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Heavy Metals in Ayurvedic Herbs and Traditional Ayurvedic Formulations - A Study

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Vol. XXVIII., No.2
November 2014 - January, 2015
Hepatoprotective activity of Soman¢thit¢mrabhasma Sudheendra Honwad, 67
in paracetamol induced liver toxicity in albino- rats T. Shridhara Bairy, Ravi M. and
B. Ravishankar
Au¾adhasevanak¢la of ¡malakic¦r´a as ras¢yana Satej T. Banne, 74
and its free radicals scavenging activity in Shraddha U. Naik and
male wistar rats by superoxide dismutase test S.K. Hiremath
(SOD) - An evaluation
M¦tram¢rga-uttaravasti in the management of K. Murali and 83
bladder retention of spinal injury - A case report Sunil John
Standardisaton of Pa®cakolac¦r´a - an ¢yurvedic Radhika Rani R.K., 89
formulation Sreekumar T., Rosamma M.P.
and Mahadevan Subrahmonian
Buerger disease - ¡yurvedic management V.G. Huddar and 92
Ritesh Kumar Lahoti
¡yurvedic management of sidhmaku¾°ha with special S.K. Hiremath, 96
reference to plaque psoriasis - A case report Anitha B. Yadav and
Supreeta Laxmanshetty D.
Heavy metals in ¢yurvedic herbs and traditional Jessy Sebastian, 101
¢yurvedic formulations - A study Alex Thomas and
D. Suresh Kumar
Dr¢k¾¢di yoga in p¢navibhrama - A critical evaluation Arjun Chand C.P., 112
Lisona Elias, Narayana Prakash B.
and Sriman Narayanan S
Svar´am¢k¾ika - A auriferous chalcopyrite Seema M.B., V.A. Dole and 115
H. Pampanna Gouda
S¢rasvatac¦r´a and speech therapy in the Ravishankar K., 120
management of gadgada - A comparative study Chandrakanth Joshi and
Akhilesh P.M.
Lepa kalpana - A comprehensive review Jayakrishnan. P.S., 125
Rohini D. Bharadwaja and
Reghuveer
CONTENTS
Vol. XXVIII., No. 2, November 2014 - January 2015
Vol. XXVIII., No.2 November 2014 - January, 2015
Dr. A. P. Haridas
Retd. Principal, VPSV Ayurveda College,
Kottakkal
Dr. Arsu
Professor, Department of Hindi,
University of Calicut.
Shri K. G. Warrier
Teacher (Retd.)
Shri C. A. Varier
Trustee, AVS.
Dr. Indira Balachandran
Project Director,
CMPR, AVS.
Dr. T. S. Murali
Chief (Tech. Services), AVS.
Dr. K. Muralidharan
Superintendent
(AH&RC), AVS.
Dr. C. Ramankutty
Chief Medical Officer
(Publications), AVS.
Prof. M. K. Prasad
Foremerly Pro-vice Chancellor,
Calicut University
Dr. C. K. Ramachandran,
Prof. of Medicine (Retd.),
Medical College, Calicut
Dr. K. Rajagopalan, Susrut Bhavan, Kollam
Dr. V. N. PandeyA/50/NDSE-1, New Delhi
Dr. S. K. Misra, Delhi
Mr. Giorgio Fillippo Barabino
Genova
Dr. M. S. Valiathan
National Research Professor,
Manipal University, Manipal.
Prof. N. R. Krishnaswamy
Prof. of Chemistry (Retd.),
Puttaparti, Bangalore.
Dr. G. Santhakumari
Thiruvananthapuram
66 aryavaidyan
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Quarterly journal of Arya Vaidya Sala
aryavaidyan 101
Vol. XXVIII., No.2, Nov. 2014 - Jan. 2015, Pages 101 - 111
HEAVY METALS IN ¡YURVEDIC HERBS AND
TRADITIONAL ¡YURVEDIC FORMULATIONS - A STUDY
Jessy Sebastian, Alex Thomas and D. Suresh Kumar*
*Confederation for Ayurvedic Renaissance-Keralam Ltd, KINFRA Small Industries Park, Nalukettu Road,
KINFRA Park P.O. - 680 309, Koratty, Thrissur District, Kerala, India
Abstract: Many reports have been published in recent times highlighting the heavy
metal toxicity of ¢yurvedic medicines. Almost all these studies are based on ¢yurvedic
medicines prepared from calcined metals and inorganic substances. No information is
available on the content of heavy metals in traditional ¢yurvedic medicines prepared
exclusively from herbs. The present study was therefore, undertaken to fill this lacuna.
An attempt has also been made to analyze the heavy metal content of some common
¢yurvedic herbs. The content of lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury in 126 ¢yurvedic
medicines manufactured by 32 companies was analyzed using ICP-MS. The content
of these heavy metals in 34 common ¢yurvedic herbs was also estimated.
Introduction
¡yurvedic texts give clear instructions
regarding the type of land from which medicinal
plants are to be collected. For example,
Carakasamhita states that herbs should not be
collected from polluted places, burial grounds,
pits, parks, anthills and salty terrain (Sharma
Dash, 2001). Similar views are expressed in
A¾°¢¬gah¨dayam and ¹¢r¬gadharasamhita
(Murthy, 2002; Murthy, 2003). It is quite logical
to presume that adherence to these conditions
must have helped in maintaining quality of herbs
collected in those days. Manufacturing
¢yurvedic medicines has become an industrial
activity in modern times. This has given rise to
a brisk trade in medicinal herbs. Consequently,
herbs are collected indiscriminately from all
kinds of environment and this raises the problem
of chemical contamination.
In 2004 Saper et al published their report on the
heavy metal content of ¢yurvedic medicines.
This was followed by several reports of heavy
metal contamination in ¢yurvedic medicines
(Van Schalkwyk et al, 2006; Saper et al, 2008;
Raviraja et al, 2010; Gunturu et al, 2011; Hore et
al, 2012). Almost all these studies were based
on information obtained from ¢yurvedic
medicines prepared from calcined metals and
inorganic substances. Not much information is
available on the content of heavy metals in
traditional ayurvedic medicines prepared
exclusively from herbs. The present study was
therefore, undertaken to fill that lacuna.
An attempt has also been made to analyze the
102 aryavaidyan
heavy metal content of some common ¢yurvedic
herbs.
Materials and methods
The samples of traditional ¢yurvedic medicines
were purchased from various parts of Kerala
and the samples of ¢yurvedic herbs procured
from various suppliers in the country. The herbs
were dried overnight in a hot air oven at 500C
and powdered finely. The powdered herbs were
stored in dry plastic covers and kept in a
desiccator until taken up for analysis.
Standards and reagents
Multi element standards for ICP-MS were
prepared from stock solutions of Pb, As, Cd and
Hg at 100 ppm concentrations obtained from
Merck KGaA, Frankfurt, Germany. 1 ppm stock
solution was prepared from the 100 ppm
standard. This solution was further diluted to 5
ppb, 50 ppb,100 ppb, 200 ppb and 250 ppb.
Ultrapure nitric acid and hydrochloric acid were
procured from Panreac Química S.A.U.,
Barcelona, Spain. HPLC water (Merck
Specialities Pvt Ltd., Mumbai, India) was used
for washing laboratory plastic ware and for
preparing sample and standard solutions.
Microwave-assisted digestion
250-500 mg of a sample of ayurvedic medicine/
powdered herb was put into a PFA tube. 5 ml of
ultrapure nitric acid and 0.5 ml of ultrapure
hydrochloric acid were added. The tube was
capped and placed in microwave-accelerated
reaction system (CEM Corporation, Matthews,
North Carolina, U.S.A.) for 1 hour. The
instrument was programmed to reach 1800C in
15 minutes and stay on hold for 35 minutes. The
PFA tube was taken out of the digester and
allowed to cool down to room temperature. The
sample was quantitatively transferred to 50 ml
plastic tube and made up to 50 ml, using HPLC
water. The sample was saved in the refrigerator
until taken up for analysis.
Heavy metal analysis
Pb, As, Cd and Hg in the digested samples were
analyzed using an Agilent 7700X inductively-
coupled mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (Agilent
Technologies, U.S.A.). The operating condi-
tions of the instrument are shown in Table 1.
- Plasma gas flow rate 15 L/min
- Auxiliary gas flow rate 1 L/min
- Carrier gas flow rate 1 L/min
- Makeup gas flow rate 1 L/min
- Collision gas flow rate 4.3 mL/min
- RF power 1500 W
- Nebuliser Micromist Torch
injector internal diameter 2.5 mm
- Sample depth 10 mm
- Interface cone Ni sampler cone,
Ni skimmer
- CeO+/Ce+0.50 %
TABLE 1
Operating conditions of Agilent 7700X ICP-MS
Parameter Value
The ICP-MS installed in a temperature-
controlled room (17-200C) was allowed 3 hours
to stabilize before analyses were carried out.
Before the procedure, some of the parameters
like linearity, range, accuracy, precision, limit of
detection and limit of quantification were
validated (Table 2).
Detection limits
The minimum detection and instrument
detection limits were calculated for Pb, As, Cd
and Hg as three times the standard deviation of
the concentrations of the blanks and sum of the
minimum detection limit and element
aryavaidyan 103
concentration of the blank respectively
(Anonymous, 2005).
Results
1. Heavy metals in formulations
All the 126 ¢yurvedic formulations analyzed in
the study showed presence of Pb, As, Cd and
Hg in quantities below the permitted levels by
Government of India (Lohar, 2011) (Table 3).
2. Heavy metals in herbs
Pb not detected in 12 medicinal herbs, whereas
22 items contained the heavy metal in quantities
below the limit set by Government of India
(Lohar, 2011). The quantities ranged from 0.05
to 2.84 ppm (Table 4).
Discussion
The branch of ¢yurveda that deals with calcined
minerals and metals is known as Rasaº¢stra. It
has a large literature dating from the end of the
first millennium A.D. The tradition of Rasaº¢stra
shares some features with alchemy prevalent in
medieval Europe (Wujastyk, 2001). ¡yurvedic
bhasmas are recommended at very low doses,
often in divided doses, and for a specific period
of time (Raisuddin, 2004). This suggests that
our sages might have aware of the dangers of
improper administration. The mainstream
¢yurvedic treatises like ¹usrutasamhita,
Carakasamhita, A¾°¢´gasamgraha and
A¾°¢´gah¨daya do not deal with calcined
minerals and metals.
The identities of many of the tested products
have not clearly described in earlier reports
dealing with heavy metal content of ¢yurvedic
medicines. Van Schalkwyk et al (2006) have
reported eight cases of lead poisoning
associated with ingestion of ¢yurvedic
medicines. The identities of only two of these
remedies were known, the rest being described
as ‘a mixture of brown ayurvedic powders and
black tablets from India”. There are instances
where toxic ayurvedic products are described
as “ten different ¢yurvedic tablets” (Dargan et
al, 2008) or “small brown tablet” (Roche et al,
2005).
Samples of common ¢yurvedic herbs are also
found to be free from heavy metal
contamination. Among the 34 species tested, 9
were trees and 16 were cultivated plants. The
plants represent all the geographical zones of
India. The results of the study found to be in
agreement with that reported by Nema et al
(2012) for Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Cucumis
sativus, Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea,
Piper betel and Tagete serecta.
Pb 0.008-50 y = 44763.7306 x + 7758.90 0.9985 0.0415 8.9100 29.7003
As 0.007-25 y = 2381.7508 x + 77.78 0.9992 0.0533 7.9867 26.6225
Cd 0.009-50 y = 9690.4582 x + 30.00 0.9990 0.0459 9.3077 31.0258
Hg 0.009-25 y = 9893.0718 x + 3758.43 0.9988 0.0929 9.4733 31.5777
TABLE 2
Validation parameters for determination of Pb, As, Cd and Hg
Element
ppm Range Linear equation Coefficient Correlation
(RSD%)
Precision
ppb
LOD
ppb
LOQ
ppb
LOD - Limit of Detection; LOQ - Limit of quantification
104 aryavaidyan
Kv¢tha (decoctions)
1Am¨tottaram 81006 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd.
Coimbatore - 641 045 0.38 BDL BDL ND
2B¨haty¢di 81231 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.07 0.06 BDL ND
3 Dhanadanayan¢di 81090 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.26 0.10 BDL 0.10
4Dr¢k¾¢di 81236 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.19 0.54 BDL 0.74
5 Gandharvahast¢di 1449 Arogyodayam Herbal Products,
Ambikapuram - 678 011 0.45 BDL BDL ND
6 Guggulutiktakam 0500 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd,
Chalissery - 679 536 BDL 0.05 BDL 0.23
7 G u ²¦cy¢di 0093 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. BDL BDL BDL BDL
8 Induk¢ntam 0321 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 0.06 BDL BDL 0.51
9 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 74310 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. BDL BDL BDL ND
10 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 508052 Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal ND BDL BDL ND
11 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 1241 E.T.M. Oushadha Sala,
Vellangallur - 680662 0.74 BDL BDL N D
12 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 239 Chyavana Ayurvedics
Chittissery - 680 301 1.33 BDL BDL BDL
13 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 8651 AMPIC Pharmacy Ltd,
Chalakudy-680 307 0.52 BDL BDL ND
14 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 193 Bhuvanswari Ayuvedics,
Trichur-680 302 0.26 BDL BDL N D
15 Mah¢r¢sn¢di 1042 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala,
Thaikkattussery - 680 322 0.44 BDL BDL N D
16 Mah¢r¢sn¢di D2245 Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM)
of Kerala, Trichur- 680 014 BDL BDL 0.06 BDL
17 Mah¢tiktakam 81094 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.09 0.40 BDL ND
18 Mañji¾°h¢di 81271 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.16 0.21 BDL 0.28
19 M¨dv¤k¢di 0705 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 0.29 BDL BDL 0.07
20 Nayop¢yam 81270 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.08 0.09 BDL ND
21 Niº¢katak¢di D1127 Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM) BDL BDL 0.28 BDL
22 R¢sn¢di 81189 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.19 0.14 BDL N D
23 R¢sn¢saptakam D4437 Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM) BDL BDL BDL BDL
24 Sukum¢ram 0344 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 5.48 0.05 BDL 0.23
25 Varu´¢di D2711 Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM) BDL BDL BDL BDL
26 Vid¢ry¢di 1478 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.34 BDL ND ND
27 Vy¢ghry¢di 81287 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.15 0.10 BDL ND
Curnam (powders)
1A
¾°ac¦r´am 0022 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 0.24 0.18 0.05 0.82
TABLE 3
Content of heavy metals in traditional ayurvedic formulations
Name of formulation Batch No. Manufacturer Content of heavy metals in ppm
Lead Arsenic Cadmium Mercury
Cont..
aryavaidyan 105
2A¾°ac¦r´am 2512 Oushadhakala Pharmaceuticals
Mundur - 680 549 0.24 BDL BDL ND
3A¾°ac¦r´am GRACP 1 Sreedhareeyam Ayurvedic
Medicines, Kothattukulam 1.36 0.06 BDL ND
4 Avipattikaram AVC 033 Divya Pharmacy,
Haridwar - 249 401 0.28 ND BDL ND
5 Avipattikaram GRAVP 1 Sreedhareeyam Ayurvedic Med. 0.64 BDL BDL ND
6Daºamula GRDSP 1 Sreedhareeyam Ayurvedic Med. 1.06 0.05 BDL ND
7R¢sn¢di 0752 Jayabharatham AryaVaidya Sala,
Thiruvananthapuram - 695014 2.95 0.92 BDL ND
8R¢sn¢di 507525 Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal 0.86 0.56 BDL ND
9S¤topal¢di GRSIP 1 Sreedhareeyam Ayurvedic Med. 0.56 ND BDL ND
10 T¢l¤sapatr¢di 1172 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 1.63 BDL BDL N D
11 Trika°u 1241 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 1.16 BDL BDL ND
12 Triphal¢di 2430 Santhigiri Ayurveda & Siddha
Vaidyasala, Trivandrum - 695 589 BDL BDL BDL BDL
13 Vaiºv¢nara 3349 ValiyeriVaidyasala P Ltd,
Calicut-673 010 0.43 0.05 BDL BDL
14 Vila¬g¢di 0128 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 5.22 0.09 0.12 ND
Taila (medicated oils)
1A´utailam 176 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.12 ND ND ND
2 Asanavilv¢di 1217 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.19 ND BDL ND
3 Bal¢ºvagandh¢di 1427 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 1.60 ND BDL ND
4 Bal¢ºvagandh¢di 0004 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. BDL BDL BDL 0.21
5Dh¢nvantaram 1481 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 5.32 BDL BDL ND
6Dh¢nvantaram 092 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala ND ND ND ND
7 Kayyonny¢di 1456 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.68 ND BDL N D
8Ko°°amcukk¢di 1500 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 1.12 BDL BDL ND
9K¾¤rabala 13017 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. BDL ND ND ND
10 K¾¤rabala 1483 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.85 BDL BDL N D
11 K¾¤rabala 075 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala BDL ND ND ND
12 Mah¢n¢r¢ya´a 0127/3-13 Bharath Vaidyasala,
tailam Punalur - 691 305 ND ND BDL ND
13 Mah¢n¢r¢ya´a 059 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala 1.55 ND ND N D
tailam
14 Murive´´a 1344 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.88 BDL BDL ND
15 Murive´´a 0399 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala BDL ND BDL ND
16 N¢lp¢mar¢di keram 0400 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala BDL ND ND ND
17 N¢r¢ya´atailam 1425 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.20 ND ND N D
18 N¤l¤bh¨´g¢di 5101 Vaidyaraj Oushadhasala,
Anandapuram - 680 305 1.46 ND ND ND
19 Nimb¢di 0097/A2/ Bharath Vaidyasala,
2013 Punalur-691 305 1.88 N D BDL BD
20 Pi´²atailam 1718 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala 0.16 0.92 BDL N D
21 Pi´²atailam 1474 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.87 BDL BDL ND
Cont..
106 aryavaidyan
22 Sahacar¢di 1402 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.12 BDL ND ND
23 Triphal¢di 1162 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 2.94 BDL ND ND
24 Valiya Arimed¢di 0372 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd 1.70 BDL BDL 0.29
Gh¨ta (medicated ghee)
1 Induk¢ntam 200M Madhava Pharmacy (Regd)
Shornur - 679 121 BDL 0.08 BDL ND
2 Pañcagavyagh¨ta PD01 Ma Gou Products Pvt Ltd,
Yeswantapura, Malur-563 130 ND ND ND ND
3Pa°ol¢di 73 Keraleeya Ayurveda Samajam,
Shornur - 679 123 ND ND ND ND
4 Phalasarpis 81259 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND BDL ND ND
5R¢sn¢daºam¦l¢di 81369 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
6S¢rasvatagh¨ta 81464 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
7 Sukum¢ragh¨ta 81262 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND BDL ND ND
8 Sukum¢ragh¨ta CO134 SNA Oushadhasala Pvt Ltd.,
Trichur - 680 005 0.21 N D N D ND
9 Mah¢tiktakam 79187 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
10 Mah¢tiktakam 3122 Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala 3.46 0.21 BDL 0.38
Lehyam (Electuaries)
1 Agastyaras¢yanam D1200 SNA Oushadhasala Pvt Ltd. 0.16 ND BDL ND
2 Agastyaras¢yanam 81424 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. BDL BDL BDL ND
3 Ajam¢msaras¢yanam 81474 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.16 ND BDL ND
4 Cyavanapr¢ºam 81571 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.05 0.41 BDL 0.97
5 Cyavanapr¢ºam 5190 Vaidyaraj Oushadhasala 0.34 BDL ND ND
6Daºam¦laras¢yanam 01739 Kalya Ayur Heal P Ltd,
Kalletumkara - 680 683 1.04 ND ND ND
7El¢di 7779 KandamkulathyVaidyasala, 0.23 ND BDL ND
Kuzhur-680 734
8 Haridr¢kha´²am 81314 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.39 0.22 BDL ND
9 Madhusnuh¤ras¢yanam 81592 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
10 N¢rasimharas¢yanam 81493 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND 0.08 ND ND
11 Pañcaj¤rakagulam M593 Maruthua Pharma, 0.29 0.09 BDL ND
Trivandrum - 695 043
12 ¹at¢var¤gulam 81268 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.08 0.06 BDL ND
13 Sowbh¢gyaºu´²hi 81616 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.09 0.13 BDL ND
14 The¬¬inp¦kkula 5097 Vaidyaraj Oushadhasala,
Ras¢yanam Anandapuram-680 305 0.13 BDL BDL N D
15 T¨v¨tleham 5149 Vaidyaraj Oushadhasala 0.09 0.08 BDL ND
16 T¨v¨tleham 77844 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.25 0.18 BDL ND
17 Vid¢ry¢di 81311 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. 0.08 BDL BDL ND
¡sava and Ari¾°a
(Fermented products)
1 Abhay¢ri¾°am D904 Kerala Ayurveda Ltd
Athani - 683 585 BDL 0.54 BDL ND
Cont..
aryavaidyan 107
2 Aravind¢savam 81242 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
3Aºok¢ri¾°am 81433 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. BDL ND ND ND
4Aºvagandh¢ri¾°am 81283 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
5Aºvagandh¢ri¾°am SB0026 Dabur India Ltd, New Delhi BDL ND BDL ND
6Aºvagandh¢ri¾°am 0238 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 0.34 BDL BDL 0.11
7 Bal¢ri¾°am 2701 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd BDL BDL BDL BDL
8Daºam¦la
j¤rak¢dyari¾°am 1360 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 0.29 ND BDL ND
9Daºam¦la
j¤rak¢dyari¾°am 5179 Vaidyaraj Oushadhasala 0.25 ND N D ND
10 Daºam¦la AR090413 Mahaushadhi Herbal Remedies BDL BDL N D ND
j¤rak¢dyari¾°am Avanur-680 547
11 Daºam¦l¢ri¾°am 0291 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. BDL BDL BDL 0.20
12 Daºam¦l¢ri¾°am 1437 Arogyodayam Herbal Products 3.63 BDL BDL N D
13 Daºam¦l¢ri¾°am 5677 Combined Pharmaceuticals
Muringoor - 680 316 BDL 0.07 BDL ND
14 Daºam¦l¢ri¾°am 81222 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
15 Dh¢try¢ri¾°am 5114 Vaidyaraj Oushadhasala BDL ND ND ND
16 Dr¢k¾¢ri¾°am 81054 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
17 Gulgulutiktak¢ri¾°am ARH03 Dhanwanthari Vaidyasala BDL ND ND ND
Thodupuzha - 685 584
18 Khadir¢ri¾°am 0256 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd BDL BDL BDL 0.11
19 Lodhr¢savam 81052 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
20 Loh¢savam 0228 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 1.91 BDL BDL 0.18
21 Loh¢savam 81227 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
22 Must¢ri¾°am 81308 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
23 Parpa°¢dyari¾°am 80173 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
24 Parth¢dyari¾°am 81309 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
25 Pippaly¢savam 80938 AryaVaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND BDL ND ND
26 Pippaly¢savam 2827 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 0.46 BDL BDL 0.16
27 Pippaly¢savam 2Sep2013 Siva Ganga Ayurvedics
Chembuchira - 680 684 BDL ND BDL ND
28 S¢rasvat¢ri¾°am 81208 Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Ltd. ND ND ND ND
29 S¢rasvat¢ri¾°am 2174 Rajah Healthy Acres (P) Ltd. 2.68 BDL BDL 0.19
Dr¢vakam(distillates)
1 Iñcidr¢vakam 118 Madhava Pharmacy (Regd) BDL ND ND N D
2 Mahi¾adr¢vakam 01759 Kalya Ayur Heal P Ltd. ND ND N D ND
3 Ayamodakadr¢vakam 688 KalyaAyur Heal P Ltd. 7.99 N D ND ND
Lepa (pastes)
1Ean¤rkuzhampu 01730 Kalya Ayur Heal P Ltd. ND N D ND ND
2Ku¬kum¢di NKRJ Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates
Ltd., Kalayanthani - 685 588 3.65 ND BDL ND
BDL = Below detection limit(0.05 ppm); ND = Not detected
108 aryavaidyan
1Abies webbiana Pradeep Sharda & Co., 0.49 BDL BDL ND
Leaves Tanakpur- 262 309
2Aconitum ferox Tandan Trading Co., 0.67 0.27 BDL BDL
Root New Delhi- 110 045
3Aegle marmelos Shiv Shakti Herbal, 0.49 BDL BDL 0.38
Root Sikandrabad -203205
4Andrographis paniculata Shri Shail Medifarms, 0.77 BDL BDL ND
Whole plant Nagpur- 440 022
5Anethum graveolens Patwa Mahendra Kumar Ratilal, ND BDL 0.09 ND
Seed Unjha- 384 174
6Caesalpinia sappan Avees Corporation, 1.44 BDL BDL ND
Heartwood Trichur-680 001
7Cinnamomum verum K. Chacko& Bros., 0.42 0.40 0.09 BDL
Bark Trichur-680 005
8Coriandrum sativum Shri Ram Trading Co., 0.09 BDL BDL ND
Seed Neemuch- 458 441
9Coscinium fenestratum Shardabrothers, 0.45 BDL BDL 0.28
Stem Tanakpur- 262 309
10 Cuminum cyminum Patwa Mahendra Kumar Ratilal, 0.63 ND 0.05 ND
Seed Unjha- 384 174
11 Cyperus rotundus Rajkumar& Co., 0.19 0.15 0.06 ND
Tuber Virudunagar- 626 001
12 Phyllanthus emblica Chandra Ayurveda Bhavan P Ltd, ND BDL BDL N D
Fruit Vashi-400 705
13 Ficus religiosa Malabar Agencies, ND N D BDL BDL
Bark Calicut-673 001
14 Holarrhena pubescens Hindustan Herbs House, 0.54 BDL BDL N D
Seed Hyderabad- 500 027
15 Indigofera tinctoria Esskay Herbs, 0.26 BDL BDL ND
Leaf Lucknow-226 003
16 Inula racemosa Arjun Herbal Products, 0.24 0.27 0.28 ND
Root Amritsar- 143 002
17 Mesua ferrea Sanjay Trading Co., 0.08 BDL BDL ND
Flower Calcutta- 700 006
TABLE 4
Content of heavy metals in ayurvedic herbs
Name of herbs Supplier
Content of heavy metals in ppm
Lead Arsenic Cadmium Mercury
Cont..
aryavaidyan 109
18 Mucuna pruriens Sanjay Trading Co., ND N D BDL N D
Seed Calcutta- 700 006
19 Nardostachys jatamansi Sharda brothers, 2.84 BDL 0.09 ND
Rhizome Tanakpur- 262 309
20 Nigella sativa Shri Ram Trading Co., 0.05 BDL BDL ND
Seed Neemuch- 458 441
21 Neopicrorrhiza scrophu- Sharda Brothers, 2.84 BDL BDL ND
lariiflora - Rhizome Tanakpur- 262 309
22 Piper longum Hindustan Herbs House, ND N D ND ND
Fruit Hyderabad- 500 027
23 Psoralea corylifolia ShriShailMedifarms, ND BDL 0.06 ND
Seed Nagpur- 440 022
24 Pterocarpus santalinus Kunnummal Enterprises, 0.19 BDL BDL ND
Heartwood Calicut- 673 632
25 Rhus succedanea Rajkumar& Co., ND ND ND ND
Gall Virudunagar- 626 001
26 Salacia reticulata Crudex India, 1.20 0.18 0.07 ND
Root Hyderabad- 500 027
27 Terminalia arjuna MFP Processing & Res. Centre, 0.32 BDL BDL 0.10
Bark Bhopal- 462 021
28 Terminalia bellirica Ashok Trading Co., ND BDL BDL ND
Fruit Raipur- 492 009
29 Terminalia chebula C.L. Kurien& Co., ND BDL BDL ND
Fruit Trichur-680 001
30 Trachyspermum ammi PatwaMahendra Kumar Ratilal, ND BDL 0.06 ND
Seed Unjha- 384 174
31 Tribulus terrestris Rajkumar & Co., ND BDL BDL ND
Fruit Virudunagar- 626 001
32 Vigna mungo Shri Ram Trading Co., ND BDL BDL ND
Seed Neemuch- 458 441
33 Withania somnifera Adinath Trading Co., 0.27 BDL BDL BDL
Root Neemuch- 458 441
34 Woodfordia fruticosa Ashok Trading Co., 0.35 BDL 0.07 ND
Flower Raipur- 492 009
BDL = Below detection limit (0.05 ppm); ND = Not detected
110 aryavaidyan
The present study, reporting the absence of
heavy metals in ¢yurvedic medicines prepared
exclusively with herbs is the first of its kind. 126
¢yurvedic formulations manufactured by 32
companies were analyzed in the present study
and all of them conform to the heavy metal
specifications set by Government of India. This
study shows that traditional ¢yurvedic
medicines manufactured in the province of
Kerala contain heavy metals below the limits
set by Government of India.
References:
1. Anonymous, ICP-MS: Inductively
Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-A
Primer, P 39, Agilent Technologies, Inc.,
Santa Clara, U.S.A., 2005
2. Dargan, P.I., Gawarammana, I.B., Archer,
J.R.H., House, I.M., Shaw, D. and Wood,
D.M., “Heavy metal poisoning from
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emerging problem?” Int. J. Environ. Health,
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P., Goodman, T.R., Hodson, M.E. and
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p 51, 2011.
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Graber, N., Nagin, D., Clark, N., Saper, R.
and Sucosky, M.S., “Lead poisoning in
pregnant women who used ayurvedic
medications from India-New York City, 2011-
2012”, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep., 61: pp
641-646, 2012.
5. Joseph, D., Sable, V. and Kothari, D.C.,
“Determination of mercury and arsenic
content in a few Indian ayurvedic medicines
by means of energy dispersive X-ray
fluorescence (EDXRF)”, Int. J. PIXE,
19:DOI: 10.1142/S0129083509001771, 2009.
6. Lohar D.R., Protocol for Testing of
Ayurvedic, Siddha & Unani Medicines, P
36, Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian
Medicines, Ghaziabad, 2011.
7. Murthy K.R.S., Astangahrdayam, Vol. 2,
Kalpasiddhisthana 6/4, Krishnadas
Academy, Varanasi, 2002.
8. Murthy K.R.S., Sarngadharasamhita,
Chapter 1/58, Chaukhamba Orientalia,
Varanasi, 2003.
9. Nema, N.K., Maity, N., Sarkar, B.K. and
Mukherjee, P.K., “Determination of trace
and heavy metals in some commonly used
medicinal herbs in Ayurveda”, Toxicol. Ind.
Health, 30: pp 964-968, 2012.
10. Raisuddin, S., “Ayurvedic bhasmas”, In
Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies
(Edited by Lakshmi Chandra Mishra), pp.
83-100, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004.
11. Raviraja, A., Babu, G.N.V., Sehgal, A., Saper,
R.B., Jayawardene, I., Amarasiriwardena,
C.J. and Venkatesh, T., “Three cases of lead
toxicity associated with consumption of
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Biochem., 25: pp 326-329, 2010.
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T., “Lead poisoning due to ingestion of
Indian herbal remedies”, New Zealand Med.
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aryavaidyan 111
M. J., Eisenberg, D.M., Davis, R.B. and
Phillips, R.S, “Heavy metal content of
ayurvedic herbal medicine products”, J.
Amer. Med. Assoc., 292: pp 2868-2873, 2004.
14. Saper, R.B., Phillips, R.S., Sehgal, A., Khouri,
N., Davis, R.B., Paquin, J.,Thuppil, V. and
Kales, S.N., “Lead, mercury and arsenic in
US- and Indian-manufactured ayurvedic
medicines sold via the internet”, J. Amer.
Med. Assoc., 300: pp 915-923, 2008.
15. Van Schalkwyk, J., Davidson, J., Palmer, B.
and Hope, V., “Ayurvedic medicine:
patients in perilfrom plumbism”, New
Zealand Med. J., 119: pp 65-70, 2006.
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(History of Ayurveda), pp. 34-149,
Chaukhamba Orientalia,Varanasi, 1976.
17. Sharma, R.K. and Dash, V.B.,
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England, 2001.
Science is ever expanding and due to this new technologies
are constantly being introduced to make human thoughts
real. As the wave of these new technologies has even spread
to physiology in medicine field, various researches are being constantly conducted
using sophisticated instruments to understand the physiological aspects of rasa
and its impact on human body. Rasabhed¤ya, a chapter described in
A¾°¢¬gasa¬graha and A¾°¢¬gah¨daya, elaborates the various aspects of rasa as it
is one of the major components of pharmacodynamics of a drug. There are other
factors for pharmacodynamics of a drug namely gu´a, virya, vip¢ka and karma.
These particulars can be the mulasiddh¢nta of ancient science or physiological
basis of modern science.
.
Kottakkal Ayurveda Series: 124
Dr. Praveen Balakrishnan
Price: ` 120/-
RASABHED£YAM
Essay adjudged best in
All India Ayurveda Essay Competition 2013
Vol. XXVIII., No.2 November 2014 - January, 2015
Dr. A. P. Haridas
Retd. Principal, VPSV Ayurveda College,
Kottakkal
Dr. Arsu
Professor, Department of Hindi,
University of Calicut.
Shri K. G. Warrier
Teacher (Retd.)
Shri C. A. Varier
Trustee, AVS.
Dr. Indira Balachandran
Project Director,
CMPR, AVS.
Dr. T. S. Murali
Chief (Tech. Services), AVS.
Dr. K. Muralidharan
Superintendent
(AH&RC), AVS.
Dr. C. Ramankutty
Chief Medical Officer
(Publications), AVS.
Prof. M. K. Prasad
Foremerly Pro-vice Chancellor,
Calicut University
Dr. C. K. Ramachandran,
Prof. of Medicine (Retd.),
Medical College, Calicut
Dr. K. Rajagopalan, Susrut Bhavan, Kollam
Dr. V. N. PandeyA/50/NDSE-1, New Delhi
Dr. S. K. Misra, Delhi
Mr. Giorgio Fillippo Barabino
Genova
Dr. M. S. Valiathan
National Research Professor,
Manipal University, Manipal.
Prof. N. R. Krishnaswamy
Prof. of Chemistry (Retd.),
Puttaparti, Bangalore.
Dr. G. Santhakumari
Thiruvananthapuram
... This indicates that tablets are the highly affected dosage form. Sebastian et al (2015) 14 carried out an extensive study of the heavy metal content of traditional ayurvedic medicines. The content of lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury in 126 Ayurvedic medicines manufactured by 32 companies was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ...
... All the samples of kvātha (decoctions), cūrṇa (powders), taila (medicated oils), ghṛta (medicated clarified butter), lēhyam (electuaries), āsava and ariṣṭa (fermented products), drāvakam (distillates) and lēpa (pastes) analyzed in the study conformed to the limits for heavy metals set by Government of India. However, unlike the results reported by Sebastian et al (2015) 14 many of the traditional ayurvedic tablets investigated in the present study contain high levels of heavy metals. Heavy metal content of Ayurvedic minerallo-metalic tablets is already reported 5,10 . ...
... All the samples of kvātha (decoctions), cūrṇa (powders), taila (medicated oils), ghṛta (medicated clarified butter), lēhyam (electuaries), āsava and ariṣṭa (fermented products), drāvakam (distillates) and lēpa (pastes) analyzed in the study conformed to the limits for heavy metals set by Government of India. However, unlike the results reported by Sebastian et al (2015) 14 many of the traditional ayurvedic tablets investigated in the present study contain high levels of heavy metals. Heavy metal content of Ayurvedic minerallo-metalic tablets is already reported 5,10 . ...
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