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Cultivated Mushrooms: Preservation and Processing



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Cultivated Mushrooms:
Preservation and Processing
Panagiota A. Diamantopoulou and Philippoussis N. Antonios
22.1 Introduction
Mushroom cultivation is a rather complicated process that produces a highly nutritious food of excellent
taste from waste materials, contributing to the nutrition and economic welfare of the people. Fresh and
preserved fruit bodies of about 200 mushroom species are consumed throughout the world as a delicacy
particularly for their specic aroma, texture, and taste. According to the data of FAOSTAT (2014), total
world production of mushrooms (including trufes) was nearly 8 million metric tons in 2012, with China
being by far the leading producer (5.2 million tons). Among over 20 cultivated species, Agaricus bisporus
22.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 495
22.2 Mushroom Composition and Nutritional Aspects ....................................................................... 496
22.3 Health Benets of Mushrooms .................................................................................................... 496
22.4 Cultivation and Harvesting Methods Affecting Productivity, Quality, and Shelf-Life ............... 497
22.4.1 Agaricus bisporus ............................................................................................................ 497
22.4.2 Pleurotus spp. .................................................................................................................. 498
22.4.3 Lentinula edodes .............................................................................................................500
22.5 Postharvest Handling of Mushrooms ........................................................................................... 502
22.5.1 Mushroom Grading and Quality ..................................................................................... 502
22.5.2 Postharvest Physiology and Storage ................................................................................ 502
22.6 Processing Methods of Mushrooms ............................................................................................. 504
22.6.1 Processing for Short-Term Preservation .......................................................................... 504 Cooling: Refrigeration ..................................................................................... 504 Minimal Processing ......................................................................................... 506 Effect of Packaging on Mushroom Shelf-Life ..................................................510
22.6.2 Processing for Long-Term Preservation ...........................................................................510 Freezing.............................................................................................................510 Canning .............................................................................................................511 Drying ...............................................................................................................511
22.7 Value–Added Mushroom Products and By-Products ...................................................................512
22.7.1 Food, Beverage, and Beauty Mushroom Products ...........................................................512 Food Products and Food Additives ...................................................................514 Beverages and Beauty Products ........................................................................514
22.7.2 Dietary Supplements: Nutraceutical Products .................................................................515
22.7.3 Mushroom Industry Spent By-Products ...........................................................................516
22.8 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................................517
References ...............................................................................................................................................517
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496 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
(button mushroom, white mushroom, brown mushroom, or portobello) dominates worldwide, followed
by Lentinula edodes (shiitake) and Pleurotus spp. (particularly Pleurotus ostreatus, oyster mushroom).
In this chapter, dealing with cultivated mushrooms’ preservation and processing, their nutritional value
and health-promoting effects are initially presented as well as the cultivation and harvesting methods
affecting crop productivity, quality, and self-life. The next two sections focus on mushrooms postharvest
physiology and handling, storage, and processing methods for short- and long-term preservation. Finally,
different added-value mushroom-derived products as well as mushroom industry waste by-products,
exhibiting exploitation potentials, are presented.
22.2 Mushroom Composition and Nutritional Aspects
Mushrooms are a healthy food that is low in calories but rich in protein, dietary ber, vitamins, and
minerals (Crisan and Sands 1978; Bano etal. 1988; Barros etal. 2008). Apart from valued compounds
affecting taste, mushrooms are nutritionally desirable because of their low energy value, ber content,
and high antioxidant capacity (Kalač 2013). They furnish good quality proteins, but the crude protein
content of cultivated mushrooms varies greatly. According to data of Mattila etal. (2002) for A. bisporus,
P. ostreatus, and L. edodes the net protein content ranges from 1.6 to 2.1 g/100 g, while the respective
range mentioned by Reis etal. (2012) is 0.8–1.2 g/100 g. Mushroom proteins are relatively rich in the
amino acids glutamic acid (12.6%–24.0%), aspartic acid (9.10%–12.1%), and arginine (3.70%–13.9%)
but decient in sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine (Mattila etal. 2002;
Cheung 2008). The moisture content of mushrooms ranges from 85% to 95% of their fresh weight and
it is affected by the time of cropping, watering conditions as well as temperature and relative humidity
during cultivation and postharvest period (Cheung 2008). The total carbohydrate content of mushrooms
(35%–70%, including digestible and nondigestible carbohydrates), varies with species (Cheung 2010). In
general, mushroom fruit bodies are a good source of dietary ber, comprising mainly water-insoluble ber
in the form of chitin (polymer of N-acetyl-glucosamine) and nonstarch polysaccharides like β-glucans
(Sadler 2003). The water-soluble dietary ber is less than 10%, with glucose, mannitol, and glycogen
being the predominant digestible carbohydrates (Cheung 2010). The fat contain is generally low (usually
<10% dw), especially in some species like L. edodes and P. ostreatus (~2%–3%; Reguła and Siwulski
2007). Cultivated mushrooms are mainly a source of unsaturated fatty acids (FAs), accounting ~75%
(w/w) of the total FAs (André etal. 2010; Reis etal. 2012). Among them, according to Diamantopoulou
etal. (2012a) linoleic acid (Δ9,12C18:2) is the predominant, reaching ~74%–82% in L. edodes, ~73% in
P. ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum, 70% in Auricularia auricula but less than 50% in Volvariella
volvacea and Morchella esculenta which contain signicant quantities of oleic acid Δ9C18:1. Palmitic
acid is the main saturated fatty acid (Diamantopoulou etal. 2012b, 2014). Mushrooms are fairly good
source of vitamins, particularly thiamine, riboavin, niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid. Folic acid and
vitamin B12 which are absent in most vegetables are present in the mushrooms which also supply a range
of valuable minerals, containing macroelements such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and
phosphorus and microelements such as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc (Cheung 2008). However, the
ability of some species to accumulate detrimental elements including radioisotopes has to be taken into
consideration (Kalač 2013).
22.3 Health Benefits of Mushrooms
In recent years, increased interest in human health, nutrition, and disease prevention has enlarged
consumer demand for functional foods. In fact, many mushrooms have become attractive as much
research focused on their health promoting effects attributed to their bioactive compounds that present
immunomodulating, antitumor, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, antibacterial, antiviral,
antihypertensive, antihyperholesterolemia, detoxication, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic activities,
thoroughly reviewed by many (Wasser and Weis 1999; Wasser 2002; Sadler 2003; Lindequist etal. 2005;
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497Cultivated Mushrooms
Cheung 2008; Patel and Goyal 2012; Rathee etal. 2012). The market value of dietary supplements from
mushrooms is quickly growing and estimated over U.S. $15 billion (Wasser 2012).
Some mushrooms, in addition to nutritional importance, have gained special consideration due to
their various medicinal values, as they contain compounds that have been classied as Host Defense
Potentiators (HDP) and can have immune system enhancement properties. These compounds include
polysaccharides (β-glucans), polysaccharide-peptides, nucleosides, triterpenoids, complex starches, and
other metabolites (Yassin etal. 2003). For example, L. edodes has been reported to possess antitumor,
antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, and antibacterial activities (Israilides etal. 2008, Wasser 2010a;
Rahman and Choudhury 2012). G. lucidum has been proved to have antimicrobial and anti-HIV effects,
while the β-glucan polysaccharide and the ganoderic acid of this mushroom have shown antitumorogenic
effects (Tang etal. 2006; Ramberg etal. 2010; Wasser 2010b). Mushrooms of Pleurotus species were
reported to have hypocholesterolemic, anti-inammatory, and immunostimulatory activities (Alam etal.
2009, 2011; Patel etal. 2012). The potential therapeutic implications of mushrooms are enormous, but
detailed mechanisms of the various health benets of mushrooms to humans still require intensive inves-
tigation. Isolation of their active ingredients, with mechanism-based potential therapeutic value, remains
a challenge (Rathee etal. 2012).
22.4 Cultivation and Harvesting Methods Affecting
Productivity, Quality, and Shelf-Life
Mushroom cultivation technology involves several different phases (i.e., development of spawn, prepa-
ration of substrate, spawn running, and mushroom development) that are well known and extensively
described (Van Griensven 1988; Chang and Miles 2004; Philippoussis 2009). Although for achieving
consistent high culture performance the very best substrate ingredients and the high yielding strains
have to been chosen (Ahlawat 2011; Philippoussis and Diamantopoulou 2012), this section deals with the
cultivation process after lling the room with the inoculated substrate, highlighting signicant cultiva-
tion parameters involved in the preharvesting and harvesting stages and contributing to high yield and
production of quality mushrooms.
In general, the aim of the grower is to manage good mushroom productivity and quality with per-
fect shelf-life properties. However, this is not an easy task as there are many factors, depending on the
cultivated species of mushrooms that inuence the productivity and the quality of the nal product.
Following inoculation, the mycelium, grows through the substrate, biodegrades its ingredients and sup-
ports the formation of fruiting bodies. Mycelial growth and fruiting phases of mushrooms life cycle
are regulated by temperature, gaseous environment, nutrient status, water activity, and in certain cases
by light, for example, Pleurotus spp. and L. edodes have an obligate requirement for light for fruiting
induction and Agaricus spp. have no light requirement (Stamets 2000; Chang and Miles 2004; Zadrazil
etal. 2004). The level of environment and cultural control used is determined by the type of production
technology. Depending on the fate of the harvested product as fresh or preserved material, the fruit bod-
ies are harvested at different developmental stages according to the grades used in marketing, either by
hand or mechanically and processed accordingly (Singh etal. 2011).
22.4.1 Agaricus bisporus
This most intensively cultivated mushroom, presents high-technology cultivation systems and grow-
ing particularities as the development of fruit bodies requires a nonnutritional layer of casing soil on
top of the nutritious compost (Straatsma etal. 2013). The mushroom mycelium grows into the casing
layer in similar conditions to those of compost colonization, and when it reaches the upper surface of
the casing layer the fruiting process starts through environmental manipulation comprising reduction
of the temperature and the concentration of carbon dioxide through aeration to trigger fructication
and to favor the development of mushrooms (Van Griensven 1988; Sánchez 2004; Ahlawat 2011). The
rst pin initials begin to appear about 2 weeks after casing. From one layer of compost, two to three
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498 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
crops (called ushes) are harvested. In commercial practice, mushrooms are harvested before the
stage of maturation and death and ushes develop almost at weekly intervals (Van Griensven 1988;
Moore and Chiu 2001; Straatsma etal. 2013).
Yields are inuenced by compost depth and quality, length of cropping and grade of mushrooms
picked, spawn productivity, moisture and climatic conditions, and disease factors. It is well known that
the product quality during storage is mainly dependent on the at-harvest quality attributes, which can be
positively affected mainly by cultivation (Philippoussis etal. 2001a; Straatsma etal. 2013). Table 22.1
summarizes the major techniques applied in the cultivation process of A. bisporus for good productivity
of the crop as well as quality and self-life of mushrooms.
Regarding preharvesting processes, total crop yield is rst of all determined by the quality and amount
of compost lled in the cultivation area and by the texture and the humidity of the casing layer. On the
other hand, mushroom numbers and their distribution over the bed are strongly modulated by the airing
(blow down), for example, if airing is delayed, or if it is carried out with a slowly decreasing temperature,
relatively much mycelium becomes visible at the surface of the casing and relatively few fruit bodies
develop. Moreover, an increasing evaporation during pinheading is very important, while an even spread
of fruits is good for the quality. Moreover, a prerequisite for good crop is maintaining the proper hygiene
inside the growing room, along with uniformity of the temperature, RH, and the CO2 concentration (Van
Griensven 1988; Straatsma etal. 2013).
As far as harvesting period is concerned, it commences at the rst sign of buttons, often on a 7–10
day cycle and usually lasts for 1–1.5months. Mushrooms may be picked at the button (small unopened
mushrooms), cup (the cap has begun to open), or at (fully expanded caps exposing all of the gills) stage
depending on market requirements. Timing is important as mushrooms grow quickly, doubling their size
within 24h. The fruiting bodies are harvested by hand with a twisting motion, the stems are trimmed
and the mushrooms are usually graded straight into boxes for transport and sale (Philippoussis et al.
2001a; Ahlawat 2011). Whiteness and cleanliness of fresh mushrooms are the principal factors determin-
ing quality. Consumers prefer to purchase mushrooms that are bright white, free of casing material, and
free of brown spots (blotches). The greatest problems with mushroom quality in the rst ush occur on
the rst picking day (grey color and water blotches) and the last picking day (veils, long stalks, and grey
discoloration particularly at the edge of the cap). In the second ush most problems occur on the nal
picking day (ripening) and with the third ush most problems relate to mushroom color. Various irriga-
tion treatments, involving the addition of hydrogen peroxide and calcium chloride, applied throughout
the growth of a mushroom crop, have shown to reduce bacterial populations and to improve the initial
quality and postharvest shelf-life of mushrooms (Kukura etal. 1998; Diamantopoulou and Philippoussis
2001; Chikthimmah etal. 2005). Moreover, the picking management (Table 22.1) determines the qual-
ity and production of mushrooms from the very moment that harvesting starts (Van Griensven 1988;
Straatsma etal. 2013). The decision whether a mushroom has reached the required quality or not and
which mushrooms will be left on the beds until the following picking is very crucial, while the graze
picking system (several times a day) is modulator for better retail quality, color and shelf-life, longer
ush, and higher productivity.
22.4.2 Pleurotus spp.
The production of Pleurotus species (oyster mushrooms like P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. pulmonarius,
P. eryngii, P. cornucopiae, P. tuber-regium, P. citrinopileatus, and P. abellatus) is a sharp contrast with
the technology used for Agaricus production. Both pasteurized and sterilized substrate of a wide range of
residues can be used, no casing is required, while fruiting is light dependent (Philippoussis etal. 2001b;
Royse 2004). The spawned substrate is lled into perforated polyethylene—PE blocks (bags and bottles
are also used) and at the end of the spawn run period, fructication of P. ostreatus is triggered by lower-
ing the air temperature and CO2 levels, while light essential for pinning (8–12h cycle with light intensity
150–250 lux) is provided. The mushrooms begin to form around the edges of block perforations (Royse
2003; Sánchez 2010).
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499Cultivated Mushrooms
TABLE 22.1
Preharvest and Harvesting Methods and Techniques Used in Agaricus spp. Cultivation to Promote
Mushroom Productivity and Quality
and Methods Description of the Techniques and Target Results
Compost Compost quality and well-lling of beds (e.g., edges of the bed)
The lling weight is determinant for both the quality and quantity of the second
ush. Filling less than 90kg of compost/m2 usually results in quick lose of activity
and in lighter mushrooms of the second ush that mature too quickly
A rougher textured (good moisture retention properties) and wetter casing soil gives
better mycelium quality and good quality of the later ushes mushrooms
A good casing layer structure is vital for good CO2 and heat exchange and to spread
the mycelium throughout the entire layer for uniform recovery growth
More compacted casing soil creates less gas exchange and less but heavier fruit
Rufing Serves to increase mycelium quantity in the casing soil. This results to heavier
mushrooms and a better spread of the ush. Better planning for the rst day of
picking, improved uniformity over the beds, and higher production are achieved.
Lightly rufed casing soil produces less mycelium with less pinheads and greater
percentage of large mushrooms (cap diameter >45–50mm)
Deep rufing (up to 1cm above the compost) has positive effects on an improved
heat, moisture, and CO2 exchange, gives better quality mushrooms (less susceptible
to internal moisture), and also leads to higher productivity
room climate
Control of the evaporation between spraying actions has better watering results and
enhances mushroom yield (mushroom number and crop timing) and quality (by
minimizing mushroom discoloration and internal moisture)
Determining the moment of pin formation, the number of pinheads, the amount, and
size of mushrooms (by air temperature and CO2) is crucial for the harvest
Thinning of
The formation of clusters of mushrooms, between which a too high CO2 content is
created (e.g., on the third day of picking) results in softer caps and wet stalks that
elongate fast. Space must be crated between the mushrooms for air circulation
The rst picking day thinning has to be done by removing all mushrooms with a
diameter of 25–35mm in order to give the remaining fruits space to develop into
bigger and heavier mushrooms during the rest of the harvesting period, thus
enhancing also quality and shelf-life. Thinning prevents the compost temperature
rising too quickly and the CO2-content between the clusters becoming too high
The mushrooms are harvested up to the max diameter (heavier mushrooms) and by
picking several times a day the yield (~2–3kg/m2) and quality (~5%) is increased
Provide the unpicked mushrooms with space and nutrition by higher picking
frequency. The result is higher productivity, better quality (up to 85%) and color, and
longer shelf-life
Moisture management during the rst ush is essential for good quality mycelium
that transports the nutrients required, has positive effect on the second ush quality
Watering Watering on the mushrooms is necessary to maintain quality, but less spraying has as
result average better quality, with less discoloration and better keepability
Irrigation treatments involving the addition of calcium salts, have shown to improve
the initial quality and postharvest shelf-life of mushrooms
Hygiene Cleaning beds (broken stems, stumps, fallen mushrooms, etc.) after harvesting
Sources: Van Griensven, L.J.L.D., The Cultivation of Mushrooms, Darlington Mushroom Laboratories Ltd., Rustington,
U.K., p. 515, 1988; Chang, S.T. and Miles, P.G., in: Chang, S.T. and Miles, P.G. (eds.), Mushrooms: Cultivation,
Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect and Environmental Impact, 2nd edn., CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL,
p.453, 2004; Ahlawat, O.P., Crop management of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), in: Singh, M.,
Vijay, Β., Kamal, S., and Wakchaure, G. (eds.), Mushrooms: Cultivation, Marketing and Consumption,
Directorate of Mushroom Research (ICAR), Solan, India, pp. 85–96, 2011; Straatsma, G. etal., Fungal Biol.,
117, 697, 2013.
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500 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
The right shape for picking can be judged by the shape and size of the fruit body. The fruit bodies
should be harvested before the mushrooms show slightly curled edges and before spore release, by
twisting so that the stubs are not left on the block holes. It is advisable to pick all the mushrooms
at one time from a block and the next flush will appear at one time (Chang and Miles 2004). There
are numerous studies on different Pleurotus species cultivation that evaluate the use of different
strains, types of spawn, methods of cultivation, and different lignocellulosic substrates for their
crop productivity (Philippoussis etal. 2001b; Royse 2002; Mandeel etal. 2005; Kirbag and Akyuz
2008; Onuoha etal. 2009; Philippoussis 2009; Sánchez 2009; Fanadzo et al. 2010). An average
biological efficiency (kg of fresh mushrooms per 100kg of dry substrate) can range from 80% to
120% for P. ostreatus and 90% to 150% for P. pulmonarius (Philippoussis and Diamantopoulou
2011). However, the crop is prone to fungal diseases (like green mold, Trichoderma spp.), bacterial
spots (like brown blotch, Pseudomonas spp.), and is suspect to attacks from flies (sciarid and cecid)
and mites (Cha 2004). General control measures which are needed include: good pasteurization of
the substrate (spraying with fungicide like prochloraz–manganese complex before pasteurization),
use of healthy spawn, proper management of temperature and humidity during growing period,
sanitation and hygiene, and regular application of chlorinated water containing 100–150 ppm of
freely available chlorine at an interval of 3–5days (Cha 2004). The spore load generated within the
growing room is another disadvantage of the crop, as they can become a potential health hazard to
workers allergic to the spores. Sporeless strains are highly sought after by oyster mushroom grow-
ers (Sánchez 2010).
22.4.3 Lentinula edodes
The current trend of Lentinula growing is in plastic bags (synthetic logs) containing sawdust-based
or other lignocellulosic substrates supplemented with nitrogen sources. This method decreases the
production time and increases productivity (Philippoussis et al. 2003, 2007; Royse 2004; Chen
2005). Actually, high average biological efciencies (BE) are achieved with sunower seed hulls
(BE: 107.5%) (Curvetto et al. 2005), sugarcane bagasse (BE: 87.4%) (Salmones et al. 1999), and
corn cobs (BE: 80.6%) (Philippoussis and Diamantopoulou 2011). More or less similar results (BE
80%) have been obtained with hard-wood residues and cereal straws (mainly barley and wheat)
(Philippoussis 2009).
The management of parameters, in different stages of growth and fruiting of L. edodes, for good pro-
ductivity and quality of mushrooms is presented in Table 22.2.
Harvesting is performed when the edge of the mushroom cap is still in-rolled, or when the mush-
room cap is only partly extended (60%–70%). In general, Lentinula quality is determined by shape
(rounded with downward in-rolled edge before the cap is fully extended and central stalk), texture
(thick and tight context), size, color, avor, and aroma (Chen 2005). Freshness and freedom from
pests and impurities are also critical factors for high-quality mushrooms (Chen 2001). Actually,
during bag cultivation of shiitake many pests (like ies and mites) and diseases (like green mold,
Trichoderma spp.) can occur as they thrive in warm and humid conditions. If unnoticed, these pests
often lower productivity and quality and can sometimes cause total crop failure. The use of pesticide
chemicals, however, is not advisable, as these materials can affect the mycelial growth and reduce the
quality of the shiitake. As a result, for mushroom growers, energetic precautionary measures should
be taken to avoid contamination. According to Fan etal. (2005), some good sanitation and hygienic
practices for successful pest and disease management are as follows: selection of fresh, pathogen and
pest-free substrates and supplements, sterilization of substrates, clean and disinfected inoculation
room and box as well as hands during spawning, keeping the incubation room clean and well-aerated,
frequent and carefully inspection of the bags and elimination of contaminated bags immediately,
sterilization of the contaminated bags before their disposal, removal of fruit bodies stumps which
remain after harvest and might attract pests, disinfection of the spent substrate, and growing houses
on a regular basis.
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501Cultivated Mushrooms
TABLE 22.2
Management of Parameters and Cultivation Procedure in Different Stages of Growth and Fruiting of Lentinula edodes Grown in Bags
Stages of
(%) CO2 (ppm) Light (lux) Duration Cultivation Procedures and Remarks
and mycelium
(spawn-run 1)
21–27 90–100 1,500–10,000 No or short
30–45days Substrate type and its nutrients as well as texture-porosity (aeration) affect
incubation/preharvest period and yielda,b,c
Spawn-run: strain-dependant duration, there are cold and warm temperature strainsa,c,d
Toward the later stages of the spawn run 1, a thick mycelial coat forms on the outer
surface of the colonized substrate blocka,b,d
(bumping and
spawn-run 2)
21–27 70–90 >1,500 No or short
45–60days Clumps of mycelia (bumps) and early primordia are produceda,d
Great numbers of bumps (prone to abortion) must be eliminated by aeration (cutting
slits on bags)
Bag removal for browning of the mycelial coat and bark formationa,b,d
10–21 90–100
<1,000 500–2000
5–7days Fruiting induction by aeration and cold-shock through: water soaking (4–24h at
12°C)a,b,e, or temp. reduction to 15°Ca,b,c,d
Temperature actuationa,d,e
Fruit body
16–18 98–100 <1,000 500–2000
5–7days Relative humidity (RH) uctuation during fruit body developmente
RH is lowered to 60% for 6–12h before crop harvesting for better shelf-life of
Harvest of rst
16–18 60–70 <1,000 500–2000
5–10days Harvest when the edge of the mushroom cap is still in-rolled, or when it is only
partly extendedd
Trimming the end of the stalk and cutting off residual stalk stubs from the
18–21 50–60 >1,500 Short
15days Lower the humidity to 30%–50% RH at 21°C during rest-periode
For the second ush: soaking the substrate block for up to 12h and incubation for
1week at higher temperaturesb,c,d,f
Harvest of
second ush
16–18 60–70 <1,000 500–2000
5–10days After cooling to 16°C for 1 week a second ush will be harvestedc,d,f
a Chen (2001).
b Royse (2004).
c Philippoussis etal. (2003).
d Chen (2005).
e Stamets (2000).
f Philippoussis etal. (2007).
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502 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
22.5 Postharvest Handling of Mushrooms
The white mushroom (A. bisporus, A. bitorquis, etc.) is still nowadays the most cultivated mushroom
worldwide (Giri and Prasad 2013). It seems therefore reasonable that most aspects and data concerning
mushrooms’ postharvest physiology, processing, and storage focus on this mushroom species. However,
other mushrooms such as the oyster (P. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius, etc.), shiitake (L. edodes), straw (V.
volvacea), and ear mushroom (Auricularia spp.), widely cultivated and processed, are also referred in
the following text.
22.5.1 Mushroom Grading and Quality
Quality characteristics of mushrooms include many parameters such as color, size, rmness, maturity
stage, clearness, blemish-free, avor, nutritional value, and safety and are affected by preharvest treat-
ments (see Section 22.4) as much as postharvest processing and storage conditions (Burton etal. 1989).
Actually, as mushrooms continue to develop during storage, their quality seems to be determined by the
stage of sporophores’ maturity at harvest (Hammond and Nichols 1975). This stage can differ between
species as for proper harvesting; mushrooms should be collected while their pilei are still closed and
part of the veil is intact (e.g., Agaricus spp.), their edges are uncurled and their gills well formed (e.g.,
Pleurotus spp.), before the pileus is fully expanded and with the edges rolled-in (e.g., Lentinula spp.)
or before volva breaks/immediately after rupture (e.g., Volvariella spp.). Nevertheless, variability as
expressed by mushroom heterogeneity resulting from the different batches of mushrooms, harvested at
different maturity stages, is one of the main problems in mushroom technology related with important
storage losses (Aguirre etal. 2008). Throughout storage, mushroom quality is usually assessed by pileus
color, transpiration and respiration rate, weight loss, and disease incidence (Burton etal. 1987b; Burton
1989), whereas consumers’ acceptability is mainly based on the external characteristics of the product
and to a less extent its taste, rendering quality an individual perception (Eastwood and Burton 2002).
Mushrooms during or after picking are usually sorted into several grades, according to standards set
basically by the market that reect their quality and determine their price. General criteria for mush-
rooms grading into quality categories are size, color, maturity, and range of damage, but they can differ
in each country as they are inuenced by the rate of local market development. For example, a reectance
(L-value) greater than 86 is considered prerequisite of whole white acceptance from the whiteness point
of view (Gormley 1975). Nevertheless, good agricultural practices for mushroom cultivation, handling,
processing, and marketing, for example, those described in AMI (2009) or by the application of HACCP
system (Pardo etal. 2013), are essential for attaining premium quality. There is no world standard for
grading fresh, processed, or canned mushrooms, although there are EU standards or U.S. standards for
Grades of Mushrooms (i.e., CODEX STAN 39 1981; CODEX STAN 297 2009) that apply to whole or
sliced fresh, dried, or canned edible mushroom species. Finally, as supermarkets increasingly compete
with each other on the grounds of food safety and quality, they have developed their own company-
specic standards or supplier criteria.” For example, in the United Kingdom “Tesco” has developed
“Tescos Nature Choice” a quality assurance scheme for its own brand; similarly in France “Casino” has
developed “Terre et Saveur” and Carrefour “Filiere Qualite” (Bord Glas 2002).
22.5.2 Postharvest Physiology and Storage
Mushrooms represent one of the most perishable commodities, being so delicate by nature that they need
special postharvest treatment. As a number of physiological processes take place in freshly cut mush-
rooms and during storage (pileus and veil opening, stipe elongation, browning, etc.) resulting in matura-
tion and senesce, their commercial and nutritional value can be easily decreased. The rate of which these
processes occur in mushrooms during storage is affected by factors such as strain resistance and physi-
ological behavior, room temperature and relative humidity, and the presence of microorganisms (Burton
and Noble 1993; Varoquaux etal. 1999; Brennan etal. 2000; Mahajan etal. 2008a).
The most important characteristic of mushroom metabolism is the high respiration rate because of
which, a constant giving off water vapor is exiting from mushroom surface resulting in constant weight
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503Cultivated Mushrooms
loss (Nichols 1985; Mahajan etal. 2008a,b). In products with such high water content (>85%) and with
no conventional cuticle as mushrooms, evaporation and consequently loss of weight usually have detri-
mental effect on quality and shelf-life; therefore, mushroom respiration rate is an index of their shelf-life.
Weight loss is greater in sliced mushrooms or whole with open veils/bruised, particular when tempera-
ture increases, humidity of the storage room is low, and partial pressure of oxygen is high. The optimum
temperature of mushroom respiration activity after harvesting is 15°C–20°C with CO2 production rate
280 mg CO2/kg/h at 18°C, whereas at 0°C only 28–44 mg CO2/kg/h are produced (Hammond and
Nichols 1975; Nichols 1985). Burton and Noble (1993) recorded that Agaricus mushrooms during stor-
age in open punnets lost 4% per day of their weight at 5°C (73% RH) and 6% (90% RH) per day at 18°C.
Nevertheless, a weight loss of 2% during storage is generally accepted. The effect of respiration activity
of mushrooms on their postharvest physiology and storage is given in Table 22.3.
Spoilage of mushrooms during storage, associated with the presence of microorganisms (mainly bac-
teria and fungi) as well as enzymes, is another aspect of their physiology strongly affecting their shelf-
life (Gormley 1975; Beelman etal. 1989). Bacteria may activate (and increase) even in cold-storage
conditions and in the high-moisture mushroom surface along with the enzymatic action occurred on
mushroom tissues can cause rapid deterioration of mushrooms when heated, such as tissue browning,
presence of brown or yellowish spots and slime in pileus or stipe (e.g., Pseudomonas sp.), and loss of
rmness. Enzymatic browning in many foods is caused by the polyphenol oxidase group of enzymes,
in which tyrosinase is comprised. Although tyrosinase is particularly abundant and active in mushroom
tissues, it is unable to react in intact cells. The brown color of aged or damaged mushrooms is a result of
a succession of biochemical and chemical reactions of (colorless) phenolic compounds, tyrosinase and
oxygen (Burton and Noble 1993). High storage temperatures are responsible for the increased browning
of mushrooms as a result of polyphenol oxidase increased activity (Ratcliffe etal. 1994). Nonenzymatic
browning is also inevitable as mushrooms contain carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids that interact
and (particular at temperatures above 5°C) can result in tissue darkening. Browning reactions in fruits
and vegetables comprise as a serious problem in the Food Industry and is one of the most detrimental fac-
tors to mushroom’s quality, followed by the loss of texture and cap opening (Burton 1986) and they are
usually encountered by sterilization and blanching (Gormley and Walsh 1982). However, no food-borne
TABLE 22.3
Effect of Respiration on Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Mushrooms
Effect Results References
Degradation and depletion of
soluble compounds (mannitol,
trehalose, glycogen, fructose,
and proteins)
Mushroom deterioration associated with:
loss of texture-softening
brown coloration in
Agaricus sp.—mucilage in Pleurotus sp., pileus
opening in Volvariella sp.
Hammond and Nichols
(1975) and Tseng and
Mau (1999)
Movement of dry matter and
water from stipe to/and pileus
and gills
Loss of texture Hammond and Nickols
(1975) and McGarry
and Burton (1994)
Changes in the nutritional and
medicinal attributes of
mushrooms during storage
and temperatures 18°C–20°C
Decrease of protein content with accumulation of total free
amino acids
Decrease in free amino acids (after the activation of
enzyme protease) and cell wall glucans
Decrease of total carbohydrates and phenol content
Decrease of substances giving the pilei their taste
(5-nucleotides and 1-octen-2-ol)
Reduction in the content of polysaccharide lentinan
(Hammond 1979; Tseng and Mau 1999)
Hammond (1979) and
Tseng and Mau
Condensation of vapor is
observed in the inner package
when nonperforated or even
the conventional PVC
stretchable lms are used
Texture changes—softening of the esh Nichols (1985) and
Mahajan etal.
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504 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
bacteria were detected in cultivated mushrooms (Venturini etal. 2011), pathogenic Campylobacter bac-
teria are usually killed through compost pasteurization and do not grow below 28°C, and bacterium
Clostridium botulinum forms its toxin only in semiperforated packages (O2 < 2%) of mushrooms stored
in high temperatures (Sugiyama and Yang 1975). As for fungi grown on mushrooms during storage (e.g.,
Trichoderma sp.), spore germination and mycelial development are restricted due to low temperatures,
despite their resistance at cold and dry conditions.
22.6 Processing Methods of Mushrooms
Although the major part of cultivated mushrooms is consumed in the fresh condition, trading mushrooms
totally at fresh status seems unfeasible for every point of the chain and for all year around. Practices and
aspects for mushroom postharvest care include proper storage/packaging and/or minimal processing of
fresh mushrooms for their short-term maintenance, as well as various processing techniques for their
long-term preservation. However, traditional eating patterns have been changed in more selective and
individual preference eating behaviors, along with a corresponding abatement of formal eating times
and occasions. This has increased the demand for individual portion packs and convenience formats in
every day diet and has lead to reduction of the demand for whole processed frozen or canned mushrooms.
Also, increase of out-of-home consumption (hotels, restaurants, pubs, etc.) and institutional catering
(workplace canteens, universities, schools, etc.) has led in increased requirement for fresh, prepared, and
processed mushrooms from these sectors (Bord Glas 2002). Another aspect of modern mushroom pro-
cessing concerns techniques aiming at the value-addition of the product as well as environmental aspects
such as waste disposal and utilization of waste and off-grade mushrooms (Zivanovic 2006), presented
in Section 22.7.
22.6.1 Processing for Short-Term Preservation Cooling: Refrigeration
Mushrooms at ambient temperatures (ca. 22°C) have a short shelf-life of 1–3days (Burton and Twyning
1989), at 15°C their shelf-life is 2–3days (Gormley 1981), whereas in the tropics they count only 24h
(Wakchaure 2011). Cooling is still the most effective technology available for retarding mushroom
deterioration process. As mushrooms’ respiration rate is three times higher at 10°C than at 0°C, their
immediate cooling after harvest (to 4°C–5°C) is needed for rapid removal of the eld heat, slow down
of metabolism, and deterioration prior to storage or transportation (Wakchaure 2011). In low tempera-
tures, apart from limiting weight loss and retaining freshness, mushroom pilei maintain closed and rm,
whereas browning and stipe elongation are decelerated. High relative humidity is also essential as it
prevents drying and retains pileus glossiness. Precooling at this stage is the key component in the pres-
ervation of quality characteristics of many perishable fresh produce, including mushrooms. This can be
achieved using (forced) air-, ice bank, vacuum, hydrocooling, and evaporative cooling, dependant on the
quantity of mushrooms to be handled (see Table 22.4).
After the stage of precooling, mushrooms should be placed in chambers with constant low tempera-
ture and air circulating in a uniform and freely way between mushroom punnets/packs/packages until
selling. However, packs with more than 10kg of mushrooms or with 15cm thick layers may cause
problems (Wakchaure 2011). The cooling systems can differ (simple refrigerator to large sophisticated
systems) depending on the quantity of mushrooms harvested daily. Relative humidity in any case
should be high (85%–95%) and this can be achieved by using large evaporators (Przybylowicz and
Donoghue 1988). In this manner, mushroom physiology remains almost unactivated up to 6days. It is
widely accepted that the ideal conditions for retarding the metabolic activities of tissues and decreas-
ing microbial growth up to 9days are storage temperature 0°C–2°C and relative humidity 85%–90%
(for A. bisporus and L. edodes mushrooms; Beelman etal. 1973; Nichols 1985; López-Briones etal.
1992; Minato etal. 1999). Gormley (1975) indicated that white mushrooms can be stored for 7–9days
at 0°C–1°C. The shelf-life of fresh sliced white mushrooms is shorter, mainly because of the effects
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505Cultivated Mushrooms
of washing and cutting process (Brennan et al. 2000), for example, 7.5 and 4days at 0°C and 5°C,
respectively (Oliveira etal. 2012). The shelf-life of the oyster mushroom can be 9days at 2°C or 3days
at 18°C (Lukasse and Polderdijk 2003). Volvariella sp., a mushroom that undergoes autolysis at 4°C,
should be stored at 10°C–15°C and has a shelf-life of only 3days (Ahlawat and Tewari 2007). Finally,
optimum in-package O2 is 6% to reduce pileus opening (Roy etal. 1995). Usual hazards throughout
cold storage are incorrect determination of temperature, high weight loss (in dry environment), and
growth of microorganisms (in wet environment). As the inner temperature of mushrooms is more
important than that of the environment, an accurate monitoring of the pileus/stipe temperature is
essential (Nichols 1985).
TABLE 22.4
Methods for Precooling Fresh Mushrooms
Methods Features References
Air-cooling Air velocity at least 60 m/min
Mushrooms usually placed in boxes, various packages or punnets
and cooled within 24h, in a rate of 0.5°C/h, but unevenly
Air is usually dehumidied during refrigeration, so the vapor pressure
of the cooled air is low and dehydrates the mushroom surface
There is about 3% weight loss in cooling from ambient temperature
to 2°C in unwrapped mushrooms that reach quicker the store
temperature particularly if they are placed on the top of the pile
The use of lms (e.g., PVC) in mushroom packaging is essential for
preventing great weight losses even if it hampers the quick cooling
Nichols (1985) and
TNAU (2014)
Forced cooling Higher air pressure is developed on one side of the packages than
the other and air is directed through the produce cooling it rapidly
It is accomplished by using three systems cold-wall, forced air
tunnel, and serpentine cooling
A spray-moist chiller can be also used for cooling mushrooms
rapidly in an hour at 16°C–18°C, without moisture loss
Wakchaure (2011) and
TNAU (2014)
Ice bank cooling Air used to cool mushrooms is almost saturated as it has previously
passed through ice-cold water, cooled by direct heat exchange with it
and lled with vapor, a system preventing mushrooms from water loss
Nichols (1985)
Vacuum cooling It is a rapid and uniform (temperature reduction from ambient to
2°C in 15–25min), yet expensive method
Subjecting mushrooms at very low pressures water from their
surface is evaporated resulting in lower temperatures
The color of vacuum-cooled mushrooms is superior to conventional
cooled mushrooms, but the weight losses reported are 1% per 5°C of
drop, much greater than those of forced dry or wet air
No differences in quality or hyphal structure were detected between
vacuum and conventionally cooled mushrooms
Overwrapping with perforated lms is essential for maintaining the
appearance of vacuum cooled mushrooms
Adding reselected amount of water before or during precooling can
prevent weight loss
Gormley (1975), Burton
etal. (1987a), McGarry
and Burton (1994), and
TNAU (2014)
Hydrocooling Large butches of mushrooms are spayed or immersed with/or chilled
or cold water (~0°C) before further packing
It is a rapid cooling technique (the high heat-transfer rates remove
eld heat at 20–30min) that diminishes product water loss, yet with
no uniform effect
The risk of spoilage due to microbes accumulated at recirculated
water can be prevented by the addition of chlorine solutions (100
ppm) or approved phenol compounds
Nichols (1985) and
TNAU (2014)
Evaporative cooling Inexpensive method based on the cooling effect created by
evaporation of water when dry air is shown over the wet product.
Suitable with areas with low ambient humidity (<65% RH) air
TNAU (2014)
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506 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing Minimal Processing
Minimal processing is a new approach for extending mushrooms’ shelf-life more easy and natural than
conventional processing techniques (e.g., canning and drying), with little effect on primary charac-
teristics of the produce. It includes Modied Atmosphere Packaging (MAP), Controlled Atmosphere
Packaging (CAP), washing, use of chemicals, blanching, radiation, use of moisture absorbers (e.g., sor-
bitol), or coatings (Beelman etal. 1973; Bernaś et al. 2006; Wakchaure 2011). Although treatments
involving chemicals are simpler and probably cheaper for processors to implement rather than those
involving packaging, attempts concerning the extension of mushrooms’ shelf-life by the use of chemi-
cal treatments have yet little success, basically because of the consumers’ preference in chemical free
products. New materials and lms in mushroom packaging that would replace any chemical pretreat-
ment and compound added in the packs are therefore welcomed by the consumers. Likewise, it would
be preferable for any new treatment solution to be applied in the same way as for sultes or stabilized
chlorine dioxide. The current practice of washing or dipping whole mushrooms in treatment solutions
prior to slicing is more effective, in terms of shelf-life, than dipping, spraying, or brushing solutions onto
sliced mushrooms (Brennan and Gormley 1998).
Chemicals may control microorganisms causing decay and diseases, eliminating or inhibiting the
adverse changes in the color and texture of pilei and can be applied by spraying, soaking, vacuum moist-
ening, and dipping in solutions/emulsions. Washing is occasionally used by mushroom growers for
removing soil, as mushrooms are not generally washed; this is because after washing, mushrooms have
a water-soak appearance and moisture penetration eventually leads to increased microbe populations.
Also, darkening and bronzing of the pilei often occur after washing as a result of enzyme o-phenolox-
idase release from damaged substrates (Burton and Noble 1993), not only in fresh but also in frozen
mushrooms (Czapski and Szudyga 2000). Therefore, addition in water of several reducing agents with
antibacterial effect can retard browning and pileus opening. Among these tested, the most popular are
Oxine (stabilized chlorine dioxide), sodium chloride, sodium hypochloride, calcium chloride, sodium
sulte, methyl jasmonate ethyl alcohol sole or in combination, and others are given in Table 22.5.
Addition of semipermeable edible coatings in freshly harvested mushrooms is another physical method
to reduce their water loss, browning, and microbial growth and to improve their texture during storage at
low temperature (4°C). Immersion of A. bisporus mushrooms in sodium alginate solution (Nussinovitch
and Kampf 1993), dipping freshly cut white mushrooms in solutions containing chitosan (Eissa 2007),
coating with various polysaccharides (Niazmand etal. 2009), or treating L. edodes mushrooms with chi-
tosan–glucose complex coating and then packaging in low-density polyethylene lm (Jiang etal. 2012),
all were effective in improving the shelf-life of mushrooms.
Blanching is an important treatment applied during preliminary processing of mushrooms (mainly
of the Agaricus species) after washing and prior to freezing and canning, with the use of hot water or
steam. Blanching inhibits tissue browning (inactivation of polyphenol oxidase) and production of off-
avors during mushroom frozen storage and defrosting. It also removes trapped air and decreases weight
losses during canning; the main purpose of blanching in canning however is to inactivate the enzymatic
browning by the thermal inactivation of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and then to induce mushroom
shrinkage, so that that it will not occur during sterilization, making additionally the product more pli-
able to facilitate the lling operation (Wu etal. 1981). However, some negative features of blanching are
the extraction of useful nutritious components (Wu etal. 1981; Gormley 1984), the undesired changes
in aroma (Le Loch-Bonazzi and Wolff 1991; Mau etal. 1992), the lower taste compared to fresh cooked
mushrooms (Wu etal. 1981), the damages of pileus’ texture that cause remarkable toughness after thaw-
ing and cooking (Gormley and Walsh 1982; Reyes De Corcuera etal. 2004), the mushroom weight loss
during the blanching procedure, and the increase in mannitol concentration in mushroom mass and
blanching uid (Biekman etal. 1996).
To avoid general biochemical effects, blanching time should be kept to the minimum (Matser etal.
2000), determination of which is achieved by the peroxidase test (Reyes De Corcuera et al. 2004).
Mushroom grading under different sizes is also desirable so that each size is blanched separately to avoid
under- or overblanching. The length of the blanching treatment can vary, for example, 20 s (Wakchaure
2011), 7 min (Baldwin et al. 1986), or even 15min (Coşkuner and Özdemir 2000). Temperatures
K21711_C022.indd 506 4/30/2015 12:32:19 AM
507Cultivated Mushrooms
commonly used in industry for blanching (90°C–100°C) can cause undesirable tissue softening; how-
ever, the blanching with boiling water for 2min caused increased hardening in the oyster mushroom
(Kotwaliwale etal. 2007) and better color when it was freeze-dried (Fang etal. 1974). Water blanching
(98°C/90 s) of Boletus edulis prior to drying was found to have a negative effect on the level of antioxi-
dants, regardless of the drying method (Jaworska etal. 2014). According to Fan etal. (2005), mushrooms
TABLE 22.5
Chemical Compounds Used in the Preliminary Processing of Mushrooms
Compounds Features References
Oxine (stabilized chlorine
Very effective antimicrobial agent (50 ppm with a 2min or longer
wash period at ~12°C), but with variable results on whiteness
Its activity is due primarily to oxidation not chlorination and
although it is up to ve times more effective, it is noncorrosive
Beelman (1987),
Brennan and
Gormley (1998),
and Wakchaure
Hydrogen peroxide
Known (5%, v/v) for its antibacterial and whitening actions in
Whole fresh mushrooms soaked for 10min in solutions of H2O2
(or citric acid) then sliced, packed, and stored at 4°C for up to
19days. Both treatments reduced the number of pseudomonad
bacteria and improved their quality of when compared to control
(water soaked) slices
Brennan and
Gormley (1998)
and Brennan (1999)
Varsenic (EDTA) and
citric acid
Both acidic and metal chelators, having the ability to inhibit
enzymatic browning and microbial growth (Pseudomonas sp.) on
Compared to H2O2, they are easier to handle, not corrosive and do
not deteriorate with age
Fresh sliced mushrooms were soaked for 10min in citric acid
solution (up to 40 g/L) and retained their shelf-life (whiteness)
for longer, whereas none acidic taste was detected in samples by
the panel
As citric acid is the most widely used in foods and current
legislation supports its use over H2O2 or EDTA, it is the treatment
most recommended
Brennan and
Gormley (1998)
Oxine (50 ppm), sodium
erythorbate (0.1%) and
calcium chloride (0.5%)
Benecial effect on color and number of bacteria Wakchaure (2011)
Ascorbic acid (AC) and
calcium chloride (CaCl2)
AC is an antioxidant and reducing pH agent with wide use as
pretreatment for mushroom extension of shelf-life and CaCl2 is a
rming agent
Beelman etal.
(1973) and
Niazmand etal.
Sodium metabisulte
Extensively used in mushroom industry as whitening and
preservative agent (1 g/L for 1–2min), recommended for frozen
and sterilized products
It may result in potentially harmful sulfur dioxide residues
Fresh mushrooms washed in 0.05% SM not only improved their
initial whiteness, but also kept it for longer during storage
Washing A. bisporus mushrooms with water containing 3 g/L SM
affected positively their color of during 3-month (freezing)
storage. Immersion in water (20 s) of washed with SM
mushrooms affected negatively their color and texture, yet
decreased the SO2 content.
In other studies, the use of SM has been proved as ineffective in
bleaching fresh Agaricus slices, reducing the number of
pseudomonad bacteria or improving their quality during cold-storage
Brennan and
Gormley (1998),
Brennan (1999),
Czapski and
Szudyga (2000),
and Wakchaure
Jasmonic acid and methyl
jasmonate ethyl alcohol
(sole or in combination)
Positive effect on the color of A. bisporus pileus and general
appearance during storage at 13°C/5days
Czapski (2001)
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508 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
of the genus Lentinula before canning are usually blanched in water at 90°C for 5min, at a ratio of 1
(mass):1.5 (water volume), so that air is removed and bacteria population is reduced.
Blanching procedure involving just water reduces the initial mushroom whiteness; therefore, water
blanching has been performed in a variation of treatments: hot water containing 1%–2% NaCl and 0.5%–
1% citric acid at temperatures of 95°C for 8–10min (Vivar-Quintana etal. 1999), 1% NaCl and 0.1%
citric acid at 95°C–100°C for 5–6min (Wakchaure 2011), or 1 g/L NaCl and various concentrations of
citric acid or EDTA at 95°C–100°C for 15min (Coşkuner and Özdemir 2000). When glucono-δ-lactone
replaced citric acid during blanching, canned white mushrooms not only retained their color, taste, and
yield but also did not have pilei with strange acidic taste (Rodrigo etal. 1999). Prior to freezing, B. edulis
mushrooms were blanched at 96°C–98°C (3min the pilei and 1.5min the stipes) in a ratio by mushroom
mass to water of 1:5 (Jaworska and Bernaś 2009) resulting in good quality frozen product. However,
when various solutions containing citric (0.5%) and ascorbic acid (0.1%)/lactic (1.0%) and ascorbic acid
(0.1%) were used during 1h mushroom soaking before blanching, the quality of the Boletus mush-
rooms was not superior to those blanched with water. On the other hand, similar preliminary treatments
applied to A. bisporus mushrooms and extended their storage life from 4 to 8months (as compared to
unblanched samples); nevertheless, both color and nutritional value were better in fresh than in mush-
rooms pretreated and frozen (Jaworska etal. 2008). Apart from the enzyme inhibitors mentioned above
(NaCl, organic acids, and EDTA) blanching may also contain metabisulte and ascorbic acid hydrogen
peroxide (Coşkuner and Özdemir 2000; Czapski 2002). Blanching reduced the attractiveness of the
dry P. ostreatus, whereas sodium metabisulte improved it (Martínez-Soto etal. 2001). The blanching
process of P. ostreatus with hot water was optimized at 150 s and 70°C for mushrooms prior to freezing
(Vullioud etal. 2011), or at 1min and 70°C–75°C for those immersed at 35% brine solution and then
preserved at tropical room temperature for 6months (Victor and Obele 2013).
Steam blanching is applied to cut mushrooms, it requires less time than water blanching, and produces
mushrooms with darker color but better taste. Steam blanching during 90 s (Yan 2012) and microwave
blanching for 59 s at 570 W were applied to P. eryngii, both being efcient for sensory and nutritional
quality of the product. Two other treatments recommended before blanching for preserving the color and
reducing the weight loss associated with blanching are vacuum moistening and soaking in solutions con-
taining, for example, citric acid and -ascorbic acid (Beelman etal. 1973). Mushrooms that were vacuum
moistened prior to blanching had a water uptake during evacuation as much as 80% of the fresh mushroom
weight (Baldwin etal. 1986). Additionally, in order to avoid the undesirable texture changes but obtain a
white color, mushrooms prior to freezing were dipped in metabisulte solutions (0.5% and 1.0%) for 5min
after blanching (Fang etal. 1974). As soon as blanching is complete, mushrooms should be cooled quickly
with running water to thoroughly to stop the cooking process (Coşkuner and Özdemir 2000).
Radiation preservation of mushrooms by using gamma or x-rays at the dose of 100–150 Krad has been
found to restrict the postharvest growth and discoloration/deterioration of mushrooms, yet decrease with
increase the level of irradiation dose the level of octo-carbon aromatic compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 3-octa-
none, etc.) present in the mushrooms (Mau and Huang 1997). Jiang etal. (2010) reported that combina-
tion of gamma radiation (1.0 kGy) and passive MAP extended the shelf-life of Lentinula up to 20days.
Its use is limited by the cost and the perception of consumers to irradiation on food (Przybylowicz and
Donoghue 1988).
MAP and CAP include the use of plastic permeable lm system which overwrapping packed mush-
rooms and as a result of mushroom respiration, restricts the transfer of gases (CO2 and O2) and creates
an atmosphere poor in O2 and reach in CO2. It is the simplest, most economical, and effective method for
limiting tissue respiration rate, reducing microbial growth, and extending the shelf-life of mushrooms
(Kim etal. 2006). In order to devise an MA package, which provides optimum gas conditions, it is
necessary to select a lm with suitable gas permeability properties, not only to design a pack with the
appropriate ratio of weight of product to surface area of lm, but also to predict the respiration rate at
the desired O2 and CO2 gas concentrations (Cliffe-Byrnes and O’Beirne 2007). MAP has been mostly
studied at A. bisporus mushrooms (Nichols and Hammond 1975; Roy etal. 1995; Simón etal. 2005; Kim
etal. 2006); however, it can be applied in almost all species of mushrooms, packed whole or sliced. The
application of MA can be passive or active. In passive modication, where the required CO2 is produced
by the mushrooms and O2 is consumed with respiration, the appropriate lm permeability allows the
K21711_C022.indd 508 4/30/2015 12:32:19 AM
509Cultivated Mushrooms
entrance of required O2 and the exit of surplus CO2 until eventually equilibrium is established. In active
modication, the atmosphere inside the packages is achieved by, rstly, the creation of vacuum and, then,
by introducing of the appropriate gas mixture. In this case, steady state atmosphere is reached quickly
after packaging (Wakchaure 2011). Antmann etal. (2008) showed that the equilibrium atmosphere con-
ditions for both O2 and CO2 were reached for active modied atmosphere packages containing L. edodes
mushrooms after 10days of storage. Also, in MAP the gas composition is controlled once at the begin-
ning of storage, whereas respiration along with interaction between the product and the package modify
the atmosphere. On the other hand, in CAP the gas atmosphere is controlled constantly and accordingly
regulated (Sandhya 2010).
In MAP/CAP, normally the concentration of O2 is reduced from 21% to 2%–5% and that of CO2 is
increased from 0.03% to 16%–19%. López Briones etal. (1992) suggested that to optimize marketing
conditions for white mushrooms, the storage atmosphere should contain 5%–10% O2 and 2.5%–5% CO2.
The lms usually used are (perforated and no-perforated) LDPE (low-density polyethylene), PVC (poly-
vinyl chloride), and PP (polypropylene). A gas composition of 1%–2% O2 and 8%–15% CO2 at 18°C or
11%–17% O2 and 4%–10% CO2 at 2°C has been reported when PVC and PP lms were used in prepacks,
concentrations depended on the lm used (Nichols and Hammond 1975). However, O2 levels below 2%
are related to anaerobiosis and in combination with room temperatures (18°C–20°C) may result in the
growth of C. botulinum (Nichols and Hammond 1973). As the moisture and modied atmosphere cre-
ated in the packages affect bacterial growth and consequent color change (Burton et al. 1987b), lm
perforation is strongly suggested along with the use of new technology lms with chosen (in advance)
permeability (Falguera etal. 2011).
Regarding research on fresh sliced A. bisporus mushrooms MAP, using PVC and PP lms with atmo-
spheres of 10%–20% O2 and 2.5% CO2 at 5°C improved the appearance and reduced the microbial
counts when compared to the air atmosphere (Simón etal. 2005). Nevertheless, with storage temperature
increase more perforations are needed in order to obtain the optimum MAP conditions for sliced mush-
rooms (Oliveira etal. 2012). On the other hand, MAP did not reduce mushroom catabolism (Varoquaux
etal. 1999) and induced internal and external discoloration of carposomes (López Briones etal. 1992)
and that was the reason why MA-packed, whole mushrooms were be available on the European market.
Villaescusa and Gil (2003) proposed an MAP with a combination of 15% O2 and 5% CO2 for maintain-
ing the good quality characteristics of P. ostreatus stored for 7days at 4°C. Low O2 (2%) and high CO2
(30%) concentrations signicantly prolonged the shelf-life of P. eryngii stored at 20°C–25°C (90%–95%
RH) for 5 days (Li et al. 2013). Additionally, a combination of chemical treatment and MAP using
10% O2 and 5% CO2 provided better quality retention of Pleurotus orida (Jafri etal. 2013). The effect
of passive MA storage (5°C, 73%–77% RH) on the sensory characteristics and shelf-life of L. edodes
mushrooms was investigated by Ares etal. (2006) using three different lms (low-density PE, PP, and
PP macroperforated). The results showed that mushrooms stored under MA had higher deterioration rate
than those stored at PP macroperforated, indicating that CO2 concentrations above 9% accelerate dete-
rioration and that L . edodes mushrooms are more susceptible to high CO2 concentrations than Agaricus
ones. Similar were the nding of Parentelli etal. (2007) regarding the use of passive and active MAP on
the sensory quality and deterioration of the mentioned species. Application of active MAP on L. edodes
mushrooms packaged on bags of low-density PE under 15% and 25% O2 (80%–85% RH) resulted in the
development of off-odors after 12days of storage, whereas when macroperforated lms were used, the
weight loss was as high as 15% (Antmann etal. 2008). However, washing with citric or ascorbic acid had
positive effect on the L-value of L. edodes during 10-day storage at 7°C (Santana etal. 2008).
Additionally, the unique gas barrier properties of hydrophilic lms (wheat gluten-based material and
synthetic polymer) have been tested through the MAP of A. bisporus mushrooms packed under micro-
porous and hydrophilic lms and stored at 10°C and 20°C under high relative humidity (>92%). Unique
steady state atmospheres, poor in both oxygen and carbon dioxide, were observed, regardless of the
temperature and the hydrophilic lm used, owing to their high selectivity to gas diffusion (Barron etal.
2002). Also, biobased packaging made from paper coated with a gluten solution improved the preser-
vation of fresh A. bisporus mushrooms (Guilaume etal. 2010) under MAP at 20°C (80% RH), but the
weight loss was quite high (4%). At last, it should be noted that uctuation of storage temperature, even
if it occurs only once, can restrict the benets from the MAP application (Sandhya 2010).
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510 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing Effect of Packaging on Mushroom Shelf-Life
Fresh mushrooms are packed in many ways according to wholesale, retail, and transport requirements
and their species characteristics. They are sold as either loose or in trays/punnets overwrapped with
plastic lms, usually PE and PVC of different permeability and stored under refrigeration temperature.
Macroperforated PP lms that limit dehydration without modifying the atmosphere within the package
are also used. However, overperforation may result in excessive mushroom water loss causing wrin-
kling and development of brown patches on the mushroom surfaces (Gormley and MacCanna 1967).
Proper packaging is very important, as it protects mushrooms from bruises throughout transportation
and extends shelf-life through reduction of desiccation and vapor condensation, but also attracts cus-
tomer interest on the product. Design, color, and labeling contribute to the overall impression of quality
(Burton etal. 1987b). However, as most plastic lms available commercially nowadays exhibit too low
gas permeability, there is the need for developing new, environmental friendly microperforated materials
to provide a larger range of O2 and CO2 permeability.
There are two main problems related with mushroom packaging; the creation of an in-package anaero-
bic atmosphere, particular if nonperforated lms are used or in MAP and the water condensation develop-
ment (Gormley and MacCanna 1967; Nichols and Hammond 1973; Roy etal. 1996). Recommendation
for the use of perforated lms has been given by FDA already by 1978 (Herr 1991) so that the growth
of anaerobic C. botulinum and condensation are prevented, fact that however excludes the possibility of
application MA or CA in the packages. Stretchable PVC lm although prevents mushroom water loss,
particular at ambient temperature (18°C), it also favors water condensation on the underside of the lm
at 2°C (Nichols and Hammond 1973) and at 20°C (Guillaume etal. 2010), which is detrimental on the
freshness and consequently the shelf-life of mushrooms. The undesirable condensation observed inside
the packages, created as a result of high humidity due to high transpiration rate of mushrooms and poor
water vapor permeability of the lms, has been studied in relation to different lms used and their effect
on microbial growth, color, and mushroom texture by many researchers (e.g., Gormley and MacCanna
1967; Cliffe-Byrnes and O’Beirne 2007). The optimum humidity level for mushroom packaging was sug-
gested to be 96% (Mahajan etal. 2008b) and for best color 87%–90% (Roy etal. 1996; Wakchaure 2011).
Modied Humidity Packaging is another improved packaging system; as an additional tool to plastic
lms and for better control of the inside package relative humidity, moisture absorbers such as sorbi-
tol (Roy etal. 1995, 1996) and sorbitol and silica gel (Villaescusa and Gil 2003) have been tested for
Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. However, existing moisture absorbers either have low absorption
capacity either and/or absorb moisture quickly and increase mushroom weight loss, not improving the
quality parameters sufciently. Therefore, Mahajan etal. (2008b) suggested a mixed moisture absorber
containing bentonite, sorbitol, and CaCl2 that has high moisture capacity and stays in the powder form
for at least 5–6days of storage. In addition, montmorillonite clay and silica gel can be use to extend the
shelf-life of mushroom in packs (Wakchaure 2011). However, a more practical way to control in-package
humidity would be the use of lms with suitable moisture permeability, for example, hydrophilic (Barron
etal. 2002).
22.6.2 Processing for Long-Term Preservation
Mushrooms are mainly consumed in their fresh state, but there is also a worldwide trade in the process-
ing of mushrooms (through freezing, canning, pickling, drying, etc.) that alters their nature and extends
shelf-life, allowing the transportation of processed mushrooms to be traded internationally as a com-
modity (Manzi etal. 2001). Freezing
Freezing is an increasingly popular method of mushroom preservation that provides storage stability and
allows mushroom consumption year round. It also offers to consumers a product with high nutritional value
and quality attributes. Almost all mushroom species can be consumed as frozen products. The mushroom
freezing process includes preparation steps similar to those used for canning viz. mushroom cleaning,
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511Cultivated Mushrooms
washing, cutting, grading/sorting, and blanching. Blast freezing is the most common method used in mush-
rooms, followed by the cryogenic method (Jaworska and Bernaś 2009). Blast freezers rapidly bring the
temperature of foods down, freezing them extremely quickly from 25°C to 30°C, creating small ice crys-
tals that damage less the mushroom cells. Freon, plate, and individual quick freezing are additional meth-
ods used in mushrooms (Coggins and Chamul 2004). Gormley (1972) showed that the white mushrooms
although were frozen more quickly in Freon than in air blast freezing, they had larger drip loss, result quite
surprising, indicating that drip loss of frozen mushroom is dependent on the ush they came from. Once
the mushrooms have been frozen, they can be moved to a more conventional freezer for storage, as long as
the freezer stays cold enough to keep them frozen. However, various factors are involved in the quality loss
during frozen storage of mushrooms, for example, weight loss, undesired color and off-avor development,
loss of rmness, decrease in nutritive value, and the most detrimental of all being the enzymatic browning
reaction (Coggins and Chamul 2004). Czapski and Szudyga (2000) showed that strain remarkably inu-
ences the whiteness of frozen mushrooms. In order to assure good quality frozen mushrooms, preliminary
processing (e.g., blanching or dipping) in solutions is required. Finally, packaging used for quick frozen
vegetables should be in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Code of Practice for the Processing
and Handling of Quick Frozen Foods (CODEX CAC/RCP 8 1976). Canning
Although the amount of fresh mushrooms used for canning has dropped over the last years, about 38%
of them are canned nowadays, holding a major share in world trade (Ravi and Siddiq 2011). Through
canning (sterilization), mushrooms can be stored for a period up to 2 years with storage costs being
relatively low. The white mushroom has been traditionally used for canning, but other species such as P.
ostreatus, L. edodes, and V. volvacea and the wild Cantharellus cibarius, Boletus edulis, and Lactarius
deliciosus are also canned or bottled (Bernaś etal. 2006; Ahlawat and Tewari 2007). Canned mush-
rooms are clearly dened in the “Denitions and Standards of Identity” for canned vegetables in 21 CFR
51.990 (USDA-AMS 1962). The following styles (according to USDA standards) should also be included
as part of the name or in close proximity to the name: “Buttons,” “Sliced Buttons,” “Whole,” “Sliced” or
“Sliced Whole,” “Random Sliced,” “Quarters,” “Stems and Pieces (Cut),” and “Grilling,” as appropriate.
Also, guidelines on the quality of canned mushrooms of special types and containing special ingredients
are given in CODEX STAN 297 (2009). Desalted mushrooms can be also used in canning in air-tight
containers (Czapski 2003).
In order to produce good quality canned mushrooms, these should be processed as soon as possible
after harvest or stored at 4°C–5°C until processed. Nevertheless, storage at low temperature 1 day before
canning was suggested to reduce weight loss and enhance water retention (Beelman etal. 1973). Canning
(and bottling) is an established process of preserving mushrooms in brine, butter, oil, vinegar, etc. that
involves six basic operations viz. selection, trimming, cleaning, blanching, lling, sterilization, cooling,
labeling, packing, and storage (Fan etal. 2005; Ravi and Siddiq 2011). It is important that before sealing
the can, the air is removed and then sterilization (by immersion in water or with steam) follows at 126°C
for 8min (Rodrigo etal. 1999), 121°C–130°C for 15min (Fan etal. 2005), or at 118°C–121°C for 20min
(Vivar-Quintana etal. 1999). The mushrooms with a stem length of 1cm are preferred and are canned
whole, sliced, and stems-and-pieces as per demand (Beelman and Edwards 1989). Some of the qual-
ity characteristics of canned mushrooms are color, weight, and grade (Vivar-Quintana etal. 1999) and
methods such as soaking and blanching in water or in aquatic solution containing various compounds is
the rst measure to limit the negative effects of canning process. Drying
Drying is the oldest and yet one of the most important preservation methods of a number of mushrooms.
It is based on the principle that the water activity of a product is reduced at a specic level (normally less
than 10%) so that it is microbiologically and physicochemically stable (Krokida etal. 2003). Pleurotus,
Lentinula, Volvariella, Agaricus, Auricularia, and most wild mushrooms are commercially dried with
satisfactory rehydration and avor retention. Dehydrated mushrooms are also valuable ingredients in
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512 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
a variety of food—products such as snacks, instant soups, and sauces. Taking account the quality of
the drying mushrooms, much attention is paid nowadays in the drying methods utilized, as they affect
their physiology and hence their quality. Textural characteristics, namely, hardness/rmness, cohesive-
ness, springiness, and chewiness of mushrooms usually change during drying (Kotwaliwale etal. 2007).
Color also changes during drying; browning mostly occurs due to enzymatic or nonenzymatic reac-
tions between carbohydrate and amino acids in high temperatures. However, little or no change in the
proximate composition (expressed in dry weight) of B. edulis mushrooms that were air- and freeze-dried
was detected by Jaworska etal. (2014). Color, texture, density, porosity, and sorption are the properties
characterized the dried products affected by temperature and duration of drying (Krokida etal. 1998).
Pretreatments of mushrooms before drying are often utilized for color stabilization, avor enhance-
ment, and texture retention (Singh etal. 2001). These include washing with (chlorinated) water, dipping
in citric acid, sodium chloride, or potassium metabisulte, blanching in hot water, blanching followed
with soaking in whey and curd fermentation (Martínez-Soto etal. 2001; Walde etal. 2006), or steam
blanching followed by sulting and citric acid (Pal and Chakraverty 1997; Kotwaliwale etal. 2007).
Methods for drying mushrooms include the conventional hot air drying, thin layer drying, vacuum
drying, freeze-drying, microwave drying, and the more recently introduced uidized bed and micro-
wave-vacuum drying (see Table 22.6).
The nal temperature and the drying rate are the most important factors of the process. The drying
rate is dependent on several parameters, such as the use of pretreatments, temperature, mushroom thick-
ness, method of drying, and moisture diffusivity (Gothandapani etal. 1997). According to Walde etal.
(2006), the time taken for drying both white and oyster mushrooms from 7.5% (db) to 2.0% (db) was in
the order of vacuum dryer > cabinet moisture dryer > uidized bed dryer > microwave oven, with uid-
ized bed drying being a promising method as regard to time and quality to the faster microwave drying.
Drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics were mainly affected by the microwave power level, fol-
lowed by sample thickness, while system pressure had little effect on drying rate. As for rehydration rate,
it was signicantly affected by the system pressure.
The rehydration characteristics of a dried product also constitute a quality parameter that indicates
if physical or chemical changes occurred during drying, the pretreatments, and sample composition
(Funebo and Ohlsson 1998). Also, the rehydration of the mushrooms is temperature and pressure depen-
dant (Garćia-Segovia etal. 2011). It was suggested therefore that vacuum rehydration of air-dried shii-
take could replace the conventional process as lower immersion time was needed and a more desirable
texture was achieved. The best rehydration process for P. ostreatus occurred at room temperature in
water during 30min, after samples were dried with hot air at 40°C/RH 75% (Apati etal. 2010). Funebo
and Ohlsson (1998) found that A. bisporus mushrooms had greater rehydration capacity using hot air
dehydration without the use of microwaves. Regardless the method, after drying, dehydrated products
are packed in air-tight polyethylene containers and stored at low temperatures. Theoretically, these prod-
ucts have unlimited shelf-life, practically this is over a year, due to signicant quality deterioration after
this time (Jaworska etal. 2014). The great advantage of this method is the lower cost in transportation,
handling, and storage compared to other preservation methods.
22.7 ValueAdded Mushroom Products and By-Products
22.7.1 Food, Beverage, and Beauty Mushroom Products
In view of their high perishable nature, the fresh mushrooms have to be processed to extend their shelf-
life for off-season use and also add value to the product. This can be achieved by adopting appropriate
postharvest technology to process surplus mushrooms into novel value-added products like food prepa-
rations (soup powder, pickles, chips, paste and ketchup, pâté, noodles and pasta, biscuits, and nuggets),
mushroom-based avor enhancers or as additives in beverages and beauty products (Zivanovic 2006; Rai
and Arumuganathan 2008). The value-added products are the current need for the mushroom growers
not only to reduce the losses, but also to enhance the income by value-addition and boost the mushroom
consumption (Mehta etal. 2011). Some examples of long preserved food and beverage mushroom prod-
ucts are given below.
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513Cultivated Mushrooms
TABLE 22.6
Methods for Drying Fresh Mushrooms
Methods Description References
Hot air
Method comparatively cheap, frequently used, involving thermal and/or
chemical pretreatment and then drying at temperatures 50°C–70°C and air
velocities 1.0–5.0 m/s for 3–24h depending the mushroom species, the
product volume, and the chamber size
Due to long drying time and surface overheating, darkening in color, cellular
rupture, loss in avor, aroma, and dehydration ability may occur
A combination of a drying air temperature of 50°C and an air velocity of 0.9
m/s for drying untreated and treated (blanching followed by sulting and
citric acid pretreatment) Pleurotus mushrooms was proposed. The texture
and appearance of the untreated mushrooms after rehydration were better
than those of the treated mushrooms, whereas the color and avor of the
treated were better.
Pal and Chakraverty
(1997), Krokida and
(2003), and Giri and
Prasad (2007, 2013)
Drying temperature and pressure are important and because there is a high
drying rate and low drying temperature and oxygen-decient drying
environment, the quality characteristics of the products (e.g., shape, color,
and aroma) are maintained
In fresh Lentinula mushroom, vacuum dehydration at 50°C–65°C and
0.1–0.4 bar decreased initial moisture from 92% to 13% (w.b.) in 6h and
revealed that temperature and pressure signicantly affected color
degradation. Rehydration capacity decreased with the increased in vacuum
pressure, yet it was not affected by temperature
P. ostreatus maintained at 55°C and pressure at 1334 Pa for about 12 h
Limited use in mushrooms because of their high installation and
Martínez-Soto etal.
(2001), Alibas (2007),
Giri and Prasat (2007),
and Artnaseaw etal.
Pleurotus mushrooms were rstly washed, frozen at −80°C, and then placed
in the freeze-dryer viz. at 0°C (condenser temperature −55°C, vacuum at 7
Pa) for about 24h. Although avor was not signicantly different,
mushrooms had superior quality as compared to hot air and vacuum-dried
A. bisporus the quantity of aromatic compound 1-octen 3-ol was
signicantly reduced
Limited use in mushrooms because of their high installation and
Kompany and René
(1995), Martínez-Soto
etal. (2001), and Giri
and Prasat (2007)
bed drying
The quality of both Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms was good and the
time short
The quality of Pleurotus sp. dried in uidized bed condition at 50°C for
80–120min with 0.5 potassium metabisulte was superior and with reduced
microbial spoilage to sun, thin layer drying and uidized bed drying with
Limited use in mushrooms because of their high installation and
Gothandapani etal.
(1997), Walde etal.
(2006), and Giri and
Prasat (2007)
Is rapid, more uniform, and energy-efcient compared to conventional hot
air drying, but although it combines the advantages of drying at low
temperatures, it has not very satisfactory results due to temperature
instability and tissue hardening
Temperature control and pressure will contribute to the continued
development of microwave technology applied to food dehydration
Combination of air-drying and microwave treatment gave encouraging
results with acceptable drying rates provided heat level and heating intensity
are combined properly
Riva etal. (1991),
Walde etal. (2006),
Giri and Prasad (2007),
and Lombraña etal.
Resulted in 70%–90% decrease in the drying time to a moisture content of
6% (db) and had better rehydration characteristics in sliced white
mushrooms than the hot air dried samples
Giri and Prasad (2007,
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514 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing Food Products and Food Additives
Mushroom pickling, a procedure that involves fermentation, is an economical way for mushroom pres-
ervation and has a benecial effect on the human organism and impact a pleasant aroma and taste to
pickled food (Zivanovic 2006). Among other mushrooms, Volvariella andPleurotus species are suitable
for pickling. According to Kreb and Lelley (1991), good results are obtained by pickling P. ostreatus for
10days at 21°C with freshly shredded cabbage. In another process (Singh etal. 1995), cleaned mush-
rooms are blanched in hot water (80°C for 5 min), rapidly cooled and added to 60% brine to obtain
mushroom to brine ratio of 7:3 by volume. The mixture is maintained at 15°C–20°C for 15days for fer-
mentation and further kept at 0°C–4°C to obtain a pH of 3.9. Sugar is added to the preparation at the rate
of 3.3% by weight to the brine and nal salt concentration reached to 6.6% by weight. Products of this
type can be stored for 6months at the ambient temperature (Singh and Bano 1977), the pasteurization of
mushrooms before storage being unnecessary. Fermented mushrooms can be also used as a seminished
product in the preparation of marinades and sauces of good quality (Bernś etal. 2006). Pickling is also
an interesting option of saving loss material (about 10%) in the canning process of mushrooms (Rai and
Arumuganathan 2008).
The raw material used for mushroom steeping or marinade (usually A. bisporus,Pleurotus spp., L.
edodes, etc.),being fresh, salted, or pickled mushrooms, is processed with acetic acid or citric acid (2%–
5%). The steeping solution usually contains also salt and sugar (Bernaś etal. 2006). The method is
simple, economical, and mushrooms can be preserved for periods ranging from 3 to 6months by steep-
ing them in concentrated solutions of salts and or acids (Rai and Arumuganathan 2008).
Mushroom paste and ketchup is prepared after boiling the sliced mushrooms in water and grinding
them in a mixer. Then acetic acid, salt, sugar, onion, garlic, pepper, and other ingredients are mixed in
the paste before lling in the sterilized bottles or jars (Rai and Arumuganathan 2008). For mushroom
chips production, mushrooms are sliced (2mm), blanched in 2% brine solution, and dipped overnight
in a solution of 0.1% of citric acid + 1.5% of NaCl + 0.3% of red chilli powder. After draining off
the solution, the mushrooms are subjected to drying at 60°C for 8 h and nally fried in oil (Rai and
Arumuganathan 2008).
Mushroom powder is used as a direct food additive to increase content of dietary bbers in vari-
ous foods or as a partial substitute for wheat our in bakery products. It is obtained after pulveriza-
tion of dried mushroom slices and used to enhance avor of a dish or to provide specic mushroom
aroma for soups, biscuits, nuggets, and snacks preparation (Zivanovic 2006). According to Rai and
Arumuganathan (2008), soup is prepared by mixing the powder with milk power, corn our, and other
ingredients. Biscuits are prepared by mixing mushroom powder with ingredients like sugar, oil, baking
powder, ammonium bicarbonate, salt, vanilla, milk powder, and glucose and nally the required shape is
given to the dough before baking in the oven. Nuggets and snacks are also made (e.g., in India) after mix-
ing the powder with different vegetable (like soybean) powder, water, and spices. Other mushroom-based
food products (like bread, cake, roasted mushrooms in oil, mushroom pâté, etc.) have been presented by
Zivanovic (2006) and Ravi and Siddiq (2011). Beverages and Beauty Products
Flavor and bioactive compounds can be extracted with water and/or alcohol and the extracts can be used
for preparation of mushroom beers, wines, spirits, or prophylactic drinks (Zivanovic 2006). Different
mushroom species, like A. bisporus, L. edodes, and Grifola frondosa, are used alone or in mixtures to
obtain the avor and aroma proles that work well with the alcoholic beverages. In order to utilize the
mushrooms in the process (brewing, wine making, etc.), their carposomes are dried and then ground into
a powder or mushroom mycelia are used. It is well known that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main
microorganism used in alcoholic beverage brewing, because this microbe has alcohol dehydrogenase
(ADH) activity. However, some genera of mushrooms produce ADH and wine, beer, and sake can be
made by using mushrooms in place of S. cerevisiae (Okamura-Matsui etal. 2003). According to them,
in wine making 2 g of mushroom mycelia were added to 30 mL of autoclaved grape juice, which was
incubated at 20°C for 40days while in beer brewing 2 g of mushroom mycelia were added to autoclaved
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515Cultivated Mushrooms
hopped malt extract medium (pH 5.8) containing 10% malt extract and 0.1% hop extract and incubated
at 20°C for 14days (Okamura-Matsui etal. 2003). The highest alcohol concentrations in the wine, beer,
and sake were achieved with P. ostreatus (12.2%), Tricholoma matsutake (4.6%), and A. blazei (8.0%).
In the case of A. blazei, the produced wine contained about 0.7% β--glucan, which is known to have
preventive effects against cancer. The wine made using F. velutipes showed thrombosis-preventing activ-
ity. Alcoholic drinks based on extracts of G. lucidum and other mushrooms are produced by adding
fresh or dried mushrooms into low-quality distilled spirits with more than 35 proofs and mixing it with
sugar and molasses (Mizuno etal. 1995). Thus, alcoholic beverages made using mushrooms, except of
characteristic avor and aroma, seem to be a functional source which can be expected to have also health
benets (Okamura-Matsui etal. 2003).
Finally, some beauty products, like skin creams and lotions, contain mushroom extracts. For example
L. edodes preparations came in market containing the mushroom compound kojic acid, a natural alter-
native to hydroquinone that improves appearance of skin by bleaching it to fade scars and age spots
(Rahman and Choudhury 2012). Another example of mushroom application is articial skin and wound
cover products, based on the high content of β-glucan and chitin of the fungal cell walls, as these sub-
stances enhance wound healing. The basic of the production of the fungal-based skin patches is in
extensive extraction and washing of mycelia (or fruit bodies), so that only water insoluble biopolymers,
like β-glucan and chitin, remain (Zivanovic 2006). Sua etal. (1997) mention “Sacchachitin” as a product
of this kind, prepared as a woven skin substitute from the mycelium or waste residue of the fruit body of
Ganoderma tsugae.
22.7.2 Dietary Supplements: Nutraceutical Products
Mushroom nutraceuticals are preparations (rened or not) derived from fruit bodies or fungal mycelium
(produced in submerged culture) that possess nutritional and/or health-promoting properties and which
are consumed in the form of tonics, capsules, or tablets as a dietary supplement (Chang and Buswell
1996). Many commercial products from medicinal mushrooms are available worldwide. Some exam-
ples, mentioned by Zivanovic (2006), include “Concord Sunchih” and “Reishi Plus” from G. lucidum,
“Grifon” from G. frondosa, “Didanosine” from Cordyceps militaris, “Calvacin” from Calvatia gigan-
tea, “Lentinan,” “Lentinacin” or “Lentysine,” “KS-2,” “LEM,” and “LAP” from L. edodes, “PSK”
and “Krestin” from Trametes versicolor, “Befungin” from Inonotus obliquus, “Sonilan,” “SPG,” and
“Schizophyllan” from Schizophyllum commune, ATOM” and “AB-FP” from Agaricus blazei, and
“Lovastatin” from P. ostreatus. These products include water or alcohol extracts, concentrates, and pow-
ders in bulk or tablet form (Zivanovic 2006).
Mushroom substances include low-molecular-weight compounds (LMW, e.g., quinones, cerebrosides,
isoavones, catechols, amines, triacylglycerols, sesquiterpenes, steroids, organic germanium, and sele-
nium) and high-molecular-weight compounds (HMW, e.g., homo- and heteropolysaccharides, glyco-
proteins, glycopeptides, proteins, and RNA–protein complexes) (Ferreira etal. 2010). The mushrooms
might be used directly in the diet to promote health, taking advantage of the additive and synergistic
effects of the mentioned bioactive compounds present in them. The majority of mushroom-based nutra-
ceutical products are not single bioactive compounds but combinations of several individual components
that together contribute to the overall bioactivity of the product (Reis etal. 2012). It is believed that
combinations of these bioactive components target the human immune system as well as aid in neuron
transmission, metabolism, hormonal balance, and the transport of nutrients and oxygen.
Mushroom immunomodulatory effects are mostly attributed to β-glucans. The β-glucans are of par-
ticular interest since they are naturally occurring polymers of glucose, are orally active when taken as
food supplements, and have a long track record of safe use (Chan etal. 2009). Due to their immuno-
modulatory properties, puried β-glucans have been used clinically as part of a combination therapy
for a variety of cancers (Thompson etal. 2010). In Japan, Russia, China, and the United States several
different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and
culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (L. edodes, G. lucidum, S. commune, T. versicolor, I.
obliquus, Flammulina velutipes, etc.). Mushroom polysaccharides have recently attracted attention and it
is not surprising that a number of companies process medicinal mushrooms into extracts, which can then
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516 Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
be used in the production of health foods, drinks, and dietary supplements. As a result, functional food
market reached an approximately 50%–60% growth in value sales over a 5-year period, being estimated
in excess of €10 billion in Europe (Van Griensven 2013).
Regarding clinical studies of antitumor activity and immunomodulating action of biologically active
metabolites, mostly polysaccharides (β-glucans) from mushroom fruit bodies and/or cultured mycelium,
lentinan from L. edodes, schizophyllan from S. commune, MD-fraction from G. frondosa, and com-
pounds from T. versicolor (PSK and PSP) have been in clinical use, especially in Japan and China,
for the adjuvant tumor therapy (immunotherapy) in addition to the major cancer therapies like surgi-
cal operation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (Lindequist etal. 2005). Among mushrooms, L . edodes
(shiitake) has been studied most extensively (antitumor and immunostimulating properties revised by
Shen etal. (2011), while epidemiological evidence has shown a correlation between daily mushroom
consumption and a low rate of cancer mortality in Japan. Application of lentinan (parenteral) in addi-
tion to chemotherapy led to prolongation of survival time, restoration of immunological parameters,
and improvement of life quality in patients with stomach cancer, colon cancer, and other carcinomas in
comparison to patients who had chemotherapy alone (Lindequist etal. 2005). Moreover, the Phellinus
linteus extract antitumor activity has been demonstrated by Collins etal. (2006). The anticancer drug
doxorubicin (Dox), known to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells, can damage
healthy cells in higher doses. The effect of P. linteus extract on Dox-induced apoptosis was investigated
in prostate cancer cells (Collins etal. 2006). The research showed that P. linteus or Dox, at relatively
low doses, could not kill these cells. However, combination treatment at low doses of P. linteus and Dox
results in a synergistic effect and brought about death in prostate cells. These ndings indicate that P.
linteus has a synergistic effect with Dox to activate a benecial decline in prostate cancer cells, indicat-
ing its therapeutic potential. Additionally, it has been shown that applying extracts of T. versicolor to
postoperative immunochemotherapy has led to signicant advantages in survival over chemotherapy
alone. Next to a direct inuence on survival, mushroom extracts could possibly affect the side effects of
radio- and chemotherapy (Van Griensven 2013).
22.7.3 Mushroom Industry Spent By-Products
Mushroom harvesting furnishes a great amount of waste consisting mainly of stipes (stems or stalks) and
mushrooms of irregular shape. Depending on the size of the mushroom farm, the amount of waste ranges
between 20% and 30% of production volume. This results in thousands of metric tons of waste material
per year with no suitable commercial use. A great part of mushroom wastes consist of the bases or stipes
that have tough texture and are usually considered to be a waste product when mushrooms are harvested.
These cut-off bases or stipes make up about 25%–33% of the weight of fresh mushrooms, and they are
normally used to make low-economic value animal feed and compost (Chou etal. 2013). However, this
fruit body waste, apart from the nutritional use as animal feed, is a good source of insoluble dietary bers
and glucans that can be used for the preparation of biologically active polysaccharide complexes utiliz-
able as food supplements (Synytsya etal. 2008). Also, stipe residue is a potential source of fungal chitin,
chitosan, and their derivatives that can be used as an antimicrobial, emulsifying, thickening, and stabiliz-
ing agent in food industry (Yen and Mau 2007). Additionally, the underutilized wastes, which are good
nitrogen sources, have been found to have a high content of polysaccharides, which exhibited prebiotic
activity and might become an important source of novel prebiotics (Synytsya etal. 2009; Chou etal. 2013).
Moreover, mushroom industries generate a big supply of an organic by-product called spent mushroom
substrate (SMS). This is the unutilized substrate (composted agro-residues) and the mushroom mycelium
left after harvesting of mushrooms (1kg of mushrooms usually generates 5kg of SMS). As the mush-
room industry is steadily growing, the volume of SMS generated annually is increasing along with the
concerns of its environmental impact (the usual disposal strategy of SMS is by burning, spreading on
land, burying, composting, or land-lling). Actually, the mushroom industry faces challenges in storing
and disposing the SMS, using environmentally friendly practices. These challenges include the relatively
high salt and water content of SMS, its bulkiness (resulting in high transportation costs).
However, SMS has desirable chemical, physical, and biological properties that could be explored for
new value-added uses and products, such as soil conditioner and organic fertilizer, land restoration,
K21711_C022.indd 516 4/30/2015 12:32:20 AM
517Cultivated Mushrooms
casing for mushroom production, plant disease control, bedding for livestock housing, feedstock for heat
and power production, in vermiculture as a growing medium, bioremediation using SMS as a source
of crude oxidizing enzymes like laccase (restoration of contaminated soils and water, e.g., from bio-
cides, fungicides, and phenolic compounds), production of lignocellulosic enzymes such as laccase, xyla-
nase, lignin peroxidase, cellulase, and hemicellulase (Rinker 2002; Suess and Curtis 2006; Rigas etal.
2009; Phan and Sabaratnam 2012; Philippoussis and Diamantopoulou 2012; Papadopoulou etal. 2013).
Furthermore, numerous studies have shown the feasibility of using SMS to produce animal feed (Rinker
2002), mainly the use of the protein-enriched residues of Pleurotus spp. production as forage source in
maintenance rations for ruminants (Bae etal. 2006; Kim etal. 2010).
22.8 Conclusions
This chapter contains an integrated presentation of mushrooms’ physiology and particular features and
how these affect their storage and processing, indicating that edible mushrooms are difcult materials
for storage and processing. However, there are numerous methods for mushroom processing, the most
popular of which being drying, canning, and freezing. Under this view and keeping in mind that mush-
rooms are important mainstream for production of food and nonfood items, further innovation of the
sector is needed along with constant scientic and market research, development, and technical support.
Mushroom harvesting wastes and SMS need to be reclassied as by-products of the mushroom growing
process and not as wastes as they can be used in many biotechnological and environmental applications.
Moreover, as there is increasing interest worldwide in the many bioactive compounds and metabolites
that are found in cultivated and wild fungi, a large number of mushrooms have been studied and used
as food additives, as a source of biologically active constituents (contained in fruiting bodies or cul-
tured mycelia) or health food supplements. However, additional work is needed toward exploitation of
the health benecial compounds in mushrooms from a pharmaceutical and functional-food perspective.
Future medicinal mushroom research should provide trustworthy results of clinical tests in humans as
well as information on the effects of various cultivation, storage, and preservation treatments on mush-
room constituents, especially those with positive health effects.
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... However, the presence of large amount of moisture in Pleurotus mushrooms makes them highly susceptible to spoilage with a shelf life of only 2-3 days. Dehydration is a traditional method of food conservation, based on the principle that the reduction of the water activity during drying inhibits microbiological and physicochemical changes responsible for spoilage (Diamantopoulou et al., 2015) [3] . A number of methods can be employed for drying of oyster mushrooms, sun and solar drying being traditional ones. ...
... However, the presence of large amount of moisture in Pleurotus mushrooms makes them highly susceptible to spoilage with a shelf life of only 2-3 days. Dehydration is a traditional method of food conservation, based on the principle that the reduction of the water activity during drying inhibits microbiological and physicochemical changes responsible for spoilage (Diamantopoulou et al., 2015) [3] . A number of methods can be employed for drying of oyster mushrooms, sun and solar drying being traditional ones. ...
Full-text available
In this study, the physicochemical properties of freeze dried oyster mushroom powder were analyzed. The proximate composition result showed that oyster mushroom contains moisture content 4.98%, protein content 22.97%, crude fat 3.17%, total ash 7.54%, fiber content 25.44% and carbohydrate content was found to be 61.34%, respectively. The bulk density which is an important functional parameter was found to be 0.59 g/ml and the total phenol content was found to be 35.46 mgGAE/g. The color profile of freeze dried oyster mushroom i.e; L* value found to be 82.42, a* value of 1.49 and b* value 12.42. By virtue of having high fibre, protein with low fat and high phenol content, oyster mushroom powders can be considered as a functional food, which can provide health benefits.
... Measured and predicted values of M1, M2, and M3 shelf-life (days) during storage at ambient temperature are shown in Table 2, based on the designed CCD matrix. The type of packaging plays a major role in the determination of fresh mushroom shelf-life [40]. Additionally, the type of growing mixture naturally may affect the shelf-life of freshly harvested mushrooms. ...
... Average shelf-life of 8.0-11.0 and 4.0-6.0 days were earlier reported when fresh oyster mushrooms were stored at freezing and low temperatures (0 and 5 °C), respectively [40,52]. The current study outlined an average shelf-life of 5.0-7.6 days when mushrooms were stored unpacked at 4 °C, being in line with the aforementioned findings of Villaescusa and Gil [52] at low temperatures. ...
Full-text available
The short shelf-life of mushrooms, due to water loss and microbial spoilage, is the main constraint for commercialization and consumption. The effect of substrate type combined with different temperatures and packaging conditions on the shelf-life of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus is scantily researched. The current study investigated the shelf-life of fresh oyster mushrooms grown on low (0.3, 0.3, 0.17) and high (0.7, 0.7, 0.33) rates of olive pruning residues (OLPR), spent coffee grounds (SCG), and both combined residues (OLPR/SCG) with wheat straw (WS), respectively, at ambient (20 °C) and 4 °C temperatures under no packaging, polyethylene plastic bag packaging (PBP), and polypropylene vacuum bag packaging (VBP). Results showed that at ambient temperature OLPR/SCG mushrooms PBP-bagged had an increased shelf-life by 0.5-1.2 days in comparison with WS ones. The predictive models adopted to optimize mushroom shelf-life at ambient temperature set rates of 0.289 and 0.303 of OLPR and OLPR/SCG, respectively, and PBP as the most suitable conditions (9.18 and 9.14 days, respectively). At 4 °C, OLPR/SCG mushrooms VBP-bagged had a longer shelf-life of 2.6-4.4 days compared to WS ones. Predictive models noted a maximized shelf-life of VBP-bagged mushrooms (26.26 days) when a rate of 0.22 OLPR/SCG is incorporated into the initial substrate. The combination of OLPR and SCG increased the shelf-life of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus by decreasing the total microbial count (TMC) while delaying weight loss and veil opening, and maintaining carbohydrate content, good firmness, and considerable protein, in comparison with WS regardless the storage temperature and packaging type.
... Introduction: Button mushrooms are very popular and account for 30 % of the world's mushroom production (Royse, 2014). It has been reported that the Agaricus bisporus mushroom has a shelf life of one to three days at 20−25 ºC, and five to seven days at 4 ºC (Diamantopoulou & Philippoussis, 2015;Jiang, 2013). Throughout the short shelf life of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), a few quality degradation processes emerge, including moisture loss, discoloration as browning, texture changes, off-flavor, and nutritional loss, reducing their economic value (Ding et al., 2016). ...
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Introduction: Button mushrooms are very popular and account for 30 % of the world's mushroom production (Royse, 2014). It has been reported that the Agaricus bisporus mushroom has a shelf life of one to three days at 20−25 ºC, and five to seven days at 4 ºC (Diamantopoulou & Philippoussis, 2015; Jiang, 2013). Throughout the short shelf life of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), a few quality degradation processes emerge, including moisture loss, discoloration as browning, texture changes, off-flavor, and nutritional loss, reducing their economic value (Ding et al., 2016). This phenomenon is accompanied by the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, due to the decline of the ROS scavenging power of the cell. Numerous studies have been performed on maintaining the postharvest quality of fresh mushrooms and postponing their deterioration (Zhu et al., 2021; Shekari et al., 2021). Extensive investigations reported that the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule primarily acts on the regulation of physiological functions associated with nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and H2O2 in animals and plants (Hancock and Whiteman, 2016; Beltowski, 2019). Zheng et al. (2016) stated that postharvest exogenous H2S treatment of fresh-cut apples mitigated enzymatic browning. In the present investigation, NaHS solution as an H2S donor was applied to fumigate edible white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in the postharvest and its effects on cap browning index, percent open caps, weight loss, dry matter, firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenol, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging in edible white button mushroom during shelf life for 6 days were evaluated. Material and methods: Fresh button mushrooms were selected on the basis of the uniformity of maturity and size. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was applied as an H2S donor. Each treatment was implemented in three replications. To prepare the solution, NaHS was dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water in 3 L sealed containers at room temperature, then mushrooms were exposed to 0 (control; distilled water), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mM NaHS for 20 min. Afterward, treated mushrooms were maintained for 6 days at shelf life. Samplings of mushrooms were taken at 0, 2, 4, and 6 days after treatment. To calculate the browning index (BI), photographs of edible mushroom samples were taken on sampling days, and L, a, and b were calculated in the Photoshop software environment (Aghdam et al., 2019). Percent open caps were measured according to Jiang et al's (2011) method. Weight loss was measured according to the method of Sing et al (2016). Dry matter was measured according to Kalberer's (1991) method. The firmness of the mushrooms was measured by a digital firmness tester by the method of Nasiri et al (2017). A spectrophotometric procedure described by Terada et al (1978) was used for the determination of ascorbic acid content. Total phenolics were measured using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent by Singleton and Rossi (1965) method. DPPH radical was used to measure scavenging activity according to the method of Dokhanieh and Aghdam (2016). Data were analyzed using SAS software and the comparison of means was performed using Tukey’s test for p < 0.05. Graphs were drawn using Excel software. Results and discussion: Our results showed that the cap browning index of mushrooms treated with 0.5 mM NaHS as donor H2S was significantly lower than that of control samples during 6 days of shelf life. Similar results were observed regarding the color retention of strawberry and broccoli fruits treated with NaHS donor H2S during the postharvest period (Molinett et al. 2021; Hu et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). The percentage of weight loss and cap opening of mushrooms treated with 0.5 mM NaHS was significantly lower, and the percentage of dry matter and firmness were higher compared to the control mushrooms. The high dry matter content of mushrooms is related to their lower weight loss (Loon et al. 2000). The results of the present experiment are consistent with the results of Ni et al.'s (2016) studies, which showed that fumigation with H2S reduces the weight loss of grape bunches by increasing firmness and preventing senescence. Also, the use of NaHS treatment in strawberries caused a higher firmness of its fruits due to the decrease in the activity of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase enzymes (Molinett et al. 2021; Hu et al. 2014). Since H2S reduced the water loss rate of mushrooms treated with 0.5 mM NaHS, the percent cap opens of these mushrooms was much lower and their ascorbic acid content was higher compared to the control treatment. The lower decrease of ascorbic acid in button mushrooms treated with 0.5 mM NaHS donor H2S can be attributed to its antioxidant effects, which cause a decrease in physiological activities related to senescence. The use of 0.5 mM NaHS treatment led to an increase in total phenol in button mushrooms. A similar increase in total phenolic content along with maintaining quality has also been reported in hawthorn and apple fruits treated with H2S during storage Aghdam et al., 2018; Zheng et al., 2016). In this experiment, DPPH radical scavenging activities were higher in button mushrooms treated with 0.5 mM NaHS donor H2S compared to the control group during shelf life, which indicates that DPPH radical scavenging is improved after H2S fumigation. Conclusion: In summary, in this experiment, the positive effect of postharvest NaHS treatment as an H2S donor on the quality and antioxidant characteristics of edible white button mushrooms during a shelf life for 6 days was observed. The results of our study showed that postharvest H2S fumigation treatment of button mushrooms with 0.5 mM NaHS led to a reduction in postharvest senescence with delayed cap browning, a lower percentage of open caps, lower weight loss, and higher firmness than the control during the shelf life, which is probably related to maintaining the stability of the cell membrane during shelf life. In addition, button mushrooms fumigated by H2S showed increased antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging during shelf life, which was caused by increased accumulation of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in these mushrooms. In general, it can be concluded that the use of postharvest H2S fumigation treatment of the button mushrooms by maintaining the quality and antioxidant characteristics can be a suitable method to delay postharvest senescence and increase the shelf life of edible white button mushrooms.
... The reduction of organic load through cultivation of edible fungi is gaining particular attention [5][6][7][8][9][10]. The cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms, especially those belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, has experienced an increasing growth rate in recent years [8,[11][12][13][14]. Commercial mushrooms such as shiitake (Lentinula sp.), button mushrooms (Agaricus sp.), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) and wood ear mushrooms (Auricularia sp.) are rich in protein, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, while low in fat content [8,[14][15][16]. ...
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Valorization of lignocellulosic biomass, such as Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS), as an alternative substrate for biogas production could meet the increasing demand for energy. In view of this, the present study aimed at the biotechnological valorization of SMS for biogas production. In the first part of the study, two SMS chemical pretreatment processes were investigated and subsequently combined with thermal treatment of the mentioned waste streams. The acidic chemical hydrolysate derived from the hydrothermal treatment, which yielded in the highest concentration of free sugars (≈36 g/100 g dry SMS, hydrolysis yield ≈75% w/w of holocellulose), was used as a potential feedstock for biomethane production in a laboratory bench-scale improvised digester, and 52 L biogas/kg of volatile solids (VS) containing 65% methane were produced in a 15-day trial of anaerobic digestion. As regards the alkaline hydrolysate, it was like a pulp due to the lignocellulosic matrix disruption, without releasing additional sugars, and the biogas production was delayed for several days. The biogas yield value was 37 L/kg VS, and the methane content was 62%. Based on these results, it can be concluded that SMS can be valorized as an alternative medium employed for anaerobic digestion when pretreated with both chemical and hydrothermal hydrolysis.
... Это проявляется в потемнении и раскрытии шляпки, удлинении ножки, потере веса и изменении текстуры в связи с повышением интенсивности дыхания и др. [17][18][19][20]. Cрок годности грибов A. bisporus составляет 3 суток при температуре 20-25 °С и до 8 суток в условиях охлаждения при 0-2 °С [21,22]. ...
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Ultraviolet treatment increases the shelf life of plant products. It inhibits the changes in the quality indicators of raw materials that are responsible for storage capacity. The research objective was to establish qualitative indicators for champignons (Agaricus bisporus) after ultraviolet treatment. Fresh champignons were placed in plastic trays and sealed in plastic bags. The samples were treated with ultraviolet radiation in ranges A, B, and C. After that, they were stored in a refrigerator at 4 ± 2°C for 16 days, i.e., until the end of storage period. The quality indicators underwent a paired two-sample test, which defined the equality/inequality of variances in replicates and equality/inequality of means at a given error probability (α). The obtained indicators characterized the degradation of mushroom plant tissue after ultraviolet treatment during storage: texture, moisture content, weight loss, soluble solids, pH, lightness, and color. The authors developed a new approach to determine significant changes in the quality indicators and estimated probability values. For each range, they established the most effective dose at α = 0.05 and 0.1. All the indicators proved significant for range A samples at 327.8–800.0 J/m2 and α = 0.05; all indicators were significant except weight loss in the range from 219.5 to 800.0 J/m2 at α = 0.1. For range B samples, pH, color, and lightness were significant at 104.6–200.0 J/m2 and α = 0.05; all but mass loss and texture were significant at 172.2–200.0 J/m2 and α = 0.1. For range C samples, pH, color, and lightness were significant at 412.4–439.5 J/m2 and 755.9–800.0 J/m2 at α = 0.05; all indicators were significant at 363.3–486.2 J/m2 and 728.2–800.0 J/m2 at α = 0.1. The new analytical method made it possible to determine the ranges of external effect intensity, in which the changes in the indicator were significant or insignificant.
... Sodium metabisulphate has been shown to have severe adverse allergic effects on asthmatic patients, so its use is currently prohibited. Therefore the use of sodium metabislfite has replaced by chlorine dioxide, citric acid, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) etc. which have shown the promising effects [6,8]. ...
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Mushrooms represent an attractive food for vegetarians due to the high-biological-value proteins and vitamin D content. Mushroom is considered as a functional food rich in both nutrients and medicinal properties. Mushrooms cannot be stored for a long period moreover during processing they show change in colour and texture. There are many traditional and emerging techniques for mushroom preservation. In general, most of the conservation techniques have shown a positive effect on the maintenance of key quality parameters of mushrooms. The development of packaging for the preservation of fresh mushrooms needs to incorporate in sustainable packaging. In this chapter we have reviewed selected preservation methods for mushrooms.
... [12] If wastes are left in the field, large pollution problems occur or burning of those can be another choice for extinguishing, but carbon dioxide causes the release of undesirable global warming gases at this time. [1] For these reasons, spent coffee grounds, [12] paddy straw, sugarcane bagasse, coir pith, sorghum straw, ragi straw, mixed bed, [13] sawdust of mango, jackfruit, coconut, kadom, mahogany, shiris, jam, [14] rice straw, cotton waste, banana leaves, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens leaves and wood chippings [15,16] have been utilized in Pleurotus spp. cultivation. ...
Two edible Pleurotus species, namely, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor grown in the media of mulberry shavings which were substituted with myrtle, bay laurel, and rosemary leaves were studied. According to volatile profiles, 13 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 alcohols, 5 aromatic compounds and 4 terpenes were totally identified. Rosemary leaves were very effective for decreasing the concentrations of some oxidation products in Pleurotus citrinopileatus, but the same impact was not seen in Pleurotus djamor. The high amount of benzaldehyde (41.80%) detected in bay laurel medium might have played a role in preventing bioactivity. Control Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor had a total phenolic content of 4284.89 and 3080.04 mg GAE per kg DM respectively, and the enrichment of composts with aromatic plant leaves caused significant differences in Pleurotus djamor (p<0.05). Myrtle addition increased total phenolic content and antioxidant activities (by DPPH and FRAP assays) of Pleurotus djamor mushroom as 342.29 mg GAE/kg DM, 0.43 μmol TE/g DM and 2.07 μmol TE/g DM respectively, when compared to intact one.
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The main aim of this research was to apply biopolymer coatings on osmotically dehydrated mushrooms and monitor their quality during storage. Mushrooms were osmotically dehydrated in sugar beet molasses (80% dry matter) under optimized conditions (45 °C for 5 hours), as previously reported elsewhere. Two different biopolymers were chosen: chitosan, a polysaccharide polymer, and zein, a protein polymer. A non-treated mushroom sample was chosen as a control sample. The mushroom samples were analysed for sugar and protein content, as well as water loss and microbiological profile. An increase in sugar content was the most noticeable in the osmotically dehydrated mushrooms compared to the control sample due to the use of molasses as a hypertonic solution. The contribution of used biopolymer coatings to the sugar and protein content of the coated and osmotically treated mushrooms was negligible. Chitosan coating contributed to better storage stability of treated mushrooms by lowering the moisture loss and microbial count. For this reason, chitosan treated sample was chosen for further examination related to the evaluation of its baking potential as a filling in a traditional stuffed pie-like layered bakery product - burek. Burek was stuffed with fresh mushrooms, osmotically treated mushrooms or osmotically treated mushrooms coated with chitosan. The sensorial assessment proved that control burek and burek samples with osmotically dehydrated mushrooms coated with chitosan were the most preferred groups based on odour and overall impression.
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Abstract: Mushrooms have been used as food supplement from times immemorial not only for their flavour, aroma and nutritive values but also for their medicinal properties as evident from ancient literature. In the present day world they are known for culinary values due to their high-quality proteins, vitamins, fibres and many medicinal properties and accordingly they are called nutraceuticals. Pleurotus as health promoter and environmental restorer is gaining more importance as compared to other medicinal mushrooms resulting in an upsurge in their R and D activities during the past two decades. The chemical nature of the bioactive compounds present in this mushroom includes: polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, proteins, peptides, glycoproteins, nucleosides, triterpenoids, lectins, lipids and their derivatives. In this review databases were extensively searched, collected and analysed with an aim to update the present status and to project future prospects of Pleurotus for their biomedical potentials. The presented information will give a new notion to researchers for upgrading Pleurotus species from functional food to holistic mushroom medicine.
Since the publication of the first edition, important developments have emerged in modern mushroom biology and world mushroom production and products. The relationship of mushrooms with human welfare and the environment, medicinal properties of mushrooms, and the global marketing value of mushrooms and their products have all garnered great attention, identifying the need for an updated, authoritative reference. Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, Second Edition presents the latest cultivation and biotechnological advances that contribute to the modernization of mushroom farming and the mushroom industry. It describes the individual steps of the complex mushroom cultivation process, along with comprehensive coverage of mushroom breeding, efficient cultivation practices, nutritional value, medicinal utility, and environmental impact. Maintaining the format, organization, and focus of the previous edition, this thoroughly revised edition includes the most recent research findings and many new references. It features new chapters on medicinal mushrooms and the effects of pests and diseases on mushroom cultivation. There are also updated chapters on specific edible mushrooms, and an expanded chapter on technology and mushrooms. Rather than providing an encyclopedic review, this book emphasizes worldwide trends and developments in mushroom biology from an international perspective. It takes an interdisciplinary approach that will appeal to industrial and medical mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, and professionals and scientists in related fields. This book illustrates that mushroom cultivation has and will continue to have a positive global impact on long-term food nutrition, health care, environmental conservation and regeneration, and economic and social change.