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Detecting Essential Oil Adulteration

  • Young Living Essential Oils
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000132
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: JREAC, an open access journal
Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Boren et al., J Environ Anal Chem 2015, 2:2
Review Article Open Access
Detecting Essential Oil Adulteration
Boren KE, Young DG, Woolley CL, Smith BL, Carlson RE
Young Living Essential Oils, 3125 Executive Parkway, Lehi, UT 84043, USA
*Corresponding author: Carlson RE, Young Living Essential Oils, 3125
Executive Parkway, Lehi, UT 84043, USA, Tel: 801-418-8900; E-mail:
Received September 09, 2014; Accepted February 13, 2015; Published February
16, 2015
Citation: Boren KE, Young DG, Woolley CL, Smith BL, Carlson RE (2015) Detecting
Essential Oil Adulteration. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 132. doi:10.4172jreac.1000132
Copyright: © 2015 Boren KE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Nearly two millennia ago, Pliny the Elder wrote, “It is the natural
propensity of man to falsify and corrupt everything.” His words referred
to such practices as the then-common adulteration of wine with gypsum,
pitch, lime, rosin, wood ashes, salt, sulphur, articial pigments, etc [1].
While wine fraud is still with us, the more common food adulteration is
the topic of over 60,000 studies on PubMed, where this contamination
is termed Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) [2].
Riding a popular natural health trend, the aromatherapy market in
the United States enjoyed retail sales of nearly $32 million in 2012, a
17.7% increase over 2011 totals [3]. e United States is home to a large
direct-sale essential oil industry as well. More impressive gains were
posted for world trade in essential oils: sales rose from just over U.S.
$706 million in 1990 to slightly over U.S. $1.7 billion in 2005 [4].
Unfortunately, this burgeoning market has encouraged the
adulteration of essential oils. A brief Medline search revealed 30 studies
dealing with this topic. A study conducted at the University of Messina in
Italy reports that “Unscrupulous producers have begun to fraudulently
increase prots while keeping down raw material costs mainly through
the addition of cheaper oils or oil constituents” [5]. While Pliny was
undoubtedly at the forefront of rst-century chemistry, his simple
balsam purity test—“Moreover a drop of pure balsam thickens in warm
water, settling to the bottom of the vessel, whereas when adulterated it
oats on the top like oil” [6], would hardly pass muster today.
Some oil adulterations are easily red-agged with routine testing;
e.g., adulterated cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum) essential oil
that has been diluted with cheaper cinnamon leaf oil can be detected
because leaf oil has a higher content of eugenol, which is handily
ascertained with GC analysis. Other adulterations require more
advanced technology. A 1997 study in the Journal of Essential Oil
Research states that “as the latest progress in origin specic analysis of
essential oils and avors, an integral authenticity evaluation, including
isotopic data, enantiomeric distributions, as well as quantication of
compounds analyzed, has been established” [7].
However, a worldwide consensus for essential oil constituent
standards has not yet been established. e International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) and Association Française de Normalisation
(AFNOR) have set constituent levels for certain essential oils. However,
hundreds of oils lack international standards, creating uncertainty.
International standards are critical for essential oil trade and commerce.
An upsurge in worldwide essential oil sales seems to have intensied corrupt practices by unscrupulous cost-
cutters and adulterators with varying levels of expertise. From outright misrepresentation of botanical species to the
addition of cheaper oils to create additional prot for the oil producer, adulteration is unfortunately a common place
occurrence in essential oil trade.
The most adulterated essential oils fall into two categories: high-value oils like sandalwood and rose and the best-
selling oils such as lavender, peppermint, citrus oils, wintergreen, oregano, and thyme. While some adulterations can
be detected simply by routine GC-MS testing, with technology such as GC-IRMS and SNIF-NMR, analysts are able to
spot adulteration with synthetic compounds or the natural compounds and/or oil fractions taken from cheaper essential
oils. Today’s cutting-edge technology for essential oil adulteration detection encompasses many analytical techniques
from HPLC and fast GC to GC × GC, IRMS to MS, 1H, and 13C NMR.
This paper is a review of 30 studies dating up to May 2014 that detail the analytical procedures used to uncover
essential oil adulteration in order to ensure that essential oils are authentic and genuine.
Meeting Essential Oil Standards
For the oils that do have ISO standards, natural variations resulting
from climate, geography, and altitude must be considered.
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil is the perfect example. e
U.S. produces nearly 80% of global peppermint essential oil, most of
which is grown specically for avoring gum, candy, food, toothpaste,
mouthwash, pharmaceuticals, and confectionaries. It is estimated that
less than 1% of the U.S.-grown peppermint essential oil is available to
the aromatherapy/alternative health care industry. is makes India the
largest supplier of peppermint essential oil for aromatherapy markets
and introduces geographically unique oil when analyzing for possible
adulteration. Because of geographical dierences, ISO standards are
dierent for U.S.-grown peppermint and the peppermint grown in
India also produces cornmint (Mentha arvensis), a less-expensive
mint plant that is frequently used as a peppermint adulterant. is
can be avoided by carefully considering analytical analyses. Cornmint
is higher in menthol, while peppermint contains unique marker
compounds that identify it as genuine. Menthofuran is found in
peppermint in levels from 0.4 to 14.6%, while this compound is either
not detected or is detected only in levels up to 0.01% in cornmint. e
biomarker viridioral is found in peppermint up to 0.9%, while it is not
detected in cornmint.
Enantiomeric Analyses
Mosandl reports that “the systematic evaluation of natural
enantiomeric ratios has been proven to be a valuable criterion for
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000132
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Boren KE, Young DG, Woolley CL, Smith BL, Carlson RE (2015) Detecting Essential Oil Adulteration. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 132.
Page 2 of 3
dierentiating natural compounds from those of synthetic origin
and that “under good manufacturing practice (GMP) the chirality
evaluation of linalool has been proven to be a reliable indicator in the
authenticity assessment of bergamot, sweet orange, or lavender oils”
[8]. Chanotiya et al. employed enantiomeric composition studies as
indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oils of Indian
origin: Citrus sinensis, basil, bergamot, rose, geranium, Lippia alba,
Zingiber roseum, lemongrass, and oregano [9].
Researchers at Service Central d’Analyse in France tested for
adulteration in the essential oils of lemon, lemongrass, citronella,
Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, and lemon balm (Melissa ocinalis).
ey report: “Our results indicate the utility of combined chiral and
isotope analysis and use of the statistical method PCA for analysis of
composition for detecting the adulteration and for determining the
botanic origin of essential oils” [10].
Orthogonal Methodology
Swiss researchers note in a May 2014 study, “Since a control of
authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using
elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination
of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed” [11]. One such
method was employed by French researchers using 2H-ERETIC-NMR
technology on 19 samples of methyl salicylate (natural/synthetic and
commercial/extracted). ey found that deuterium site-specic natural
isotope abundance “allows discrimination between synthetic and
natural samples. [12] Wintergreen remains one of the most commonly
adulterated essential oils, with the ease of synthetic methyl salicylate
substitution or dilution. In fact, synthetic methyl salicylate is also
known as “oil of wintergreen.
Cold-pressed citrus oils are found in multiple products relating
to human health. Because of their high cost, synthetic chemicals and
cheaper essential oils are common adulterants.
An Italian study using fast-GC/MS and HPLC analysis shows that
a lemon essential oil was found to contain herniarin, isopimpinellin,
and 5-heranyloxy-8-methoxypsoralen, normally present only in lime
oil. is study concludes, “e experimental results shown in this
study demonstrate that fast-GC/MS and HPLC remain one of the most
eective means to detect these illegal modications” [13]. HPLC and
GCxGC were the technologies used to determine genuineness of two
citrus oils, bergamot and sweet orange, in a recent Italian study [14].
A study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran
reports that many of 19 tested samples of rose water did not contain
rose essential oil but instead had the cheaper essential oil of palmarosa
(Cymbopogon martinii), as determined by unusual δ (13)C values using
GC/IRMS analysis. It states, “e increase in market demand has led
to production of inferior products for hydrosol that contain synthetic
essences or essential oils of other plants. Dibutyl phthalate was also
detected in most samples” [15]. e latter plasticizing chemical is
known as a reproductive and developmental toxicant and endocrine
Hervé Casabianca on yme Adulteration
In a communication [16] from Hervé Casabianca, French expert
in natural product analysis, he reiterates that using classical analysis,
a person is not able to dierentiate a natural from a synthetic avoring
molecule. He explained that by using IRMS, we can easily compare
natural versus synthetic thymol because natural thymol must be
deuterium depleted and 18O enriched. Casabianca’s research using
deuterium/hydrogen ratio analysis of the essential oil constituent’s
thymol, carvacrol, gamma-terpinene, and p-cymene is published in the
Journal of Chromatography A [17].
Rose and Sandalwood Adulteration
We close with research on adulteration of high-value essential oils.
Rose oil (Rosa damascena) sells for as much as U.S. $240 for a
5-milliliter bottle. It is, therefore, no surprise that university scientists
from Italy used GC/C/IRMS in combination with GC/MS and GC/FID
analysis on 19 commercial samples and found unusual δ (13)C values
in most of the oils, indicating that a natural, cheaper palmarosa oil
(Cymbopogon martinii) had been added [18].
Vankar reports the rose oil adulterator “now has to his disposal a
number of natural isolates of lower-priced oils. e most important of
these are geraniol and rhodinol (l-citronellol). If added in moderate
quantities, these compounds cannot be detected in rose oil by mere
routine analysis” [19]. Chanotiya, as previously mentioned, used
enantioselective capillary gas chromatograph-ame ionization and
mass spectrometry to determine the authenticity and quality of Indian
essential oils, including rose [20]. Moein notes Iranian rose water
samples were adulterated with less expensive essential oils (Pelargonium
and Dianthus) and synthetic essences [21].
Because of shortages related to sustainability issues, sandalwood
is an attractive target for adulteration. Distilled from the heartwood
of the tree, sandalwood essential oil international standards require
90% total santalol content. Testing in 2004 revealed all tested samples
failed to comply with the santalol content requirement, and only
about half of the samples met the ISO standard [22]. Kuriakose et al.
suggests that “NIR spectroscopy with chemometric techniques could
be successfully used as a rapid, simple, instant and non-destructive
method for the detection of adulterants, even 1% of the low-grade oils,
in the high quality form of sandalwood oil” [23].Updating the previous
2010 research in November 2013, Kuriakose et al. focused on “the
application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect sample authenticity
and quantify economic adulteration of sandalwood oils. Several pre-
treatments are investigated for calibration and prediction using partial
square regression (PLSR)” [24].
In summation, illegal essential oil adulteration and contamination
scandals now require sophisticated and highly technical methods to
authenticate the oils. Analytical chemistry must be employed in all its
forms to thwart the escalating, economic adulteration of these valued
therapeutic agents.
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6. Pliny (circa AD 23-79), Loeb Classical Library, Natural History, Books 12-16,
7. Mosandl A, Juchelka D (1997) Advances in the Authenticity Assessment of
Citrus Oils. J Ess Oil Res 9: 5-12.
Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000132
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Boren KE, Young DG, Woolley CL, Smith BL, Carlson RE (2015) Detecting Essential Oil Adulteration. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 132.
Page 3 of 3
8. Mosandl A (2004) Authenticity assessment: a permanent challenge in food
avor and essential oil analysis. J Chromatogr Sci 42: 440-449.
9. Chanotiya CS, Yadav A (2009) Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-
(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary
gas chromatography-ame ionization and mass spectrometry detection
methods. Nat Prod Commun 4: 563-566.
10. Nhu-Trang TT, Casabianca H, Grenier-Loustalot MF (2006) Authenticity control
of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-
chromatographic analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 386: 2141-2152.
11. Marti G, Boccard J, Mehl F, Debrus B, Marcourt L, et al. (2014) Comprehensive
proling and marker identication in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass
spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Food Chem 150: 235-245.
12. Le Grand F, George G, Akoka S (2005) Natural abundance 2H-ERETIC-NMR
authentication of the origin of methyl salicylate. J Agric Food Chem 53: 5125-
13. Costa R, op. cit.
14. Tranchida PQ, Zoccali M, Bonaccorsi I, Dugo P, Mondello L, et al. (2013)
The off-line combination of high performance liquid chromatography and
comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a
powerful approach for highly detailed essential oil analysis. J Chromatogr A
1305: 276-284.
15. Moein M, Zarshenas MM, Delnavaz S (2014) Chemical composition analysis of
rose water samples from Iran. Pharm Biol 52: 1358-1361.
16. Personal communication from Hervé Casabiana to Richard Carlson, June 11,
17. Nhu-Trang TT, Casabianca H, Grenier-Loustalot MF (2006) Deuterium/
hydrogen ratio analysis of thymol, carvacrol, gamma-terpinene and p-cymene
in thyme, savory and oregano essential oils by gas chromatography-pyrolysis-
isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Chromatog A 1132: 219-27.
18. Pellati F, Orlandini G, van Leeuwen KA, Anesin G, Bertelli D, et al. (2013) Gas
chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, ame ionization detection
and elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for characterization
and detecting the authenticity of commercial essential oils of Rosa damascena
Mill 27: 591-602.
19. Vankar PS (2003) Adulteration in Rose Oil. Natural Product Radiance 2: 180-
20. Chanotiya CS, op. cit.
21. Moein M, op. cit.
22. Howes MJ, Simmonds MS, Kite GC (2004) Evaluation of the quality of
sandalwood essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J
Chromatogr A 1028: 307-312.
23. Kuriakose S, Thankappan X, Joe H, Venkataraman V (2010) Detection
and quantication of adulteration in sandalwood oil through near infrared
spectroscopy. Analyst 135: 2676-2681.
24. Kuriakose S, Joe IH (2013) Feasibility of using near infrared spectroscopy to
detect and quantify an adulterant in high quality sandalwood oil. Spectrochim
Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 115: 568-573.
Citation: Boren KE, Young DG, Woolley CL, Smith BL, Carlson RE
(2015) Detecting Essential Oil Adulteration. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 132.
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As far as we know, there is no branch of industry where two-phase systems are not used. This is the chemical, thermal, physical and finally the oil industry. The process of studying two-phase systems is a branch of hydromechanics and reflects great scientific research works in recent times In the work under review, the main characteristics of the water-oil mixture were studied and the main hydromechanical indicators of this system were determined. The results of the conducted researches were applied in deep pump installations. The formation of these mixtures affects the operation of the submersible pump to some extent Keywords: oil, reservoir water, rods, pump working process, valves, pump cylinder.
Məqalədə ilk növbədə fiksal siyasətin ölkələr üçün zəruriliyi qeyd edilmiş, 2009-cu il Dünya İqtisadi Böhranından sonra fiskal siyasətin əhəmiyyətinin ölkələr tərəfindən daha dərindən mənimsənilməsinin səbəbləri göstərilmişdir. Fiskal siyasətin hazırlanması və tətbiq edilməsi zamanı fiskal risklərin ortaya çıxdığını göstərən araşdırmalar üzərində çalışmalar aparılmış və bu risklərin yaranma mənbələri və təbiəti haqqında geniş məlumat verilmişdir. Araşdırmalar zamanı xüsusilə yeni formalaşan iqtisadiyyatları və inkişaf etməkdə olan ölkələrin bu məsələyə kifayət qədər ciddi yanaşmadığı və lazımi tədbirlərin görülmədiyi müəyyən olunmuşdur. Həmçinin araşdırma zamanı ölkələrin fiskal dayanıqlılığının kifayət qədər sağlam olmadığı və xarici proeseslərdən həddindən artıq asılı olduğu müəyyən olunmuşdur. Araşdırma aparılan zaman bir çox mənbələrə istinad edilmişdir. Xüsusilə Dünya Bankı və Beynəlxalq Maliyyə Fondunun bu sahədə apardığı tədqiqatlar incəlnmiş və ölkələrin bu riskləri aradan qaldırması və idarə etməsi haqqında tövsiyyələr verilmişdir. Açar sözlər: fiskal siyasət, fiskal risklər, stres test, ödəmə qabiliyyəti, makroiqtisadi sabitlik.
İndiki zamanlarda insan həyatının bəzi maraqlı rolları məlumat, informasiya və bilikdir. Böyük məlumatların təhlili və modelləşdirilməsi məlumatların gələcək meyllərini proqnozlaşdırmaq və təhlil etmək üçün sürətli texnologiyaların inkişafı ilə birlikdə kütləvi məlumat anbarları tərəfin¬dən tələb olunur. Verilənlər bazalarında biliyin aşkarlanması üçün müxtəlif informasiya sistemlə¬rinin əhatə dairəsində istifadə olunan metodologiya və texnikalar lazımdır. Biliyi kəşf etmək üçün sərfəli məlumatları çıxaran texnologiyaya data mining deyilir. İnformasiya texnologiyalarının in¬san həyatının müxtəlif sahələrində yaranması qeydlər, sənədlər, şəkillər, səs yazıları, videolar, elmi məlumatlar və bir çox yeni məlumat formatları kimi müxtəlif formatlarda böyük həcmdə mə-lumatların saxlanmasına səbəb olmuşdur. Müxtəlif tətbiqlərdən toplanan məlumatlar daha yaxşı qərar qəbul etmək üçün böyük depolardan bilik/məlumat çıxarmaq üçün düzgün mexanizm tələb edir. Verilənlər bazasında bilik kəşfi (Discovery of Knowledge in Data KDD), çox vaxt da¬ta mi-ning adlanır, məqsəd böyük məlumat kolleksiyalarından faydalı məlumatların aşkar edilməsidir. Da¬ta mining-in əsas funksiyaları saxlanılan verilənlərin nümunələrini aşkar etmək və çıxarmaq üçün müxtəlif üsul və alqoritmlərin tətbiqidir. Son illərdə məlumatların öyrənilməsi və bilik kəşfi tətbiqləri qərar qəbul etmədəki əhəmiyyətinə görə diqqətə layiq görülmüş və müxtəlif təşkilatlarda vacib komponentə çevrilmişdir. Həmçinin böyük məlumat anbarlarından biliklərin/informasiya¬la¬rın çıxarılmasının vacibliyinə görə verilənlərin istehsalı müxtəlif sahələrdə insan həyatına birbaşa və ya dolayı təsir göstərən çox vacib və zəmanətli mühəndislik sahəsinə çevrilmişdir. Statistika, verilənlər bazaları, maşın öyrənməsi, nümunələrin yenidən təşkili, süni intellekt və hesablama imkanları və s. sahələrdə müxtəlif inteqrasiyalar və irəliləyişlərlə məlumatların əldə edilməsi sahəsi inkişaf etmiş və insan həyatının yeni sahələrinə daxil edilmişdir. Data mining müxtəlif tətbiqlərə malikdir və bu proqramlar insan həyatının müxtəlif sahələrini zənginləşdirib, o cümlə¬dən biznes, təhsil, tibb, elmi və s. gələcək tendensiyaları araşdırmaq. Məlumatların öyrənilməsinin müxtəlif tətbiq sahələri İnsan Resursları (HR), Müştərilərlə Əlaqələrin İdarə Edilməsi (CRM), Veb Tətbiqləri, İstehsalat, Rəqabət Kəşfiyyatı, Pərakəndə satış/Maliyyə/Bankçılıq, Kompü¬ter/Şə¬bə¬kə/Təhlükəsizlik, Monitorinq/Nəzarət, Tədris Dəstəyi, İqlim modelləşdirməsidir. İnsan həyatı¬nın hər bir sahəsi verilənlərin intensivliyinə çevrildi, bu da verilənlərin çıxarılmasını vacib kom¬po¬nentə çevirdi. Beləliklə, bu məqalə keçmişdən bu günə qədər verilənlərin əldə edilməsinin müxtəlif tendensiyalarını və onun nisbi sahələrini nəzərdən keçirir və onun gələcək sahələrini araşdırır. Açar sözlər: Verilənlər bazalarında bilik kəşfi, verilənlərin intellektual analizi, qeyri-səlis çox¬luq, Mininq(verilənlərin çıxarılması) texnikaları.
Drilling an oil or gas well is a complex process which involves number of challenges associated with hydraulics, mechanics and geology. Although comprehensive planning activities take place prior to drilling, it is not always possible to avoid downhole problems. One of those problems is pipe sticking in which movement of the pipe is impossible. Many factors can lead to this undesirable incident. Keywords: pipe sticking, differentially stuck pipe, free pipe, invasive and non-invasive drilling fluid, overbalance, stuck point determination
The use of essential oils for diverse purposes shows the increasing demand worldwide. These conditions encouraged fraudulent practices to maximize profit and set competitive prices. This review describes the characterization of essential oils (EOs) and their extraction technique before analysis. The type of adulteration and the technique for authentication, including chromatographic, spectroscopic, and others, either alone or in combination with the chemometrics technique, are also profoundly explained. Many studies use a combination of targeted and non-targeted approaches. Combining these two approaches were considered to produce accurate and reliable results for the authentication of EOs. The most advanced method was for authentication of lavender oil, citrus oils (lemon, bergamot, neroli), rose oil, peppermint oil, wintergreen oil, patchouli oil, and citronella oils. However, many EOs traded, and no international standards to regulate them.
La cannelle de Ceylan est une épice très appréciée pour ses qualités alimentaires dont est extraite de l’huile essentielle issue des feuilles ou du bois. Elle contient un aldéhyde aromatique, le cinnamaldéhyde, puissant et caustique, ainsi qu’un phénol considéré comme moins caustique que les autres. Ces deux molécules ont des propriétés anti-infectieuses importantes et à large spectre.
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Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.
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Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin.
Content: Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae) is an important ornamental and medicinal plant and a source of fragrance. Its hydrosol is known in Iran as golab (rose water) and has applications in religious ceremonies, food, and pharmaceuticals. Hydrosol is traditionally and industrially produced by distillation. The increase in market demand has led to production of inferior products for hydrosol that contain synthetic essences or essential oils of other plants, or that have been diluted with water. Inferior product often may be distinguished via its color changes and weak odor. However, details need to be determined by chemical analysis. Objective: The current study evaluated the composition and quality of 10 rose water samples purchased from local markets in Shiraz, capital of Fars province in Iran. Materials and methods: The essential oils of the samples were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: RESULTS revealed that phenethyl alcohol, geraniol, and β-citronellol were the main constituents of most samples. In total, 22 constituents were detected and identified in the samples. Identification was determined for 60.97-96.07% of the essential oil components. Discussion and conclusion: It was concluded that Pelargonium and Dianthus essential oils and synthetic essences had been added to some samples. Dibutyl phthalate was also detected in most samples. This substance, which commonly exists as polyethylene terephthalate, may have been released into the samples from their containers.
Chirality evaluation is proved to be an efficient tool for the authenticity control of neroli, petitgrain and bergamot oils by enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (enantio-MDGC). The simultaneous stereochemical analysis of the main compounds linalool, linalyl acetate, α-terpineol using heptakis-(2,3-di-o-acetyl-6-o-tert.-butyldimethyl-silyl)-β-cyclodextrin as the chiral main column is described. α-Pinene, β-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol and nerolidol are simultaneously stereoanalyzed with heptakis-(2,3-di-o-methyl-6-o-tert.-butyldimethylsi-lyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Characteristic authenticity profiles of neroli, petitgrain, bergamot and other citrus oils are deduced by enantioselective cGC as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), online coupled with capillary gas chromatography. Enantiomeric ratios, isotopic data as well as quantification of bergamot oil compounds are evaluated integrally. Scope and limitations of the techniques are discussed.
The present contribution is focused on the off-line combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-quadMS), and its application to the detailed qualitative analysis of essential oils. Specifically, a silica column was exploited for the separation of the essential oil constituents in two groups, namely hydrocarbon and oxygenated compounds. After, each HPLC-fraction was reduced in volume, and then subjected to cryogenically modulated GC×GC-quadMS analysis. The volatiles were separated on a normal-phase GC×GC column set, and identified through database matching and linear retention index information. The concentrated HPLC fractions gave origin to unexpectably crowded chromatograms, due to two fundamental GC×GC characteristics, namely the enhanced separation power and sensitivity. The results attained were particularly stimulating with regards to the oxygenated compounds, namely those constituents which contribute most to the essential oil aroma, and are of more use for the evaluation of quality and genuineness. Two genuine Citrus essential oils, bergamot and sweet orange, were subjected to analysis, and compared to applications carried out with a GC-quadMS instrument.
Determination of the authenticity of essential oils has become more significant, in recent years, following some illegal adulteration and contamination scandals. The present investigative study focuses on the application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect sample authenticity and quantify economic adulteration of sandalwood oils. Several data pre-treatments are investigated for calibration and prediction using partial least square regression (PLSR). The quantitative data analysis is done using a new spectral approach - full spectrum or sequential spectrum. The optimum number of PLS components is obtained according to the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC=0.00009% v/v). The lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP=0.00016% v/v) in the test set and the highest coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.99989) are used as the evaluation tools for the best model. A nonlinear method, locally weighted regression (LWR), is added to extract nonlinear information and to compare with the linear PLSR model.
The essential oil of Rosa damascena Mill. is known for its fine perfumery application, use in cosmetic preparations and for several pharmacological activities. Due to its high value, it can be easily adulterated with flavors or cheaper oils. This study is aimed at a detailed phytochemical characterization of commercial samples of R. damascena essential oil and at their authenticity assessment. Nineteen commercial samples of R. damascena essential oil of different geographic origin and an additional authentic one, directly extracted by hydro-distillation from fresh flowers, were considered. GC/MS and GC/FID techniques were applied for the phytochemical analysis of the samples. EA/IRMS (Elemental Analyzer/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) and GC/C (Combustion)/IRMS were used to determine the δ(13) C composition of bulk samples and of some specific components. Citronellol (28.7-55.3%), geraniol (13.5-27.3%) and nonadecane (2.6-18.9%) were the main constituents of Bulgarian and Turkish essential oils, while those from Iran were characterized by a high level of aliphatic hydrocarbons (nonadecane: 3.7-23.2%). The δ(13) C values of bulk samples were between -28.1 and -26.9‰, typical for C3 plants. The δ(13) C values of specific components were in the usual range for natural aromatic substances from C3 plants, except for geranyl acetate, which displayed higher values (up to -18‰). These unusual δ(13) C values were explained by the addition of a natural cheaper oil from a C4 plant (Cymbopogon martinii, palmarosa), which was found to occur in most of the essential oils. GC/C/IRMS, in combination with GC/MS and GC/FID, can be considered as an effective and reliable tool for the authenticity control of R. damascena essential oil. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The confirmation of authenticity of essential oils and the detection of adulteration are problems of increasing importance in the perfumes, pharmaceutical, flavor and fragrance industries. This is especially true for 'value added' products like sandalwood oil. A methodical study is conducted here to demonstrate the potential use of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with multivariate calibration models like principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) as rapid analytical techniques for the qualitative and quantitative determination of adulterants in sandalwood oil. After suitable pre-processing of the NIR raw spectral data, the models are built-up by cross-validation. The lowest Root Mean Square Error of Cross-Validation and Calibration (RMSECV and RMSEC % v/v) are used as a decision supporting system to fix the optimal number of factors. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP % v/v) in the prediction sets are used as the evaluation parameters (R(2) = 0.9999 and RMSEP = 0.01355). The overall result leads to the conclusion that NIR spectroscopy with chemometric techniques could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, instant and non-destructive method for the detection of adulterants, even 1% of the low-grade oils, in the high quality form of sandalwood oil.
Both phenomena, enantioselectivity as well as isotope discrimination during biosynthesis, may serve as "endogenous" parameters, provided that suitable methods and comprehensive data from authentic sources are available. This review reports on enantioselective capillary gas chromatography and online methods of isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in the authentication of food flavor and essential oil compounds, referring to literature references published in the last decade.