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Psycho-Biological and Spiritual Aspects in the Evolution of Supreme Forgiveness

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Abstract

Psycho-Biological and Spiritual Aspects in the Evolution of Supreme Forgiveness Viney Jain, Dr. Nat. Phil. Jain Vishva Bharti Institute (Deemed University, JVBI), Ladnun, Rajasthan, India Abstract In the interconnected and highly interdependent universe of living-beings, conflicts invariably arise and often result in injuries and hurts. Negative feelings of resentment, anger and revenge against the offenders arise and often initiate a vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence causing more harm. In contrast, practice of forgiveness, though difficult and uncommon, is a positive and beneficial response. Queries about the what, why and how of the manifold dimensions of forgiveness have been answered in numerous ways. The diverse perspectives on motivations, categories and stages of forgiveness have become hot topics of current research. Transitions from the categories of non-forgiveness to conditional- and unconditional-forgiveness have been of special interest. The ancient concept of Uttam Kshama (Supreme Forgiveness) based on spirituality in Jain philosophy is unique, however, has remained largely unexplored by the modern scholars. We shall discuss the evolution of forgiveness holistically from psychobiology to spirituality. From the evolutionary biology perspective forgiveness evolved through environmental adaptedness. Forgiveness evolved to regulate competition and encourage co-operation. Non-forgiveness, originating from constant competition and fear for survival, gets stuck in high risk negative emotions and violence. It is also marked by hyperarousal of the chronic stress response due to persistent rumination leading to ill health and poor survival. Conditional forgiveness facilitating interpersonal cooperation becomes feasible after the expression of apology and repentance by the offender. Seeking and giving of an apology is, however, dependent on detachment from ego and may not be always forthcoming. Some secular scholars argue that to forgive without conditions is almost impossible to practice besides being immoral since it tends to inhibit justice and encourage evil. In contrast, others contend that forgiveness is grounded in the intrinsic value of all life, objectivity and equanimity. It does not condone wrong-doing. Importantly, it may facilitate breaking the vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence. Unconditional forgiveness is, thus essential for sustainable peaceful co-existence. If the criteria of morality depends on the impact of actions of a person on others, unconditional forgiveness would be a supreme moral virtue. “Uttam Kshama” or Supreme Forgiveness is a construct grounded in the Jain concepts on the structure and functions of the living-beings. According to Jain philosophy the living-beings (including humans, animals, insects, plants and microbes) are composed of two independent substances (i) the soul called Atman/Jiva bonded with (ii) matter (pudgal in Jain terminology) constituting the subtle- psychic (karmic)- and the gross-physical bodies. The major characteristic of soul is consciousness or awareness. Bonding with matter restricts and distorts the functioning of the soul and renders it impure which results in the expression of negative personality traits such as anger, pride, deception, and greed. Stoppage and dissolution of the bondage with karmic matter by spiritual practices facilitate the soul to evolve to a more purified state which allows unrestricted expression of its natural attributes. Supreme Forgiveness is discussed in Jain philosophy from the real and pragmatic view-points. From the real view-point, forgiveness is an intrinsic natural attribute of the Jiva (living-being) which is fully expressed by a purified Soul. Emerging from a passionless, non-attached (Veetraga) state of purified consciousness, characterized by equanimity and objectivity, Supreme Forgiveness is expressed non conditionally, spontaneously, unilaterally and universally. It is noteworthy that in the non-attached, passionless state of Veetragata, feeling of hurt is completely eliminated. From the pragmatic point of view, capacity to forgive, essential for personal development, social harmony, peace and wellness, is restricted in mundane souls and, therefore, needs to be further developed by special efforts. The various levels of dispositions to forgive evolve in direct proportion to the degree of purity of the embodied soul. Spiritual practices, such as Kayotsarga meditation help in evolving forgiveness by reducing attachment to the body, depleting the body-ego and advancing spiritual purity. Preliminary empirical psycho-biological studies lend support to this statement.
Psycho-Biological and Spiritual Aspects in the Evolution of Supreme Forgiveness
Viney Jain,Dr. Nat. Phil.
Professor Emeritus, Jain Vishva Bharti Institute (JVBI), Ladnun, Rajasthan
&Advisor, International School for Jain Studies (ISJS) , New Delhi
Abstract:
In the interconnected and highly interdependent universe of living-beings, conflicts invariably arise
and result in injuries and hurts. Negative feelings of resentment, anger and revenge against the
offenders often initiate a vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence causing more harm. In
contrast, practice of forgivenessis a positive and beneficial response.
Queries about the what, why and how of the manifold dimensions of forgiveness have been answered
in numerous ways. The diverse perspectives on the definitions of forgiveness and its underlying
motivations, identification of the various categories and stages of forgiveness have become hot topics
of current research.Starting from ancient religious traditions to the modern secular philosophies and
empirical scientific investigations, the concept and practice of forgiveness have evolved
encompassing complex multi-faceted issues of great personal and social relevance in the modern
times.
Transitions from the categories of non-forgiveness to conditional-and unconditional-forgiveness have
been of special interest. The unique Jain concept of Uttam Kshama (Supreme Forgiveness) based on
spirituality has, however, remained largely unexplored. We shall discuss the evolution of forgiveness
holistically from the perspectives of psychobiology to spirituality.
From the evolutionary psycho-biology perspective forgiveness evolved through the mechanisms of
environmental adaptedness during the processes of natural selection. Constant and intense
competition manifestedas aggressive behavior to act as deterrent for the competitors. However,
aggression became disadvantageous by disrupting cooperation in species living in interdependent
social groups.Forgiveness evolved to moderate competition and encourage co-operation for greater
fitness and survival advantage.
Non-forgiveness is marked by hyper-arousal of the chronic stress response due to persistent
rumination leading to ill health and poor survival. Conditional forgiveness facilitating interpersonal
cooperation becomes feasible after the expression of apology and repentance by the offender. Seeking
and giving of an apology is, however, dependent on attachment to the self (ego) and may not be
always forthcoming.
In contrast, unconditional forgivenessis is grounded in the intrinsic value of all life, objectivity and
equanimity. It does not condone wrong-doing. Unconditional forgivenessis essential for sustainable
peaceful coexistence.Critics have argued, that to forgive without conditions is immoral since it tends
to inhibit justice and encourage evil. However, if morality depends on the impact of actions of a
person on others, unconditional forgiveness would be a supreme moral virtue.
Supreme Forgiveness is discussed in Jain philosophy from the real and pragmatic view-points. From
the real view-point forgiveness is an intrinsic attribute of the Jiva, which is fully expressed in a
purified Soul. Arising from a passionless, non-attached (Veetraga) state of purified consciousness,
Supreme Forgiveness is characterized by non-conditionality, spontaneity, unilaterality and
universality. In the state of Veetragata, feeling of hurt is completely eliminated.
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From the pragmatic point of view, capacity to forgive, essential for personal development, social
harmony, peace and wellness, is restricted in mundane souls. Dispositions to forgive evolve with the
grades of purity of the embodied soul.Spiritual practices, such as Kayotsarga meditation help in
evolving forgiveness by reducing attachment to the body, depleting the body-ego and advancing
spiritual purity.
Introduction
Feelings of anger, resentment, revenge, fear, hatred or avoidance are common responses to the
perception of injury or insult/hurt inflicted on a victim by an offender. These negative emotional
responses may trigger aggression, resulting in a vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence
between the victim and the offender with further harmful consequences.In contrast, thealternative
option of non-violent responses,based on the victim’s capacity to forgive, are positive and universally
beneficial.
Forgiveness is an intrapsychic process involving emotional, cognitive, behavioral and spiritual
components and resulting in great personal and social beneficial consequences. The underlying
concepts and practice of forgiveness, in their various dimensions, have been proposed and advocated
by the theistic and non-theistic religious traditions since ancient times, and also by several modern
secular philosophers, humanists and scientists.
In recent times, after the II world war and especially after the terrorist attack on the world trade center
in New York, USA on 09/11/2001, there has been an explosion of empirical and theoretical studies to
explore the psycho-biological and psycho-social processes associated with the various categories and
types of forgiveness.Diverse perspectives on motivations, categories and stages of forgiveness have
been presented and discussed.
Evolution of forgiveness in terms of transitions between different categories of forgiveness are of
special interest for understanding the multiple processes involved in the complex manifestations of
the various forms of forgiveness. In this context, most of the studies have been concerned with the
roles of non-forgiveness, conditional-, and unconditional-forgiveness. The unique Jain concept of
Uttam Kshama (Supreme Forgiveness) based on spiritual purification (Jain, 2014) has remained
largely unexplored in the scientific literature.
The practice of forgiveness is rather difficult and uncommon. Forgiveness needs to be cultivated so
that it eventually emerges as a personality trait. In the present analysis, we attempt to understand the
evolution of various categories and phases of forgiveness from the perspectives of evolutionary
psychobiology and spirituality.
From the perspective of science, the psycho-biological processes such as cognitions and emotions
with their associated material substrates, in the ultimate analysis, are considered as products of
evolutionary forces and mechanisms. Evolutionary adaptation to meet the challenges of inter- and
intra-species competitions for survival and natural selection in changing environments seems to have
played a key role in the beginning. However, during the course of evolutionary time, multiple psycho-
physiological processes developed along with the associated socio-cultural mechanisms to effectively
meet the challenges of changing physical and social environments. Cooperation, empathy and
altruism found to offer universal benefits, hence became more advantageous, as compared to
competition, for survival and development, especially in humans who live in interdependent social
groups.
Competition Cooperation EmpathyAltruism Spirituality
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Finally spirituality emerges to enable crossing the restrictions and limits imposed by the body.
Transcending the mundane psycho-biology, spirituality aims to experience the true self, the essence of
being - a domain beyond the constraints of the physical body and ego. Eliminating the passions and
feelings of suffering and pain, spiritual practices lead to enlightenment, liberation and bliss - the
pinnacle in human evolution. Essentially personal, spiritual experiences extend the conscious
horizons beyond the victims and the offenders to encompass the wellness of the whole biosphere.
Dynamics of Responses to Perceived Hurt/Injury
The dynamics of the psycho-biological processes (feelings, thoughts and actions) underlying the
various responses to the hurt/injury, perceived by the victim, are complex. To facilitate understanding
the interactions and relationships between various processes are presented in a simple model (Fig. 1).
Revenge
Chronic Stress
Disease
Hurt
Repaired
Relationship
Forgiveness
Empirical Responses to Perceived Injustice/Harm/Injury
Offender
Victim
A Simple Model : Prevention and Repair of Harm by Forgiveness
Peace
Therapeutic CounselingReligiosity / Spirituality
Ruminat ion
Emotion of anger is the most common impulsive reaction to an offence. Anger may induce the desire
for revenge against the offender after a transgression has been committed. Revenge is a common tit
for tat strategy employed by humans and higher animals. Revengeful behavior, which generally
results in violence, could have evolved, possibily, as a deterrent to future transgressions (McCullough
et al., 2014). Anger and revenge, however, have negative consequences for social harmony, mental
and physical health. Anger, for example, has been shown to be detrimental to cardio-vascular health
(Williams et al., 2000; Sulls, 2013; May et al., 2014). Desire for revenge is even considered as a state
of psychological dysfunction. Compared to this tit for tat strategy, which may initiate a vicious cycle
of violence and counter-violence, the act of forgiveness offers a better solution for conflict resolution
resulting in an advantage for survival.
Feeling of Hurt a s a Function of the Development of Ego
Feeling hurt is central to the unfolding of a complex interplay of processes underlying anger,
aggression, revenge, violence, illness, forgiveness and wellness.Why and how a person feels hurt,
insulted or injured ?
Feeling of hurt has its origin in the relationships and interactions of the Embodied-Self with the
Universe (non-self, others). These are profoundly influenced by one’s perceived self-image (the Ego)
and core beliefs about the universe (the world-view) which includes the physical and social
environments.
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Sigmund Freud, the father of psycho-analysis, believed that the roots of the Ego, lie in the sensations,
feelings and perception of our own body (Freud, 1923).The ego begins and develops from the
identification of the Embodied-Self with the body and its sensations (the body-ego). After birth, the
most important environmental stimuli consist of the biological sensations and experiences of touch
between the infant and the mother (or the primary care-giver). These experiences, on continuing
interactions with the physical and socio-cultural environments, gradually induce the feelings of
attachment and relatedness (I, me, mine). The self-image (Ego) gets extended from the body-ego to
include the psychological domains comprising cognitive and affective aspects of the inner experience.
Thus, the development of the Ego is associated with the person (the body with its attachments - the
desires, feelings, and the acquired core beliefs/ideas/values). From the evolutionary biology
perspective, development of the Ego strengthens the survival instinct and , therefore, constitutes a
vital protection mechanism in the struggle for existence. Any percieved threat to the Ego creates a
state of stress and induces a feeling of hurt or injury. In social interactions, increase in impolite and
insulting behaviors, deception, and non-fulfillment of interpersonal commitments, besides threats of
physical harm have become the more frequent ways inducing feelings of hurt/injury to the Ego. This
is leading to break-down of harmonious co-operative relationships and causing conflicts.
Anger and aggression are the initial impulsive emotional responses of a person that occur to cope
with the perceived stress and hurt. The physiological mechanisms underlying the emotional responses
of anger and aggression are not yet precisely known. It is generally believed that the temporary
imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activities, specifically the increased stimulation
of the sympathetic (SNS) and depression of the parasympathetic (PNS) pathway, play a vital role in
the emotional responses. Importantly, levels of central neurotransmitters are also known to be
involved in the regulation of emotions and behavior (Coccaroet al.,1997). High dopamine and low
serotonin (5-Hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT), for example, correlate with the aggressive behavior and also
influence the activities of ANS. Deficiencies in the synthesis, transport and receptors of serotonin
have been shown in a number of recent studies on humans and animals, to be related to anger and
impulsive aggression (Seo et al., 2008).
Revenge, Rumination and Non-Forgiveness
Taking revenge (eye for an eye, blood for blood) is considered as a common pathway to quickly
resolve conflicts. However, this is neither very effective nor a desirable way, since vengeance often
initiates a never-ending vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence causing immense harm and
misery to all, including the so called victims and offenders.
If revenge is not possible, the victim may choose to avoid the offender by breaking the relationships
and blocking all further communications. This option of avoidance is also not very fruitful because
the conflicts remain unresolved and suspended. Unable to forget, the victims and offenders may
continue to ruminate upon it time and again.
Generally, the victim returns to the normal psycho-physiological states after the initial impulse of
anger after the perceived feeling of hurt subsides. If, however, the anger persists and the burden of
grudges continue for a long time due to non-forgiveness and rumination, the victim remains stuck in a
state of negative emotions causing chronic stress, which adversely affects physical and mental health.
Disorders such as deregulations of the autonomic nervous system, cardio-vascular disturbances,
mental depression, and immune suppression have been reported in several empirical studies (Besharat
and Pourbohlool, 2012; Lawler-Row et al., 2008). Thus, tthrough non-forgiveness, the victim inflicts
further harmto him/her-self besides to others.
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Apology and Conditional Forgiveness
In interdependent social groups, conflicts and non-fullfillment of committments occur, which cause
hurt. Realising the advantages of cooperation for success and survival, apology and forgiveness
evolved as strategies to inhibit revenge, to resolve conflicts peacefully and facilitate maintenance of
harmonious relations between partners (McCullough et al., 2014).
Conditional forgiveness requires some kind of atonement (repentance, apology, reparation, penance)
for the wrong-doing from the side of the offender. According to some religious traditions, for
example, Judaism and Islam, forgiveness is justified only after the offender has expressed remorse
and offered an apology.This is based on the belief that even a terrible wrong-doer is not permanently
evil, yet atonement is necessary since the capacity for moral change and reform can manifest only
through repentance.
Conditional forgiveness is also termed as state forgiveness since it is situation and offence specific -
depending on the circumstances, nature and intensity of the offence, post-transgression behavior of
the offenders and the quality of relationships between the victims and offenders. For heineous crimes,
forgiveness may be denied inspite of apologies. The decision to extend conditional forgiveness may
involve an assessment of the risks of exploitation and the benefits of restoring the relationships. As
such, the conditional forgiveness can be considered as a plausible social contract rather than as real
forgiveness.
Conditional forgiveness shows several limitations in practice when forgiveness becomes dependent
on the offender’s behavior. Realizing the mistakes committed, the offender must communicate a
sincere expression of remorse and apologize to the victim with a promise not to repeat the offence in
future. Such an unambiguous communication from the offender may be delayed sometimes or may
not be even forthcoming because of egoistic considerations. On the other hand, the offered apology
may not always result in forgiveness, if it is perceived as hypocritical (not sincere and trustworthy) by
the victim. As a consequence of failure to implement conditional forgiveness, both, the victim and
offender continue to suffer from hostile negative emotions and remain burdened with the unresolved
conflicts, broken relationships and ill health. Under such situations, non-forgiveness prevails and the
vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence is resumed increasing risks for survival.
Unconditional Forgiveness
Since conditional forgiveness does not offer an optimal solution for conflict resolution under all
circumstances, unconditional forgiveness, grounded basically in the feelings of empathy, evolved as a
unique pathway to break the vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence and to enhance co-
operation.
Unconditional forgiveness is extended without any conditions and is given unilaterally, without any
self-interest. Flowing from the goodness and free-will of the victim, independent of the offender’s
behavior, unconditional forgiveness is the genuine forgiveness (Cowley,2010). Unconditional
forgiveness is based on empathy, altruistic behavior (behavior that diminishes suffering in others at
the cost of self-interest) and equanimity – the realization of the intrinsic equal potential and value of
all life.
Unconditional forgiveness has evolved to repair and maintain interpersonal relationships, promote
reconciliation and peaceful co-existence. Unconditional forgiveness does not condone wrong-doing
and is fully compatible with maintaining self-respect and with justice, which is a function of the legal
system.
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Disposition to forgive is a personality trait which differs widely among individuals. Willingness to
forgive an offender is also profoundly modulated by social structures and cultural factors such as
individualistic or collectivistic way of life and religiosity/spiritualistic values. Empirical studies have
shown, that for majority of young persons in the western culture, the motivations for apology and
forgiveness are oriented toward self-interest such as health benefits or repair of valued relationships
(Younger et al., 2004). The types and qualities of relationships are important factors since they
profoundly influence the behavior and development trajectory of the individual. Recent data from a
few cross-cultural studies suggest that extending forgiveness is positively correlated with the
closeness of the relationship between the victims and offenders (Karremans et al., 2011). This is
especially true in individualistic cultures, where individuals favor and value a small number of close
relationships considering that forgiving offenders with strong attachments to the self is in self-
interest. In collectivist cultures, in contrast, the sphere of relationships is larger, the individual is
relatively less dependent on close relations and greater importance is often given to an extended
family, community or the society as a whole, which shifts the emphasis towards maintaining good
relations with others beyond the circle of close relations.
Unconditional forgiveness evolved, possibly, from the capacity to feel and share the pain/distress of
others (empathy), and behavior that benefits others at the cost of self-interest (altruism). Empathy and
altruistic behaviors have been observed in humans, non-human mammals and birds and are well
documented. Evolution of empathy can be traced to parental care and social attachment (Decety,
2011).Empathy plays a vital part in the developments of cooperation and altruistic behavior (de Waal,
2008) providing thus the basis for forgiveness and inhibition of aggression. Physiologically, empathy
could be mediated by the embodied simulation of emotional states, involving the system of mirror
neurons as part of complex neural processes and pathways (Gonzalez-Liencres et al., 2013).
An important evolutionary social advantage offered by unconditional forgiveness is in the breaking of
the vicious cycle of violence and counter-violence.The practice of unconditional forgiveness,
however, requires great moral strength and seems to be rather difficult for lay persons yet it can be
cultivated by spiritual practices.
Supreme Forgiveness
Uttam Kshama” or Supreme Forgiveness rests on the Jain concepts on the structure and functions of
the living-beings. According to Jain philosophy the living-beings (including humans, animals,
insects, plants and microbes) are composed of two independent substances (i) the soul called
Atman/Jiva ,a formless, unobservable entity,is bonded with (ii) matter (pudgal in Jain terminology)
constituting the subtle- psychic (karmic)- and the gross-physical bodies. The major characteristic of
soul is consciousness or awareness. Bonding with matter restricts and distorts the functioning of the
soul and renders it impure which results in the expression of negative personality traits such as anger,
pride, deception, and greed. Stoppage and dissolution of the bondage with karmic matter by spiritual
practices facilitate the soul to evolve to a more purified state which allows unrestricted expression of
its natural attributes.
Supreme Forgiveness is discussed in Jain philosophy from the real and pragmatic perspectives. From
the real view-point, forgiveness is an intrinsic natural attribute of the Jiva (living-being) which is
fully expressed by a purified Soul. Emerging from a passionless, non-attached (Veetraga) state of
purified consciousness, characterized by equanimity and objectivity, Supreme Forgiveness is
expressed non-conditionally, spontaneously, unilaterally and universally. It is noteworthy that in the
non-attached, passionless state of Veetragata, feeling of hurt is completely eliminated.
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From the pragmatic point of view, capacity to forgive, essential for personal development, social
harmony, peace and wellness, is restricted in mundane souls and, therefore, needs to be further
developed by special efforts. Spiritual practices recommended in Jain scriptures to be essential parts
of Jain way of life are helpful. For example, every follower of Jainism is expected to perform six
essential duties (shat awashyaks) every day, the following two, viz. Pratikraman and Kayotsarga,are
of special importance in the present context.
(1) Pratikraman (Introspection)
Pratikraman,literal meaning to go back, signifies introspection to review any ethical violations
committed, to feel remorseand ask for forgiveness for the same. Pratikramanshould ideally be
practiced every morning and evening, but if that is found not to be feasible, it should be practiced at
frequent intervals, at least once a year.
Recognizing the significance of enhancing forgiveness in the worldly life, Jains celebrate Forgiveness
Day (Kshama-vaniDiwas) devoted to introspection, seeking and granting unconditional forgiveness.
The forgiveness day is observed every year (August/ September) at the conclusion of the great
spiritual festival of Das LakshanDharamMahaParv, also known as ParyushanParv,dedicated to self-
purification. The festival continues for ten days,each day is assigned especially for the observance of
one of the ten inherent attributes/virtues (dharma) of the soul.Celebration of Forgiveness Day after
the conclusion of the ten day festival, getting rid of all toxic emotions of anger, pride, deceit and
greed, following the path of truth and self-restraint, is an appropriate occasion to seek and grant
forgiveness to all living creatures of the world, who might have been hurt, knowingly or
unknowingly, by one’s actions, words or thoughts.
The practice of celebrating Forgiveness Day in this manner provides excellent opportunity to renew
friendships, eschew feelings of revenge, diminishes social tensions and violence to gain mental peace.
Furthermore, it is a forward step towards spiritual uplift.
(2) Kayotsarga meditation
The various levels of dispositions to forgive evolve in direct proportion to the degree of purity of the
embodied soul. Kayotsarga meditation, an integral part of Jain yoga, aims to transcend the limitations
of the body. Practice of Kayotsarga involves:(i) resting the body in a comfortable posture, (such as
sidhasan, shavasanorkhadagasan) without any movement in a complete relaxed state and (ii)
contemplating on the true nature of the inner Self - the pure Soul, the Ataman.The Self is identified
with pure consciousness and not the physical body. The body-ego is abandoned and the living-being
is transformed into a spiritual-being.In the absence of the body-ego, feeling of pain and hurt is
eliminated. Kayotsarga meditation, thus, helps in evolution of supreme forgiveness by reducing
attachment to the body, depleting the body-ego, transforming consciousness to higher levels to
advance spiritual purity. Recent empirical psycho-biological studies on the effects of Preksha
meditation on forgiveness (Samani Amal Pragya, 2016) lend support to this statement. Further
research in this field need to be undertaken.
Conclusions
Struggle for existence causes conflicts resulting in harms, injuries and feelings of hurt among living-
beings, which often elicit responses of anger and aggression resulting in further harm. Different
forms of seeking and extending forgiveness evolved as non-violent responses to limit further harm ,
to heal damaged relationships and enhance cooperation. Understanding the psycho-biological and
spiritual processes underlying the expression of unconditional forgiveness will be helpful in
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developing effective strategies to cultivate disposition to forgive as a personality trait in lay persons.
Spiritual practices, such as PratikramanandKayotsargahave been shown to be effective in reducing
the toxic emotions (kasahaya), in depleting ego and developing the rational attitudes of objectivity
and equanimity (veetraagata)thereby enabling the emergence of supreme forgiveness. It is expected,
therefore, that integration of science and spirituality, would be of great value in meeting the present
challenges of sustainable development and peaceful co-existence.
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Brief Biodata of Prof. Viney Jain
A biophysicist and radiation biologist, Dr.Viney Jain received his postgraduate and post-doctoral
training at the universities in Goettingen, Kiel and Frankfurt/M, Germany. He has been a recipient of
the fellowship of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the prestigious research
fellowship award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany.
Author of more than 150 original research publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals, he served
on the faculties of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahemdabad, All-India Institute of Medical
Sciences, New Delhi; National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangaluru, Delhi
University, Delhi and as a visiting professor/scientist at several universities in India, Germany, U.K.,
France, Netherlands and USA. He superannuated in 1998 from the post of Director, Institute of
Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi. Subsequently, he served as Professor Emeritus at the
B R Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi and as Visiting Scientist at the
Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA. Presently, Prof. Jain is Professor Emeritus at the Jain
Vishva Bharti Institute (deemed university), Ladnun and advisor to the International School of Jain
Studies, New Delhi.
Prof. Viney Jain has been an active member of several international and national professional
societies and has served as President of Indian Photobiology Society and Indian Society for
Radiation Biology. He has edited and co-authored 3 monographs in the field of radiation sciences
and has been a member on the editorial boards of International Journal of Radiation Biology and
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.
Presently, Prof. Jain’s interests include philosophy of science, and integration of science and
spirituality. His current studies are focused on Leshya, Meditation, Forgiveness and Behavior
Modification.
Contact: Email: vineyjain@gmail.com ; Phone: +919818186570 (M)
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