ArticlePDF Available


This paper provides evidence-based policy recommendations about the development of smart cities. The core characteristics of smart cities, including the use of advanced technology, human and social capital development, the development of pro-business environments and networking, are ‘translated’ into individual domains that characterize smart city strategies. Four major European cities (Amsterdam, Barcelona, London and Stockholm) are examined in terms of how they have so far incorporated those domains in their ongoing smart city strategies. The data are analyzed comparatively, highlighting trends and contrasting differences among strategies. The paper closes with conclusions about those characteristics and their role in smart city policy making.
International Journal of Social Science Studies
Vol. 4, No. 4; April 2016
ISSN 2324-8033 E-ISSN 2324-8041
Published by Redfame Publishing
Four European Smart City Strategies
Margarita Angelidou1
1Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Correspondence: Margarita Angelidou, Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit, Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 491, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
Received: February 7, 2016 Accepted: February 24, 2016 Available online: March 3, 2016
doi:10.11114/ijsss.v4i4.1364 URL:
This paper provides evidence-based policy recommendations about the development of smart cities. The core
characteristics of smart cities, including the use of advanced technology, human and social capital development, the
development of pro-business environments and networking, are „translated‟ into individual domains that characterize
smart city strategies. Four major European cities (Amsterdam, Barcelona, London and Stockholm) are examined in
terms of how they have so far incorporated those domains in their ongoing smart city strategies. The data are analyzed
comparatively, highlighting trends and contrasting differences among strategies. The paper closes with conclusions
about those characteristics and their role in smart city policy making.
Keywords: urban development; strategy; policy; sustainability; society; technology
1. Introduction
The technological advancements of recent decades have had not only a powerful, but also a transformative impact on
urban life. The wide availability of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in urban settings and their
broad adoption throughout society have created a state of technological ubiquity in developed countries. As technology
advances and becomes more affordable, the functionality and sustainability of urban systems undergoes significant
advancements as well. At the same time, increased access to information enforces the role of knowledge as a powerful
engine of economic growth. This enables the development of knowledge-based societies. Under these continuously
evolving conditions, many concepts about the organization and management of the new technological capabilities have
become popular, including the one of „smart cities‟.
Inspired by the above situation and the recent literature, this paper aims to illustrate the state-of-play of applied smart
city strategies in large European cities and then reach conclusions about the current idea of what it means to be „smart
in a city context. This is achieved by exploring how the core characteristics of the smart city idea have been
incorporated so far in four ongoing European smart city strategies (Amsterdam Smart City, Barcelona Smart City, Smart
London Plan and Stockholm Smart City).
The paper is structured accordingly. The following section (2) starts by presenting the smart city idea and pointing out
the defining characteristics of smart cities, as they have been documented in the recent literature. These characteristics
include (i) the central role of technology as an enabler of effective infrastructure and recourse management, (ii) the role
of human and social capital as sources of knowledge dissemination and new knowledge creation, (iii) the development
of pro-business environments pro-business environments attracting investment and spawning new businesses and (iv)
the increasing importance of collaboration and networking of city authorities in pooling recourses, exchanging
knowledge and attracting citizens and businesses. The third section of the paper (3) describes how the presented
research was conducted, including the data, cases and analysis methods that were used. The fourth section (4) presents
the empirical findings about each case of a smart city strategy and explores each of the previous characteristics through
a critical lens, reaching conclusions about each of them individually. The last section of the paper (5) discusses the
conclusions that emerge from the previous review about the smart city movement as a whole.
2. The ‘Smart city’ movement and its characteristics
2.1 The smart city idea
There are fundamental disagreements about the meaning and the dimensions of the smart city, while many cities claim
to be „smart‟ without evidence-based justification (Komninos, 2011a; Chourabi et al., 2012; Nam and Pardo, 2011a;
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
Papa et al., 2013; Allwinkle and Cruickshank, 2011; Wolfram, 2012; Lombardi et al., 2012; Hollands, 2008). The
discussion is ongoing, fueled by a multitude of definitions and solutions in the smart cities‟ arena, without a prevalent or
universally acknowledged set as of yet. In this context, no city can actually claim that it has conquered smartness fully;
rather, as technologies and societies are changing dynamically, the smart city is called to redefine itself and experiment
with new ways of thinking about technology, and how this technology can be used to enhance common good.
Smart cities represent a conceptual development model that aspires to use ICTs for the development of a city‟s human,
collective, and technological capital, with the ultimate scope of increasing urban sustainability. They constitute an idea
for the ideal future of an urban settlement that harnesses technology. They also imply integrated processes to realize this
idea. In the best case scenario, a city that aspires to become „smart‟ has an integrated, forward-looking strategic plan
that defines a vision and a methodology based on capitalizing digital technologies to improve urban functions and
develop knowledge ecosystems. As any strategy, it is important that strategic plans for smart cities are adapted to the
needs, priorities and constraints of their circumstances.
Recent estimations speak of 143 (Lee and Gong Hancock, 2012), 300-400 (Nikkei BP Cleantech Institute, 2010) and
102 smart city projects worldwide (ABI Research, 2011). It is difficult to estimate the exact number of smart city
projects undergoing implementation in the different parts of the world because of abundant disagreements. Beyond
doubt, however, they are popular and, for that matter, „fashionable‟ in the policy arena (Lombardi et al., 2012; Kourtit
and Nijkamp, 2012; Kourtit and Nijkamp, 2013). This situation complicates efforts to define the real meaning of
„smartness‟ in a city context and clearly distinguish a smart city‟s characteristics.
2.2 Characteristics of smart cities
As mentioned previously, the concept of the smart city emerged recently and is constantly being transformed by
contemporary technological and economic trends and ongoing discussions. Nevertheless, in order to be able to study a
number of applied smart city strategies comparatively, it is first essential to point out the general characteristics that
define what it means to be „smart‟ in an urban context . Based on these characteristics, we will proceed in the later
sections of this paper to investigate how four actual smart city strategies have been designed and implemented so far.
The first distinctive characteristic of smart cities is the central role of technology as a means for accumulating,
organizing and making vast amounts of information accessible to an increasing number of people, subsequently using
this information to improve urban functions and save recourses. As technologies become more affordable and the urban
environment gets extensively instrumented with sensors, real-time data streams and the Internet of Things (IoT)
emerge. If we add to this the rising interest of people and communities to log their own data about their lives and
activities, the volume of collected data becomes vast. Not only can a city‟s functions be monitored constantly, but also,
with the help of advanced analytics, they can be audited to identify prevailing patterns and trends, predict incidents
before they even occur and adjust the provision of services and goods depending on the circumstances. Public
authorities can make better-informed and documented decisions and solve problems successfully, while the city‟s
populace can access efficient and high-end services in the domains of economic activity, governance, quality of life and
utility management (Komninos, 2011a; Komninos, 2011b; Schaffers et al., 2011). This technologically-enabled
ecosystem yields improvements of a city‟s functions, enhancing environmental sustainability and rendering the city
„smart‟ (Allwinkle and Cruickshank, 2011; Caragliu et al., 2009; Tranos and Gertner, 2012; Angelidou, 2014).
The second quality of smart cities is the advancement of human and social capital through knowledge creation and
dissemination, advanced participation and digital inclusion, and the establishment of new forms of innovation (open,
social). In smart cities, a large fraction of the available knowledge is produced collectively; knowledge is an asset that
stems from everybody‟s contribution. Smart cities attract highly qualified people and a skilled labor force because of
their openness and their eagerness to use technology in effective and innovative ways. They attract creative people who
build creative cultures and industries, which in turn foster the development of knowledge ecosystems that bring
prosperity to the city. In addition, it is now well documented that creative, intelligent and highly skilled people are the
most powerful engines of urban development (Edvinsson, 2006; Glaeser and Berry, 2006; Shapiro, 2006; Florida, 2002;
2005; Landry, 2000); they produce new ideas, products and strategies, either individually, or in collaboration within
social networks (Komninos, 2009). The „crowd‟ can be smart; collective intelligence is more powerful than any
machine or individual intelligence (Ratti and Townsend, 2011). In parallel, smart city programs provide platforms for
engaging citizens and stakeholders and assessing the viability of smart city solutions and services in real-life contexts
(Carter et al., 2011; Bria, 2012; González and Rossi, 2012). Overall, the city benefits widely from localized knowledge
spillovers, collective intelligence functions and the development of inclusive communities that confront the challenges
and grasp the opportunities of the rising digital economy (Allwinkle and Cruickshank, 2011; Caragliu et al., 2009;
Tranos and Gertner, 2012; Hollands, 2008; Angelidou et al., 2012; Angelidou, 2014).
The smart city movement is also geared towards the advancement of the business sector, to be realized through a high
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
record of entrepreneurial agility, investment attraction and new business creation. Smart cities, as documented in the
recent bibliography, are characterised by a distinctive emphasis on business-led urban development and attraction of
capital. They aim to forge business-friendly environments offering advanced services to businesses and entrepreneurs.
They also claim to nurture the development of highly professional entrepreneurial environments, providing the ideal
preconditions for businesses to prosper, innovate and network (Caragliu et al., 2009; Hollands, 2008; Tranos and
Gertner, 2012). Furthermore, in the EU‟s current policy framework, RIS3 strategies for smart specialization call, among
others, entrepreneurial actors to explore opportunities in existing or new sectors and experiment with new activities, to
pin-point the most promising areas for future regional development (Foray et al., 2012). On the whole, both European
policies and the smart city movement place a distinct priority in advancing and diversifying the entrepreneurial
environments of cities.
Finally, critical thinking about smart cities emphasizes networking within and among cities and regions, for purposes of
image making, best practice dissemination, production base diversification and the establishment of economies of scale.
In today‟s knowledge economy and culture, city authorities find themselves increasingly under pressure to offer more
innovative and high quality services, while increasing public endorsement. Cities are geared towards creating alliances
and collaboration networks to exchange knowledge and coordinate recourses, while bringing out the diversity and
unique character of their locus; most cities already have such alliances in place. Marketing and communication
techniques have penetrated strategies for future urban development, including smart cities. Authorities attempt to
communicate their smart city plans to the public by sharing concepts (promotional identity and brand), visions, goals,
priorities, and even strategic plans (Nam and Pardo, 2011b) and by publishing annual reports, including performance
data and statistics (Bélissent, 2011). Networking is today realized primarily thought online digital media (websites,
social media, wikis etc.) and in a European context, through trans-regional and trans-national collaboration, especially
in the field of smart cities.
3. Research Design
This section describes how the research presented in this paper was designed, including the data, cases and analysis
method that were used and why they were chosen.
3.1 Data Selection and Accumulation
First was decided the information that would be collected about smart city strategies. Taking into account the
framework of the available literature, the characteristics of smart cities (section 2.2.) were „translated‟ into domains to
be surveyed in each case. The followings show these characteristics and their breakdown:
Characteristic 1: Central role of technology
- Domain 1: Smart technologies and infrastructure: how each smart city strategy approaches technology and
- Domain 2: Digital services and applications: the types of services and applications offered in the context of a
smart city strategy. These can be categorized in the domains of: (i) Economic activity: manufacturing,
commerce, businesses and finance, education, research, health, tourism, primary sector, (ii) City Infrastructure
& Utilities: transport, energy, water, waste, (iii) Quality of Life: social inclusion, social care, safety and
security, environmental alert and (iv) City Governance: city hall services, citizen participation, informed
top-level decision-making, monitoring and benchmarking (Komninos, 2011a).
Characteristic 2: Human and social capital advancement
- Domain 1: Education and training: smart city strategies that promote infrastructures, institutions, and
programs for high quality and innovative undergraduate/ postgraduate/ vocational education.
- Domain 2: Social & Digital Inclusion: the main drive behind the smart city strategy: Social inclusion,
addressing the digital divide, accessibility, closing of skills gap, etc.
- Domain 3: Bottom-up approach: in the context of the smart city, a bottom-up approach refers to the
involvement of the city‟s people, interest groups and organizations (i.e. „stakeholders‟) in all or some stages of
the smart city development. With engagement, users with different knowledge domains and levels, skills,
experiences, roles, points of view and needs contribute to the success of the smart city.
- Domain 4: Experimentation and testing of new products and solutions: pilot programs and test beds are
platforms that are used to assess the viability of specific solutions and services or to engage citizens and
stakeholders. They are useful in delivering proof of concept, testing specific tools and techniques and
validating and perfecting the proposed strategic framework.
- Domain 5: Culture shift: smart city strategies driving a culture shift throughout society, for example, towards
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
environmental awareness, a technology savvy society, a participatory society, creative and innovative thinking,
Characteristic 3: Business sector advancement
- Domain 1: Measures for Business sector development: these include measures for attracting and developing
innovative businesses and knowledge workers: (i) financial incentives (tax exemptions, bank loans with
privileged interest rates, business angels, seed funding, venture capital etc.) (ii) business incubation services
(growth assistance for startup and early-stage companies) and (iii) technology transfer and commercialization
services (intellectual property protection, industrial support of ongoing Research and Development (R&D),
collaboration platforms with academia, industry and government).
Characteristic 4: Networking
- Domain 1: Partnerships and alliances: Partnership with other cities for knowledge and experience exchange, in
order to disseminate best practices, develop complementarities in weak and strong points, coordinate recourses
and create economies of scale.
- Domain 2: Marketing: A dedicated strategy about how the smart city organization will create, deliver and
communicate the value of the project to the wider audience, so as to gain broader support and acceptance. This
may include promotional events to market the smart city project, participation in
conferences/competitions/awards, a branding strategy, etc.
- Domain 3: Digital presence (website, social media): A website to make the smart city project known to a broader
audience and provide information for stakeholders. Presence on common social media (city-operated blog,
Facebook, Flickr, FourSquare, Google+, Instagram, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Tumblr, Twitter, YouTube, Vimeo).
3.2 Case selection
Four major European cities that are in the process of developing or implementing a smart city strategy were selected to
be studied: Amsterdam, Barcelona, London and Stockholm. Their selection took place considering the following
- Conformation with the working definition of the „smart city‟ (section 2.1)
- The existence of an integrated smart city strategy, to the extent possible
- The degree of data availability
The data was sourced through academic articles published in scientific journals and conferences, academic and
corporate research reports, government documents, corporate documents and non-scientific articles published during the
period January 2014- September 2014 on online sources (technology websites, online newspapers and blogs, etc.)
3.3 Case selection
The analysis method that was used is the Multiple case study analysis
(Miles et al., 2013; Yin, 2003; Eisenhardt, 1989),
is a type of qualitative analysis that presents and compares the main findings of qualitative research in a detailed and
systematic way. In order to perform the multiple case study analysis, cross-case matrices were developed (presented in
the Appendix 1 of this paper). These matrices allow comparison of findings systematically across cases and analyze
similarities, differences and patterns of behavior.
4. Results
4.1 Empirical Findings
The first smart city strategy that was studied is Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Amsterdam Smart City is being realized
through a partnership among businesses, authorities, research institutions, and the people of Amsterdam (over 70
partners, including CISCO and IBM). The aim of this partnership is the transformation of the Amsterdam metropolitan
area into a smart city with the ultimate goal of reducing CO2 emissions. Amsterdam‟s smart city platform connects all
of the city‟s stakeholders through „smart‟ collaborations; it brings them together with the purpose of developing and
implementing shared ideas and solutions for the city. Currently the program comprises 32 projects that present
innovative ideas and new business models across Amsterdam‟s neighborhoods. These projects fall within seven „areas
of interest‟: Smart Mobility, Smart Living, Smart Society, Smart Areas, Smart Economy, Big & Open Data and
Infrastructure (water, roads, energy, ICT). Initially, they are to be tested on a small scale and the ones that prove to be
effective will be extended to larger areas. All projects are built around informing citizens, entrepreneurs and the public
sector about their energy consumption and educating them about how to manage it more prudently. To achieve this,
also known as „ cross-case analysis‟
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
smart devices and wireless meters transmit information over broadband networks helping the citizens and organizations
of the city to behave more „intelligently‟ by reducing their energy consumption. Two well-known projects of
Amsterdam Smart City are the „Climate Street‟ and the „West Orange‟ project. They are a commercial and a residential
area respectively, where smart and energy-saving technologies were introduced along with smart meters and energy
displays with the purpose of encouraging users to save energy and reduce their carbon footprint (Amsterdam Smart City
official website, 2014; Baron, 2012; Šťáhlavský, 2011; Sauer, 2012).
The next strategy was the one for the Smart City of Barcelona, Spain. The City of Barcelona has been using ICTs to
improve urban functions for more than a decade now, with dispersed projects running in various departments. Barcelona
also has a long experience in Living Lab initiatives and is in the process of developing a formal smart city strategy. The
Urban Habitat Department (the so called „Smart City‟ department) was created after a major organizational reform. It is
a new umbrella structure to coordinate services previously provisioned by individual City Departments regarding
infrastructure, ICTs, urban services, urban planning, environment, housing, architecture, energy and water, etc. Under
this new organizational scheme, previously isolated government departments are called to coordinate their strategy in
order to achieve common goals. In addition, the formal strategy has a global outlook, seeking to forge an open
environment for the collaboration among government, industry, academia and citizens. It comprises three individual
axes: „international promotion‟, „international collaboration‟ and „local projects‟. The number of local projects is over
100 some examples include the New Municipal Network, Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Smart Lighting, Smart
Water, Smart Transportation, Smart Citizens, O-Government & Efficiency and Optimized Waste Collection (Barcelona
Smart City official website, 2014; Ajuntament de Barcelona, 2013; Ajuntament de Barcelona, 2012; Bakici et al., 2012).
The next smart city strategy studied is London‟s „Smart London Plan‟. In London, the first concerted effort to use smart
city applications took place in 2012, with the purpose of managing public transport under the demanding circumstances
of that year‟s Olympic Games. Eventually, in 2013, the Smart London Board was created, comprising academics,
businesses and entrepreneurs, commissioned to advise the Greater London Authority on smart city matters. The Board
produced the Smart London Plan, organized around seven key themes: (1) placing Londoners at the core of innovation,
(2) providing access to open data, (3) leveraging London‟s research technology and creative talent, (4) facilitating
networking among and with other smart city stakeholders (5) enabling „smarter‟ infrastructure development and
management (6) providing more effective and integrated City Hall services and (7) offering a „smarter‟ London
experience for all. The plan includes a series of actions and measures of success for each key theme. London‟s smart
city strategy is mostly focused around the institutional and digital space, rather than the physical. However, it also
includes some improvements and new developments in infrastructure, as well as urban regeneration projects. The most
important one is „Here East‟, a 1,200,000 sq. ft. digital quarter to be developed at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park,
leveraging the buildings of the former Press and Broadcast Centers of the 2012 Olympics. It will be a campus that
supports growth of London‟s technology sector, combining business, technology, media, education and data to create a
local system of innovation. As such, it will provide space for start-ups, education and post-graduate research (Greater
London Authority official website, 2013; Fletcher-Smith, 2014; Malthouse, 2014).
In the case of Stockholm Smart City, Sweden, the data collection process has already been completed. Stockholm has a
long tradition in research and innovation in environmental and information technology. It also has a well-established
culture as a livable and sustainable city that offers high living standards and efficient government services. Stokab is the
name of the city-owned company which has been developing and managing the city‟s open fiber-optic communications
network and promoting optimal conditions for ICT development since 1994. Today Stokab offers 100% broadband
coverage within the Stockholm region. In Stockholm‟s smart city strategy, environmental and information technologies
are tested and used extensively throughout the city‟s infrastructure, with the purpose of creating a flourishing ecosystem
that involves the city‟s inhabitants, the private industry and the public sector, while fostering a dynamic local economy.
The strategy is citizen-centric, focusing on providing enhanced e-government services to citizens. Government services
include online City Hall services and services for mobility and energy improvement based on real-time data collection
about traffic and weather. The data are collected through Global Positioning Systems (GPS) placed on public vehicles,
as well as traffic and weather sensors, pollution monitoring equipment, etc. Residents have real-time information about
traffic flow, journey times, and best travel options, including a journey planner. The City is also using pilot projects to
test technology solutions but in a different light than most of its counterpart smart cities: it uses large scale, real
environment test beds, called „demonstrators‟. One of those demonstrators, for example, is „Kista Science City‟,
Sweden‟s world-class ICT cluster, where Research and Development (R&D) and technology transfer take place
between businesses and the academia, demonstrating an exemplary concentration of expertise, innovation and business
opportunities in the ICT field. Another demonstrator is the „Royal Seaport‟ area, which is being redeveloped into a
„smart‟ area with a capacity of 20,000 residents and 50,000 workers, to be used for testing innovative technologies and
services in health care, energy and transport (Stockholm smart city official website, 2014; Johnson, 2014; Stockholm
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
Royal Seaport Innovation official website, 2014; The Intelligent Community Forum, 2009).
4.2 Multiple case study analysis results
The previous smart city strategies were screened to acquire information about each smart city characteristic (section 2.2.)
and its constituent Domains (section 3.1.). This information was studied comparatively regarding each characteristic
across the four cases. The results are presented in the following paragraphs.
In terms of technology as a core component of smart city strategies, all four cities invest predominantly in broadband
networking (mostly wireless and optical fiber) and on a second level on sensor networking (sensors on stationary and
mobile devices). Wireless broadband networking is obviously a more convenient option for cities with complex
physical structures already in place. However, Stockholm‟s case of 100% optical fiber coverage is an exemplar that is
the result of proactive policy making and continuous efforts by the City. In terms of digital services and applications,
the foremost frequency is observed in the domain of city infrastructure and utilities, namely energy, transport and waste
management. Government services play an important role, too, encompassing city hall services and means for engaging
citizens in the policy making process. Digital services for the improvement of economic activity and quality of life have
a non-existent or secondary role in the studied smart city strategies, although one would expect the contrary regarding
cities with a long history, culture and established social innovation dynamics. This phenomenon can be explained by the
fact that the current experience, availability and technological maturity of digital services in the domains of city
infrastructure and utilities and government services far outweigh the more „sensitive‟, vaguely defined and largely
untried services in the domains of economic activity and quality of life. The following cross case matrix (Table 1)
summarizes the characteristics of each case:
Table 1. Cross case matrix displaying the status of each case with regard to Characteristic 1: Central role of technology
(source: author‟s elaboration)
Data / Information
Smart technologies
and infrastructure
Broadband and sensor networking. Innovative technologies for energy
consumption monitoring and renewable energy production.
Digital services and
Services and applications for energy consumption monitoring and renewable
energy production (distributed power generation, energy advice, energy displays,
energy storage, smart meters, smart lighting, electric vehicles, EV charge points,
electric waste collection, sustainable logistics and ultra-fast charging).
Smart technologies
and infrastructure
Broadband and sensor networking. Emphasis on connectivity as a means for better
urban services, public participation, mobility and sustainability.
Digital services and
Services and applications for (i) transport, energy efficiency in buildings and
utilities, waste collection etc., (ii) government services and citizen participation,
(iii) urban resilience.
Smart technologies
and infrastructure
Broadband and sensor networking.
Digital services and
Services and applications for (i) infrastructure management (smart grid, smart
waste collection, 3D visualizations of infrastructure and smart transport for people
and freight), (ii) city governance (e.g. „Talk London‟ platform), joint working
across different policy and physical areas, city planning and city management.
Smart technologies
and infrastructure
Mostly broadband networking (through Stockab, the city-owned company that
manages the city‟s open fiber-optic communications network of a 100% broadband
Digital services and
Services and applications for (i) mobility and energy consumption improvement
based on real-time data collection about traffic and weather and (ii) government
services (online council meeting, permits, applications).
In terms of human and social capital advancement, and specifically education and training towards „smart‟ people and
economy, the situation appears to be fragmented. Most smart city programs include minimal education and training
activities for individuals, mostly confined to the use of selected „smart‟ devices rather than extending the population‟s
digital skills over the broad spectrum of smart city capabilities and closing the skills gap. The exemplar here is
London‟s smart city strategy, which targets education and training in multiple levels, including physical and digital
educational infrastructure, institutions and targeted programs. Educational institutions have an active role within the
smart city ecosystem, as they are expected to become hubs of innovation in education, collaborative research in edge
sectors and multifaceted social interaction. However, a weak link is documented between academia and industry as well
as government, meaning that new knowledge and innovative ideas face difficulties in circulating, becoming
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
commercialized and adopted throughout society.
Social and digital inclusion appears as the most problematic policy area. All strategies regard social and digital
inclusion as related loosely or even completely disconnected with the smart city idea. No mention whatsoever to these
aspects was found in two of the studied smart city strategies (Amsterdam, Stockholm), while one strategy includes it as
priority but does not elaborate the idea further (Barcelona), and another one (London) regards the issue of social and
digital inclusion as a parallel, standalone policy area.
Bottom up approaches, on the other hand, seem to be a smart city domain where experience is starting to bear fruits.
The studied smart city strategies demonstrate an increased understanding of the significance of participatory procedures,
as well as their underlying technological and cognitive processes, which are increasingly becoming common ground in
public policy making. They foresee the collaboration among the cities‟ inhabitants, businesses and public sector as a
source of new and effective knowledge production and as a precursor for the development of open knowledge and
innovation ecosystems. However, there is still work to be done towards extending bottom-up engagement into the
strategy development phase (besides the implementation phase). In the studied cases, the most important vehicles for
bottom-up engagement are primarily Open Data initiatives and, secondarily, Living Labs. Nevertheless, there is still
progress to be made, and as technological advancements enable new forms of collaboration and bottom-up organization,
this domain will not cease to require special attention.
In addition, we observe that testing of smart city solutions is an integral part of smart city strategies. Pilot projects are
useful in delivering proof of concept, testing specific tools and techniques and validating and perfecting solutions and
strategic frameworks. However, the scale and the degree of dispersion behind the testing of those solutions vary. In
Amsterdam and Barcelona most pilot programs test a specific technology on a neighborhood scale -for example, pilot
energy management systems along commercial streets or residential neighborhoods. Other pilot programs in the same
cities extend over multiple points throughout the city -for example electrical vehicle transport systems including
dispersed electric vehicle and charging stations. London‟s strategy includes reasonably fewer and locally concentrated
piloting activities, focusing on so-called „lighthouse‟ projects that demonstrate new approaches. Finally, in Stockholm, a
completely different approach is adopted, prioritizing integrated, large scale test beds, called „demonstrators‟. These
demonstrators forge new, real environments where many smart city services and solutions are tested at the same time;
for example, the Royal Seaport area, with a capacity of 20.000 residents and 50.000 workers, is conceived as one of
these demonstrators; Kista Science City is also classified as a demonstrator. In Stockholm, the thought is that this type
of large-scale demonstrator allows a better understanding of the potential impact of smart city projects.
Inducing a culture shift throughout society is the domain that summarizes the long term effect of all the above domains
and their procedures. The foremost objective in this direction is the establishment of a climate of „openness‟, dialogue
and collaboration among the city‟s inhabitants. Other objectives include the development of tech-savvy and
environmentally aware people and communities. The following cross case matrix (Table 2) summarizes the
characteristics of each case:
Table 2. Cross case matrix displaying the status of each case with regard to Characteristic 2: Human and social capital
advancement (source: author‟s elaboration)
Data / Information
Education and training
No large scale or integrated education and training activities. Some training to facilitate the
implementation of the initiatives, for ex. how to monitor energy consumption devices and how to use
open data.
Social & Digital
No information.
Bottom-up approach
Collaboration among the city‟s stakeholders, including its people and knowledge institutions to
develop knowledge and innovation ecosystems. Both in strategy development and strategy
implementation. Open data and Living Lab initiatives.
City seen as platform for testing innovative ideas and solutions. Projects, ideas and business models
are initially tested on a small scale and the ones that prove to be effective will be extended to include
other areas.
Culture shift
Towards sensible energy consumption and sustainable ways of living. Towards a climate of openness
and exchange of innovative ideas.
Education and training
Universities are invited to collaborate with research centers and businesses to formulate 'smart '
Social & Digital
Social cohesion and accessibility are stated as primary goals. It is not obvious, however, how this will
be achieved through the foreseen smart city programs.
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
Bottom-up approach
The city's ingenuity, innovation and talent (entrepreneurs, businesses, universities, institutions etc.)
are expected to contribute to making Barcelona more innovative. Mostly in strategy implementation
and less in strategy development. Open data and Living Lab initiatives.
Aim to establish the City as an international benchmark platform for innovative solutions. The
22@Urban Lab encompasses 14 pilot programs and aims to use the city as a laboratory of new
solutions for marketing municipal services, and also for companies to use as a space for testing,
facilitating market access and promoting competitiveness.
Culture shift
Towards a climate of cooperation, openness and flexibility.
Education and training
Education for developing digital technology (not just consuming it). Increase of computer science
uptake in London‟s schools. Program for training of young people with tech city firms. „Tech City
Institute‟ will provide a space for the discussion of the role that technology can play in the city's
Social & Digital
Pan-London digital inclusion strategy about how to address digital exclusion.
Bottom-up approach
Bottom-up engagement is a focal point of the strategy. The city's people, businesses and other
stakeholders are seen as indispensable sources of innovation. Open data initiative.
Small number of project-based pilots. „Lighthouse‟ projects to demonstrate new approaches at scale.
Culture shift
Towards a climate of cooperation among the city's stakeholders.
Education and training
The City offers e-learning packages on issues such as environmental-friendly practices and Green IT
to the City‟s employees, students and companies. The city's universities and research centers have an
active role in the smart city strategy providing educational programs and engaging in R&D in related
Social & Digital
No information.
Bottom-up approach
The city's inhabitants, private industry and public sector are called to collaborate to produce
knowledge collectively. Open data initiative.
City open to using pilots to test technology solutions, through large scale, real environment test beds,
called “demonstrators” (e.g. „Kista Science City‟ and „Royal Seaport‟ area).
Culture shift
Towards a climate of tech-savvy people and communities. Locals are well trained and early adopters
of new technology.
Proceeding to the third characteristic, all of the four strategies include measures to help their business sector to develop,
but each prioritizes different aspects. The most prominent measure regards technology transfer and commercialization,
focusing on facilitating business networking and collaboration with academia and citizens. Financial support for
business growth follows, involving mostly venture and seed capital funding. Incubation services for early-stage
businesses are also frequent, although somewhat less commonly adopted. The above observations could be explained by
the fact that technology transfer and commercialization stand for capabilities of high added value in innovative
businesses; at the same time, this domain is advancing rapidly thanks to recent technological developments, with the
number of related platforms increasing. On the other hand, nowadays, there is a lot of experience available in business
incubation, while to a large extent it is an affair of the private sector, i.e. it is exercised by private business incubators
which are not formally included in smart city strategies. Overall, one can discern a neoliberal approach towards
business sector development, with businesses expected to determine their own position within the broadband economy,
leverage offered infrastructures to their best interest, and grasp opportunities in a laissez-faire atmosphere for economic
development. The following cross case matrix (Table 3) summarizes the characteristics of each case:
Table 3. Cross case matrix displaying the status of each case with regard to Characteristic 3: Business sector
advancement (source: author‟s elaboration)
Data / Information
Seed funding programs / collaborations with banks. Incubation services. Support in international
networking of local technology companies and startups.
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
Capital attractiveness is a secondary priority, compared to technology and human and social capital.
Physical areas for the development of smart city clusters (22@ District and others), equipped with
high-technology infrastructure and collaborative spaces.
Support for SMEs to gain access to affordable ultrafast broadband and embrace digital tools. Support of
commercialization of innovation, especially in the technology sector.
Measures for Business sector development
Finally, although smart cities harness digital technology for human and social capital advancement, the overall situation
in terms of networking has not met its target. It is encouraging that all of the cities participate in networks to exchange
knowledge and software, find out about best practices, promote their brand and attract investors and other collaborators
in the venture towards „smartness‟. When it comes to marketing, though, none of them has developed an integrated
marketing strategy. Marketing efforts are limited to occasional participation in international and promotional events.
Barcelona‟s smart city strategy is the only case with an explicit mission to promote the project internationally, although
it is not clearly described how this will be achieved besides the occasional participation/hosting of international events.
The scarce digital presence of the studied smart city strategies is even more alarming; the only one with an integrated
and long-standing website is Amsterdam, while Barcelona‟s website about the smart city project was inaugurated only
recently. The smart city of London and Stockholm, on the other hand, are being promoted through sections in
government websites which, unfortunately, provide limited information about the projects. In terms of social media
presence, the only well-performing one is Amsterdam, demonstrating a frequent activity on multiple social media
channels. The following cross case matrix (Table 4) summarizes the characteristics of each case:
Table 4. Cross case matrix displaying the status of each case with regard to Characteristic 1: Central role of technology
(source: author‟s elaboration)
Data / Information
Partnerships and
Alliances with other cities for knowledge exchange.
Organized efforts started in summer 2014. Amsterdam Connects‟ program, to promote the
developed solutions to the international market. Brand name.
Digital presence
Website: standalone. Social media: Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube.
Partnerships and
Participation in the City Protocol Society, collaboration with other cities and research
No integrated marketing strategy. Priority to international promotion: participation in
international events, multinational corporate events and international lobbies. Brand name.
Digital presence
Website: standalone. Social media: no. Info about smart city project is communicated via the
City's social media channels.
Partnerships and
Collaboration with other cities with other cities for knowledge exchange. Some dedicated
No integrated marketing strategy. No brand name.
Digital presence
Website: section on the website of the Greater London Authority. Social media: no. Info
about smart city project is communicated via the City's social media channels.
Partnerships and
Rather limited collaboration and networking activities. Some dedicated events that have to
do with specific initiatives, such as Open Data. Awards: 'Green Capital of Europe' (2009),
„Intelligent Community of the Year' (2009).
No integrated marketing strategy. No brand name.
Digital presence
Website: section of City's website. Social media: no. Info about smart city project is
communicated via the City's social media channels.
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
5. Conclusion
Apparently, many cities fail to see smart city programs as part of their long-term, comprehensive development plan and,
consequently, they do not engage in methodical strategic planning. However, smart city strategies represent very
important urban development policies that include large investments and long-lasting physical infrastructures. They
yield serious consequences in the delivery of services and the relationship among the public sector, citizens and
businesses, shaping the future of society and governance in the years to come. It is thus essential to study them
methodically and strategically, including all stages of strategy development and capitalizing broadly on of the city‟s
Undeniably, the defining characteristic of a smart city strategy is the promotion of technological infrastructure
development. Technology and artificial intelligence are indispensable dimensions of a smart city. It seems that cities opt
for tried-out and quick result yielding technological solutions in a variety of domains, with a preference on transport,
energy and waste management. Nevertheless, technology is not an end in itself. Smart city strategies should combine
tested and leading edge technology, rather than focusing on either; the first one secures efficient function and broad
adoption, while the second one promotes new and innovative solutions. Experimenting with new technologies and
solutions is an integral element of smart city strategies, and it can take place to various extents ranging from a city block
to whole neighborhoods or the entire city.
Technology would be useless if it didn‟t promote the development of human and social capital. Strategic planning for
the development of smart cities needs to capitalize on both technological advancement (i.e. digital intelligence) and on
the development of knowledge and innovation networks (i.e. human intelligence); technology underpins the
development of knowledge and vice-versa, improving knowledge dissemination, social innovation and digital inclusion.
Most smart city strategies seek to improve human and social capital by (a) developing their „soft‟ infrastructure, namely
social and education programs to improve accessibility, inclusion, and awareness of the public and/or (b) developing
their „hard infrastructure in form of educational and social facilities. There is also a trend to establish dedicated areas
within smart cites, where academia and industry collaborate and engage in innovative activities that overall contribute
positively to the development of human and social capital.
Smart city strategies seek to enhance the attraction capital predominantly by offering financial and operational
incentives (government services for businesses, business incubation services, and incentives such as tax exemptions and
favorable financing schemes) and collaboration opportunities with other businesses, the government and academia.
Some smart city strategies also offer showcase opportunities (businesses have the opportunity to demonstrate their
products and services in real-life settings) and business promotion services (platforms to market the city‟s businesses).
Nonetheless, attracting capital and investments are important elements of smart city strategies.
Collaboration and networking, referring to partnerships with other cities for knowledge and experience exchange and
examining complementarities in strengths and weaknesses, is a basic horizontal characteristic of smart cities, too. Large
and established cities, such as the ones studied in this paper, are in privileged position, as they are already experienced
in international networking and are members of various networks and city alliances that they can leverage. Special
attention should be paid to promote the digital presence of the city (website, social media). Such promotion will
underpin efforts towards becoming smart and engaging stakeholders in this process.
Overall, it seems that we are finally heading towards a true integration of the digital with physical and institutional
dimensions of the smart city. Physical planning and social policy, then, can and should underpin the digital or „smart‟
dimension of the city and promote its integration upon them.
ABI Research. (2011). $39.5 Billion Will Be Spent on Smart City Technologies in 2016. Retrieved from
Ajuntament de Barcelona. (2012). Barcelona Smart City Tour.
Ajuntament de Barcelona. (2013). Barcelona Smart City; The vision, focus and projects of the City of Barcelona in the
context of Smart Cities.
Allwinkle, S., & Cruickshank P. (2011). Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview. Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2),
Amsterdam Smart City official website. (2014). Amsterdam Smart City.
Angelidou, M. (2014). Smart city policies: A spatial approach. Cities, 41(Supplement), S3-S11.
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
Angelidou, M., Gountaras, N., & Tarani, P. (2012). Engaging Digital Services for the creation of urban Knowledge
Ecosystems: The case of Thermi, Greece. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development, 3(4), 10.1504/IJKBD.2012.050090
Bakici, T., Almirall, E., & Wareham, J. (2012). A Smart City Initiative: the Case of Barcelona. Journal of the knowledge
economy, 4(2), 135-148.
Barcelona Smart City official website. (2014). BCN Smart City. Retrieved from:
Baron, G. (2012). Amsterdam Smart City.
lissent, J. (2011). Smart City Leaders Need Better Governance Tools. Forrester. Retrieved from:
Bria, F. (2012). New governance models towards an open Internet ecosystem for smart connected European cities and
regions. Open Innovation 2012, Directorate-General for the Information Society and Media, European
Commission: 62-71.
Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2009). Smart Cities in Europe. Serie Research Memoranda 0048 (VU
University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics).
Carter, P., Rojas, B., & Sahni, M. (2011). Delivering Next Generation Citizen Services; Assessing the Environmental,
Social and Economic Impact of Intelligent X on Future Cities and Communities, IDC White Paper, IDC
Go-to-Market Services. Retrieved from:
Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J.R. Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., Pardo, T., & Scholl, H. J. (2012).
Understanding Smart Cities: An Integrative Framework. 45th International Conference on System Sciences.
Edvinsson, L. (2006). Aspects on the city as a knowledge tool. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(5), 6-13.
Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4),
Fletcher-Smith, F. (2014). DD1214 Smart London Innovation Network.
Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class. Basic Books.
Florida, R. (2005). The Flight of the Creative Class. HarperBusiness
Foray, D., Goddard, J., Goenaga, Beldarrain X. G., Landabaso, M., McCann, P., Morgan, K., Nauwelaers, C., &
Ortega-Argilés, R. (2012). Guide to Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS 3).
European Union. Retrieved from:
Glaeser, E. L., & Berry, C. R. (2006). Why are smart places getting smarter?. Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston &
Taubman Centre, Policy Briefs. Retrieved from:
González J. A. A., & Rossi, A. (2012). New Trends for Smart Cities. Open Innovation Mechanisms in Smart Cities
Project, co-funded by the European Commission within the ICT Policy Support Programme. Retrieved from:
Greater London Authority official website. (2013). Smart London vision. Retrieved from:
Hollands, R. G. (2008). Will the real smart city please stand up? City, 12(3), 303-320.
Johnson, A. (2014). Stockholm; the Connected City. Retrieved from:
Komninos, N. (2009). Intelligent cities: towards interactive and global innovation environments. International Journal
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
of Innovation and Regional Development, 1(4), 337-355.
Komninos, N. (2011a). Intelligent cities: Variable geometries of spatial intelligence. Intelligent Buildings International,
3(3). 10.1080/17508975.2011.579339
Komninos, N. (2011b). What makes cities Smart? Smart Cities Conference, Edinburgh
Kourtit, K., & Nijkamp, P. (2012). Smart cities in the innovation age. The European Journal of Social Science Research,
25(2), 93-95.
Kourtit, K., & Nijkamp, P. (2013). Creative Buzz Districts in Smart Cities: Urban Retro-fitting and Urban
Forward-fitting plans. Romanian Journal of Regional Science, 7(2), 37-57.
Landry, C. (2000). The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators. Earthscan.
Lee, J. H., & Gong, H. M. (2012). Toward a framework for Smart Cities: A Comparison of Seoul, San Francisco &
Amsterdam. Innovations for Smart Green City: What’s Working, What’s Not and What’s Next, 26-27 June 2012.
Stanford: Stanford Program on Regions of Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Lombardi, P., Giordano, S., Farouh, H., & Yousef, W. (2012). Modelling the smart city performance. The European
Journal of Social Science Research, 25(2), 137-149.
Malthouse, K. (2014). The Mayor’s Smart London Plan: making London an even better city to live in, using the creative
power of new technologies to serve London and improve Londoners’ lives. Smart City Event 2014, 13-14 May
2014. Amsterdam.
Miles, M., Huberman, M., & Saldaña, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. SAGE Publications
Nam, T., & Pardo, T. (2011a). Smart City as Urban Innovation: Focusing on Management, Policy, and Context. 5th
International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, Tallinn, Estonia, 185-194.
Nam, T., & Pardo, T. (2011b). Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of Technology, People, and Institutions.
12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, College Park, MD, USA, 282-291.
Nikkei, B. P. (2010). Cleantech Institute. The Smart City Market Will Be Worth a Cumulative Total of 3,100 Trillion Yen
for 2011-2030 - Nikkei BP Cleantech Estimates Based on Its Research on 100 Smart Cities Worldwide. Retrieved
Papa, R., Garguilo, C., & Galderisi, A. (2013). Towards and urban planners' perspective on smart city. TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 6(1), 5-17.
Ratti, C., & Townsend, A. (2011). Harnessing Residents’ Electronic Devices Will Yield Truly Smart Cities, Scientific
Amrican. Retrieved from:
Sauer, S. (2012). Do Smart Cities Produce Smart Entrepreneurs? Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic
Commerce Research, 7(3). 10.4067/S0718-18762012000300007
Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Nilsson, M., & Oliveira, A. (2011). Smart Cities and the Future
Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation. In: Domingue Jea (ed) Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, 431-446.
Shapiro, J. (2006). Smart Cities: Quality of Life, Productivity, and the Growth Effects of Human Capital. Review of
Economics and Statistics, 88(2), 324-335.
Šťáhlavský, R. (2011). Amsterdam Smart City project. Retrieved from:
Stockholm Royal Seaport Innovation official website. (2014). Stockholm Royal Seaport Innovation. Retrieved from:
Stockholm smart city official website. (2014). The Smart City. Retrieved from:
The Intelligent Community Forum. (2009). Stockholm, Sweden; Making "big" work better. Retrieved from:
Tranos, E., & Gertner, D. (2012). Smart networked cities? The European Journal of Social Science Research 25(2),
175-190. 10.1080/13511610.2012.660327
Wolfram, M. (2012). Deconstructing Smart Cities: An Intertextual Reading of Concepts and Practices for Integrated
Urban and ICT Development. REAL CORP 2012, 14-16 May 2012 Schwechat.
International Journal of Social Science Studies Vol. 4, No. 4; 2016
Yin, R. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, London: SAGE Publications.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
... Angelidou [1]. ...
... Angelidou [1]. Liu et al. [8] Kashiwa Work with the public, private sector, and academia to use the data collected for data-driven regional management. ...
Full-text available
The development of China's urbanization process resulted in both labour and inconvenient urban life. One of the solutions is to build a smart city. Because of the moderately advanced principles of smart cities. The current state of smart city construction in first-tier cities is far too advanced to be replicated in several small towns with construction needs but low economic development. Therefore, to support the development of smart cities in many Chinese cities, a universally applicable smart city framework must be developed. Thanks to China's improved infrastructure construction, even cities with huge economic development differences can find common ground in terms of urban infrastructure. As a result, to meet the universally applicable requirements, this framework must rely on Internet of Things technology, and it is built using the IoT perception layer which is defined in the GB/T 36333-2018 "China Smart City Design Standard." After reviewing several case studies, I believe this framework should include four sections: urban infrastructure, transportation, waste treatment, and urban safety.
... Empirically, we investigate Amsterdam's smart city ecology, which we define as the totality of smart city activities in Amsterdam's metropolitan region and the therein involved stakeholders. Amsterdam's smart city ecology represents an emblematic case (Flyvbjerg, 2006, p. 231;also Gerring, 2006, p. 115) Amsterdam's smart city ecology has already been the subject of studies assessing its focus on forming bottom-up collaboration networks for sustainability (Angelidou, 2016; and participative production of technology (Bunders & Varró, 2019;. Already in 2013, de Lange & de Waal (2013) presented various smart city activities in Amsterdam's ecology and argued that citizens and CSS use technology and data to directly act on collective issues. ...
Full-text available
The concept of smart city development – understood as practices in which multiple and diverse actors collaboratively pursue technology-based urban governance – has evolved significantly over the past decades. Once linked to governance practices in which large technology companies became indispensable providers of know-how and technological devices, smart city development increasingly also involves civil society actors in variegated – and understudied – ways. In this dissertation, I argue that diverging understandings of smart city development are linked to different forms of civil society involvement. On one hand, smart city development represents a technologically-orientated instrument of urban planning. Citizens are involved in this planning instrument as democratically legitimated stakeholders whose citizenship prescribes them a say in urban planning decisions. On the other hand, smart city developments are also urban governance practices concerned with the creation and improvement of a technology-orientated entrepreneurial ecosystems. As such entrepreneurial ecosystems, smart city developments involve civil society actors as value co-creating users that provide indispensable day-to-day knowledge that improve entrepreneurial activities. I first looked into Amsterdam’s smart city development as a “most likely” critical case to test the limits of civil society involvement in these developments. I then drew on two “paradigmatic” cases – the Gebiedonline and Decidim platforms – to analyze the relational structures through which civil society actors can overcome the limits established in the preceding case study. My findings advance an understanding of smart city development as being both a planning instrument and an entrepreneurial ecosystem in which both citizen participation and value co-creation can take place. Despite efforts to highlight its participatory character; and while civil society involvement is configured around ideals enabling citizen participation and co-creating value with users; involvement in smart city development emphasizes broadening the sets of actors involved in the creation of value rather than involving more citizen as participants in political debates. This is the case for the following reasons. Firstly, civil society involvement is more selective than propagated in the official rhetoric. Secondly, the involvement of social civil society actors is limited to specific thematic areas and actor constellations. Thirdly, the pro-active engagement of social civil society actors is only enabled through intermediary actors such as local government organizations and economic civil society actors (e.g. cooperatives). This dissertation thus disentangles two notions of civil society involvement – citizen participation and user co-creation. This way, I advance the debates on how and to what extent civil society actors are involved in the instruments of digital and algorithmic urban governance that smart city development implies. Furthermore, I propose new conceptualizations for the field economic geography concerning the relational constellations in which value is co-created with users.
... Проблемам становлення та розвитку розумних міст присвячені дослідження значної кількості науковців, таких як: А. Позднякова [1]; Л. Гальперіна, А. Гіренко, В. Мазуренко [2]; T. Kumar, D. Bharat [3]; R. Novotny, R. Kuchta, J. Kadlec [4], R. Giffinger зі спіtвавторами [5]; M. Angelidou [6]; A. Caragliu, Bo C. Del, P. Nijkamp [7]; M. Eremia, L. Toma, M. Sanduleac [8]. Проблеми ключових факторів успіху розумних міст досліджують: A. Visvizi and M. D. Lytras [9]; S. M. Sureshchandra, J. J. Bhavsar, J. R. Pitroda [10] та ін. ...
The purpose of the article is to analyze the trends in the development of higher education in the context of the formation of a smart economy, academic mobility and substantiate the directions for strengthening the role of higher education institutions in Ukraine in the context of modern challenges. The article generalizes the world experience in the implementation of smart cities, on the basis of systematization of the main ratings of smart cities, key indicators of intellectual activity are identified, also the characteristics of the activities of universities that contribute to the success of smart city. Based on the data of current information, an approximate estimate of the scale of outflow of young people, researchers and teaching staff from the country is provided. The currently available information on the scale of support for Ukraine by European countries both at the level of governments and at the level of individual universities is generalized. Losses and threats to the development of Ukrainian higher education in the conditions of military aggression, destruction of infrastructure and mass displacements of the population are outlined. The major directions of perspective development of universities in Ukraine in the context of modern challenges and post-war recovery are defined. The need to restore the country on fundamentally new principles is emphasized, that is building a new, smart economy, in which the goals of sustainable development and digital transformation will become key and the education and science systems must play an important role. This is possible only on the basis of real mechanisms for the return of our youth and highly qualified personnel back to the country, the transformation of higher education institutions into powerful financial actors of educational, scientific and economic activities, the creation of real competitive advantages for attracting foreign students.
... This strategy was strongly aligned with the objectives of Horizon 2020, the European Union's strategy to improve its growth model for the next decade and create a more sustainable, smarter and inclusive development pathway [27]. Barcelona's strategy was also a response to the challenges the city faced in terms of its own organisation, the integration of citizens*, private companies and local government [28]. The project focused on replicable processes that bring the city closer to citizens through open data initiatives and provide valuable information to individuals and private companies. ...
... A common thread that runs through this literature is that of upscaling infrastructure by making wise use of people (users), public policy (strategic decision-makers), technology, the existing built environment, and the natural environment (Kuyper, 2016). Angelidou (2016) emphasizes the importance of local strategy, which seeks focus on a region rather than the entire country in order to determine the priorities for a long-term goal of that specific region. This aspect is relevant to the problem studied in this paper, as the objective here is to determine the best location for an airport for minimizing total driving distances of residents of a region, improving their comfort levels in the journey, and reducing congestion at existing built airports. ...
We consider the problem of determining the location of a regional airport with connections to major hubs within an airline network for the objective of minimizing the carbon footprint of travelers, road congestion, and accident risk. This is aligned with an overarching goal of smart and sustainable living. The overall travel journey is usually composed of a trip from home to the airport, called the connecting trip, and a trip in the air, which is composed of one or more flights. Currently, in the United States, millions of travelers drive in excess of 100 miles to reach overcrowded airports. The connecting trip not only magnifies the driver's carbon footprint, but also creates traffic congestion in cities that have airports—further increasing CO2 generation in areas surrounding the airports and worsening road safety. The model proposed here identifies a suitable airport location to directly reduce total driving miles. Indirectly, congestion on roads connecting to the airport and the traffic intensity at the airports in the hub-and-spoke network will also be reduced and passengers’ comfort levels will be improved. We will employ a case study from the state of Missouri, United States, to illustrate our model and its concomitant analysis.
This chapter seeks to map urban dynamics as they have been spelt out by COVID-19 in terms of how urban dwellers in different regions – Africa and Asia specifically – are accessing their work and livelihood stations. Evidence on the ground shows the urban landscape at crossroads with the bulk of urban dwellers, particularly in the informal sector being found outside the parameters of the law. Some, who are also formally employed, still face challenges of mobility as some organizations do not offer them adequate mobility. It is argued that continued mobility is the primary reason why COVID-19 is on the rise in various settings, the concentration being the urban space. It is concluded that COVID-19 should be embraced as the new normal; hence, communities and urban institutions alike must continue to explore ways for co-existence with this problem. In Asia and Africa, investment must be made toward promotion of working from home.
Full-text available
Актуальність статті зумовлена сучасними кардинальними трансформаціями у світовій економіці, становленням розумної економіки, що ґрунтується на широкому застосуванні сучасних ІКТ та спрямована на створення якісного середовища для життєдіяльності людей. Метою статті виступає узагальнення світового досвіду розвитку смартекономіки, успішності смарт міст та реалізація основних напрямів розумної економіки в процесі післявоєнного відновлення України. Узагальнено успішний досвід на основі систематизації результатів світових рейтингів смарт сіті. Запропоновано систему напрямів та індикаторів розумного міста. Доведена необхідність реалізації розумної економіки в процесі післявоєнного відновлення України. Створення та ефективний розвиток смарт міст може стати важливим імпульсом для подальшого розвитку всієї економіки країни.
Full-text available
Today, many cities around the globe are interested in developing or adopting smart city policy frameworks; however, the complexity of the smart city concept combined with complicated urban issues makes it a highly challenging task. Moreover, there are limited studies to consolidate our understanding of smart city policymaking. The aim of this study was to bridge this knowledge gap by placing a set of official smart city policy frameworks under the policy analysis microscope. The study approached the analysis by, firstly, internationally collating the smart city policy frameworks of 52 local governments from 17 countries. The methodology then progressed to a deductive content analysis of the identified policies with a thematic data analysis software. The investigation employed the main themes to identify common urban issues in smart city policies—i.e., smart economy, smart environment, smart governance, smart living, smart mobility, and smart people. The results revealed the targeted key planning issues, goals, and priorities, and the ways that smart city policies address these key planning issues, goals, and priorities. The study findings inform policymakers, planners and practitioners on the smart city policy priorities and provide insights for smart city policymaking.
Full-text available
The main focus of this thesis aims to introduce a convenient conception of a smart city framework which helps to analyze the state of 65 cities in Europe according to their smartness. This framework persists in the development of an objective and a subjective Smart City Composite Indicator (SCCI) which offer a detailed view on those 65 cities. It is holistic and differentiates at the same time between several aspects to enable close observations of the cities’ performances. The approach here is unique in the sense that it distinguishes between objective elements that surround the cities and subjective perceptions of the citizens. Other researchers mix them and rely mostly on the former. The separate contemplations yield interesting insights because they are benchmarks that allow to examine if inhabitants perceive cities as smart which are smart according to objective criteria. Furthermore, this thesis attempts to identify smart city drivers with the means of an econometric analysis. The idea is to establish the same econometric models for both SCCIs and therefore to investigate if the same variables explain them. Moreover, the econometric models can set a rough agenda for the long–term development of the cities.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the new digital age, life sciences tend to converge with information technology and cybersecurity. With the new developments in biomedical research and the scientific progress of modern biotechnology, there is an exponential multiplication of related information sets, which require cloud storage and advanced methods of management and analysis, as well as ensuring an adequate protection of their content. The bioeconomy global landscape involves common, multiple and diverse actions (i.e specific policies and framework regulations, international cooperation, national collaboration among interdisciplinary sectors and different actors of the public-private system). At the same time, biosecurity issues highlight a complex and rapidly emerging ecosystem, which involves high-risk vulnerabilities. Moreover, the current pandemic context, generated by the global spread of the new virus, SARS-CoV-2, has pointed out some issues (i.e the importance of strategic autonomy in supply chains - food, medical and pharmaceutical products, the development of critical functional infrastructures, the appropriate prevention and protection measures, including the management of rapid and effective responses to pandemics or other potential malicious actions with regard to the use of infectious biological agents, natural or artificial). As science evolves, relying on the application of new technologies in areas such as artificial intelligence, process automation, bioinformatics and synthetic biology, vulnerabilities such as data confidentiality (i.e clinical, genetic information), cloud storage, intellectual property, may represent opportunities which could be exploited. Cybersecurity needs to be as robust as possible, anticipating and incorporating possible biological threats into its strategies. This paper presents a synthetic overview of cyberbiosecurity available data, with the view to emphasize some of its strategic approaches currently used in the world/at the international level.
Full-text available
This paper reviews the factors which differentiate policies for the development of smart cities, in an effort to provide a clear view of the strategic choices that come forth when mapping out such a strategy. The paper commences with a review and categorization of four strategic choices with a spatial reference, on the basis of the recent smart city literature and experience. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategic choice are presented. In the second part of the paper, the previous choices are illustrated through smart city strategy cases from all over the world. The third part of the paper includes recommendations for the development of smart cities based on the combined conclusions of the previous parts. The paper closes with a discussion of the insights that were provided and recommendations for future research areas.
Full-text available
This paper discusses the way digital services advance urban knowledge ecosystems. The introductory part sets the frame of this paper; the second part conducts a systematic literature review regarding the association of knowledge with urban development since the beginning of the millennium, placing emphasis on urban knowledge ecosystems. The third part explores the benefits of using digital services in the implementation an urban knowledge ecosystem. The fourth and last part of the main body of this paper examines the urban knowledge ecosystem at the medium-sized city of Thermi, Greece, where in recent years a series of digital services were put in operation. The final and conclusive part of this paper examines the integration of digital services within the urban realm, based on the experience of Thermi, and how this process can support the development of knowledge and innovation-led cities.
Full-text available
Living Labs aim to engage in user-centered design practices where users are included in their daily life environment as innovative agents. However, empirical insights in end user engagement in Living Lab practices are currently lacking. This article focuses on opening up this black box of user engagement by analyzing the involvement of a group of entrepreneurs in a Living Lab smart city pilot in Amsterdam, the Climate street. The goal of the article is to analyze how and to what extent the Climate street enabled the involved entrepreneurs to engage in bottom up innovation. Theoretically, the article explores this pilot from a Science and Technology Studies perspective, specifically its notion of the socio-technical network. The article concludes that user innovativeness was limited by the pre-configuration of the entrepreneur as lay tester rather than as an active user-innovator. Furthermore, it is suggested that the inherent tension in Living Lab practices between configuring users and actual user practices hampers user innovativeness in general. Granting users more agency and opening up Living Lab practices to daily life dynamics stimulates the transition from tester to innovator in a daily life setting and subsequently makes entrepreneurs more readily smart.
Full-text available
Information and communication technology is changing the way in which cities organise policymaking and urban growth. Smart Cities base their strategy on the use of information and communication technologies in several fields such as economy, environment, mobility and governance to transform the city infrastructure and services. This paper draws on the city of Barcelona and intends to analyse its transformation from a traditional agglomeration to a twenty-first century metropolis. The case of Barcelona is of special interest due to its apparent desire, reflected by its current policies regarding urban planning, to be considered as a leading metropolis in Europe. Hence, an assessment of the Smart City initiative will cast light on the current status of Barcelona’s urban policy and its urban policy of Barcelona and its future directions. This article analyses Barcelona’s transformation in the areas of Smart City management; drivers, bottlenecks, conditions and assets. First, it presents the existing literature on Barcelona’s Smart City initiative. Then, the case study analysis is presented with the Barcelona Smart City model. After describing this model, we further explore the main components of the Smart City strategy of Barcelona in terms of Smart districts, living labs, initiatives, e-Services, infrastructures and Open Data. This paper also reveals certain benefits and challenges related to this initiative and its future directions. The results of the case study analysis indicate that Barcelona has been effectively implementing the Smart City strategy with an aim to be a Smart City model for the world.
Full-text available
Making a city "smart" is emerging as a strategy to mitigate the problems generated by the urban population growth and rapid urbanization. Yet little academic research has sparingly discussed the phenomenon. To close the gap in the literature about smart cities and in response to the increasing use of the concept, this paper proposes a framework to understand the concept of smart cities. Based on the exploration of a wide and extensive array of literature from various disciplinary areas we identify eight critical factors of smart city initiatives: management and organization, technology, governance, policy context, people and communities, economy, built infrastructure, and natural environment. These factors form the basis of an integrative framework that can be used to examine how local governments are envisioning smart city initiatives. The framework suggests directions and agendas for smart city research and outlines practical implications for government professionals.
- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
This paper aims to offer a profound analysis of the interrelations between smart city components connecting the cornerstones of the triple helix. The triple helix model has emerged as a reference framework for the analysis of knowledge-based innovation systems, and relates the multiple and reciprocal relationships between the three main agencies in the process of knowledge creation and capitalization: university, industry and government. This analysis of the triple helix will be augmented using the Analytic Network Process to model, cluster and begin measuring the performance of smart cities. The model obtained allows interactions and feedbacks within and between clusters, providing a process to derive ratio scales priorities from elements. This offers a more truthful and realistic representation for supporting policy-making. The application of this model is still to be developed, but a full list of indicators, available at urban level, has been identified and selected from literature review.