the relationship between language role and tourism organizational
management. This especially applies to tourism organizational management, as
language role has been considered one of the most important factors.
It is found out that language role is related to tourism organizational
management.
It helped determine how we think, and what we see. Based on
this evidence, it is concluded that as long as language role is considered for the
tourism organizational management, positive organizational management will
result in an increasing of the international tourists.
Tourism management and development
Literature indicates that training and development programs often deal
inadequately with the potential conflicts that result from interactions
. Sizoo and
Serrie (2009) used five training exercises to develop tourism organizational
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
management competencies. First exercise, interviewing is used. Each employee
interviewed another employee whom she or he has never met before. The idea is
to give familiarity and to generate skills, to improve employees to overcome
anxiety about getting to know other employees. It is recommended that the
employees to be interviewed should be new arrivals. Second exercise, incident is
used.
Each employee described misunderstanding situation. Employees learned
to accept the mistakes, and developed a mastery of appropriate behavior in
similar situations in the future. Third exercise, news is used. Each employee
described a piece of news from newspaper, from television or from the Internet
which is complex in tourism organizational management adapting. Each
employee writes an analysis of factors affect successfulness or unsuccessfulness
in solving tourism organizational management.
It built analytical skills. The
employees will develop into acquainted with tourism organizational
management. Fourth exercise, skit is used.
Each employee is assigned to one of several groups or departments. The
groups are charged with planning, writing, and performing in front of other
groups. It builds skills and emotional commitment. Fifth exercise, it involves
event. Each employee participate organizational activities such as sporting
events, going to seminars, etc. It involves getting employees together.
The employees learn to work with others. These five exercises prepare the
employees to be ready to face with the situations that they may face in the
future.
In the same ways, Barnhart and Walker (n. d.) and Kathy Pennell (2010)
promote the application of five-stage organizational management. They involve
assessing the need, developing competency profiles, identifying high performing
employees, developing the high performers, and evaluating the progress.
In tourism organizational management, Dong Young Kim, Vinod Kumar and
Steven A. Murphy (2010) referred to the use of the European Foundation for
Quality Management (EFQM) which is used in different ways: as a tool for self-
assessment; as a way to benchmark with other organizations; as a guide to
identify areas for improvement; as the basis for common vocabulary and a way of
thinking; and as a structure for the tourism organization’s management system.
English Language policy and development of tourism management
English Language should be a policy for tourism management
. A language
policy can be defined as the systematic activities and efforts done in a company
or organisation with the purpose of supporting the goal of the company
.
Simonsen (2003), Bergenholtz and Johnsen (2006) divide language policy in two
overall groups: General language policy and specific policy. General language
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
44
January 2015
policy involves the language selection in an international context; the language
selection in groups, companies and organizations; the language selection in a
national or regional context; language selection in a national context in relation to
language teaching. Specific language policy involves general suggestions on how
to optimise communication in a certain language.
English Language is seen as being common to the organization community,
as a social resource, to social media, and having a common language makes it
easier to communicate functional expertise. It is used to transfer knowledge
.
Fair and enforceable policies can help empower employees by providing them
with freedom
. Policies, when crafted properly, can help in organizational
management and cost savings, plus reduce time-consuming problems. Michael
Porter (2003) pointed out that the Thai tourism industry was international
competitive in tourism market, however the collaboration across the industry was
weak.
To improve the collaboration, the Ministry of Tourism and Sports need to
have more focus on technology and clear policy for organizational management.
It will encourage more information collaboration. Paying attention to the role of
language in tourism management might also provide the advantage in
managerial setting. According to freely and, language is considered to have
important benefits for tourism management such as facilitating of official reports
and facilitating of informational communications.
Characteristics of tourism management
Luchien Karsten (2006) pointed out that tourism organizational
management share four main characteristics. Firstly, it is the management
concepts. It involves total management (TQM), business process reengineering
(BPR), strategic intent and core competence (SICC), balanced scorecard (BSC),
knowledge management (KM), total responsibility management (TRM) or
customer relationship management (CRM). Secondly, it is organizational
management. Tourism management involves key issues. Key issues are usually
related to increases of costs or loss of tourists or customers. Thirdly, tourism
organizational management involves general solutions for recognizable
problems. Lastly, tourism management
Involves promoting by referring to success stories of well-known firms, It is
known that communicative action depends on consensus between participants
conversational skills often seem similar to a lost art in current organizational
management circles. Conversation and dialogue can provide an appropriate
context for managers to reach an agreement about the relevance of
management concepts and take action accordingly
.
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
Whenever dealing with management, consulting activities and intellectual
pursuits with various linguistic paradigms are also involved. pointed out that
organizational management involves efficiency, planning, paperwork, procedures,
regulations, control, and consistency. It is basically a control-laden activity
.
Managers need managerial competencies. They should have a personal skill to
communicate and influence people with whom they are involved in the
organization. Tourism organizational management also involves the following
elements.
developing, inspiring, leading, challenging, coping with complexity, drawing
up formal plans, designing organizational structure, getting things done, and
monitoring results against the plans. Also, good organizational management
improves the effectiveness of delivering the needs, wants, and expectations of
customers which helps in achieving the customer satisfaction
. Certainly, they
will lead to tourism industry competitiveness.
Options for managing English language problems
English language barrier has been recognized in tourism managed.
Language or communicative problems can lead to negative consequences and
misunderstanding which will further lead to incorrect tourism business decisions,
to an inability to follow up mail inquiries by phone. The potential international
tourists will walk away
. Thus, tourism organization’s is needed to consider and
pay attention to the English language issue. Staff development program for
language competency is important. Language competence is necessary for
business. It is advantage for both informal and formal communication. Therefore,
the development of communicative competency in tourism business is critical for
tourism management to be successful. Ability to communicate is necessary for
Thai tourism organizational success in tourism markets. Some companies have
organized in-house English language training facilities. Ready to adapt to change,
will provide organizations with competitive advantage
. According to,
management involves foreign language, organizational management strategies,
and human resource support.
Measuring effectiveness of tourism organizational management
There are several methods to measure effectiveness of tourism
organizational management. One of those methods is by observing. The
observation is the scientific method which allows meaningful insights when it
comes to understand what managers do, and why.
DISCUSSION
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
44
January 2015
In conclusion, it appears from the literature that there is consensus about
key roles of English language that play in tourism management. This paper
encourages practitioners to focus for English language roles initiatives on specific
intermediate performance outcomes. Pay attention on language issue in
development of tourism management. It is recommended that greater
collaboration between education providers’ industry representatives and
professional industry bodies is undoubtedly required. For the purpose of future
study, the importance of English as a language in development of tourism
management will be investigated from international tourists, inbound tour
company managers, and tourism educational department heads.
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