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Feminicidios y Violencia Feminicida. Des/Humanizando nuestros contextos

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Abstract and Figures

Este libro es uno de los resultados del proyecto de investigación "Género, Violencia y Marginación en el Sur del Estado de Guanajuato," financiado por el Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (conacyt). Se pretende analizar los feminicidios no solo en Guanajuato, sino en otros estados de la República Mexicana y la violencia de género en diversos contextos. Damos cuenta de la compleja realidad en torno a estos graves problemas. En el libro escriben académicas y académicos, así como activistas sociales como es el caso de Verónica Cruz de la Asociación Las Libres.
Content may be subject to copyright.
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3URIHVRULQYHVWLJDGRUGH(O&ROHJLRGHOD)URQWHUD1RUWH©VDOYDGRU#FROHIP[ª
 Iඇඍඋඈൽඎർർංඬඇ(අർඈඇඍൾඑඍඈൽൾඅൿൾආංඇංർංൽංඈ
OHVDKXPDQLGDG(OIHPLQLFLGLRHVHOJHQRFLGLRGHODVPXMHUHV\VXFHGHFXDQGRODVFRQ
GLFLRQHVKLVWyULFDVJHQHUDQSUiFWLFDVVRFLDOHVTXHSHUPLWHQDWHQWDGRVYLROHQWRVFRQWUD
ODLQWHJULGDGODVDOXGODVOLEHUWDGHV\ODYLGDGHQLxDV\PXMHUHV/DJDUGH
/RVDVHVLQDWRVGHPXMHUHVSXHGHQVHUHIHFWXDGRVSRUFRQRFLGRV\SRUGHVFRQR
FLGRVSRUPLHPEURVGHODVPLVPDVIDPLOLDVQRYLRVDPDQWHVH[SDUHMDVSDGUHV
HQWUHRWURV(QODVHVWDGtVWLFDVFXDQGRVHDQDOL]DQORVIHPLQLFLGLRVSRUSHUSHWUDGRU
FRQRFLGRFDVLODWRWDOLGDGGHTXLHQHVORVFRPHWHQVRQKRPEUHVFRQHVFDVDSDUWLFL
SDFLyQGHPXMHUHV/DJDUGHD¿UPDTXHSDUDTXHHVWHIHQyPHQRVHSURGX]FD
GHEHQH[LVWLUFRQGLFLRQHVVRFLDOHVFRPRODDXVHQFLDGHJDUDQWtDVGHVHJXULGDGD
QLxDV\PXMHUHVSRUSDUWHGHO(VWDGRODRPLVLyQDORVFDVRVODIDOWDGHMXVWLFLDODV
FRQGLFLRQHVVRFLRHFRQyPLFDVSUHFDULDV(QHVWHVHQWLGRHQXQHVWXGLRGHO&ROHJLR
GHOD)URQWHUD1RUWHർඈඅൾൿVHHQFRQWUyTXH³DPD\RUGp¿FLWGHVHUYLFLRVEiVLFRV
PD\RUHVODSUREDELOLGDGGHTXHORVKDELWDQWHVGHHVWDV]RQDVSXHGDQVHUYtFWLPDV
GHYLROHQFLDIHPLQLFLGLR´&HUYHUD
3RUWDQWRDQDOL]DUORVIHPLQLFLGLRVGHVGHHOGHVDUUROORGHOSDtVQRHVLQWUDVFHQ
GHQWH(OLPLQDUODVFRQGLFLRQHVVRFLRHFRQyPLFDVGHVIDYRUDEOHVSDUDODVSHUVRQDV
SXHGHVHUXQ SULPHUSDVRSDUD HOLPLQDUOD YLROHQFLDIHPLQLFLGD/DJDUGH 
D¿UPDTXHODVFRQGLFLRQHVVRFLDOHV\FXOWXUDOHVWDOHVFRPRHOPDFKLVPR\ODPL
VRJLQLDSROtWLFDVGHPRFUiWLFDVSRFRLQFOX\HQWHVODHVFDVDRQXODDSOLFDFLyQGHOD
MXVWLFLDDODVPXMHUHVODLQVHJXULGDGODSREUH]DSXHGHQFRQGXFLUDOIHPLQLFLGLR
DGHPiVGHTXHHOVLOHQFLRVRFLDOODGHVDWHQFLyQ\QRGDUOHMXVWDGLPHQVLyQDOSUR
EOHPDSURSLFLDTXHODYLROHQFLDGHJpQHURKDFLDPXMHUHV\QLxDVDXPHQWH\SXHGD
WHUPLQDUHQDVHVLQDWRV
(OSUREOHPDQRHVPHQRU\DTXHHQHOSDtVVRQDVHVLQDGDVFDGDDxRPiVGHPLO
PXMHUHV\QLxDVSRUHMHPSORHQWUH\IXHURQDVHVLQDGDVPiVGHVHLV
PLOPXMHUHV/DJDUGH/DPD\RUtDGHHOODVHUDQSREUHVFRPRORGHVWDFD
HOHVWXGLRGHOർඈඅൾൿFRQSRFRRQLQJ~QQLYHOGHHVWXGLRVGHMDGDVR©WLUDGDVªHQ
EDUUDQFRVFDPSRVGHFXOWLYRFDUUHWHUDVEDVXUHURVKRWHOHV\GRQGHQRHVWXYLHURQ
VHJXUDVQLHQVXVFDVDV0XFKDVGHHOODVIXHURQWRUWXUDGDV$ODHOHYDGDLQFLGHQ
FLDGHIHPLQLFLGLRVVHVXPDQHOGRORUHLQGLJQDFLyQGHIDPLOLDUHV\GHODVRFLHGDG
SRUTXHODPD\RUSDUWHGHHVRVFUtPHQHVQRKDQVLGRUHVXHOWRV\VLJXHQLPSXQHV
/DYLROHQFLDSXHGHWHUPLQDUHQIHPLQLFLGLRSHURDOJXQDVPXHUWHVGHPXMHUHVQR
VHFRQVLGHUDQWDOHVVLQHPEDUJRDOJXQRVGHORVGHVHQODFHVIDWDOHVVRQHOUHVXOWDGRGH
ODYLROHQFLDHMHUFLGDVLVWHPiWLFDPHQWHFRQWUDHOODV)UH\HUPXWKDQDOL]yORV
FDVRVGHYLROHQFLDKDFLDPXMHUHVHQFRPXQLGDGHVUXUDOHVGH&KHQDOKy&KLDSDV(OOD
D¿UPDTXHODYLROHQFLDGHJpQHURHVXQIDFWRUGHULHVJRSDUDODPDWHUQLGDGGHHVWDV
PXMHUHVLQFOXVRGHULHVJRGHSpUGLGDGHODYLGD0iVJUDYHD~Q³HOVyORKHFKRGH
QDFHUPXMHUSXHGHFRQYHUWLUVHHQIDFWRUGHULHVJR´)UH\HUPXWK/DVPD
GUHVXWLOL]DQORVJROSHVFRPRXQDPHGLGDSUHYHQWLYDKDFLDODVMyYHQHVSDUDHYLWDU
TXHHQXQIXWXURFXDQGRVHFDVHQVHDQJROSHDGDVSRUVXPDULGR
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Iඇඍඋඈൽඎർർංඬඇ(අർඈඇඍൾඑඍඈൽൾඅൿൾආංඇංർංൽංඈ
OHGHFtD³W~PHYDVDREHGHFHUR¢YDVDREHGHFHUKDVWDFXDQGRWHQJDVPDULGRFXDQGR
WHDJDUUHQDSDWDGDVFXDQGRWHSHJXHQ"´/HSHJDEDVLHPSUH<RQRGHFtDQDGDSXHV
SHQVDEDTXHHUDEXHQRSDUDPLKLMDSDUDFXDQGRVHFDVH\DVHSDKDFHUWRGR3DGUH
DxRV3XHEOD&KHQDOKyWRPDGRGH)UH\HUPXWK
(QXQHVWXGLRGH0RQiUUH]\)XHQWHVVHDQDOL]DHODVHVLQDWRGHPXMHUHV
HQ&LXGDG-XiUH]&ODVL¿FDQDODVYtFWLPDVGHIHPLQLFLGLRVHJ~QORVOXJDUHVGRQ
GHIXHURQDVHVLQDGDV\HQFXHQWUDQTXHHQGRVVHFWRUHVGHODFLXGDGGRQGHKD\XQD
PD\RUSREUH]DLQYDVLyQGHSUHGLRV\FDUHQWHVGHLQIUDHVWUXFWXUDHVGRQGHPD\RU
PHQWHKDQHQFRQWUDGRPXMHUHVDVHVLQDGDV3RUORTXHFRQFOX\HQTXH³ODSHUWHQHQFLD
DXQDFODVHVRFLDOPDUJLQDO\HPSREUHFLGDVHDUWLFXODFRQHOJpQHURHQXQDGREOH
YXOQHUDELOLGDGSDUDODVPXMHUHV´0RQiUUH]\)XHQWHV
0RQiUUH]\)XHQWHVHQFXHQWUDQTXHODVPXMHUHVDVHVLQDGDVPi[LPRJUD
GRGHYLROHQFLDHQ&LXGDG-XiUH]YLYtDHQ]RQDVPDUJLQDGDVFRQHVFDVD
LQIUDHVWUXFWXUDKDELWDEDHQOXJDUHVFRQQLYHOHVPHGLRVGHLQIUDHVWUXFWXUD
(VWRVGDWRVQRVLQGLFDQSDUDHOFDVRGHpVWHHVWXGLRTXHODVPXMHUHVTXHYLYHQHQ
]RQDVGHPD\RUPDUJLQDFLyQVRQPiVYXOQHUDEOHV\SXHGHQSDGHFHUPD\RUHVtQGL
FHVGHYLROHQFLDLQFOXVRFRUUHQPD\RUULHVJRGHVHUDVHVLQDGDV
(OHVWDGRGH0p[LFRRFXSDHOSULPHUOXJDUHQHOQ~PHURGHDVHVLQDWRVGHPXMHUHV
&KLPDOKXDFiQHVXQRGHORVPXQLFLSLRVGRQGHPiVIHPLQLFLGLRVVHKDQFRPHWLGR
3DGJHW\/R]D FXHQWDQ ODVKLVWRULDV GHP~OWLSOHVPXMHUHV DVHVLQDGDVSRU
DPLJRVFRQRFLGRVH[SDUHMDVH[WUDxRVWRGRVKRPEUHV&XDQGRVHGHQXQFLDQORV
FDVRVGHGHVDSDULFLRQHVGHPXMHUHVVDOHQDODOX]ORVSUHMXLFLRVRMXVWL¿FDFLRQHV
PDFKLVWDV³TXHVHJXURVHKDEtDLGRFRQHOQRYLR´³HQHOIRQGRWHQtDDOJXQDVLQFOL
QDFLRQHVSRUPH]FODUHO©DFWLYRª´3DGJHW\/R]D
/DVDXWRULGDGHVQRSXHGHQRQRTXLHUHQKDFHUQDGD8QDOLGHUHVDGHOHVWDGRGH
0p[LFRD¿UPDTXH³ODVPXMHUHVH[LJHQMXVWLFLD\QLVLTXLHUDUHVSHWRWLHQHQ8QD
PXMHUGHQXQFLDTXHVXPDULGRODJROSHD\OHGLFHQTXHVHDJXDQWH\YD\DDOGtDVL
JXLHQWH´3DGJHW\/R]D
/DVFRQGLFLRQHVVRFLDOHVSUHFDULDVHQ&KLPDOKXDFiQ\HQRWURVPXQLFLSLRVGHO
HVWDGRGH0p[LFRDOLJXDOTXHODVREVHUYDGDVHQRWURVHVWDGRVGHOD5HS~EOLFDVRQ
XQFDPSRSHUIHFWRSDUDHOFXOWLYRGHPXMHUHVDVHVLQDGDVSHUIHFWRSRUTXHKD\XQD
HQRUPHLPSXQLGDG\ORVDVHVLQRVSXHGHQRIUHFHUGLQHUR\VDOLUOLEUHVRVHFXOSDD
RWURVSDUDQRLQYHVWLJDUDIRQGR³(OSUREOHPDHVTXHHUDPXMHU´GLFHXQDLQIRU
PDQWHVREUHHODVHVLQDWRGHVXKHUPDQDHOODPLVPDUHÀHMDPLHGRDQWHXQPDULGR
TXHODREVHUYD/DOLGHUHVDDFODUD
GHVGHQLxDVOHVFRPSUDQODPXxHFDHOSODWLWRODWDFLWDODVHQVHxDQDTXHGDUVHFDOODGDV\
DVtFUHFHQ'HVGHQLxDVVRQPDOWUDWDGDVHQVXFDVD\DODPXMHUPDOWUDWDGDODDWRQWDQOD
YXHOYHQPHQVD/XHJRODVYLRODQ\HOODVWUDWDQGHGHQXQFLDU3DGJHW\/R]D
/DVGHQXQFLDVQRSURFHGHQORVLPSDUWLGRUHVGHMXVWLFLDQRTXLHUHQOHYDQWDUODV
QRVyORHQHOHVWDGRGH0p[LFRHQ*XDQDMXDWRSDVDLJXDO
 Iඇඍඋඈൽඎർർංඬඇ(අർඈඇඍൾඑඍඈൽൾඅൿൾආංඇංർංൽංඈ
(VWDVLWXDFLyQGHULYDGHODIRUPDGHVRFLDOL]DUODIRUPDGHYROYHUVHPXMHUHVFRQ
HVWHUHRWLSRVWUDGLFLRQDOHVTXHSHUPLWHQODYLROHQFLD\VRQODEDVHSDUDVXQDWXUDOL]D
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GHYLROHQFLDGHJpQHUR<QRVRWUDVHVWDPRVPiVSUHRFXSDGDVSRUTXHYROYHPRVDO
RULJHQGHOSUREOHPD0HSDUHFHTXHQRFRQRFHQQRVDEHQTXpHVODYLROHQFLDGH
JpQHUR6yORSDUDTXHWHQJDQXQDLGHDWDQWRORVGDWRVFRPRHOPDSDFRUUHVSRQGHQ
DORVDxRV\DXQFXDQGRKHPRVGRFXPHQWDGRHVWRVGDWRVGXUDQWHFDWRU
FHDxRV\DSURSyVLWRORVHVWDPRVGDQGRDFRQRFHU&RPRODGRFWRUD5RFtR5RVDV
\DORKDPHQFLRQDGRHQODLQDXJXUDFLyQVHVROLFLWDODDOHUWDGHJpQHURSDUDHOHVWD
GRGH*XDQDMXDWRGHELGRDORVIHPLQLFLGLRVGHHVWRVDxRV3RUHOOROHVSUHVHQWDPRV
HVWRVGDWRVSDUDTXHXVWHGHVHVWpQDFWXDOL]DGRV
&DEHGHVWDFDUTXHHQWUH\HOPDSDGH*XDQDMXDWRQRHUDWDQURMR
SXHVHUDQHQSURPHGLRVHLVPXQLFLSLRVORVTXHVHGLVSXWDEDQORVIHPLQLFLGLRV+R\
VRQYHLQWLWUpV&RPRKHPRVUHLWHUDGRDKtHVWiSUHVHQWHODLPSXQLGDG(OIHQyPHQR
VHH[WHQGHUi\GHQRUHVROYHUVHSLQWDUiGHURMRWRGRHOHVWDGR8QGDWRLPSRUWDQ
WHTXHVHKDFHSUHVHQWHHQWRGRHOSDtVHVTXHHOIHPLQLFLGLRGHVWDFDHQHOPHGLR
XUEDQR\QRHVLJXDOHQOD]RQDUXUDOPXFKRPHQRVHQODLQGtJHQD/DPD\RULQ
FLGHQFLDHQHOSDtVHVWiSUHVHQWHHQHOPHGLRXUEDQR\HQHOHVWDGRGH*XDQDMXDWR
ORVPXQLFLSLRVFRQYLROHQFLDGHJpQHURVRQ/HyQ,UDSXDWR&HOD\D\6LODR5HV
SHFWRDHVWH~OWLPREULQGRHOGDWRGHTXHHOJRELHUQRIHGHUDOKDSUHWHQGLGRLQFOXLU
 ,/ൺඉඈඅටඍංർൺൽൾඅൺඈආංඌංඬඇඉൺඋൺඉඋൾඏൾඇංඋൾඅൺඌൾඌංඇൺඍඈൽൾඅൺඌආඎඃൾඋൾඌ
HQODOH\TXHODLQFLGHQFLDVHDSRUSREODFLyQ6LKD\XQtQGLFHDOWRGHIHPLQLFLGLR
VHUiHOQ~PHURFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHDOWRWDOGHODSREODFLyQ\QRVHWRPDUiHQFXHQWDHO
Q~PHURGHDVHVLQDWRV1RVRWUDVQRVQHJDPRVDHVWRSRUTXHQRKD\UHODFLyQDOJXQD
6LODRHVPX\SHTXHxRHQFRPSDUDFLyQFRQ/HyQ\WLHQHXQDYLROHQFLDEUXWDOFRPR
3pQMDPRORTXHWLHQHTXHYHUPiVFRQHOFRQWH[WRFXOWXUDOTXHFRQHOQ~PHURGH
SREODFLyQ(VGHFLUHQHOFDVRGH/HyQTXHVHUtDGRQGHKD\PD\RUSREODFLyQODUH
ODFLyQQRHVYLVLEOH(OHVWXGLRQDFLRQDOPiVUHFLHQWHVREUHIHPLQLVPRORFRQ¿UPD
5HLWHURQRWLHQHTXHYHUFRQODLQFLGHQFLDGHIHPLQLFLGLRVHOtQGLFHGHSREODFLyQ
VLQRHOFRQWH[WRFXOWXUDO
6yORKD\XQGDWR\DFWXDOPHQWHHVGLItFLOHOVHJXLPLHQWRSRUORTXHKHPRVLQLFLDGR
QXHVWURSURJUDPDGHDOHUWDGHJpQHUR$FRQWLQXDFLyQSUHVHQWDUpXQDUHWURVSHFWLYD
VREUHODDOHUWDGHJpQHURSRUTXHDHVWDVDOWXUDVHVGLItFLOUHFODPDUSRUORVDVHVLQD
WRVGHORV~OWLPRVFDWRUFHDxRV7DQWRSDUDQRVRWUDVFRPRSDUDHOJRELHUQRHVPiV
VHQFLOORSDUWLUGHORVHYHQWRVPiVUHFLHQWHVKDFLDDWUiVSXHVHOSUREOHPDHVWiOD
WHQWH\ORVGDWRVGLVSRQLEOHVFRPSUHQGHQGHKDVWDODIHFKD'LJDPRVTXHORV
GDWRVH[LVWHQWHVVRQDFWXDOHV3RUHMHPSORORVGDWRVIHGHUDOHVVREUHHOIHPLQLFLGLR
FRPSUHQGHQGHKDVWDODDFWXDOLGDG
6LHQHOSDtVHVWiQGLVSRQLEOHVORVGDWRVVREUHIHPLQLFLGLRHVSRUTXHH[LVWLPRV
RUJDQL]DFLRQHVGRFXPHQWDQGRHOIHQyPHQR1RVRWUDVWHQHPRVORVGDWRVDFWXDOL]D
GRVSRUTXHHOJRELHUQRQRORVWLHQH\HQHOHVWDGRGH*XDQDMXDWRQRH[LVWHXQVyOR
HVWXGLRR¿FLDODOUHVSHFWR3DUDTXHSXHGDQDSUHFLDUFyPRVHKDLQFUHPHQWDGRHO
SUREOHPDHQIXHURQWUHLQWD\GRVIHPLQLFLGLRVFLQFXHQWDHQFLQFXHQWD
\FXDWURHQVHWHQWD\WUHVHQ\KDVLGRHODxRPiVYLROHQWRSDUDODV
PXMHUHV'XUDQWHXQVHPHVWUHGHODxRSDVDGR*XDQDMXDWRIXHXQRGHORVHVWDGRV
PiVYLROHQWRVGHOSDtVHLQFOXVRUHEDVyDOHVWDGRGH&KLDSDVTXHDO¿QDOTXHGyHQ
SULPHUOXJDUFRQRFKHQWD\WUHVFDVRV
&XDQGRPHSUHJXQWDQODVUD]RQHVTXHDPHULWDQTXHXQDVHVLQDWRVHFRQVLGHUH
IHPLQLFLGLRHVQHFHVDULRFRQVLGHUDUODVVLJXLHQWHVYDULDEOHVTXLpQODVPDWDFyPR
ODVPDWDQODVHGDGHVGHODVYtFWLPDV\GyQGHODVWLUDQ(QHVDVFLQFRYDULDEOHVHVWi
SUHVHQWHHORGLRGHORVKRPEUHVTXHODVDVHVLQDQ(QFXDQWRDODVHGDGHVHO
GHODVYtFWLPDVVHVLWXDEDHQHOUDQJRGHYHLQWLXQRDWUHLQWDDxRVGXUDQWHORVDxRV
\(QFDPELRKDFHWUHVDxRVODPD\RUSDUWHGHODVYtFWLPDVRVFLODEDHQ
WUHORVWUHLQWD\FXDUHQWDDxRV
&DEHGHVWDFDUTXHHQWUH\HOIHPLQLFLGLRSUHGRPLQyHQPXMHUHVGH
HQWUHWUHLQWD\FXDUHQWDDxRVTXHHUDQFDVDGDV\KDEtDQPXHUWRDPDQRVGHVXFyQ
\XJH$FWXDOPHQWHODVPXMHUHVVROWHUDV\MyYHQHVHVWiQPXULHQGRDPDQRVGHVXV
QRYLRV&XDQGRORVDJUHVRUHVVRQLGHQWL¿FDGRVVXHOHQVHUODSDUHMDGHODYtFWLPD\
FXDQGRVHGHVFRQRFHHOGDWRQRHVTXHVHLJQRUHVLQRTXHSXHGHVHUHOFULPHQRUJD
QL]DGR6LDOJRKDQKHFKRORVPHGLRVGHVHJXULGDGGHO(VWDGRHVEOLQGDUDOSXHEOR
GHOFULPHQRUJDQL]DGR(QWRQFHVVLVHWUDWDUDGHOFULPHQRUJDQL]DGRHOSUREOHPD
HVD~QPD\RUVLQHPEDUJRHVWDSRVLELOLGDGHVPtQLPD\VHLJQRUDTXpVXFHGHHQ
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,/ൺඉඈඅටඍංർൺൽൾඅൺඈආංඌංඬඇඉൺඋൺඉඋൾඏൾඇංඋൾඅൺඌൾඌංඇൺඍඈൽൾඅൺඌආඎඃൾඋൾඌ
UHDOLGDGSRUORTXHODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVHVWiQHQFXUVR(QRWURVFDVRVVHLQWHUSRQHQ
GHQXQFLDVTXHKDFHQDOHVSRVRSUHVXQWRUHVSRQVDEOHDXQTXHHVQHFHVDULRUHDOL]DU
ODSOHQDLGHQWL¿FDFLyQ
(QFXDQWRDODIRUPDHQTXHODVPXMHUHVIXHURQDVHVLQDGDVVHSXHGHPHQFLR
QDUORVLJXLHQWHHQSULPHUOXJDUVHHQFXHQWUDHOLPSDFWRGHEDODHQVHJXQGROXJDU
HOHVWUDQJXODPLHQWR\HQWHUFHUOXJDUHODSXxDODPLHQWR3RVWHULRUPHQWHVLJXHQORV
JROSHVODDV¿[LDODPXHUWHSRUTXHPDGXUDVHOGHJROODPLHQWR\ORVPDUWLOOD]RV
'XUDQWHORVHVWXGLRVTXHKLFLPRVKDFHFXDWURDxRVREVHUYDPRVTXHODVIRUPDVPiV
UHFXUUHQWHVHUDQORVLPSDFWRVGHEDODHOHVWUDQJXODPLHQWR\ORVJROSHV$FWXDOPHQWH
VHSUHVHQWDQPiVIRUPDV\DGHPiVVHKDQFRPELQDGRORTXHQRKDEtDVXFHGLGRFRQ
DQWHULRULGDG(VSRUHOORTXHVROLFLWDPRVODDOHUWDGHJpQHURHQ*XDQDMXDWR6HKDQ
SUHVHQWDGRFDVRVGHPXMHUHVTXHUHFLELHURQYHLQWLFLQFRFLQFXHQWDFLHQ\TXLQLHQ
WDVFLQFXHQWDSXxDODGDVDGHPiVGHFDVRVEUXWDOHVHQTXHIXHURQTXHPDGDVYLYDV
7DPSRFRKDEtDPRVREVHUYDGRHODVHVLQDWRGHQLxDVLQFOXVRGHGRV\FXDWURDxRV
TXHVRQODVYtFWLPDVGHPHQRUHGDG
/DVYtFWLPDVKDQVLGRHQFRQWUDGDVHQOXJDUHVFRPRVXGRPLFLOLRVXFHQWURGH
WUDEDMRODFDUUHWHUDFDPLQRVGHWHUUDFHUtDORWHVEDOGtRVFDPSRVGHFXOWLYRFXDU
WRVGHKRWHOFDQDOHVRDUUR\RVFDMXHODVGHDXWRVHOGRPLFLOLRGHOHVSRVRSUHVDVH
LQFOXVRGHQWURGHPDOHWDV7DPELpQHUDFRP~QTXHODVPDWDUDQ\ODVGHMDUDQHQVX
GRPLFLOLR(QODDFWXDOLGDGVHGDQHOOXMRGHHQWHUUDUODVWLUDUODVGHVFXDUWL]DUODV\
OOHYDUVHVXFXHUSR0HGHFtDXQSHULRGLVWD³2\H9HURHOKHFKRGHTXHVHHQFXHQ
WUHQFDGDYH]PiVPXMHUHVHQEROVDVGHEDVXUDRHQDJXDGHGUHQDMHTXLHUHGHFLU
HORGLRRVHD WRGDYtDGHVSXpVGHPXHUWDV HORGLRDVtHVDV JDQDVGHGHPRVWUDU
HVHRGLR´%LHQORVGDWRVHVWiQDKt/DPD\RUtDVLJXHQSUyIXJRV\ORV\DGHWHQL
GRVFXPSOHQVHQWHQFLDVGHRQFHDxRVHQSURPHGLRFXDQGRHOIHPLQLFLGLRWLHQHXQD
SHQDOLGDGGHWUHLQWD\FLQFRDxRV\DKRUDDVFHQGHUiDVHVHQWD3HURWDPSRFRQRV
VHUYLUiTXHORVKRPEUHVSDVHQVHVHQWDDxRVGHVXYLGDHQODFiUFHOSRUTXHQRVHUH
VXHOYHQDGD(OWHPDHVFyPRORYDPRVDSUHYHQLU
$SHVDUGHORDQWHULRUHQHVWRVFDWRUFHDxRVGHFRORFDUHOSUREOHPDGHOIHPL
QLFLGLRHQODDJHQGDS~EOLFDKHPRVORJUDGRODPRYLOL]DFLyQVRFLDO1LQJ~QHVWDGR
FXHQWDFRQODFUHFLHQWHLQGLJQDFLyQVRFLDOTXHKDVLGRSURSLFLDGDSRUODDOLDQ]DFRQ
ORVPHGLRVGHFRPXQLFDFLyQTXHFRQWRGR\VXGLYHUVLGDGVHKDQXQLGR\KDQSUH
VHQWDGRDODVRFLHGDGHOSUREOHPD(MHPSORGHORDQWHULRUVRQORVSHULyGLFRV6"''1"
\2ETXHKDQGRFXPHQWDGRORVIHPLQLFLGLRV\UHDOL]DGRHOUHFXHQWRGHFXiQWRVVH
KDQSUHVHQWDGR\FXiQWRVTXHGDQVLQHVFODUHFHUORFXDOKDJHQHUDGRXQDPDVDFUt
WLFD(OGHVHSWLHPEUHGHODxRSDVDGRQRVRWUDVMXQWRFRQYDULRVJUXSRVGHOD
VRFLHGDGFLYLOGHOHVWDGRLPSOHPHQWDPRVSRUSULPHUDYH]HOGtDGHODHUUDGLFDFLyQ
GHOIHPLQLFLGLRSRUORTXHUHDOL]DPRVXQDPRYLOL]DFLyQ\HVSHUDPRVDOFDQ]DUORTXH
DOFDQ]y(VSDxDHQGLH]DxRV/OHYDPRVXQLQWHQWRFRPHQ]DPRVFRQVHLVPXQLFL
SLRV\HVSHUDPRVTXHSRUORPHQRVODPLWDGGHOHVWDGRVHXQDDPDUFKDUHOPLVPR
GtD\DODPLVPDKRUDSDUDXQGtDDOFDQ]DUXQORJURFRPRHOGH(VSDxDGRQGHVH
 ,/ൺඉඈඅටඍංർൺൽൾඅൺඈආංඌංඬඇඉൺඋൺඉඋൾඏൾඇංඋൾඅൺඌൾඌංඇൺඍඈൽൾඅൺඌආඎඃൾඋൾඌ
KDUHGXFLGRHOIHPLQLFLGLR(Op[LWRHVSDxROUHVLGHHQTXHFDGDYH]TXHXQDPXMHU
HVDVHVLQDGDODJHQWHVDOHDODFDOOHDH[LJLUMXVWLFLD\HOJRELHUQRVHKDYLVWRREOL
JDGRDDFWXDUVHWUDWHGHTXLHQVHWUDWH
1RSRGHPRVQHJDUTXHQXHVWURVSURFXUDGRUHVGHMXVWLFLDPXHVWUDQYLROHQFLD
DQWLFRQVWLWXFLRQDO\PLVyJLQDSXHVWDPELpQWLHQHQVXVFUHHQFLDV\DFWLWXGHV(Q
QXHVWURHVWDGRH[LVWHXQDSROtWLFDSDUDQRDWHQGHUODYLROHQFLDFRQWUDODVPXMHUHV
HLQFOXVRODV PXMHUHVTXHGHQXQFLDQ DPHQD]DVGH PXHUWHVRQLJQRUDGDV \VyOR
VHOHVFDOPDFRQXQLQWHQWRGHFRQFLOLDFLyQ6HUHDOL]DODVXSXHVWDFRQFLOLDFLyQ\
WLHPSRGHVSXpVVRQDVHVLQDGDV&XDQGRQRVRWUDVSUHVHQWDPRVHQHODxRHVWD
VLWXDFLyQQRVGHFtDQ³D\SHURTXpDUJHQGHUDVTXpFXHQWRVTXpH[DJHUDFLyQ´
'HVDIRUWXQDGDPHQWHSDUDHOHVWDGRODJHQWHVDEHTXHH[LVWLPRVSRUTXHQRVKHPRV
PRYLOL]DGR\SRUTXHVRPRV©DUJHQGHUDVªFRPRHOORVGLFHQ/DV/LEUHVUHFLELPRV
DODVIDPLOLDVTXHKDQVXIULGRSRUHOIHPLQLFLGLR\ORVDSR\DPRVHQVXGHPDQGDGH
MXVWLFLD(VDVtTXHKHPRVKHFKRDFRSLRGHLQIRUPDFLyQUHVSHFWRDORVFDVRV3RU
HMHPSORWHQHPRVXQDFDUWDGHFRQFLOLDFLyQTXHUHFLELyXQDMRYHQTXHDFXGLyDOD
3URFXUDGXUtDDGHQXQFLDUTXHVXHVSRVRODDPHQD]DEDGHPDWDUODDHOOD\DVXKLMR
(QIHEUHURGHIXHFLWDGDSDUDODDXGLHQFLDGHFRQFLOLDFLyQ\ODMRYHQIXHDVH
VLQDGDHQPD\R(OHVSRVRLQFHQGLyHOFXDUWRGRQGHHVWDEDQHOOD\VXKLMRTXLHQ
VHVDOYyGHPLODJUR\DKRUDHVKXpUIDQR(QWXYLPRVFRQRFLPLHQWRGHTXH
HOGHODVVHWHQWD\WUHVPXMHUHVDVHVLQDGDVKDEtDQLQWHUSXHVWRSRUORPHQRV
XQDGHQXQFLD\HOJRELHUQRHVWDWDOQRODVSURWHJLyQLOHVEULQGyDOWHUQDWLYDVSDUD
VDOLUGHVXVLWXDFLyQ+R\VDEHPRVTXHODPXMHUPiVSHUVLVWHQWHLQWHUSXVRVLHWH
GHQXQFLDV\D~QDVtODPDWDURQ
3DUD¿QDOL]DUFRPSDUWLUpTXHQRVRWUDVLQLFLDPRVFRPRWRGDVODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHV
GHOSDtVSRUHMHPSORODVGH&LXGDG-XiUH]/DVFRPSDxHUDVHPSH]DURQDFRQWDU
PXHUWHV\DUHYLVDUOD QRWDURMDGHORVSHULyGLFRV TXHUHJLVWUDEDHOFDVRGH RWUD
PXMHUDVHVLQDGDSRULQ¿HORSRUVHUWUDEDMDGRUDVH[XDO$GHPiVODQRWDVHxDODED
FRPSODFHQFLD\MX]JDEDTXHODPXMHUKDEtDVLGRDVHVLQDGDSRU³DQGDUGHQRFKH´
R³SRUSODWLFDUFRQRWURVHxRUTXHQRHUDVXHVSRVR´(QWUH\QRVGH
GLFDPRVDLPSDUWLUWDOOHUHVGHJpQHURDORVUHSUHVHQWDQWHVGHODSUHQVDHVFULWDHQ
*XDQDMXDWRGRQGHOHVSHGLPRVTXHGHMDUDQGHYDOLGDUODYLROHQFLDDWUDYpVGHVXV
WLWXODUHVHQFX\DPRGL¿FDFLyQKHPRVLQÀXLGR$FWXDOPHQWHORVPHGLRVUHJLVWUDQ
ORVIHPLQLFLGLRVHQODVVHFFLRQHVGH3ROtWLFDRGH-XVWLFLD\QRHQODQRWDURMD+H
PRVWUDEDMDGRHQHGXFDUDODJHQWH\DORVPHGLRVSDUDTXHQRFRQWULEX\HUDQPiV
DODJUDYDPLHQWRGHOSUREOHPD\VtGLHUDQDFRQRFHUHOSUREOHPDDQWHODVRFLHGDG
SDUDTXHpVWDVHLQGLJQDVH
1RVRWUDVFRPHQ]DPRVFRQWDQGRDODVYtFWLPDV\WHUPLQDPRVGRFXPHQWDQGR
HOIHQyPHQRSRUTXHQRVWXYLPRVTXHLQYROXFUDUHQWRGRORTXHHVWDEDSDVDQGR
DOUHGHGRU<KR\SRGHPRVGHFLUTXHHVWDPRVFHUUDQGRHOFtUFXORGHQXHVWUDLQ
YHVWLJDFLyQGRQGHQXHVWURVLQVXPRVKDQVLGRODVQRWDVSHULRGtVWLFDVORVGDWRV
R¿FLDOHV\ORVWHVWLPRQLRVGHODVYtFWLPDV,QFOXVRKHPRVOOHJDGRDODQiOLVLVGH
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,/ൺඉඈඅටඍංർൺൽൾඅൺඈආංඌංඬඇඉൺඋൺඉඋൾඏൾඇංඋൾඅൺඌൾඌංඇൺඍඈൽൾඅൺඌආඎඃൾඋൾඌ
ORVH[SHGLHQWHV\DODH[LJHQFLDGHMXVWLFLD$KRUDHVWDPRVHQHVHFDPLQR\DGH
PiVEXVFDPRVODUHSDUDFLyQGHOGDxRSDUDODVYtFWLPDV\VXVIDPLOLDVSDUDTXH
HOIHQyPHQRQRVHUHSLWD(VSRUHOORTXHH[LJLPRVODGHFODUDFLyQGHDOHUWDGHJp
QHURHQ*XDQDMXDWR
/DDOWHUQDWLYDTXHQXHVWUDVOH\HV SRGUtDQEULQGDUQRVHVDFWLYDU WRGRVORVUH
FXUVRVKXPDQRV\PDWHULDOHVHQ*XDQDMXDWRSDUDHPSH]DUDUHVROYHUHOSUREOHPD
1XHVWURJRELHUQRKDGLIXQGLGR\YHQGLGRHVWRVPHFDQLVPRVHQWRGDVODVUHXQLR
QHVLQWHUQDFLRQDOHVSDUWLFXODUPHQWHOD DOHUWDGHJpQHUR 6LQHPEDUJRQRVHKD
DFWLYDGR\QDGLHVHKDKHFKRUHVSRQVDEOHSRUORTXHVyORVHKDVDWLUL]DGR3DUD
HPSH]DUWHQGUtDTXHDFWLYDUVHODDOHUWDGHJpQHURHQHOHVWDGRGH0p[LFRGRQGH
HOSUREOHPDHVVHULRSRUTXHODVYtFWLPDVVHDWULEX\HQDOJRELHUQRGH3HxD1LHWR
ORFXDOQRVPXHVWUDTXHDGHPiVHOSUREOHPDHVSROtWLFR3DUDTXHODDOHUWDVHDF
WLYHHQ*XDQDMXDWRWHQGUtDTXHDFWLYDUVHSULPHURHQHOHVWDGRGH0p[LFR\VHUtD
GLItFLOTXHVHOOHYDVHDFDERFXDQGRHO3UHVLGHQWHHVWiGHSRUPHGLR(QWRQFHVHO
SUREOHPDHVVHULR
3DUDODVF~SXODVGHOSRGHUHOSUREOHPDGHODVPXMHUHVQRHVLPSRUWDQWHSRUTXH
H[LVWHQRWURVIDFWRUHVHQMXHJR3RUHOORHVQHFHVDULRFRQVWUXLUFLXGDGDQtD\H[LJLU
DOHVWDGRGH0p[LFRTXHFXPSODFRQVXUHVSRQVDELOLGDGSRUTXHSDUDHVRWLHQHOH
\HVPDQGDWROHJDO\UHFXUVRVS~EOLFRV
6LELHQ HO JREHUQDGRUQRV GLMR D WUDYpVGH ORV PHGLRVTXH DO]DUi OD YR]PL
UHVSXHVWDKDVLGRTXHQRVRPRVLJXDOHVSRUTXH\RVR\XQDFLXGDGDQDFRP~Q\FR
UULHQWHTXHWLHQHHOGHUHFKRDGLIXQGLUORTXHVDEH\pOHVXQJREHUQDGRUSRUORTXH
SRVHHPDQGDWRFRQVWLWXFLRQDOUHFXUVRVS~EOLFRV\UHVSRQVDELOLGDGVREUHHOWHPD
OHJXVWHRQR1RLPSRUWDTXHVHDPLVyJLQRRQR3RUFLHUWRVtORHVSRUTXHVLHP
SUHFRPLHQ]D\WHUPLQDORVHYHQWRVS~EOLFRVUHODFLRQDGRVFRQODVPXMHUHVFRQOD
IUDVH³DODVPXMHUHVQRVHOHVWRFDQLFRQHOSpWDORGHXQDURVD´1DGLHOHKDKHFKR
YHUTXHHVWDIUDVHHVSURIXQGDPHQWHPDFKLVWDPLVyJLQD\VH[LVWDQLOHKDQGLFKR
TXHODRPLWD(OJREHUQDGRUGHEHHPSH]DUSRUUHVROYHUXQSUREOHPDTXHOHFRUUHV
SRQGHKHFKRTXHQLpOQLORVGHPiVJREHUQDQWHVKDQHQWHQGLGR1ROHVHVWDPRV
GLFLHQGRTXHHOORVPDWDURQDODVPXMHUHVVLQRTXHOHVWRFDHGXFDU\VDQFLRQDUD
ORVKRPEUHVYLROHQWRV
7DPELpQVHWLHQHTXHDFWXDUVREUHHOVLVWHPDHGXFDWLYRTXHFXHQWDFRQHOHMHPSOR
GHRWURVSDtVHVSRUTXHVLQRVHVDQFLRQDDORVKRPEUHVTXHHMHUFHQYLROHQFLDFRQWUD
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