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Abstract: Language has great importance in the dialogue and understanding between tourists and tourist facilities. And the English today is international language, and most of the tourist establishments require employees to speak English in addition the local language of the country because the English now has become the familiar language for almost all human beings. There are a lot of institutes that give courses in language. As the tourism need to friction with foreigners directly so we will focus in this paper on the importance of the English language in the bi Sector Development. This paper also encourages practitioners to pay attention on the language issue. Collaboration among educational providers and tourism organizations is required if they want to compete in the global market.
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Academic Journal of Accounting
and Economics Researches
January 2015
© 2015, World of Researches Publication
Ac. J. Acco. Eco. Res.
Vol. 4, Issue 1, 33-45, 2015
ISSN: 2333-0783 (Online)
ISSN: 2375-7493 (Print)
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Romania
* E-mail:
The fast worldwide progression of tourism management has been a
significant advance within a tourism industry over the latest decades
Communication is essential to the management English language will be an
important means to communicate within tourism organizations and for tourism
management Language also activates the tourism organization to drive forward.
Buckley et al pointed out that the language plays role in facilitating
communication between head quarter and subsidiaries. Consequently, high-level
personnel with language skills are becoming more and more necessary to
corporate efficiency and success in tourism management in the global
environment. Personnel with language skills are needed as local agents of
tourism organization doing domestic tour business. Effective tourism
management is concluded that it is dependent partly on the use of language,
especially in the form of promotion, instructions and other written material . This
paper aims to analyze the roles of English language, to consider the definitions of
tourism management, to investigate tourism management and development, to
understand language policy and tourism management to examine the
characteristics of tourism management, to 185 discuss service quality in tourism
Abstract: Language has great importance in the dialogue and understanding between tourists and
tourist facilities. And the English today is international language, and most of the tourist
establishments require employees to speak English in addition the local language of the country
because the English now has become the familiar language for almost all human beings. There are
a lot of institutes that give courses in language. As the tourism need to friction with foreigners
directly so we will focus in this paper on the importance of the English language in the bi Sector
Development. This paper also encourages practitioners to pay attention on the language issue.
Collaboration among educational providers and tourism organizations is required if they want to
compete in the global market.
Key words: Language, Tourism, Management, English, Development
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
January 2015
organizations, to propose options for managing language problems, and to testify
concept for measuring effectiveness of tourism management.
Importance of language in general
Language is a system of spoken or written symbols that can communicate
ideas, emotions, and experiences
.Understanding the role of language,
organisations can improve the coordination skills
, operate better new
,develop customer satisfaction and have effective management in
tourism industry. Domke-Damonte and Nurden referred to Willy Brantdt, a
former German Chancellor who once commented, “If I am selling to you, I speak
your language.” People cannot comprehend what someone else demands if
people cannot converse to other people on their own terms
.This indicates that
language creates greater interest
. It is a significant factor that influences
competitiveness. So, it is very crucial for an organization to have communicative
competence throughout the organization
. Buck & Communication is the
important linkage between consequence and action in tourism organizations
. If
people can make it at the organization, they can make it anywhere else. Daft and
described the relationship between language and tourism organizational
management. They indicate that in tourism organizational management, low
variety of language is simple. High variety of language is more complex and tends
to have more errors. In reality, in tourism organizational management, language
of description tends to have both accurate and error. This means that working
with high variety forms of language uses of language might benefit less to
organization. Communication to and from organizations will consist mainly of
high variety language in order to communicate meaningful statements about the
systems. They also emphasized that in tourism organizational management;
people necessitate and apply high variety forms of communication
in complex settings
. No matter what tourism organizational management
is, particularly at managerial level, it appears to aim for accuracy.
Thus, language roles are defined as “Factor that is related to tourism
Management”; There is the need in language skills in organization
. Various
key dimensions were identified from the literature that appears to relate to
a) the ability to increase customers’ satisfaction;
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
b) the ability to enhance and maintain language competency of tourism
c) the ability to motivate international tourists;
d) the ability in better understanding on demand;
e) the ability in understanding culture; and
f) the ability to create effective internal and external communication.
Table 1. Articles linking to Importance of language and tourism management
Nature of
Key finding (s)
Barker (2008)
Organizational management relates to cultures.
Language plays important roles since language is a part of cultures.
Barlas et al. (2002)
Language is listed as one of the organizational core
Batt (2008)
Case Study
Strong communication skill in English is a must for
Management. Otherwise, it will be a cause of losing money and
Language is a vital factor in management.
Crytal (1989)
Language competence leads to customer satisfaction.
Thus, must pay more attention on language.
Davies (2000)
Language is considered the most relevant to
management. Particularly, it plays roles both internal and external
Leslie &
Russel (2006)
Foreign language is considered important for tourism
. It brings about understanding of external communication. Need
to have available foreign language skills so as to support better
Language reduces worker uncertainty, plays roles in
Tourism management, and brings understanding
of good tourism management.
Ignoring the important roles of English language may loss of resources and
limitations to tourism organizational and managerial development due to the lack
of communication and knowledge sharing
.To carry out the task, development
of tourism sector need to communicate across linguistic. Therefore, in tourism
organizational management, English language can be described as a required
communication means. It influences the organization’s ability to control
international activities
.As Lauring said expresses successful development of
tourism relates to the ability to manage the communication crossing English
language. It is claimed that tourism organizational management required a
process and supporting practices
Related to the sharing opinion and exchanging information
, Tourism
organizational management needs to concentrate on the tourists or customers,
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
January 2015
context, the community context, and the practitioners’ context
.The customers’
context involves customer request for service. The community context invites
participation, request offer, and clarification of issues. The practitioners’ context
confirms and/or rejects invitation
. In development of tourism, English language
also plays the role as a negotiated source of power. Its role is also described in
relation to the creation and maintenance of social structures and power
. Moreover, language is to be understood as something used by and
for power
. It is analyzed as a tool, which is employed to improve the
effectiveness of organizations, particularly, in tourism organizational
. English Language is a source that encompasses daily practice
and almost all other aspects of human life. The higher of language input, the
higher the level of tourism organizational management effectiveness
. Language
effects on power in organizations at times of radical change
. Language plays a
role in organizational change
. Furthermore, the current literature on language
tended to demonstrate that language played a structuring and socializing role for
. According to Domke-Damonte and Lester, a European study of
foreign language needs of small and medium enterprises found that nearly one-
fifth of 1,300 companies surveyed admitted to losing business because of the lack
of language skills. Yet, according to a research conducted recently, university
graduate who speaks fluent English can add another Japan $ 667 (TH20, 000 baht)
a month. Consequently, language plays very important role in tourism industry.
Language also makes the communication and decision-making went faster
through better understanding
Bloch (2005) pointed out that language skills are demanded in various
occupations within organizations such as General Management, Sales and
marketing management, Financial management, Supply and distribution
management, Administrative and support management, Information and
computer management, Insurance, legal and property management, Technology
management, Product and material management, and Trainee management.
Importance of language in tourism organizational management has not yet
to be fully investigated, however, it can be concluded that language is essential to
the creation of network and to the tourism organizational management. It is an
element of the effective organizational management
. Language is used as a
specific expression of the power relations between the individuals and groups
involved. Thus, policies of language use should be a part of tourism
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
organizations. In multinational corporations, they have adopted English as their
common corporate language to facilitate communication between headquarters
and foreign subsidiaries as they enter new markets
. Tourism organizational
management often takes place in English, and tourism organizations assume that
employees will be able to communicate in English effectively
. English
competence is a requirement for reaching managerial level at the tourism
organization. For this reason, in tourism organizational management, language is
to be understood as something used by and for power. It is analyzed as a tool,
which is employed to increase the effectiveness of organizations, principally, in
organizational communication. The current literature on language also tended to
demonstrate that language played a structuring and socializing roles for
individuals. Language certainly plays roles in organizational change
What is a tourism management?
Tourism management is a method of planning, organizing, controlling and
leading to accomplish the tourism organizational goal such as the satisfaction,
the effectiveness of delivering the needs, wants and expectations of the
international tourists. Luchien defined tourism organizational management as
ideas containing elements of management approach grounded in a value basis,
and equipped with language
. The adoption of management concepts involves
language, and it can be studied
by means of discourse analysis. Tourism organizational management is
based on communicative action
. It focuses on the basics of business, including
finance, human resources, an organizational culture, organizations’ structures,
job functions, role responsibilities, and accountability. The tourism organizational
management also involves problem solving, marketing, training staff, team
building, budgeting, and developing policies and procedures for their employer,
and leadership. It involves technology
, quality staff training
, and corporate
social responsibility (CSR) (O’ Higgins, 2009). People who are in charge required to
have skills in interpersonal communication
, and decision making
. Language is
seen as being common to the tourism organizational management. Success of
the tourism organizational management is based on the ability to interact
productively with international tourists or customers, suppliers, and government
officials. However, it is normal that people produce errors which will affect
comprehension. Miscommunications and conflict can result in damaged
relationships, lost business, unsatisfied customers and frustrated employees.
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
January 2015
The goal of tourism organizational management is the total quality
management which resulted from leadership, strategic planning, tourist focus,
human resource focus, process management and informational analysis
. The
total quality management
generates quality service, reduces costs, and creates
more satisfied customers or international tourists
. Language skills training is a
way which will lead to quality service
Normally, the relationship between language roles and tourism
organizational management outcomes should be examined. The expectation of
direct relationship between language roles and tourism organizational
management should be observed. Tourism organizational management is
expected by paying more attention on language roles that will gain more
international tourists. The past years, role of language has progressed from a
developing concept to a progressively
Universal function in tourism business organizations. As evidence shows
that there are numbers of journals devoted to tourism management, for example
International Journal of Career Management, Journal of Organizational Change
Management, The Academy of Management Review, and Corporate
Communications: An International Journal, and Journal of Management Research.
Still, little quantitative and qualitative empirical researches have been published.
The size of the published work in the language and tourism organizational
management field is limited. Empirical research relies major on knowledge
management and
Organizational performance. The objective for this study reported here is to
carry out an exploratory from articles, study to create a broader set of support
regarding the relationship between language role and tourism organizational
management. This especially applies to tourism organizational management, as
language role has been considered one of the most important factors.
It is found out that language role is related to tourism organizational
It helped determine how we think, and what we see. Based on
this evidence, it is concluded that as long as language role is considered for the
tourism organizational management, positive organizational management will
result in an increasing of the international tourists.
Tourism management and development
Literature indicates that training and development programs often deal
inadequately with the potential conflicts that result from interactions
. Sizoo and
Serrie (2009) used five training exercises to develop tourism organizational
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
management competencies. First exercise, interviewing is used. Each employee
interviewed another employee whom she or he has never met before. The idea is
to give familiarity and to generate skills, to improve employees to overcome
anxiety about getting to know other employees. It is recommended that the
employees to be interviewed should be new arrivals. Second exercise, incident is
Each employee described misunderstanding situation. Employees learned
to accept the mistakes, and developed a mastery of appropriate behavior in
similar situations in the future. Third exercise, news is used. Each employee
described a piece of news from newspaper, from television or from the Internet
which is complex in tourism organizational management adapting. Each
employee writes an analysis of factors affect successfulness or unsuccessfulness
in solving tourism organizational management.
It built analytical skills. The
employees will develop into acquainted with tourism organizational
management. Fourth exercise, skit is used.
Each employee is assigned to one of several groups or departments. The
groups are charged with planning, writing, and performing in front of other
groups. It builds skills and emotional commitment. Fifth exercise, it involves
event. Each employee participate organizational activities such as sporting
events, going to seminars, etc. It involves getting employees together.
The employees learn to work with others. These five exercises prepare the
employees to be ready to face with the situations that they may face in the
In the same ways, Barnhart and Walker (n. d.) and Kathy Pennell (2010)
promote the application of five-stage organizational management. They involve
assessing the need, developing competency profiles, identifying high performing
employees, developing the high performers, and evaluating the progress.
In tourism organizational management, Dong Young Kim, Vinod Kumar and
Steven A. Murphy (2010) referred to the use of the European Foundation for
Quality Management (EFQM) which is used in different ways: as a tool for self-
assessment; as a way to benchmark with other organizations; as a guide to
identify areas for improvement; as the basis for common vocabulary and a way of
thinking; and as a structure for the tourism organization’s management system.
English Language policy and development of tourism management
English Language should be a policy for tourism management
. A language
policy can be defined as the systematic activities and efforts done in a company
or organisation with the purpose of supporting the goal of the company
Simonsen (2003), Bergenholtz and Johnsen (2006) divide language policy in two
overall groups: General language policy and specific policy. General language
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
January 2015
policy involves the language selection in an international context; the language
selection in groups, companies and organizations; the language selection in a
national or regional context; language selection in a national context in relation to
language teaching. Specific language policy involves general suggestions on how
to optimise communication in a certain language.
English Language is seen as being common to the organization community,
as a social resource, to social media, and having a common language makes it
easier to communicate functional expertise. It is used to transfer knowledge
Fair and enforceable policies can help empower employees by providing them
with freedom
. Policies, when crafted properly, can help in organizational
management and cost savings, plus reduce time-consuming problems. Michael
Porter (2003) pointed out that the Thai tourism industry was international
competitive in tourism market, however the collaboration across the industry was
To improve the collaboration, the Ministry of Tourism and Sports need to
have more focus on technology and clear policy for organizational management.
It will encourage more information collaboration. Paying attention to the role of
language in tourism management might also provide the advantage in
managerial setting. According to freely and, language is considered to have
important benefits for tourism management such as facilitating of official reports
and facilitating of informational communications.
Characteristics of tourism management
Luchien Karsten (2006) pointed out that tourism organizational
management share four main characteristics. Firstly, it is the management
concepts. It involves total management (TQM), business process reengineering
(BPR), strategic intent and core competence (SICC), balanced scorecard (BSC),
knowledge management (KM), total responsibility management (TRM) or
customer relationship management (CRM). Secondly, it is organizational
management. Tourism management involves key issues. Key issues are usually
related to increases of costs or loss of tourists or customers. Thirdly, tourism
organizational management involves general solutions for recognizable
problems. Lastly, tourism management
Involves promoting by referring to success stories of well-known firms, It is
known that communicative action depends on consensus between participants
conversational skills often seem similar to a lost art in current organizational
management circles. Conversation and dialogue can provide an appropriate
context for managers to reach an agreement about the relevance of
management concepts and take action accordingly
Importance of English language in the development of tourism management
Whenever dealing with management, consulting activities and intellectual
pursuits with various linguistic paradigms are also involved. pointed out that
organizational management involves efficiency, planning, paperwork, procedures,
regulations, control, and consistency. It is basically a control-laden activity
Managers need managerial competencies. They should have a personal skill to
communicate and influence people with whom they are involved in the
organization. Tourism organizational management also involves the following
developing, inspiring, leading, challenging, coping with complexity, drawing
up formal plans, designing organizational structure, getting things done, and
monitoring results against the plans. Also, good organizational management
improves the effectiveness of delivering the needs, wants, and expectations of
customers which helps in achieving the customer satisfaction
. Certainly, they
will lead to tourism industry competitiveness.
Options for managing English language problems
English language barrier has been recognized in tourism managed.
Language or communicative problems can lead to negative consequences and
misunderstanding which will further lead to incorrect tourism business decisions,
to an inability to follow up mail inquiries by phone. The potential international
tourists will walk away
. Thus, tourism organization’s is needed to consider and
pay attention to the English language issue. Staff development program for
language competency is important. Language competence is necessary for
business. It is advantage for both informal and formal communication. Therefore,
the development of communicative competency in tourism business is critical for
tourism management to be successful. Ability to communicate is necessary for
Thai tourism organizational success in tourism markets. Some companies have
organized in-house English language training facilities. Ready to adapt to change,
will provide organizations with competitive advantage
. According to,
management involves foreign language, organizational management strategies,
and human resource support.
Measuring effectiveness of tourism organizational management
There are several methods to measure effectiveness of tourism
organizational management. One of those methods is by observing. The
observation is the scientific method which allows meaningful insights when it
comes to understand what managers do, and why.
Dr. Nawar Al-Saadi., 2015
January 2015
In conclusion, it appears from the literature that there is consensus about
key roles of English language that play in tourism management. This paper
encourages practitioners to focus for English language roles initiatives on specific
intermediate performance outcomes. Pay attention on language issue in
development of tourism management. It is recommended that greater
collaboration between education providers’ industry representatives and
professional industry bodies is undoubtedly required. For the purpose of future
study, the importance of English as a language in development of tourism
management will be investigated from international tourists, inbound tour
company managers, and tourism educational department heads.
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and Nations; 8(5):33-42.
... Turizm alanında çalışanların yabancı dil bilmemeleri iletişim sorunlarına veya yanlış anlaşılmalara neden olmaktadır (Al-Saadi, 2015). İspanya'da yapılan araştırmaya göre (Canas ve Perez, 2015, s.300), çalışanların yabancı dil bilme seviyelerinin düşük olması, turizm işletmecilerini %33 mali zarara uğrattıkları belirtilmiştir. ...
Konaklama işletmelerinde çalışanlarda aranan en önemli niteliklerden biri olan yabancı dil becerilerinin geliştirilmesi konusu turizm sektöründe çözümü beklenen sorunlar arasında yer almaktadır. Bu noktadan hareket ile yola çıkılarak hazırlanan bu çalışmanın amacı, konaklama işletmelerinde farklı bölümlerde çalışan personelin otel içi ve otel dışındaki aktivitelerde kullanabilecekleri yabancı dil becerilerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik yöntem ve tekniklerin belirlenmesi ve faydalanıcıların kullanımına sunulmasıdır. Bu amaçtan yola çıkarak, otel yöneticilerinin, çalışanlarının, turizm fakültelerinin ve Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı meslek lisesinde eğitim veren eğitimcilerin otel çalışanlarının yabancı dil konuşma becerilerinin geliştirilmesine ilişkin görüşleri değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmaya dahil edilen 24 katılımcının görüşlerine dayalı olarak otel çalışanlarının yabancı dil becerilerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik bir model önerisi ortaya koyulmuştur. Çalışmada nitel verilerin toplanması için katılımcılarla yapılan görüşmeler sonucunda elde edilen veriler NVIVO 12 çözümleme programı ile analiz edilmiş ve betimsel ve içerik analizi teknikleri ile çözümlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, ön büro, yiyecek-içecek, misafir ilişkileri ve satış-pazarlama bölümlerinde çalışanların sırasıyla İngilizce, Almanca ve Rusça konuşma, dinleme ve anlama becerilerinin geliştirilmesine önem verildiği tespit edilmiştir. Otel çalışanlarının, otel yönetimlerinden yabancı dil kurslarının verilmesini ve yabancı dil eğitiminde başarılı olanların ödüllendirilmesini bekledikleri ortaya çıkmıştır.
... If early English teaching has been applied on Tidung Island, the positive impact will be on the Tidung Island tourism resilience. The high quality of language in tourism management can increase visitors' enjoyment, motivate foreign tourists, understand tourist demand, comprehend tourists' cultures, and facilitate effective communication (Al-Saadi, 2015). This desired quality can attract more Tidung Island tourists so that the island and Indonesian names can acquire global recognition. ...
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Over 60% of Indonesian people live in coastal areas, which is a figure that escalates yearly. Thus, the government must prioritize the development of the marine sector on the Indonesian coast. As modernization and globalization progress, the wealth of the coastal culture should be preserved and cultivated as an identity or national pride symbol. The lack of educational factors such as foreign language skills prevents coastal communities from maximizing their territory’s potential. This study was conducted by employing the curriculum-based measurement approach on the coastal communities of Tidung Island. This approach was used to support foreign language learning activities on Tidung Island. The research on foreign language learning can contribute to increasing the local culture’s potential and enhancing the resilience of tourism on Tidung Island. Results show that age and prior knowledge of foreign languages affect the learning ability of Tidung Island locals. Foreign languages with a similar alphabetical script and phonology to the Indonesian language are easier for locals to learn. Learning new vocabulary and phrases related to tourism and hospitality can facilitate global tourism in Tidung Island.
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This article analyzes the effectiveness of foreign investment in the development of the digital economy. That is, the impact of foreign investment on the development of the digital economy in the country has been studied. In addition, proposals have been developed to increase the efficiency of foreign investment in the development of the digital economy and increase the volume of foreign investment entering the economy.
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The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has dealt a severe blow to a global economy already in fragility. Although the full scale of the human and economic impacts of the pandemic will not be clear for some time ،the losses in these two areas will be significant. Already existing macroeconomic weaknesses make emerging market and developing countries vulnerable to economic and financial turmoil ،and this may limit the capacity and effectiveness of policy support at a time when it is most needed at the global and national levels. These implications are the necessity to close all institutions that have been affected. With the pandemic ،which was represented in schools ، universities ،companies ،factories ،places of entertainment and tourism companies ،the government had to take a set of decisions and measures to confront the economic and health crisis ،which resulted in economic and social repercussions that had an impact on society ،and then was the state's focus on Egyptian workers ،especially workers In the private and informal sectors ،which resulted in the deterioration of their conditions and the loss of their basic materials to meet the basic needs of their families. The study consisted of knowing what the Corona pandemic is ،how it affected global economies ،the effects that resulted from the Corona pandemic and its impact on business sectors ، and also knowing the most important consequences of the global crisis on unemployment rates ، through this and in light of the crisis the International Labor Organization of the United Nations A report indicating the most important consequences that occurred in the business sector as a result of the outbreak of the new Corona virus "COVID-19" and the following measures that include reducing employment and also reducing the number of working hours and sectors most affected by the spread of the Corona virus.
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The globalization processes taking place in the contemporary world are the focus of the essay. An emphasis is placed on how globalization has affected tourism. On several areas of society, the consequences of globalization processes both favorable and unfavorable are taken into consideration. The primary drivers of international tourism's globalization are discussed in the article along with how they have affected the industry's growth. Globalization is frequently viewed as a unique condition of human society. Globalization in the context of tourism enables visitors to be seen as customers, introducing a culture of consumerism to underdeveloped nations and fostering the expansion of a global society.
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This paper focuses on long-term evidence on economic growth, international tourism, globalization, energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions in OECD countries for the period of 1994-2014. The empirical analysis reveals that climate change is magnified by energy use, tourism and economic growth. An inverted U-shaped relationship is also found between international tourism and CO 2 emissions. The contribution of international tourism to climate change in the early stages of development is thus diminished by globalization in the later stages. In other words, globalization appears to reduce carbon emissions from international tourism. The empirical results provide additional arguments for shaping regulatory frameworks aimed at reversing the current energy mix in OECD countries by facilitating energy efficiency and promoting renewable sources.
This study aims to explore the current context of the nautical tourist offer, incident in the Zêzere river basin, in the Central region of Portugal, as a tourist offer and its enhancement, in a pandemic period. Keywords: River tourism; Sustainable development: Heritage; Pandemic; Territory
The objective of the research is to analyze the seasonality of tourist demand in the hotel market, to understand how the seasonality factor affects the hotel units of a destination. It is important to compare the occupation figures of the low season with those of the high season. In this sense, the tourist destination studied is characterized with particular emphasis on the structure of demand and seasonality. The geographic space chosen for this research is a city in the Center of Portugal region. Keywords. Seasonality; Hospitality; Tourism; Stakeholders
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Introduction This paper focuses on discourse practices in the workplace. It is concerned with adults who have well developed skills in literacy and who are already fully qualified professionals, or who are studying for their professional qualifications. The investigation of written discourse practices will ultimately be utilised to inform the development of pedagogic material for the workplace. At this stage, however, we are attempting to understand the contextual demands and influences affecting written texts within the business world, as suggested by Martin et al. (1994), What is needed then is a model that shows systematically how text is related to context. This is the kind of model that teachers require. . . (1994: 236) The need for a systematic understanding of how the text and context are related in the workplace is raised by Berry (1986), Brown and Herndl (1986), Williams (1988), Barbara et al (1996), amongst others. Underpinning this work is a systemic-functional model of language description and use. This paper, in studying the language of the workplace from a systemic functional perspective, attempts to build upon previous work carried out in this area (Halliday 1985a, 1994). A clearer understanding of the relationship between text and context should yield valuable information for material designers, teachers, trainers and students. Background to the Project The Communication in the Professional Workplace (CPW) Project was initiated with funding obtained from the Language Fund (a funding body established under the aegis of the Hong Kong Government) for an initial period of 6 months. The research team consisted of David Nunan, who directed the project, two full-time research assistants, Gail Forey and Jassar W. H. Foo and one part-time (0.5) research assistant, Rae Fossard.
K-12 English language teaching (ELT) is currently undergoing profound change and reform in Middle Eastern countries such as the United Arab Emirates (e.g. Al Ghad Schools Project, Abu Dhabi Education Council Model Schools Initiative, etc.). It is the view of these authors that this change should not be haphazard, but should instead be managed, structured and focused on the design of true learning organizations which ultimately support improved student outcomes. This concept is generally referred to as: "organizational learning" (OL). While true organizational learning is dependent on several variables, one of its most crucial characteristics is "transformational leadership". Of particular importance is the role that this school leadership plays in the promotion and advancement of quality staff development programs. This paper will describe and discuss the significance of this interdependent administrative relationship and provide a model for future K-12 ELT management practices with respect to faculty/staff professional development in the Middle East.
Questions concerning the definition of terms such as ‘hospitality’ and ‘hospitality management’ are at the core of this book. On the one hand, a diversity of approaches to such definitions can reflect a healthy pluralism. Contra this point of view, diversity can reflect conflict and confusion, a lack of clarity. In an intellectual era dominated by relativist theories such as postmodernism, the latter position can appear as a virtue. This is not the view taken here. The discussion in this chapter seeks to circumscribe debate on the nature and relationships between ‘hospitality’ and ‘hospitality management’, and in so doing to distil a realist account of these concepts as a basis for future research. At the core of this discussion is the nature of hospitality itself, which we view as imperative to any meaningful discourse about what has come to be termed the ‘hospitality industry’ and ‘hospitality management’.
This paper establishes that transfer of knowledge across national borders within multinational enterprises depends both on a common language necessary for communication and on the shared social knowledge necessary to understand and predict the behavior of those engaged in the knowledge-transfer process. In a set of four case studies, it was found that knowledge transfer is more effective when technical and social knowledge are transferred together. Besides, ownership structure affects the understanding and transfer of social knowledge, while rich person-to-person contact in multinational teams provides an effective means of transferring social knowledge.
This chapter considers why the imperatives of cultural development and economy are often perceived to be contradictory; the fundamental ambiguity of meaning of the category "culture''; the conflict between socially established understandings of the category "culture'' and the patterns of cultural practice created by contemporary circumstances (notably the industrialization/popularization of culture and globalization of economic activity). It examines the importance of language as a factor in explaining the structure of important cultural markets and considers the distinctive position of "new societies'' in the global cultural economy and the possibilities offered by Canada's linguistic endowment. Résumé: Cet article considère: pourquoi l'on perçoit souvent les besoins de développement culturel et les besoins économiques comme étant contradictoires; l'ambiguïté fondamentale du sens du mot "culture"; le conflit entre les perceptions conventionnelles de la "culture" et les pratiques culturelles produites dans les circonstances actuelles (notamment l'industrialisation de la culture et sa popularisation, et la globalisation des activités économiques). L'article examine l'importance de la langue comme élément structural des marchés culturels importants, et considère la position distincte de "sociétés nouvelles" dans l'économie culturelle globale et les possibilités que la richesse linguistique du Canada peuvent offrir.
This paper argues that insight into organization functioning is related to the fit between language of description and type of organizational phenomenon. Natural language may be more powerful than mathematical language for understanding and describing many organization processes.
Two current perspectives on the relationship between meaning and action differ with respect to the amount of shared meaning necessary for organization. We argue that these two perspectives can be integrated if we understand how communication links meaning and action. We provide empirical evidence to show that through communication, organized action can occur despite differences of interpretation among organizational members. Communication enables members to create equifinal meaning, from which organized action can follow. Our data revealed four communication mechanisms that generate and sustain equifinal meaning: metaphor, logical argument, affect modulation, and linguistic indirection.