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Throughout the evolution of marketing, as a result of increasing competition, there has been a shift from a production oriented approach to a marketing oriented approach. Strategic thinking that gives companies an advantage over their competitors gained importance. By the end of the 1980s, experts studying strategy looked back into rich military literature to find some basic principles to help them define strategies for today’s business environment. In this period warfare and its similarities with the business world were a great inspiration for marketers. The aim of this study is to show the relation between marketing strategies and military strategies. This exploratory research used secondary data. It is expected that, in the twenty-first century’s highly competitive conditions, this study will give marketers a different point of strategic view and contribute to marketing literature.
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International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science
IJRBS Vol.3 No.3, 2014 ISSN: 2147-4478
available online at
Art of War and Its Implications on Marketing Strategies:
Thinking like a Warrior
Filiz Bozkurta, Ahu Ergenb
aPhD, Doğuş University, İstanbul, Turkey
bPhD, Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul, Turkey
Throughout the evolution of marketing, as a result of increasing competition, there has been a shift from a production
oriented approach to a marketing oriented approach. Strategic thinking that gives companies an advantage over their
competitors gained importance. By the end of the 1980s, experts studying strategy looked back into rich military
literature to find some basic principles to help them define strategies for today’s business environment. In this period
warfare and its similarities with the business world were a great inspiration for marketers. The aim of this study is to
show the relation between marketing strategies and military strategies. This exploratory research used secondary
data. It is expected that, in the twenty-first century’s highly competitive conditions, this study will give marketers a
different point of strategic view and contribute to marketing literature.
Keywords: military strategies, marketing strategies, marketing warfare
JEL Code : M 31
© 2014 Published by SSBFNET
1. Introduction
Three main periods can be observed in the evolution of marketing. These are the production oriented period, the sales
oriented period and the marketing oriented period (Keith, 1960). During the production oriented period that prevailed
until the 1930s, corporations were in the “I will sell whatever I produce” mindset because demand was higher than
supply. Between 1930 and 1950, with the increased number of firms in the market, they had to focus on sales activities
to get their products sold. A marketing oriented approach was adopted after 1950, and there have been significant
developments in the field of strategic marketing since then. The number of studies on marketing strategies also
increased in the 1980s when competition became intense. Porter (1996) defined strategy as “creating a unique and
valuable position that consists of a series of activities.” In order for a firm to have a strategy it needs to have different
Bozkurt&Ergen/International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science Vol 3, No 3, 2014 ISSN: 2147-4478
activities than its competitors or to conduct similar activities in different ways (Kotler and Keller, 2009). Strategy is
also defined as the basic preference of a company, showing where and why it will invest its resources depending on
the internal and external environmental conditions and in accordance with its mission and vision (Koçel, 2010). There
are many classifications of marketing strategies in the literature (İslamoğlu, 2008; Tek, 1999). Prominent
classifications are: market leader, challenger, follower and niche market strategies, defense strategies that can be
applied by leaders, offense strategies for challenger firms according to their position in the market; intense growth,
stagnant growth, intermittent growth, protecting position, downsizing and harvest strategies according to growth goals;
market penetration, product development, market development and diversification strategies, generic strategies (cost
leadership, differentiation, focusing) according to the path chosen for growth. On the other hand, fighting on the same
ground is not always the only way to success in the marketing world. Blue Ocean Strategy, which was introduced by
W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne in 2004 should also be taken into account while defining a strategy. This strategy
is about creating a new market and making the competition irrelevant (Ergen, 2011).
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1 Art of War and Its Implications on Marketing Strategies
An Overview Of Military Strategies
The development of military strategies goes back to thousands of years. The oldest source on this subject is The Art of
War, written by Chinese general and philosopher Sun Tzu on military strategies in sixth century BC (Ho and Choi,
1997). The book was written with “the winning without fighting” approach and contains numerous aspects of war,
including the planning stage, where internal and external conditions are analyzed, as well as sections on waging war,
tactics, energy, opportunism, maneuvering, changing tactics, marching, terrain, nine kinds of battle grounds, attack
with fire, the use of spies and intelligence (Ilıcak and Özgül, 2005). The 36 Secret Strategies of the Martial Arts was
inspired by Far Eastern martial arts and listed the methods that can be used in advantageous and disadvantageous
situations (Moriya, 2008). These strategies are mostly based on deluding the enemy (Pheng and Sirpal, 1995). On the
other hand, Prussian General Carl von Clausewitz’s “On War” (1989) focuses on the unexpected, dynamic nature of
military situations and emphasizes the importance of the flexibility principle in strategy (Garsombke, 1987).
Counterparts Of Military Strategies In Marketing
While business professionals have long been using terms such as ‘price wars,’ ‘market seizure’ and ‘armament
competition’ for market competition, scholars started seeing marketing as a war in the early 1980s. Oxenfeldt and
Moore (1978) defined the market as ‘the battlefield where firms are fighting to seize consumers” and asserted that the
need for businesses to develop competitor oriented strategies in order to gain market share will push managers towards
military science.
2.2.The Art of War and Marketing Strategies
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Sun Tzu is the leading name in most studies on the relationship between marketing strategies and warfare. Many of the
subjects that the Chinese philosopher considered in his book The Art of War can be adapted to the field of marketing.
For instance, the stage of evaluating the conditions suggested by Sun Tzu is very similar to the SWOT analysis used
by businesses in the strategic management process. Sun Tzu divides the environment into two categories: partially
controllable factors and uncontrollable factors. The battlefield is a partially controllable factor, while weather
conditions are an uncontrollable factor in the strategy literature, as it is in economics and policy literature (MacDonald
and Neupert, 2005). Before deciding on their strategies, corporations should comprehensively analyze internal and
external conditions and shape their strategies accordingly, as do parties of a war (Ilıcak and Özgül, 2005). The
counterparts of the concepts offered by Sun Tzu’s work in marketing are given in Table 1 (Ho and Choi, 1997).
Table 1. Counterparts of the concepts of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War in the field of marketing
Sun Tzu The Art of War Marketing
Laying a plan Strategic planning
Waging a war Marketing budget
Offensive Strategy Marketing strategy
Tactics Marketing tactics
Energy Integrated marketing
Opportunism Portfolio management
Maneuvering Changing tactics
Aggressive marketing strategies
Terrain Market field and market segmentation
The nine battlefields Positioning
Attack by fire
Use of aggressive marketing tools
Use of spies Use of marketing information system
Another study that compares military strategies and marketing strategies emphasized the similarities between these
two disciplines. The similarities are given in Table 2 (Ho and Choi, 1997).
Table 2. Similarities between Sun Tzu and Davidson’s ideas
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Sun Tzu – The Art of War Huge Davidson – Offense Marketing
Offensive Strategy
The aim of war is not only to win, but also to
make profit.
There should be a balance between the firm’s
need for profit and the consumer’s need for value.
Whoever arrives at the battlefield first can take
The firm should lead the market and leave its
competitors in the position of followers.
The Power of Defense/Energy
The internal structure has to be strengthened for
To achieve better results armies should cooperate.
Marketing efforts should involve the whole
The environment and the competitors should be
comprehensively analyzed before planning.
Analysis is crucial for a winning strategy.
When war is decided, action should be taken
Effective Application
Applied daily in a powerful and disciplined
Source: Ho, S.K. and Choi, S.F.A. (1997). Achieving marketing success through Sun Tze’s Art of Warfare. Marketing
Intelligence & Planning, 15(1), 38-47.
Marketing studies that refer to military literature use various classifications for military strategies. In “The Art of
War”, the basic war strategies are: defense, offense, flanking offense and guerilla (Garsombke, 1987). In marketing
warfare, defensive strategy is appropriate for the leader, while offense is for challengers. Flank strategy is for firms
aiming at certain market segments, and guerilla strategy is good for small firms (Tino,1987). Meanwhile, in their
article titled “Marketing Warfare in the 1980s,” Kotler and Singh (1981) looked at marketing warfare strategies in two
groups: defensive and offensive strategies. In an article published anonymously on the internet, the most effective
military strategies in history are said to be the crescent strategy, shock and awe, blitzkrieg and guerilla
warfare(, all of which can be considered offensive strategies.
Table 3. Defensive and offensive strategies
Defensive Strategies Offensive Strategies
Position Defense Frontal Attack
Mobile Defense Flanking Attack
Preemptive Defense Encirclement
Flank Positioning Defense Bypass Attack
Counteroffensive Defense Guerilla Warfare
Strategic Withdrawal
Source: Kotler, P. and Singh, R. (1981). Marketing warfare in the 1980’s. Journal of Business Strategy, 1(3): 30-41.
Bozkurt&Ergen/International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science Vol 3, No 3, 2014 ISSN: 2147-4478
The rest of this study will be based on the defensive and offensive strategies from the military literature that Kotler
and Singh (1981) adapted to marketing (Table 3), and other strategies in the literature will be included under these
2.2.1Defensive Strategies
Ries and Trout (2005) asserted that defensive strategies should be used by market leaders that wish to prevent strong
maneuvers by their competitors. These are designed to protect the market share of the corporation, to sustain its
profitability and positioning (Bogdan et al., 2008). According to this view the market leader that adopts defensive
strategies will defend itself against competitors and strengthen its own position by preventing new threats (new
products, new promotional activities and additional services), while it forces its competitor to exhaust its valuable
resources (Garsombke, 1987). The six defensive strategies that have been adapted to marketing from military literature
are position defense, mobile defense, pre-emptive defense, flank positioning defense, counteroffensive defense and
strategic withdrawal. The defensive strategies shown in Figure 1 are summarized below (Kotler and Singh, 1981; Tek,
1999; Kotler and Keller, 2009).
Figure 1. Defense Strategies
Source: Kotler, P. and Singh, R. (1981). Marketing Warfare in the 1980s. Journal of Business Strategy, 1(3): 30-41.
Position Defense: The conventional concept of defense is closely related to the reinforcement of the fort. Almost all
forts in history have failed in war situations. This strategy is one of the most risky military strategies. The best
counterpart to this concept in the business world is marketing myopia. According to this view, the biggest mistake that
a powerful brand can make is to believe that growth and profitability will continue. The biggest mistake that a market
leader under attack can make is to use all its resources to reinforce the fort around its existing products. According to
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this view, the best approach for firms that want to avoid this mistake is to reduce risk by expanding towards similar or
different fields.
Mobile Defense: Mobile defense is expansion towards new fields that the firm can use for defense or
counteroffensives in the future. This expansion is done through market expansion and diversification rather than by
increasing the number of brands.
Pre-emptive Defense: Pre-emptive defense is based on the principle that prevention is more advantageous than
fighting, and it includes many offensive strategies. For instance, a firm can block a competitor whose market share is
rising by finding its weaknesses or by encircling it. Another example of this strategy is market leaders blocking their
competitors with new technologies.
Flank Positioning Defense: Flank positioning defense is creating a blockade that will stop the enemy. In this strategy
potential threats should be carefully analyzed, and flanks should be reinforced accordingly. It is easy to find examples
of firms (eg. Coca Cola) that use flank positioning defense in the business world. The firm launched diet coke before
Pepsi Cola and gained power in this segment before its competitor could. The leader of the razor blade market, Gilette,
entered the female products market and got an edge over competitors that entered the market later.
Counteroffensive Defense: This is the counteroffensive reaction of the party that is in the defensive position. For
instance, when Oxy-5 reinforced its acne medication with powerful promotional activities, Clearasil responded by
increasing its promotional activities. Sometimes when the market share is being lost too fast, it is obligatory to respond
with counteroffensives. When Gilette gained power in the Turkish market, Derby responded counteroffensively with
an intense marketing campaign using its newly created Ali Desidero character.
Strategic Withdrawal: Strategic withdrawal, which is considered to be neither offense nor defense by certain sources,
is a maneuver where a firm can focus on important points in order to secure its market power and to be able launch
counteroffensives. For instance, Westinghouse used the strategic withdrawal strategy by reducing the number of its
refrigerator models from 40 to 30.
2.2.2. Offensive Strategies
Offensive strategies are used by challenger firms to increase their market share (Bogdan et al., 2008). These are
usually recommended for second and third ranking firms in the market. In this strategy the challenger firm finds the
Achilles heel of the leader and attacks this point with full force. This offensive strategy is based on finding the
weakness of the leader, rather than a head on collision. The leader’s weakness can be in a range of fields from product
features to consumer service. The challenger can improve its product with new features or try to offer better customer
service (Garsombke, 1987). Offensive strategy types are frontal attack, flanking attack, encirclement, bypass attack
and guerilla warfare. The offensive strategies shown in Figure 2 are summarized below (Kotler and Singh, 1981; Tek,
1999; Kotler and Keller, 2009).
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Figure 2. Offensive Strategies
Source: Kotler, P. and Singh, R. (1980). Marketing warfare in the 1980’s. Journal of Business Strategy, 1(3): 30-41.
Frontal Attack: In a frontal attack the challenger attacks the leader’s front lines with full force. The aim is not the
weak side, but the strong side of the competitor. In order for this strategy to be successful the offensive party must
have an absolute advantage over its competitor. According to military doctrine, possessing three times more power
than the competitor is necessary for successful frontal attack. For instance, GE and Xerox overlooked IBM’s powerful
defense and failed in their frontal attack. Firms that use this strategy mostly choose to do so with low pricing. Another
method is to invest in R&D in order to lower production costs.
Flanking Attack: The strongest point of an army in the battlefield is the point where it will attack or where it expects to
be attacked. Flanks and sides are naturally weak, therefore they are the best places to attack. In modern offensive
warfare the main principle is to focus power on the weak side. This strategy is especially appropriate for firms with
more limited resources than their competitor. Flanking attacks can be applied on two strategic dimensions. The first is
to attack geographical areas where the competitor is absent, and the second is to attack market segments that the
competitor is not providing for. Flanking attacks are one of the strongest traditions of modern marketing philosophy
and have a higher chance of success than frontal attacks.
Encirclement: In flanking attacks places where the competitor is absent are targeted, while in encirclement the
competitor is approached from multiple directions. The aim is to attack the competitor from multiple points in order to
make it defend itself on all sides. An example of this strategy is Seiko’s attack from every direction by producing
various models. If the competitor does not leave any points to attack, or these points are not created, flanking attack
turns out to be a frontal attack and three times more power than the competitor is required.
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Bypass Attack: Bypass attack is most indirect attack at the competitor and it is similar to cold war during peace. Here
we are talking about skipping the enemy, attacking easier territories and developing these areas. This kind of attack in
marketing can manifest itself as diversification in unrelated products or entering new markets with existing products.
This strategy was used successfully in 1971 when Colgate abandoned its domestic market, entered new markets, and
added new products to its line in order to compete with Proctor & Gamble.
Guerilla Warfare: Guerilla warfare is a good strategy for firms that are challenging, but have limited resources. In this
strategy small, intermittent attacks are organized against different aspects of the enemy in order to disturb and
demoralize the competitor. Traditional and untraditional guerilla warfare methods are used to disturb and wear out the
competitor. The first person bring this up in marketing was Jay Conrad Levinson. Levinson (1985) asserted that a firm
should focus its energy and resources on customers rather than competition and described various methods for small
and medium firms to influence potential customers. This strategy manifests itself in the business world as selective
price reductions, intervening in suppliers, pressuring the management, intense promotional attacks and legal action
towards the competitor. The strength of guerilla warfare stems from (Garsombke, 1987):
• The guerilla preserves its resources since the competitor is never confronted.
• Guerilla power is very flexible and can be adapted to both offensive and defensive operations.
• It is difficult to respond to guerilla warfare with classical methods.
Consequently, guerilla strategies are suitable for small firms with high flexibility and limited resources. A small firm
can easily withdraw from the market or change its product line and management objectives (Bogdan et al., 2008).
2.3. The Most Effective Military Strategies in History
The four most effective military strategies in history according to internet sources; crescent, shock and awe, blitzkrieg
and guerilla warfare are found scattered in academic sources. All of them are offensive. Guerilla warfare is found in
many sources on military strategy, while the other three are not found in main sources. Nevertheless they are also
described below for being complementary.
Crescent Strategy: The fundamental strategy, especially in Eastern societies, the crescent tactic survived until the
modern age. Requiring a high level of war analysis for that period, this tactic was especially successful against bulky
armies. It was favored by mounted, swift moving armies with light armor, such as Mongolian and Turkish armies and
the first close encounter was between troops at the center. After harsh clashes, these centrally located troops would
withdraw in mass, and organized groups would encircle the enemy army that attempts to pursue them, creating a
crescent shape. This strategy is based on pretending to escape in order to draw the enemy into an ambush and encircle
them. The first users of the crescent strategy were the Scythians (Kafesioğlu, 1989). In the eighteenth century this
strategy was gradually replaced with European tactics (Çınar, 2014). This strategy has important similarities with the
encirclement strategy, a basic military strategy.
Shock and Awe: Formalized by Ullman and Wade (1996), this doctrine is based on terrifying the enemy to destroy its
will to fight with an overwhelming power. Shock and awe is based on the idea that excessive and sudden use of force
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will scare and baffle the enemy. This strategy is more effective in frontal attacks. The counterpart of this strategy in
marketing can be to conduct intense marketing communication with big budgets from many channels or sudden price
Blitzkrieg: Blitzkrieg is very similar to shock and awe (Ullman and Wade, 1996). The main military tactic of
ponderous armies, it was used successfully in World War II by the Nazi army. This strategy seems to be more suitable
for frontal attacks.
3. Discussion
The defensive and offensive strategies in the military literature have been adopted by the marketing literature as
strategies that can be utilized by leader or challenger firms. Although there are not any studies on the relationship
between some of the prominent models and approaches in the strategic marketing field and military strategies, there
are some studies that refer to these concepts.
Product Life Cycle and the BCG Matrix: Coined by Joel Dean in 1950 and later developed by Levitt (1984), product
life cycle is the basis of many marketing studies. Based on the idea that products have a life cycle just like living
things, the life cycle of a product consists of four stages: introduction, growth, maturity and decline. A matrix
developed by Boston Consulting Group in 1968 for portfolio analysis was a model for determining the market position
of products and is parallel to product life cycle strategies. In this matrix products are categorized as question marks
(during introduction to the market), stars (during growth), cash cows (during maturity) and dogs (during decline).
When strategies that can be utilized by firms in these areas are considered together with defensive and offensive
strategies we conclude that offensive strategies can be used during introduction and growth, defensive strategies can
be used during maturity and defensive and withdrawal strategies can be used during decline. Obviously, offensive
strategies to be used during the introduction and growth periods will differ according to the competitive environment.
If there is no competition during the introduction period, the target of the attack will be customers rather than the
competitors, the logical target if there is intense competition (Kotler and Keller, 2009).
Segmentation and Positioning: Segmentation was identified in 1956 by Smith, and positioning was identified in 1969
by Jack Trout. Segmentation relates to the identification of appropriate market segments for firms, and positioning
means trying to position the product/brand in a different place than the competitors (Trout, 2005). Preemptive defense
and flank positioning defense, as well as encircling and bypass attacks, are military strategies that can be used for
targeting appropriate segments in the market.
Product/Market Development Strategies: In 1957 Igor Ansoff prescribed four strategies for firms that aim to grow:
market penetration, product development, market development and diversification. Firms can use product/market
development and diversification strategies in mobile defense, when they gain power in different sectors and in bypass
attacks when they bypass the market where the competition is strong and go for other markets.
Bozkurt&Ergen/International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science Vol 3, No 3, 2014 ISSN: 2147-4478
Basic Competition Factor and Generic Strategies: The terms threat, battlefield and competition were used in 1980 by
Michael Porter to talk about competition factors, and to reflect on the relationship between marketing and military
literature. The competitive environment that is shaped by competitors, suppliers, new entrances to the market,
replacement products and threats from customers has similarities with the threats in a war situation.
4. Conclusion
The military strategies described in this study are meant to offer new perspectives and guidance to marketing
managers in today’s intense competitive conditions. There are other military strategies and tactics that are not included
in this study and can be used by marketing experts as well. With the proliferation of interdisciplinary studies, military
history and military strategies may be analyzed by marketing scholars with different perspectives. For some it is
obvious that in marketing warfare, where the market is the battleground, competitors are enemies and CEO’s are
generals, traditional marketing weapons need to be used more strategically. At this point we believe that military
literature can offer guidance to marketing experts. In further research, cyber warfare in military literature and digital
marketing can be linked and researched.
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At the time of public policy pronouncements, the public sector often sounds promising and destined for great success. However, once the policy implementation phase begins, the original vision, as this study demonstrates, slowly becomes blurred by the complexities and uncertainties of the real world. In what could be characterised as an antithesis to a developmental local government, in recent years municipalities have slipped into socio-economic distress and dysfunctionality. This study investigates the nexus between strategy and vision within the local government system. The premise of the study is based on a vision giving impetus to strategy, and the municipal practice of strategy development should therefore give primacy to the vision of a developmental local government. The research is based on a conceptual framework that represents the vision of a developmental local government as the ultimate form of local government envisaged to dictate the directional path for municipalities in South Africa. A qualitative research method was used to conduct a multisite case study at three municipalities; namely the Rustenburg Local Municipality (RLM), the independent local government of Orania, and the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality (MMM). It was ascertained that in all cases, integrated development planning (IDP) is used as a principal strategic planning and/or strategic management approach, following a linear step-by-step process. A more holistic approach to municipal strategy, i.e. a growth and development strategy as professed by the National Planning Commission, is not yet fully interrogated and employed. Significantly, the study found the nexus between the municipal strategy and the vision (a developmental local government) is lacking consistency due to a piecemeal approach characterised by the political tenures of the incumbent mayors and councils – especially at traditional municipalities such as the RLM and the MMM. This is because every new incumbent introduces a new vision and strategies. Consistency, a defining feature of strategy, is not a challenge at Orania due to the one-party system and the lack of an alternative ideological orientation to the dominant Afrikaner self-determination principles. The findings further shed light on the dominance of the conventional approach to strategic management in municipalities, factors affecting the effective implementation of the vision of a developmental government, the impact of historical factors including the legacy of the liberation struggle and apartheid on local governance, and the role of ethical leadership and performance management. The findings of this research have implications for both theory and practice. Theoretically, this study introduces an understanding of strategy from its military etymology – a more holistic and long-term orientation of strategy. It propagates strategy as an intergenerational leadership phenomenon that should point at the long-term vision of a developmental local government. A long-term orientation will propel municipalities to conduct their business, including efforts of acquisition and allocation of resources, designing of organisational structure, managing performance, determination of core competencies, and learning endeavours in the manner that seeks to address the developmental agenda. This broadens the scope of the municipal strategy beyond a reductionist approach which confines a municipal strategy to planning. Regarding practical implications, this study identifies critical factors affecting the effective implementation of the vision of a developmental local government. These include inadequate legislation of developmental local government initiatives, i.e. original policy intent ends with a White Paper (proposal) making it impossible to enforce accountability or execute an effective legislative oversight function to this effect. Hence this study concludes by proposing a framework for a holistic approach to municipal strategy which supports the vision of a developmental local government by offering practical solutions towards the transformation of municipalities to become more developmental in nature.
... In the context of expanding competition, the companies are trying to find an effective way to intensify and streamline communication with consumers. There were multiple shifts in the development of marketing -from the production-based approach (1930s), through the selling-based approach (1930-1950s), to the marketing-oriented approach (1950s and later) where the main role is played by strategic thinking (Bozkurt, Ergen, 2014). Strategic thinking became the basis for planning the marketing strategy, which is defined as a tool for the transformation of business objectives into market activities (Lesáková et al., 2001). ...
... Most of the names for marketing strategies were taken from military terminology (Bogdan, Gabriela, Alina, 2008), including the term "guerilla" whose strategic nature derives from an armed conflict (Spálová, Wojciechowski, 2017;Bigat, 2012). The term "guerilla" is of Spanish origin, and it denotes a "partisan" (Bozkurt, Ergen, 2014). It refers to the guerrilla methods of military attacks at a time when the poorly organized military groups -partisan unitswere attacked by a dominant enemy (Spálová, Wojciechowski, 2017). ...
... The existence of obvious similarities between military warfare and the market has led some authors (e.g. Bozkurt, Ergen, 2014;Ries, Trout, 1997, Kotler, Singh 1981Bogdan, Gabriela, Alina, 2008) to find inspiration in military literature when determining the marketing strategies and their description using military strategies. Finding the parallels in discipline between the marketing strategy and military strategy and the descriptions for marketing strategies among those for military warfare led to interesting and generalizing results. ...
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This article deals with guerilla marketing and/or guerilla marketing strategy on the background of military attack strategies. The aim of this article is to grasp guerrilla marketing in a broader context, starting from the marketing and communication strategy, which is historically and terminology inspired by the military strategy of guerrilla attacks and/or by military strategy in general. The theoretical study is a meta-analysis of five scientific publications dealing with the overlays of military strategies and marketing to identify useful marketing and communication strategies. Guerilla marketing as an offensive-defensive strategy present among the attack strategies and it is described as a way for small and weaker businesses to compete with large corporations in the existing conflict and to act as challengers in the battle. An emphasis will be put on the primary characteristic of guerrilla warfare: it is a typical competitive struggle based on a series of small intermittent attacks and withdrawals.
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Ünlü Çinli filozof Sun Tzu'nun günümüzden yaklaşık olarak 2500 yıl önce yazdığı 'Savaş Sanatı' adli yapıtı, tüm strateji uzmanları için önemli bir kaynak sayılmaktadır. Çünkü bu yapıt, askeri savaşlara yol gösterdiği kadar; çağımızın varolma, yitmeme, güçlenme çabasında olan, özel/tüzel kişiliklerin, ekonomik, saygınlık, sanayi savaşımlarında da yol göstermektedir. Sun Tzu Savaş Sanatına göre, Marka Pazar Stratejilerinin belirlenmesi adli çalışma Sun Tzu' nun savaş kuramlarıyla, marka kavramını irdeleyerek markalaşma savaşımında Çin' li filozofun ölçütlerini ilişkilendirmekte ve asama asama marka stratejisinde, markanın belirmesinde, tutunmasında, rekabet alanında güçlü durabilmesinde daha da ötesi marka savaşımında basari kazanmasında Sun Tzu yönteminin yeri ve önemini irdelerken, marka stratejisinin bir savaş stratejisiyle ne denli örtüşmesi gerektiğini sergilemektedir.
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Although strategy, strategic planning, strategic management and strategic thinking terms are highly related they are different terms. In this study firstly these terms are explicated then it is explored how a new strategic thinking tool Blue Ocean Strategy(BOS) is used to create straetgic thinking and in order to evaluate BOS from marketing point of view one of the BOS tools “4 actions framework”is analysed via marketing mix. This study is important since there are few researches about this new tool in Turkey and it is open for development when reaching to new applications from Turkey and the world.
Business today, the author maintains, is in the throes of a marketing revolution. This revolution is based on a change of philosophy, and one of its effects will be the emergence of marketing as the dominant function in American business.