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Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects


Abstract and Figures

Objective: To test the hypotheses that among overweight and obese participants, a breakfast consisting of eggs, in comparison to an isocaloric equal-weight bagel-based breakfast, would induce greater satiety, reduce perceived cravings, and reduce subsequent short-term energy intake. Subjects: Thirty women with BMI's of at least 25 kg/M-2 between the ages of 25 to 60 y were recruited to participate in a randomized crossover design study in an outpatient clinic setting. Design: Following an overnight fast, subjects consumed either an egg or bagel-based breakfast followed by lunch 3.5 h later, in random order two weeks apart. Food intake was weighed at breakfast and lunch and recorded via dietary recall up to 36 h post breakfast. Satiety was assessed using the Fullness Questionnaire and the State-Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, state version. Results: During the pre-lunch period, participants had greater feelings of satiety after the egg breakfast, and consumed significantly less energy (kJ; 2405.6 +/- 550.0 vs 3091.3 +/- 445.5, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p<0.0001), grams of protein (16.8 +/- 4.2 vs 22.3 +/- 3.4, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p<0.0001), carbohydrate 83.1 +/- 20.2 vs 110.9 +/- 18.7, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p<0.0001), and fat 19.4 +/- 5.1 vs 22.8 +/- 3.2, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p<0.0001) for lunch. Energy intake following the egg breakfast remained lower for the entire day (p<0.05) as well as for the next 36 hours (p<0.001). Conclusions: Compared to an isocaloric, equal weight bagel-based breakfast, the egg-breakfast induced greater satiety and significantly reduced short-term food intake. The potential role of a routine egg breakfast in producing a sustained caloric deficit and consequent weight loss, should be determined.
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Original Research
Short-Term Effect of Eggs on Satiety in Overweight and
Obese Subjects
Jillon S. Vander Wal, PhD, Jorene M. Marth, MA, RD, Pramod Khosla, PhD, K-L Catherine Jen, PhD,
Nikhil V. Dhurandhar, PhD, FACN
Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri (J.S.V.W.), Department of Nutrition and Food Science,
Wayne State University, Detroit (P.K., K.-L.C.J., N.V.D.), Rochester Center for Obesity Research & Treatment, Rochester Hills
(J.M.M., N.V.D.), Michigan
Key words: obesity, eggs, satiety, weight loss, hunger, breakfast
Objective: To test the hypotheses that among overweight and obese participants, a breakfast consisting of
eggs, in comparison to an isocaloric equal-weight bagel-based breakfast, would induce greater satiety, reduce
perceived cravings, and reduce subsequent short-term energy intake.
Subjects: Thirty women with BMI’s of at least 25 kg/M
between the ages of 25 to 60 y were recruited to
participate in a randomized crossover design study in an outpatient clinic setting.
Design: Following an overnight fast, subjects consumed either an egg or bagel-based breakfast followed by
lunch 3.5 h later, in random order two weeks apart. Food intake was weighed at breakfast and lunch and recorded
via dietary recall up to 36 h post breakfast. Satiety was assessed using the Fullness Questionnaire and the
State-Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, state version.
Results: During the pre-lunch period, participants had greater feelings of satiety after the egg breakfast, and
consumed significantly less energy (kJ; 2405.6 550.0 vs 3091.3 445.5, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p
0.0001), grams of protein (16.8 4.2 vs 22.3 3.4, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p 0.0001), carbohydrate 83.1
20.2 vs 110.9 18.7, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p 0.0001), and fat 19.4 5.1 vs 22.8 3.2, Egg vs Bagel
breakfasts, p 0.0001) for lunch. Energy intake following the egg breakfast remained lower for the entire day
(p 0.05) as well as for the next 36 hours (p 0.001).
Conclusions: Compared to an isocaloric, equal weight bagel-based breakfast, the egg-breakfast induced
greater satiety and significantly reduced short-term food intake. The potential role of a routine egg breakfast in
producing a sustained caloric deficit and consequent weight loss, should be determined.
The World Health Organization has declared that obesity
has reached epidemic proportions [1] and its prevalence is
rapidly rising in the United States [2]. Regardless of the various
etiological factors proposed to explain the high prevalence and
incidence of obesity, a diet that induces a negative energy
balance continues to be an important part of obesity manage-
ment. Various anorectic drugs as well as macronutrient com-
binations have been tested to aid in the difficult task of eating
less than desired, by reducing hunger and/or increasing satiety.
Foods with higher satiety values would be useful in reducing
subsequent energy intake in comparison with isocaloric foods
with lower satiety values.
Holt et al showed that as the satiety values of isocaloric
breakfasts increased (Satiety Index, SI), energy intake at a test
meal 2 h later decreased [3]. In a study to determine satiety after
four different types of isocaloric breakfasts [4], satiety was the
greatest with the breakfast consisting of All-bran cereal, a banana,
and milk. These satiety ratings were followed in decreasing order
by breakfasts consisting of corn flakes, eggs-and-bacon or crois-
sants. However, the results were confounded by the varying
Address reprint requests to: Nikhil V. Dhurandhar, PhD, Associate Professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.
Presented in part at the NAASO Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 2004.
Funding from Egg Nutrition Center, United States Department of Agriculture.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 24, No. 6, 510–515 (2005)
Published by the American College of Nutrition
weights of the breakfasts, which were 425 g, 360 g, 213 g and
135 g, respectively, indicating that heavier breakfasts were more
satiating. Interestingly, both the eggs-and-bacon and all-bran
breakfasts had roughly equal percentages of protein, 18.6 versus
18.0, respectively.
To date, five breakfast studies using randomized cross-over
designs have examined the impact of different macronutrients
on subsequent food intake; four of these five examined the
impact on satiety [5–10]. All five studies included average-
weight subjects among whom the influence of satiety and
macronutrient content on subsequent food intake may differ
from that of overweight and obese subjects. Obese subjects
have greater fasting volume of the stomach in the antral [11]
and distal area [12]. When offered a high-fat pre-load meal,
obese subjects consumed about 66% more energy compared to
non-obese controls [13]. These differences in energy consump-
tion were also supported by a demonstration of different pat-
terns in regional cerebral blood flow in obese compared to
non-obese subjects [14]. Therefore, it is important to study
overweight and obese subjects instead of extrapolating the
effects from the non-obese counterparts.
Eggs are a convenient, affordable and nutritious source of
key macro and micronutrients. They are an integral and estab-
lished part of breakfast in numerous cultures and may be eaten
safely on a regular basis. Discretionary use of eggs has been
traditionally advised due to their cholesterol content and the
earlier implications in coronary heart disease risk. However,
recent data from the Nurses Health Study showed that egg
consumption did not contribute to the risk of coronary heart
disease or stroke [15]. In addition, compared to a ready-to-eat
breakfast cereal or white bread, eggs have 50% greater SI [16]
as well as a greater satiety value than other common breakfasts
[3] at least among non-obese subjects. These attributes suggest
that eggs would be good candidates to test their role in reducing
energy intake.
Although previous research has generally supported the
satiety inducing effects of protein, evidence regarding the sub-
sequent impact on energy intake is less certain due to method-
ological concerns. Moreover, unlike studies that have examined
the impact of varying macronutrients, eggs may yield addi-
tional benefits due to evidence of their relatively strong satiety
value. The effect of a breakfast consisting of eggs versus a
commonly consumed, isocaloric, and equal weight bagel-
based breakfast on satiety and subsequent energy intake of
obese people is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the
present study was to test the hypothesis, that among over-
weight and obese participants, a breakfast consisting of eggs
would a) induce greater satiety and reduce lunch-time en-
ergy intake; b) reduce total energy intake for 24 hours; and
c) reduce perceived cravings for some tasty and energy
dense foods in comparison to an isocaloric equal-weight
bagel-based breakfast.
Demographic Characteristics. Demographic characteris-
tics were ascertained at the introductory session, including
gender, diabetic statues, age, BMI and weight loss history.
Height and weight were obtained after the removal of heavy
outer clothing.
Food Intake. The pasta was weighed before and after
serving to determine the amount consumed. The apple was
sliced and the number of slices eaten was counted. Weights of
additional helpings were also recorded.
24-Hour Dietary Records. The research coordinators, who
were also qualified dietitians, trained participants in the recod-
ing of food intake with food models after the introductory
session and before the participants left for the day. Participants
completed 24-hour food records at the completion of each
study session which they later reviewed with the dieticians for
clarification and promotion of thoroughness and accuracy. Re-
sponses were analyzed with Total Dietary Assessment software
from Saunders College Publishing, Version 2.0; ISBN # 0-03-
025895-2; Science and Application 2000, Harcourt, 1997, and
summary values, including energy (kJ) and grams of protein,
carbohydrate, and fat were entered into SPSS for further analysis.
The State-Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire—State Sub-
scale (FCQ-S; 17) is a 15-item measure of state-based changes
in the motivation to consume foods. Responses are made on a
5-point likert scale with response categories ranging from 1
“strongly disagree” to 5 “strongly agree.” The scale yields a
total as well as 5 subscale scores, including an intense desire to
eat, anticipation of positive reinforcement that may result from
eating, anticipation of relief from negative states and feelings as
a result of eating, obsessive preoccupation with food or lack of
control over eating, and craving as a physiological state. In a
validation study, the scores on the FCQ-S decreased substan-
tially as participants went from a food deprivation to satiation
state. The FCQ-S has excellent internal consistency,
[17], and the factor structure has been cross-validated in sam-
ples of young adults.
Fullness Questionnaire (FQ; 16) is an equilateral seven-
point rating scale used to measure hunger. The scale was
similar to one in previous studies of this phenomenon [18,19],
but had greater test-retest reliability and participants found it
easier to use and understand. The scale is anchored from 3,
“extremely hungry,” 2 “hungry,” 1 “semi-hungry,” 0 “no
particular feeling,” 1 “semi-satisfied,” 2 “satisfied,” and 3
“extremely full.” The FQ has been shown to correlate with the
serving weight of foods, (r .66), the protein, fiber, and water
content of foods (r .37, r .46, and r .64, respectively),
and negatively with fat content (r ⫽⫺.43) and palatability
ratings (r ⫽⫺.64). The FQ had also been negatively correlated
with the amount of energy consumed 120 minutes after a test
meal (r ⫽⫺.37) [16].
Egg Breakfast and Short-Term Satiety
The study was approved by the institutional review boards
of Wayne State University and Crittenton Hospital, MI and
informed written consents were obtained from the participants.
First, the respondents to study announcements were screened
according to study inclusion criteria which included being
female, non-diabetic, between the ages of 18 and 60 years,
body mass index (BMI) of at least 25 and no more than 35
, and no weight loss 6.82 kg (15 lb) in the past 6
months. Potentially eligible participants were invited to an
introductory session where the study was explained, eligibility
criteria confirmed, and informed written consent obtained.
Thirty women were recruited for the study. Two women expe-
rienced sudden and acute psychologically stressful events (un-
related to the study), which would potentially influence their
food intake. These two women were asked to discontinue the
study, leaving the data from 28 women available for analysis.
The mean age of the women was 44.6 9.8 y ranging from
25.2 to 60.7 y.
A randomized cross-over design was used in which all subjects
attended 2 test days (Egg Day and Bagel Day) 2 weeks apart. The
sequence of the test days was randomly determined. On the day of
the test, participants reported to the clinic at 8:00 AM, after a 12 h
fast and left in the afternoon after lunch. After completing a
7-point equilateral category rating scale (Fullness Questionnaire,
16) and State Subscale of the State-Trait Food Cravings Question-
naire [17], they were offered either an egg or bagel-based break-
fast. The egg breakfast was comprised of 2 eggs-scrambled, 2
slices of toast, and 1 tablespoon of reduced calorie fruit spread.
The bagel-based breakfast was comprised of a 3.5 inch diameter
bagel, 2 tablespoons of cream cheese, and 3 oz of non-fat yogurt.
The nutritional content of both breakfasts is provided in Table 1.
The weight and energy content of the “egg breakfast” and the
“bagel breakfast” were similar. Leftover breakfast was weighed to
determine the intake.
Participants completed the fullness and food craving ques-
tionnaires 15 min after finishing the breakfast and then twice
more, 90 min apart. Participants spent about 195 min reading,
listening to music or watching movies that did not have refer-
ences to food/eating. Lunch, comprised of pasta with marinara
sauce and sliced apples, was offered 3.5 hours after completion
of the breakfasts. Subjects were encouraged to eat as much food
they wanted. Food intake was monitored discretely to deter-
mine the weight and caloric content of the food consumed.
Weight of food offered was noted and each remaining food
component was separately weighed after the breakfast and
lunch. Subjects were urged to not drink water during lunch.
Water was offered ad-libitum after lunch. Participants were
allowed to leave at this time, but were asked to keep a food-
intake and activity diary for the next 24 hours. Detailed instruc-
tions on keeping the food diary were provided. To prevent bias
on the fullness and cravings questionnaires and the food intake,
participants were told that the purported aim of the study was
to monitor the effect of breakfast on blood pressure and alert-
ness. Alertness assessment questionnaires were given and
blood pressure was measured along with the fullness and food
craving questionnaires.
Power and Statistical Analysis
In the absence of our own preliminary data to calculate
power, we turned to a study by Holt et al [4] in which a within
subjects design was used to assess fullness following consump-
tion of four breakfast meals. The two test meals of greatest
similarity to the proposed study included a breakfast of eggs
and bacon versus a croissant. Using the means and standard
deviations reported, a very large effect size of d 1.69 [20]
was calculated (although they failed to control for food weight).
Thus, assuming a large effect size, but more conservatively
estimated at d 1.0, an alpha level of .05, and a desired power
of .80, 26 subjects were deemed sufficient to test the hypothesis
regarding satiety. Anticipating a possible 15% attrition rate, 30
subjects were recruited.
Analyses included paired sample t-tests and within subjects
repeated measures analysis of variance with within subjects
contrasts to assess for quadratic and cubic effects. The signif-
icance level was set at p .05.
Baseline Characteristics
Participants consumed similar amounts of the egg and bagel
breakfasts with only 4 participants failing to consume the entire
Table 1. Nutrient Composition of Breakfasts Offered and Consumed (n 28)
Breakfasts offered Breakfasts consumed
Egg Bagel Egg Bagel
Weight (g) 189.0 188.0 188.7 1.3 187.0 3.2
Energy (kJ) 1479.8 1452.1 1478.1 9.1 1437.6 48.4
Protein (g) 18.4 13.6 18.3 0.0 13.5 0.2
Carbohydrate (g) 31.7 47.87 31.6 0.5 47.8 0.1
Fat (g) 17.0 11.2 17.0 0.0 10.9 1.1
Drinking water (g) 240.0 240.0 222.1 40.0 217.9 48.0
Egg Breakfast and Short-Term Satiety
512 VOL. 24, NO. 6
breakfast. The nutrient composition of the breakfasts as eaten is
given in Table 1. Overall, participants consumed similar
amounts of the two breakfasts (188.7 1.3 g vs 187.0 3.2 g,
for Egg and Bagel breakfasts, respectively). Participants con-
sumed 1.7 3.5 g more of the egg breakfast; an energy
difference of only 40.5 49.7 kJ. Similarly, the amount of
water consumed with the egg breakfast (222.1 40.0 mL was
highly similar to that which was drunk with the bagel breakfast
(217.9 48.0 mL).
Post-Breakfast Energy Intake
During the post-breakfast lunch, participants who had con-
sumed the egg breakfast consumed significantly less energy
(Table 2, p .0001) as well as grams of protein (p .0001),
carbohydrate (p .0001), and fat (p .0001). There were no
differences in the amount of water consumed (p ns).
Energy intake for the entire day following the egg breakfast
remained lower by about 1104 kJ (7463.7 1788.4 vs
8567.6 2037.8 kJ, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p 0.05; Fig. 1)
and g of carbohydrates (204.5 49.5 vs 263.2 60.1, Egg vs
Bagel breakfasts, p 0.0001). Furthermore, for the entire
study period, from breakfast until noon of the next day, energy
intake after the egg breakfast was lower by 1759 kJ (8652.3
2418.9 vs 10411.7 3221.6, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p
.001; Fig. 1) as well as protein (83.8 25.8 g vs 97.1 32.0 g,
Egg vs Bagel breakfasts p .05) and carbohydrate intake
(247.4 69.7 g vs 317.3 85.6 g, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts,
p.0001). Although persons who had eaten the egg breakfast
ate fewer grams of fat, this difference was not statistically
A within subjects repeated measures analysis of variance
with food type (egg versus bagel) and time (pre-breakfast, and
15, 90, and 180 minutes post-breakfast) as within subjects
factors was conducted on the satiety rating scale. Results of the
within subjects contrasts showed a significant cubic effect for
the food by time interaction, F(1, 27) 14.70, p .001,
suggesting that there was a significant increase in satiety fol-
lowing consumption of the breakfast followed by a gradual
reduction in satiety, which was greater for those who had
consumed the egg breakfast than for those who ate the bagel
breakfast. Repeated measures contrasts showed that the egg
breakfast promoted greater satiety from baseline to 15 minutes
post-breakfast, F(1, 27) 9.71, p .01 and from 15 to 90
minutes post-breakfast, F(1, 27) 54.87, p .0001. There was
a non-significant trend for greater satiety from 90 to 180
minutes post-breakfast, F(1, 27) 3.77, p .07. These dif-
ferences are graphically displayed in Fig. 2.
Next, the Food Craving Scale was used as the dependent
variable to determine whether there were differences in specific
types of cravings following the egg versus bagel breakfasts.
Overall, within subjects contrasts showed significant quadratic
effects for the food by time interaction on the subscales of
desire for food, F(1, 27) 4.84, p .05 and for anticipation
of positive reinforcement from food, F(1, 27) 4.27, p .05.
Repeated measures contrasts showed that only the overall ef-
fects were statistically significant and that differences between
individual time points were not statistically significant. No
significant effects were found for the subscales of anticipation
of negative reinforcement, lack of control over eating, nor
sensations of physiological hunger.
The results supported the hypothesis that a breakfast con-
sisting of eggs, in comparison to an isocaloric and equal-weight
bagel-based breakfast, would reduce lunch time energy intake
among overweight and obese participants. Furthermore, it was
observed that the energy deficit was not compensated for at
least 24 h after the breakfast. These findings extend previous
work [4] and demonstrate that isocaloric and equal-weight
breakfasts of differing satiety values impact subsequent energy
Table 2. Composition of Post-Breakfast Lunch Consumed
(Mean SD [n 28])
Post Egg breakfast Post Bagel breakfast t
Energy (kJ) 2405.6 550.0 3091.3 445.5 7.79*
Protein (g) 16.8 4.2 22.3 3.4 7.79*
Carbohydrate (g) 83.1 20.2 110.9 18.7 7.44*
Fat (g) 19.4 5.1 22.8 3.2 4.66*
Drinking water (g) 630.4 252.7 613.4 252.0 0.38
Fig. 1. Difference in energy intakes after the egg or the bagel break-
fasts. Twenty-eight overweight or obese women were offered isoener-
getic and equal weight egg or bagel breakfasts on two days at least two
weeks apart. Following the egg breakfast, mean energy intake was
significantly lower for lunch (post-breakfast lunch, * p 0.0001), for
the entire day of the breakfasts including all meals (entire day of the
breakfast, ** p 0.05) and, for the day of the breakfast and the
breakfast and lunch of the next day (Day of the breakfast up to lunch
the next day; *** p 0.01).
Egg Breakfast and Short-Term Satiety
intake. Unlike previous studies, the current study allowed for
the detection of the impact on subsequent food intake due to
subtle methodological improvements, including the measure-
ment of the test-meal in a laboratory setting, the provision of
breakfasts of similar weight and caloric content, and the pro-
vision of breakfast meals small enough to allow hunger to
develop. In addition, unlike previous studies, the inclusion of
overweight and obese persons rather than average-weight con-
trols may have had an influence on the results. Overweight and
obese persons have been shown to differ from their average-
weight counterparts on the important parameters of fasting
stomach volume, food intake following consumption of a high-
fat meal, and cerebral blood flow [11–14]. For the energy
reducing effect of egg breakfasts to be relevant, it was appro-
priate to test the responses of a group of subjects who may
potentially benefit from such a satiating effect.
Attributes of the breakfast meals that may have contributed
to differential effects on satiety and food intake included the
satiety index and macronutrient composition. The greater im-
pact of the egg breakfast on subsequent satiety and food intake
may be attributed to the relatively higher satiety value of eggs
in comparison to bagels. Although the egg breakfast had a
slightly greater proportion of calories from protein (20.8%
versus 15.7%) which may have helped promote satiety, the egg
breakfast also had a greater proportion of calories from fat
(42.2 versus 29.1) which has been linked to early development
of subsequent hunger and greater food intake [9]. Clearly, the
satiety impact of various foods is impacted by additional fac-
tors beside simple macronutrient composition.
One factor that may influence the satiety index is macronu-
trient composition. In general, dietary protein helps regulate
food intake by increasing the sensation of satiety and increasing
the thermic effect of feeding [5]. One study noted that both a
high protein and a high carbohydrate breakfast diminished
hunger to a greater extent than a high fat breakfast during the
pre-lunch period [8]. However, the high protein breakfast re-
duced hunger to a greater extent over the ensuing 24-hour
period. A study showed that participants who ate a high protein
or balanced breakfast were less hungry before lunch than those
who ate a high carbohydrate or high fat breakfast [9]. In
contrast, no differences in the impact of protein, carbohydrate,
fat, or alcohol on subsequent satiety over the next five hours
have also been reported [7]. The size of the breakfasts (2499.5
kJ for women; 2997 kJ for men) or the ten subsequent blood
draws via an indwelling catheter may have reduced the appe-
tites of the participants. de Graaf et al [6] found no differential
impact of protein, fat, or carbohydrate on subsequent measures
of satiety either at lunch nor during the remainder of the day.
However, provision of the meals in liquid suspensions may
have adversely impacted sensations of satiety. None of the
studies found a differential impact of protein versus carbohy-
drate on subsequent food intake either at lunch [6 –10] or over
the course of the day [6,8]. Methodological problems may have
precluded the ability to detect significant differences, including
reliance on self-reported lunch-time and subsequent energy
intake [6], the use of repeated post-breakfast blood draws [7],
and the provision of breakfast meals so high in caloric content
(5179.1–5836.4 kJ) that development of subsequent hunger,
particularly over the short-term, was unlikely [8,9].
The nutrients in eggs responsible for promoting satiety
observed in the current study, as well as the mechanism in-
volved are unknown. Breakfasts containing egg proteins re-
sulted in lower insulin responses compared to otherwise iden-
tical breakfasts containing ham proteins [21]. Reduced blood
glucose and insulin response was observed after breakfast with
whole eggs or yolk [22], which also increased cholecystokinin
and gastric inhibitory peptide levels and delayed gastric emp-
tying. The potential role of delayed gastric emptying and re-
duced glycemic index of eggs contributing to satiety was not
determined in our study. The current study was restricted to
evaluating the potentially greater satiety value of an egg-break-
fast over another conventional non-egg breakfast. Identifying a
specific macro or micronutrient of an egg responsible for the
effect was beyond the scope of the experimental design. Re-
gardless of the macronutrient responsible for the effect, the fact
that an egg-breakfast has greater satiety value compared to
another breakfast of equal calories is an important finding
potentially useful in weight management diets.
The current study also suggests that there may be multiple
facets of satiety and that eggs may have an impact on the desire
for food and anticipation from positive reinforcement from
Fig. 2. Mean satiety rating scale scores over time. Twenty-eight over-
weight or obese women were offered isoenergetic and equal weight egg
or bagel breakfasts on two days at least two weeks apart. Satiety scores
were determined by the Fullness questionnaire at baseline (before
eating breakfasts) and 15, 90 and 180 min following the breakfasts. A
within subjects repeated measures ANOVA with food type and time
showed a significant increase in satiety following consumption of the
breakfast, followed by a gradual reduction, which was greater after the
egg breakfast than the bagel breakfast (p 0.001). Repeated measures
contrasts showed that the egg breakfast promoted greater satiety from
baseline to 15 minutes post-breakfast, (p 0.01) and from 15 to 90
minutes post-breakfast (p 0.0001). There was a non-significant trend
for greater satiety from 90 to 180 minutes post-breakfast (p .07).
Egg Breakfast and Short-Term Satiety
514 VOL. 24, NO. 6
eating. However, the satiety rating scale used in the present
study was a simple 7-point scale. Similarly, other studies have
used various types of simple visual analogue scales to assess
terms including the following: hunger, satiety, fullness, appe-
tite, appetite for a meal, appetite for a snack, urge to eat, desire
to eat, cravings for foods, desire for something salty, desire for
something sweet, desire for something fatty, preoccupation
with thoughts of food, prospective food consumption, alertness,
liveliness, and thirst. These types of scales neither encompass
the full range of satiety nor do they possess desirable psycho-
metric properties. Clearly, satiety (or conversely, a desire for
food) can be conceptualized as multidimensional motivational
In summary, these data show that despite equal energy
content and weight, in the short-term, an egg breakfast had a
greater satiating effect compared to a bagel breakfast, which
translated into a lower energy intake at lunch and that the
resulting decrease in energy consumption lasted for at least
24 h after the egg-breakfast. These results have potentially
significant implications. Eggs are an integral and established
part of breakfast in numerous cultures and the satiating effect of
eggs may be useful in reducing energy intake thereby promot-
ing weight management. The role of eggs in sustaining reduced
energy intake has not been tested. These results provide a
stimulus to test the long-term effect of egg breakfasts in reduc-
ing energy intake required for weight loss treatments.
All authors have contributed to the design and conduct of
the study and the analysis and interpretation of the data. None
of the authors had a known conflict of interest. We gratefully
acknowledge the help of Naomi Yamada in the dietary analysis.
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Received November 28, 2004; revision accepted August 19,
Egg Breakfast and Short-Term Satiety
... In regards to T2D management, clinical guidelines recommend carbohydrate intake from high-fiber foods such as vegetables, fruit, legumes and whole grains, while limiting SFAs intake and promoting that of MUFAs and omega-3 PUFAs [149, 150], all of which have been associated to different extents with an increased GLP-1 secretion. Some experimental studies conducted with healthy individuals have examined the effects of several specific foods on glycemic response, subjective appetite sensations as well as energy intake at a subsequent meal [151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163][164][165][166][167][168] . The main findings of these studies are summarized in Table 3. ...
... As Reis et al. [168] showed no statistically significant difference in GLP-1 blood concentrations with the addition of 42.5 g of peanuts or peanut butter to a carbohydrate-containing meal, it is also possible that higher quantities of nuts are necessary to induce a sufficient rise in GI hormone secretion. Consumption of eggs (2 to 3), which are high in protein and also contain MUFAs, for breakfast or lunch, has been shown to improve subjective postprandial appetite sensations [160][161][162][163]. Furthermore, when compared to a bagel breakfast, consumption of a breakfast containing eggs (3) in adult men was associated with a lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations, decreased hunger , and reduced energy intake in the next 24 hours [160]. ...
... MUFAs versus SFAs) from the impact of the amount of the intake per se because none of the experimental meals were matched for macronutrient content. Furthermore, several studies [154, 156, 161, 167, 168] did not use isocaloric test and control meals. In these studies, the test meal was contained more calories which leads to question whether the observed effects is to be attributed to the tested foods or the energy content of the meal. ...
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Background The positive influences of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on blood glucose homeostasis, appetite sensations, and food intake provide a strong rationale for its therapeutic potential in the nutritional management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. AimTo summarize GLP-1 physiology and the nutritional modulation of its secretion in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes management. FindingsGLP-1 is mainly synthesized and secreted by enteroendocrine L-cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Its secretion is partly mediated by the direct nutrient sensing by G-protein coupled receptors which specifically bind to monosaccharides, peptides and amino-acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as to short chain fatty acids. Foods rich in these nutrients, such as high-fiber grain products, nuts, avocados and eggs also seem to influence GLP-1 secretion and may thus promote associated beneficial outcomes in healthy individuals as well as individuals with type 2 diabetes or with other metabolic disturbances. Conclusion The stimulation of endogenous GLP-1 secretion by manipulating the composition of the diet may be a relevant strategy for obesity and type 2 diabetes management. A better understanding of the dose-dependent effects as well as the synergistic effects of nutrients and whole foods is needed in order to develop recommendations to appropriately modify the diet to enhance GLP-1 beneficial effects.
... 55,56 On the other hand, eggs have been reported to increase circulating levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin, and indirectly reduce inflammation by increasing satiety. 20,57 The majority of the study participants included in the final analysis were either obese or overweight, with exception of the study by Missimer et al., 23 which also included normal-weight adults. Lastly, the study by Baumgartner et al. 25 did not document the weight or BMI of the participants in the study, which may have confounded the results of the present analysis. ...
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Background: There is little evidence whether eggs affect inflammation. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the effects of egg consumption on inflammation. A systemic search of online databases (ISI, Scopus, Ovid, PubMed, Cochrane) was used to gather clinical trials that assessed the effect of egg consumption on circulating inflammatory biomarkers from inception up to April 2019. Using a random-effects model, pooled weighted mean differences (WMD) and corresponding standard deviations (SD) were calculated. Of the 21 total references found, 9 trials (8 trials assessed high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), 4 trials assessed Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 5 trials assessed Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) were eligible for analysis. Egg consumption did not affect hs-CRP (WMD 0.24 mg/L; 95% CI: -0.43, 0.90; I2 = 53.8; P= 0.48), IL-6 (WMD 0.20 pg/mL; 95% CI: -0.71, 1.11; I2 = 69.3; P= 0.50), and TNF-α (WMD: -0.38 pg/mL; 95% CI: -0.87, 0.10; I2 = 0.00; P= 0.12) relative to controls. Overall, this meta-analysis revealed that egg consumption had no significant effect on serum biomarkers of inflammation in adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Another strategy is to replace some of the carbohydrates in a high- GI breakfast with protein, which has been suggested to be the most satiating macronutrient [22][23][24]. To date, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of increasing intake of protein at breakfast on satiety, and they report that increasing the protein content of breakfast increases satiety in adolescents [25] and adults [26][27][28][29]. Moreover, another study found that protein consumed at breakfast is more satiating than protein consumed at lunch or the evening meal [30] . ...
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Purpose: It is believed that breakfast is an important meal due to its effect on appetite control and cognitive performance, yet little evidence exists to support this hypothesis. Methods: Using a crossover design, 33 healthy undergraduates (aged 22 ± 2 years with a BMI of 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomized one of four breakfast treatments: no breakfast, a low-protein breakfast containing no animal protein, a high-carbohydrate/low-protein breakfast containing animal protein or a low-carbohydrate/high-protein breakfast. After an overnight fast, participants reported to the laboratory and baseline appetite questionnaires and cognitive tests were completed. A baseline blood sample was also collected. These measures were repeated at regular intervals throughout the test session. An ad libitum lunch meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten recorded. Diet diaries and hourly appetite questionnaires were completed for the rest of the day. Results: The no-breakfast treatment had a marked effect on appetite before lunch (p < .05). Moreover, participants consumed more energy at lunch following the no-breakfast treatment (p < .05). There was no difference in appetite before lunch or food intake at lunch following any treatment when breakfast was eaten. However, food intake over the entire test day was lowest for the no-breakfast treatment (p < .05). Plasma glucose and insulin were lower following the high-protein/low-carbohydrate treatment compared to the low-protein/high-carbohydrate-no animal protein treatment (p < .05). Participants were less happy when they missed breakfast (p < .05), but there were no other statistically significant effects of breakfast on mood or cognitive performance. Conclusions: These results suggest that changing the macronutrient content of breakfast influences the glycemic response, but has no effect on the appetitive or cognitive performance measures used in this present study.
... Likewise, one report suggests that bioactives isolated from egg protein down-regulate serum myostatin (MSTN) [25]; an effect which may enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy with chronic supplementation. However, unlike the aforementioned whey protein research , there is a paucity of data regarding the physiological effects of dietary egg protein on other tissues (i.e., adipose tissue and the hypothalamus), though there is some evidence to suggest that egg-based breakfast meals can increase satiety post-ingestion [26] and cause weight loss in overweight individuals over the long-term [27]. Given the widespread interest regarding the physiological effects of dietary whey and egg proteins, as well as hydrolyzed versus intact protein forms, the purpose of this study was to examine how different solutions of extensively hydrolyzed whey and egg albumin protein (EPH) blends, in combination with a standardized blend of cow colostrum and egg yolk extract acutely affect post-prandial markers of skeletal muscle anabolism, adipose tissue lipolysis and thermogenesis, and hypothalamic mRNA expression patterns in rodents. ...
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We examined the acute effects of different dietary protein sources (0.19 g, dissolved in 1 ml of water) on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and hypothalamic satiety-related markers in fasted, male Wistar rats (~250 g). Oral gavage treatments included: a) whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 15); b) 70:30 hydrolyzed whey-to-hydrolyzed egg albumin (70 W/30E, n = 15); c) 50 W/50E (n = 15); d) 30 W/70E (n = 15); and e) 1 ml of water with no protein as a fasting control (CTL, n = 14). Skeletal muscle analyses revealed that compared to CTL: a) phosphorylated (p) markers of mTOR signaling [p-mTOR (Ser2481) and p-rps6 (Ser235/236)] were elevated 2-4-fold in all protein groups 90 min post-treatment (p < 0.05); b) WPC and 70 W/30E increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) 104% and 74% 180 min post-treatment, respectively (p < 0.05); and c) 70 W/30E increased p-AMPKα (Thr172) 90 and 180-min post-treatment as well as PGC-1α mRNA 90 min post-treatment. Subcutaneous (SQ) and omental fat (OMAT) analyses revealed: a) 70 W/30 W increased SQ fat phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase [p-HSL (Ser563)] 3.1-fold versus CTL and a 1.9-4.4-fold change versus all other test proteins 180 min post-treatment (p < 0.05); and b) WPC, 70 W/30E and 50 W/50E increased OMAT p-HSL 3.8-6.5-fold 180 min post-treatment versus CTL (p < 0.05). 70 W/30E and 30 W/70E increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA 90 min post-treatment versus CTL rats suggesting a satiety-related response may have occurred in the former groups. However, there was a compensatory increase in orexigenic AGRP mRNA in the 70 W/30E group 90 min post-treatment versus CTL rats, and there was a compensatory increase in orexigenic NPY mRNA in the 30 W/70E group 90 min post-treatment versus CTL rats. Higher amounts of whey versus egg protein stimulate the greatest post-treatment anabolic skeletal muscle response, though test proteins with higher amounts of WPH more favorably affected post-treatment markers related to adipose tissue lipolysis.
... The satiety and food intake findings are similar to results reported by other investigators in acute intervention trials using breakfasts based on solid food sources of protein. Eggs and meat as sources of protein, in particular , have been associated with greater perceived satiety and/or improved glycemic control in several studies [1,6,7,10,12,25,26]. For example, Ratliff et al. [10] compared the effects of an egg-based breakfast to a bagel-based breakfast in a group of healthy men. ...
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Dietary protein at breakfast has been shown to enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake more so than carbohydrate or fat. However, relatively few studies have assessed substitution of protein for carbohydrate on indicators of appetite and glucose homeostasis simultaneously. The acute appetitive and metabolic effects of commercially-prepared sausage and egg-based breakfast meals at two different protein levels (30 g and 39 g/serving), vs. a low-protein pancake breakfast (3 g protein) and no breakfast (water), were examined in premenopausal women (N = 35; age 32.5 ± 1.6 yr; BMI 24.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2). Test products provided ~280 kcal/serving and similar fat (12–14 g) and fiber contents (0–1 g). Visual Analog Scale ratings for appetite (hunger, fullness, prospective consumption, desire to eat) and repeated blood sampling for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were assessed throughout each test day. Energy intake was recorded at an ad libitum lunch meal at 240 min. Results showed increased satiety ratings for both the 30 and 39 g protein meals vs. the low-protein and no breakfast conditions (p < 0.001 for all). Postprandial glucose and insulin excursions were lower following the 30 g and 39 g protein conditions vs. the low-protein condition, with smaller responses following the 39 g vs. 30 g protein condition (p < 0.05 for all). Energy intake at lunch was significantly less (p < 0.001) following the 39 g protein meal (692 kcal) vs. the low-protein and no breakfast conditions (789 and 810 kcal, respectively). Total energy intake from the test condition + lunch was higher (p < 0.01) for the 30 and 39 g meals (982 and 983 kcal, respectively) vs. no breakfast (810 kcal), and less than the low protein breakfast (1064 kcal; p < 0.01 vs. 39 g condition only). Results suggest that convenience meals providing 30 or 39 g protein/serving produce greater appetite control, lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and reduced subsequent intake at lunch relative to a low-protein control, or no breakfast. Trial registration NCT01713114
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Background Rather erroneously, eggs consumption is linked to increase in plasma cholesterol content and incidents of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stroke, or diabetes. This misconception which is more pervasive particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, has led to very low patronage of eggs intake. In this study, egg consumption patterns, desired egg characteristics, and the extent to which the perception of eggs consumption as a health risk is entrenched among consumers in the Volta Region of Ghana, were examined. Methods The study used primary data for the analysis and the 2-stage sampling technique was employed. First, 5 districts (Keta, Ho, Krachi East, Nkwanta South and North Tongu) were selected and afterward, a sample was randomly selected from each of the district. A well designed and pretested questionnaires were administered to the respondents. Results It was found that cheaper price and deep yellow yolk were the most persuasive parameters that motivate consumer purchase. The relationship between educational level and awareness on cholesterol types was significant. More than half of the respondents held the view that egg intake results in an increase in serum cholesterol and leads to the incidence of serious health problems. Recommendation This study proves the urgent need for a concerted national public education effort to raise awareness about the nutritional and health benefits of eggs intake. Success in such awareness creation will go a long way to greatly minimize acute malnutrition in the Ghana.
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Background/Objectives High egg consumption is associated with poor glycemic control. Considering the widespread consumption of eggs, it is crucial to determine causality in this association. We tested if egg consumption acutely alters glucose disposal in the absence or presence of saturated fat, which is frequently consumed with eggs. Subjects/Methods In a randomized partial crossover clinical trial, 48 subjects (consuming ≥ 1 egg/week) received two of four isocaloric, macronutrient-matched breakfasts. The groups were defined based on the main ingredient of the breakfasts offered: eggs (EB); saturated fat (SB); eggs and saturated fat (ES); and control, which included a cereal based breakfast (CB). The breakfasts were offered in two testing sessions spaced seven days apart. Six blood samples (pre breakfast (fasting); 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes post breakfast) were collected to measure glucose and insulin levels. Area under the curves (AUC) were analyzed controlling for the baseline concentrations using mixed-effects models accounting for within-subject dependencies to compare these across breakfast assignments. Results Forty-eight patients (46% males, age 25.8 ± 7.7 years, BMI 25.7 ± 4.6 kg/m ² ) were included. Neither EB, SB nor ES was associated with a significant difference in AUC of glucose or insulin compared to CB ( p > 0.1). Conclusions Acutely, consumption of egg breakfast with or without accompanying saturated fat does not adversely affect glucose disposal in healthy adults. While this is reassuring for continued egg consumption, a long-term evaluation of egg intake with or without saturated fat would be the next step.
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Eggs are a highly nutritious food with potential health benefits. However, because of its high cholesterol content, physicians have recommended consumption restrictions in the general population. The aim of this review is to update the scientific community on the latest research about the impact of egg consumption in subjects with diabetes mellitus. Although several observational studies show that an intake of one egg a day does not increase cardiovascular risk in the general population, however risk may increase among diabetics. Additionally, some prospective cohorts have associated associated higher egg intake with an increased diabetes incidence in the general population. On the other hand, short-term intervention studies have not shown any adverse outcome in terms of cardiovascular risk or glycemic control with egg intake. Moreover, there are studies that suggest a beneficial effect of egg consumption in weight reduction, an important therapeutic tool in diabetes management.
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Currently 1 in every 3 children aged 2-19 y is overweight or obese. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and has the potential to affect children's health. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydrate, and 29% fat]. Energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, appetite, and blood glucose were measured over a 4 h period. Four hour postprandial participants were provided with access to a lunch buffet and food intake was recorded. After breakfast, OW children in the PRO group had higher (P < 0.0001) EEs and fat oxidation over the 4 h period than did the NW children in the CHO and PRO groups. There was no difference in postprandial EE or carbohydrate oxidation between the CHO and PRO groups over the 4 h period; however, fat oxidation was 16% higher (P < 0.05) after the PRO than the CHO and postprandial carbohydrate oxidation at 4 h was 32% higher after the PRO than the CHO (P < 0.01), independent of weight group. All participants had decreased feelings of hunger (-14%; P < 0.01) and increased fullness (+32%; P < 0.05) after the PRO than the CHO. Finally, there was no difference in food intake within the NW and OW groups. This study indicates that breakfast macronutrient composition affects postprandial responses in both NW and OW children. A PRO increases postprandial EE and fat oxidation, reduces hunger, and increases satiety when compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of an egg breakfast on lunchtime energy intake in children (age 4-6 years) and adolescents (age 14-17 years). Methods: In 2 randomized crossover trials, participants received either an egg breakfast or an isocaloric bagel breakfast. In both trials, subsequent lunchtime energy intake was the primary outcome. The trial with adolescents also measured each participant's serum ghrelin, serum peptide YY (PYY), and self-assessment of appetite rated using a visual analog scale. Results: Lunchtime food intakes after egg and bagel breakfasts were not significantly different for either age group. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and satiety were also not different between the 2 treatments in adolescents. Consumption of the egg breakfast led to a significant increase in serum PYY levels (p = 0.0001) in adolescents. However, increased levels of PYY were not correlated with reduced food intake. Conclusion: Short-term food intake in children and adolescents is not differentially altered by an egg breakfast compared to a bagel breakfast.
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Context The prevalence of obesity and overweight increased in the United States between 1978 and 1991. More recent reports have suggested continued increases but are based on self-reported data.Objective To examine trends and prevalences of overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) and obesity (BMI ≥30), using measured height and weight data.Design, Setting, and Participants Survey of 4115 adult men and women conducted in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population.Main Outcome Measure Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity compared with prior surveys, and sex-, age-, and race/ethnicity–specific estimates.Results The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 30.5% in 1999-2000 compared with 22.9% in NHANES III (1988-1994; P<.001). The prevalence of overweight also increased during this period from 55.9% to 64.5% (P<.001). Extreme obesity (BMI ≥40) also increased significantly in the population, from 2.9% to 4.7% (P = .002). Although not all changes were statistically significant, increases occurred for both men and women in all age groups and for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. Racial/ethnic groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of obesity or overweight for men. Among women, obesity and overweight prevalences were highest among non-Hispanic black women. More than half of non-Hispanic black women aged 40 years or older were obese and more than 80% were overweight.Conclusions The increases in the prevalences of obesity and overweight previously observed continued in 1999-2000. The potential health benefits from reduction in overweight and obesity are of considerable public health importance.
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We describe three studies on the development and psychometric properties of state and trait versions of a multidimensional Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ-S and FCQ-T). In Study 1, we used confirmatory factor analysis to help refine the instruments. Results indicated good internal consistency for both questionnaires and their respective subscales, as well as excellent test-retest reliability for the FCQ-T. In Study 2, we examined the validity of the instruments by comparing the effect of food deprivation versus food satiation on both questionnaires. As hypothesized, we found a greater effect on the state measure than the trait measure. In Study 3, we used confirmatory factor analysis to cross-validate the factor structure of both questionnaires with a new sample. Results supported the factor structure of both instruments. Overall, we suggest that cravings can be conceptualized as multidimensional motivational states. Our preliminary data support the use of the FCQ-S and FCQ-T with clinical and nonclinical populations.
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The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 subjects. Satiety ratings were obtained every 15 min over 120 min after which subjects were free to eat ad libitum from a standard range of foods and drinks. A satiety index (SI) score was calculated by dividing the area under the satiety response curve (AUC) for the test food by the group mean satiety AUC for white bread and multiplying by 100. Thus, white bread had an SI score of 100% and the SI scores of the other foods were expressed as a percentage of white bread. There were significant differences in satiety both within and between the six food categories. The highest SI score was produced by boiled potatoes (323 +/- 51%) which was seven-fold higher than the lowest SI score of the croissant (47 +/- 17%). Most foods (76%) had an SI score greater than or equal to white bread. The amount of energy eaten immediately after 120 min correlated negatively with the mean satiety AUC responses (r = -0.37, P < 0.05, n = 43) thereby supporting the subjective satiety ratings. SI scores correlated positively with the serving weight of the foods (r = 0.66, P < 0.001, n = 38) and negatively with palatability ratings (r = -0.64, P < 0.001, n = 38). Protein, fibre, and water contents of the test foods correlated positively with SI scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 38; r = 0.46, P < 0.01; and r = 0.64, P < 0.001; respectively) whereas fat content was negatively associated (r = -0.43, P < 0.01). The results show that isoenergetic servings of different foods differ greatly in their satiating capacities. This is relevant to the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.
Context Reduction in egg consumption has been widely recommended to lower blood cholesterol levels and prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiologic studies on egg consumption and risk of CHD are sparse. Objective To examine the association between egg consumption and risk of CHD and stroke in men and women. Design and Setting Two prospective cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-1994) and the Nurses' Health Study (1980-1994). Participants A total of 37,851 men aged 40 to 75 years at study outset and 80,082 women aged 34 to 59 years at study outset, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, or cancer. Main Outcome Measures Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, and stroke corresponding to daily egg consumption as determined by a food-frequency questionnaire. Results We documented 866 incident cases of CHD and 258 incident cases of stroke in men during 8 years of follow-up and 939 incident cases of CHD and 563 incident cases of stroke in women during 14 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other potential CHD risk factors, we found no evidence of an overall significant association between egg consumption and risk of CHD or stroke in either men or women. The relative risks (RRs) of CHD across categories of intake were less than 1 per week (1.0), 1 per week (1.06), 2 to 4 per week (1.12), 5 to 6 per week (0.90), and ≥1 per day (1.08) (P for trend=.75) for men; and less than 1 per week (1.0), 1 per week (0.82), 2 to 4 per week (0.99), 5 to 6 per week (0.95), and ≥1 per day (0.82) (P for trend=.95) for women. In subgroup analyses, higher egg consumption appeared to be associated with increased risk of CHD only among diabetic subjects (RR of CHD comparing more than 1 egg per day with less than 1 egg per week among diabetic men, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.87; P for trend=.04], and among diabetic women, 1.49 [0.88-2.52; P for trend=.008]). Conclusions These findings suggest that consumption of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women. The apparent increased risk of CHD associated with higher egg consumption among diabetic participants warrants further research.
Objective: The relationships of gastric accommodation and satiety in moderately obese individuals are unclear. We hypothesized that obese people had increased gastric accommodation and reduced postprandial satiety. The objective of this study was to compare gastric accommodation and satiety between obese and non-obese asymptomatic subjects. Research Methods and Procedures: In 13 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2; mean BMI, 37.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and 19 non-obese control subjects (BMI < 30 kg/m2; mean BMI, 26.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2), we used single photon emission computed tomography to measure fasting and postprandial gastric volumes and expressed the accommodation response as the ratio of postprandial/fasting volumes. The satiety test measured maximum tolerable volume of ingestion of liquid nutrient meal (Ensure) and symptoms 30 minutes after cessation of ingestion. Results: Total fasting and postprandial gastric volumes and the ratio of postprandial/fasting gastric volume were not different between asymptomatic obese and control subjects. However, the fasting volume of the distal stomach was greater in obese than in control subjects. Maximum tolerable volume of ingested Ensure and aggregate symptom score 30 minutes later were also not different between obese and control subjects. Discussion: Asymptomatic obese individuals (within the BMI range of 32.6 to 48 kg/m2) did not show either increased postprandial gastric accommodation or reduced satiety. These datasuggest that gastric accommodation is unlikely to provide an important contribution to development of moderate obesity.
Objective: To investigate the response of the brains of women to the ingestion of a meal. Research Methods and Procedures: We used measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), a marker of neuronal activity, by positron emission tomography to describe the functional anatomy of satiation, i.e., the response to a liquid meal in the context of extreme hunger (36-hour fast) in 10 lean (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2; 32 ± 10 years old, 61 ± 7 kg; mean ± SD) and 12 obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2; 30 ± 7 years old, 110 ± 14 kg) women. Results: In lean and obese women, satiation produced significant increases in rCBF in the vicinity of the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.005). Satiation also produced significant decreases in rCBF in several regions including the thalamus, insular cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal cortex, and cerebellum (in lean and obese women), and hypothalamus, cingulate, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala (in obese women only; all p < 0.005). Compared with lean women, obese women had significantly greater increases in rCBF in the ventral prefrontal cortex and had significantly greater decreases in the paralimbic areas and in areas of the frontal and temporal cortex. Discussion: This study indicates that satiation elicits differential brain responses in obese and lean women. It also lends additional support to the hypothesis that the paralimbic areas participate in a central orexigenic network modulated by the prefrontal cortex through feedback loops.
This study investigated the satiating efficiencies of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (CHOs). Twenty-nine female, normal-weight subjects each received 10 liquid breakfasts, which varied in energy and macronutrient contents. Besides a zero condition [0.3 MJ (8 kcal)], there were three energy levels [0.42, 1.05, and 1.67 MJ (100, 250, and 400 kcal)] combined with three dominant sources of macronutrients (99% of energy from CHO, 92% of energy from fat, and 77% of energy from protein). After breakfast the subjects were not allowed to eat or drink (except water) for 3.5 h. They then recorded their voluntary food intake for the remainder of the day. Subjects also rated their subjective feelings concerning food intake on five different types of appetite. The results showed that neither energy content nor macronutrient composition of the liquid breakfasts had any effect on energy and macronutrient intake during lunch and the remainder of the day. Ratings of different types of appetite showed an increasing satiating effect with increasing energy content of the breakfasts. Proteins, fats, and CHOs had similar effects on appetite.
Normal subjects were fed protein or carbohydrate breakfasts. Both meals were in the form of a chocolate pudding and had similar sensory qualities. At lunchtime subjects were allowed to select from a buffet. The protein breakfast had a greater satiating power than the carbohydrate breakfast, but there was no difference in overall selection of protein or carbohydrate at lunchtime. However, the carbohydrate breakfast did decrease selection of apple, the only pure carbohydrate food available at lunchtime. In a second experiment changes in plasma amino acid levels were studied after subjects received carbohydrate breakfasts containing 0, 4, 8 or 12% protein, or a danish pastry. Only the 0% protein breakfast increased tryptophan availability to the brain. These experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that alterations in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine, brought about by dietary alterations in brain tryptophan, regulate selection of protein and carbohydrate. The results suggest that this mechanism was not operating in our experiments.
Blood glucose (BG) and plasma insulin (IRI) were measured during two breakfasts different only by the nature of proteins--egg (E) or ham (H)--in eight normal subjects. Compared with H, E led to a flattened BG response at 30, 40, and 50 min and to a sustained BG from 150 to 240 min. Integrated BG response was not significantly different between E and H. After E, the IRI response decreased at 90 min and 120 min (P less than 0.05). Integrated IRI response with E was significantly smaller than with H (P less than 0.025). The reasons for the effect of E ingestion on BG are not obvious; pancreatic and/or intestinal mechanisms may be involved. It is suggested that greater consideration be given to the protein composition of the test meals when they are used in studies of glucose homeostasis.
In order to assess the relationship between metabolic responses and satiety, four men and five women ate two pairs of foods containing 50 g of available carbohydrate, ordinary and quick-cooking rice and high- and low-amylose puffed rice. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and satiety ratings were assessed over 2 h and food intake measured immediately thereafter. The area under the curve (AUC) of the 2-h glucose response was 1.6 times greater after quick-cooking rice than that for ordinary rice. Similarly, the glucose AUC for the low-amylose rice was 1.5 times higher than that of the high-amylose rice. Insulin responses followed the pattern of the glucose responses. Conversely, the satiety AUC was 1.5 times higher for ordinary rice than for the quick-cooking rice, and 1.5 times higher for high-amylose than for low-amylose rice. Food intake (g) immediately after each 2-h session was significantly related to both the satiety AUC and the last rating score, thereby corroborating the satiety ratings. A significant negative association was found between the individual insulin and satiety AUC responses to the four foods. These results suggest that increased rate of starch digestion and higher insulin responses are associated with lessened satiety.