Article

Do Similarities or Differences Between CEO Leadership and Organizational Culture Have a More Positive Effect on Firm Performance? A Test of Competing Predictions.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization’s culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Hartnell et al. argue [21] that leadership can have an impact on organizations and that this impact can be seen as a change in organizational structure. The positive effects of servant leadership on performance are more evident in the context of small organizational structures [22]. ...
... Our findings show that principals' leadership is correlated with facilitative organizational structures. According to the responsibilities of the principal, the principal has the responsibility of influencing the organizational structure of the kindergarten [21], and under certain conditions, the principal has a greater influence on the organizational structure of the kindergarten [23] and may even be a member of the kindergarten promotion organizational structure. Hartnell et al. argue [21] that leadership has a certain impact on organizations, and this influence can be seen as a change in organizational structure. ...
... According to the responsibilities of the principal, the principal has the responsibility of influencing the organizational structure of the kindergarten [21], and under certain conditions, the principal has a greater influence on the organizational structure of the kindergarten [23] and may even be a member of the kindergarten promotion organizational structure. Hartnell et al. argue [21] that leadership has a certain impact on organizations, and this influence can be seen as a change in organizational structure. In the case of small organizational structures, the positive effect of service-oriented leadership on performance is more pronounced [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kindergarten directors’ leadership, early childhood teachers’ well-being, and enabling organizational structure are important components of ecological development in kindergartens. To understand the relationships among the three, identification of the driving force for the sustainable development of kindergartens in rural China must occur. This study used the Kindergarten Care and Education Leadership Questionnaire, the Enabling Organizational Structure Scale, and the Teacher Well-being Scale as research instruments to explore these relationships in an online survey of rural early childhood teachers (N = 1958, 98.3% female, 23.5% unmarried, 76.5% married, 68.8% county, and 31.2% rural). The study found that the overall levels of rural early childhood teachers’ well-being, director leadership, and enabling organizational structure were all in the medium to high range. There is a two-way effect between director leadership and enabling organizational structure, with kindergarten directors’ leadership positively predicting early childhood teachers’ well-being, but this effect is mainly mediated through the enabling organization. Therefore, to achieve sustainable development in rural kindergartens, emphasis needs to be placed on building an enabling organizational structure based on early childhood teachers’ well-being and kindergarten directors’ leadership.
... Previous studies show that divergent organizational culture can adversely affect relationship satisfaction, financial performance, and productivity between organizations [94,95]. Cultural similarity is a good indicator of favorable outcomes between two organizations [96]. Thus, this study posits that a cultural fit between two organizations, the provision of superior service, the forging of strong mutually rewarding relationships, and free access to a buying organization's employees can have a favorable effect on the culture of an organizational customer. ...
... Culture and the practice of EE and AA by the vendor are significant vendor selection measures. Hartnell et al. [96] voice that cultural similarity between organizations is a vital predictor of favorable results such as enhanced relationships and business. It is reasonable to assume that an EE-centric vendor whose employees have access to a B2B customer's employees will, through their behavior, have a positive influence on the customer and its staff. ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent COVID-19 pandemic, and subsequent invasion of Ukraine by Russia, has demonstrated to the world the volatile and fragile nature of global supply chains. Hence, this study is based on research gaps that propose new sustainable business-to-business (B2B) procurement/supplier models that consider different factors across industries and uses the triple bottom line (TBL) framework as the theoretical underpinning. The study used a quantitative methodological approach and convenience sampling to survey 445 organizations in a B2B procurement context in South Africa. The data were analyzed via structural equation modeling. The inquiry revealed that service quality was important to determine access to personnel and environmental sustainability, which had a favorable influence on personal relationships and gifts and, in turn, positively influenced relationships with salespeople and management. Culture, employment equity, and affirmative action positively affected Black Economic Empowerment status which had a favorable influence on the preference of suppliers' salespeople. Several other positive associations were revealed, which resulted in a unique theoretical supplier preference contribution to the TBL framework. The study also provides organizations with a number of practical benefits stemming from the associations between the new sustainable B2B procurement/supplier constructs that are important as value-added business activities in an African developing economic context.
... By doing so, leaders introduce novel values, techniques and behavior patterns that change the status quo and spur innovation and performance improvement (House et al., 1997). For example, Hartnell, Kinicki, Lambert, Fugate, and Doyle Corner (2016) found that CEOs' task-oriented leadership behaviors were more effective when such behaviors were less common in the cultural context and relationshiporiented leadership behaviors were more effective when such behaviors were less common in the cultural context. ...
... For example, Newman and Nollen (1996) studied the influence of national culture on the effectiveness of management practices and found support for a broad congruence effect of culture. By contrast, Hartnell et al. (2016) studied the influence of organizational culture on the effectiveness of CEO leadership and found support for the culture compensation effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research is equivocal about whether leadership is more effective when it matches typical cultural practices (the cultural congruence argument) or compensates for "ineffective" cultural practices (the cultural compensation argument). We propose that a more nuanced answer to the congruence-versus-compensation debate requires the joint consideration of leadership, culture, and task contexts. A meta-analysis of 460 field samples of transformational leadership (N = 124,646) and 139 field samples of transactional leadership (N = 38,327) across 53 cultures revealed three key results: First, both transformational and transactional leadership universally relate positively to follower performance outcomes. The strength of these relationships ranges between 0.25 and 0.39 for transformational leadership and between 0.12 and 0.24 for transactional leadership. Second, the positive effects of transformational leadership on convergent performance outcomes are more pronounced in cultures characterized by norms of vertical differentiation (including high power distance) and harmony (including collectivism), consistent with the cultural congruence perspective. Third, the positive effects of transactional leadership on divergent performance outcomes are more pronounced in cultures characterized by norms of low performance-focus (including low uncertainty avoidance), consistent with the cultural compensation perspective. We discuss the implications of these findings for transformational and transactional leadership research and practice.
... While full data were available from 386 employees in 103 teams, 13 observations had missing values on demographic variables and POS. Instead of pairwise or listwise deletion, we followed past research (e.g., Hartnell et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2022) and used utilized the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to estimate the missing values. The MCMC technique is considered preferable to pairwise or listwise deletion because it is more robust to bias stemming from data cleaning and management (Hartnell et al., 2016). ...
... Instead of pairwise or listwise deletion, we followed past research (e.g., Hartnell et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2022) and used utilized the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to estimate the missing values. The MCMC technique is considered preferable to pairwise or listwise deletion because it is more robust to bias stemming from data cleaning and management (Hartnell et al., 2016). The final sample consisted of 399 employees in 103 teams. ...
Article
Full-text available
Integrating the literatures on strategic human resource management and organizational support theory, we examine the cross‐level relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) at the team‐level and individual perceptions of organizational support (i.e., POS). In addition, we introduce a critical boundary condition, the HR department's organizational embodiment (HROE), which involves the extent to which employees identify the HR department with the organization. We propose that the cross‐level HPWS–POS relationship is moderated by HROE, such that the linkage between HPWS and POS is stronger when HROE is high. With a sample of 103 teams and 399 employees in South Korea, we find that HPWS utilization increases POS and that this relationship is stronger when HROE is high. We also find that HR department status and the favorable attitude of the HR head are antecedents to HROE. These findings suggest that HROE is a critical boundary condition for the relationship between HPWS and POS with subsequent effects on organizational commitment and job satisfaction.
... According to Hartnell et al. (2016), as a CEO's tenure grows, the CEO is better able to convey and disperse information about the organization. Younger CEOs are more conservative according to Thijssen (2017), since they have a shorter track record, less achievement, are more scrutinized by the labor market, and are more concerned about their career as well as overall firm performance. ...
... The CEO tenure-firm performance link is unaffected by the firm's capital structure. Meaning that the CEO's confidence and capacity to make financial decisions that help raise the firm performance grows with his or her tenure (Hartnell et al., 2016), instead of the opposite. ...
... We must be intentional about aligning these to our values. When properly aligned with personal values, drivers, and needs, culture can unleash tremendous amounts of energy toward a shared purpose and foster an organization's capacity to thrive [7,9,34]. ...
... Managers account for 70% of team success [18,33]. Thus, the effectiveness of organizational culture is dependent on the CEO's leadership behavior [9] with the role of senior leaders' role-modelling and support to be paramount [4,20]. For example, when it comes to change processes, it is the executives who are the change leaders and employees will not support change if executives are not supportive themselves [17]. ...
... This is surprising, as leadership is "a complex interaction between the leader and the social and organizational environment" (Fiedler, 1996, p. 241). In one of the few studies that combined leadership and organizational culture, Hartnell et al. (2016) found more support for the incongruence perspective (i.e. leaders who compensate values that are lacking in a culture are more effective) than for the congruence perspective (i.e. ...
... However, they can compensate this unsatisfying culture constellation through their own behaviors (especially since these are more responsive to change than an organization's culture (cf. Hartnell et al., 2016)). If supervisors are not able to show intellectual stimulation, they could learn these leadership behaviors in training sessions (Barling et al., 1996). ...
Article
Purpose: This study, first, examines whether a low culture person–organization (P-O) fit reduces job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Second, the author investigates how an organization's current innovation culture affects employees' attitudes and behaviors. Third, the author focuses on the interplay between leadership and organizational culture by testing whether supervisors' intellectual stimulation can mitigate the negative effects of a low innovation culture. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via online questionnaires from 135 employees. Using the organizational culture assessment inventory, employees described their current and their preferred organizational culture and rated their supervisors' behavior. Findings: Current-preferred culture discrepancies and a low innovation culture were associated with lower job satisfaction. The negative effect of a low innovation culture on employees' satisfaction was moderated by supervisors' intellectual stimulation (i.e. employees working in a low innovation culture are more satisfied when they have a stimulating supervisor). If employees' preference regarding the desired culture differed from those of their colleagues, they reported less OCB. Intellectual stimulation exacerbated this effect. Research limitations/implications: The author relied on self-reported cross-sectional data. Practical implications: Actions are needed to ensure that the current culture and the preferred culture align and that employees agree on how the organizational culture should develop. Unless followers prefer different cultures than their colleagues, supervisors should show intellectual stimulation, especially in a culture whose norms do not support innovation. Originality/value: The author emphasizes the positive consequences of a culture P-O fit and contributes to the much needed knowledge regarding the interplay between organizational culture and leadership behaviors on employees' attitudes and behaviors.
... Outside of these two main leadership styles, there are numerous other not popular in literature (Breevaart et al. 2014). These are discussed briefly as follows, namely; commanding thinking is based on traditional idea of leadership, leaders influence other people to achieve goals quickly and leaders can be powerful and assertive (Hartnell et al. 2016), pacesetting style has high levels of performance because the leaders and followers use high standards of performance, but this style gives no feedback to followers (Aron et al. 2019). Democratic style, according to Jowah and Peretu (2019), is unlike an autocratic style of leadership; here, employees are involved in decisions, and the style focuses on followers' contributions. ...
... The environment in the Middle East (where the Gaza strip is) is predominantly if not exclusively Islam. It is this cultural setting that is used to develop the prototype of what good leadership is (Hartnell et al. 2016), and is what informs the follower responses. The globalization has introduced different values and expectations suggesting that there is no homogenous community and thus the value systems have changed (Muna and Khoury, 2016). ...
Article
Leadership is critical for the functioning of society and of any organization, and the effectiveness is incumbent on leader and follower congruence. The effectiveness of a leader is therefore inevitably contingent to the leader’s ability to develop a balance between the objectives of the followers, the leader and the organization. This is compounded by the factors that inform leader behavior, follower expectation and the tasks to be performed. Chief amongst these would be culture, religion, levels of follower education, and the tasks to be performed. The Gaza Strip is a heavily militarized, paternalistic and strongly religious environment, allowing for an environment that encourages transactional leadership. The research sought to establish the acceptability of transactional leadership at a large telecommunications organization in the Gaza Strip. The target population was employees of the organization and their perceptions about transactional leadership. The findings indicate a high acceptability of transactional leadership style by the employees of the organization.
... Organizations attempt to influence the quantity and efficiency of their inventions to improve performance. Many studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance (Hartnell et al., 2016;Kontoghiorghes, 2016;Nazarian et al., 2017). ...
... Most of the prior research on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance has found evidence on the positive impact of organizational culture on organizational performance (Denison & Mishra, 1995;Gomes & Wojahn, 2017;Hartnell et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the mediating role of innovation in the relationship between the dimensions of organizational culture and organizational performance. The study used questionnaire data taken from 250 managers of banks in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. The results indicate that while the dimensions of organizational culture and innovation have a clear and positive influence on organizational performance, organizational culture and mission have an insignificant relationship with organizational performance in the presence of innovation. These results give organizations valuable insights to compete against environmental changes by effectively implementing innovations, especially in Pakistan's banking sector. The findings illustrate that mechanisms to boost an organization's innovative culture can enable the implementation of innovation, that in turn, can contribute to superior organizational performance. In extant literature, organizational culture has been examined as one of the factors that influences organizational performance. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance. Besides, as a factor of organizational performance, several investigators have considered innovation, but few have studied organizational innovation as being affected by organizational culture. This study explores the link between organizational culture, organizational performance and the role of innovation in this relationship.
... Organizational culture scholars (Schein, 2010) suggests that leaders are the basic source of establishing and maintaining organizational cultural values. Centred to UET, Berson et al. (2008) claim that top leaders shape the culture of organizations as they lay the founda- Extant studies advocate that creating an organizational learning culture is a mirroring of upper echelon leaders (Hartnell et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the dominant discourses on the important role of entrepreneurial leadership in firms’ development, related theoretical and empirical studies are still lacking in the environmental management area. Adopting upper echelons theory, this study develops a moderated mediation model that examines how entrepreneurial leadership affects the adoption of green innovation (GI) through organizational learning culture, and how environmental dynamism moderates the mediating effect. This theoretical model is tested using a sample of 248 Chinese firms. Findings support the positive impact of entrepreneurial leadership on GI and the mediating role of organizational learning culture. The moderated mediation path analysis shows that environmental dynamism moderates the indirect effect of entrepreneurial leadership on GI via organizational learning culture. Overall, this study adds to entrepreneurship and environmental management scholarship by providing novel insights into the key role of entrepreneurial leadership in embracing GI.
... 17 From the perspective of leadership substitute, the matching organizational culture can be the "enhancer" of leadership effectiveness, while the improper organizational culture may weaken the effect of leadership. 52 For example, existing research has found that collaborative culture reinforces the effect of transformational leadership on employees' radical innovation and incremental innovation; 53 it has also been noted that employees influenced by collaborative culture agree to each other and work with the same mindset, which can weaken the positive effect of entrepreneurial Leadership on creativity. 54 Specifically, when employees deem that the organizational culture is consistent with the information conveyed by the leadership behavior, they will enhance their trust in this leadership behavior and be willing to wholeheartedly accept the influence of the leadership behavior on themselves; otherwise, they will doubt the legitimacy of the leadership behavior and then generate a resistance to the leaders. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In the current competitive environment of increased uncertainty and instability, it is of significance to promote employee voice behavior. To discuss the issue of how to promote employee voice behavior both effectively and reasonably, this study focuses on ambidextrous leadership, which consists of two seemingly opposite yet potentially complementary behaviors-transformational and transactional leadership-and investigates its influence mechanism on employees' voice behavior, using work motivation as a mediator and ambidextrous culture as a moderator. Methods: Enterprise employees and their direct supervisors from 78 work teams in China were surveyed, and 387 sets of paired data were analyzed using data analysis software, such as HLM, SPSS, and AMOS. Results: The results reveal that ambidextrous leadership can significantly positively predict employee voice behavior. Employee work motivation plays a partial mediating role in the positive correlation between ambidextrous leadership and voice behavior. Additionally, organizational ambidextrous culture positively moderates the correlation between ambidextrous leadership and the work motivation of employees. The greater the ambidextrous culture of teams is, the stronger the positive correlation between ambidextrous leadership and the work motivation of employees. Conclusion: Leadership plays an important role in promoting employee voice behavior. Therefore, understanding how ambidextrous leadership style can effectively promote voice behavior is important for companies to utilize the power of their employees to respond quickly to change and drive innovative transformation. This study contributes to existing research by revealing how ambidextrous leadership impact employee voice behavior through work motivation, which provides new evidence for the emerging ambidextrous leadership theory and helps to understand the relationship between employee work motivation and voice behavior more comprehensively; it also identifies organizational ambidextrous culture as organizational context factor which moderate the effect of ambidextrous leadership on work motivation.
... Chen et al., 2021;Munir et al., 2022;Phillips et al., 2019). Previous studies reported that, CEO leadership can also play an important role to manage various activities (Hartnell et al., 2016;Waldman et al., 2001). Similar with the CEO leadership, chairman leadership is also important to lead board of directors. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to examine the role of CEO duality in audit quality of Chinese firms. To address the effect of CEO duality, this study considered four characteristics of CEO duality; corporate audit culture, audit committee independence, decision making through enormous power and single leadership. The indirect effect of audit committee decision is considered between CEO duality and audit quality. A questionnaire survey is carried out to collect primary data. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from Chinese firms. Respondents of the study were the CEO’s and directors of Chinese firms; therefore, questionnaires were distributed among them by using online survey. 135 valid questionnaires were used in data analyses which is carried out by using Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results of the study highlighted that; CEO duality has both positive and negative effect on audit quality. Due to the single leadership style and supportive corporate audit culture, the audit quality may be improved. However, CEO duality influences negatively on audit committee independence which has negative effect on audit committee decisions. Similarly, CEO duality allows to enjoy enormous power which may affect negatively on the decision making. Thus, decision-making through enormous power has negative effect on audit committee decisions. Finally, while making the strategies to enhance audit quality, the practitioners can consider the important points highlighted by the current study to promote audit quality.
... Instead of dropping them from the final dataset, we used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to treat the missing data. It is a modern data imputation technique, and it is preferable to pairwise and listwise deletion methods because it imputes missing values with a random draw based on a distribution of probable values (Hartnell et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2022). Specifically, we calculated the missing values using the average score based on 1,000 data sets, which were imputed by the MCMC algorithm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Leveraging data on organizational social distancing initiatives (SDIs) this paper examines the link between SDI implementation and perceived organizational support (POS). The paper discusses and tests the intended beneficiary heuristic to help explain why and when employment practices may induce POS. We suggest that SDIs, involving various ways to separate employees to keep them safe, have the important secondary benefit of increasing employees’ perception that the organization cares about their well-being and values their contributions. Using the intended beneficiary heuristic we argue that such favorable treatment as SDIs relates positively to POS most when employees attribute their implementation to the organization’s concern for the welfare of employees. Results of two studies, a cross-sectional study with 121 employees in the United States and a longitudinal study with 103 employees in South Korea, indicate that SDIs were positively associated with employees’ POS, which in turn improved their job satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), affective organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior (Study 2). The results also show that these relationships were stronger when employees perceived SDIs to be implemented to protect their welfare rather than as a means of protecting the organization.
... Specifically, we suggest that the effect of supplementary and complementary dyadic fit may be content specific, meaning that the content of the fit matters. For example, a supplementary dyadic fit of proactive personality may encourage employee voice and managerial endorsement, as may a complementary dyadic fit of extraversion (Guay, Kim, Oh, & Vogel, 2019;Hartnell, Kinicki, Lambert, Fugate, & Corner, 2016). Extending this idea, future scholars may consider various individual attributes (i.e., values, goals, interests, etc.) as well as personality traits and explore which dyadic fit (supplementary vs. complementary) matters in driving employee voice and managerial endorsement and/or implementation. ...
Article
Constructive voice is a type of communicative act involving both voicers and managers. However, research on constructive voice has developed in two separate streams, with studies adopting either a voicer-or a manager-centric perspective, thereby failing to provide a holistic understanding of constructive voice. This unilateral approach results in missed opportunities for scholars to understand the dyadic and dynamic nature of constructive voice. To address this limitation , we draw on social exchange theory to introduce a four-phase (felt voice, expressed voice, managerial responses to voice, and relational voice outcomes) dyadic model of constructive voice. By conceptualizing constructive voice as a dyadic exchange between voicers and managers , we detail the ongoing processes in which employees initiate voice and managers subsequently endorse and/or implement voicers' input. We also introduce feedback loops to highlight the dynamic nature of constructive voice over time and explain the consequences of repeated constructive-voice exchange processes on relational outcomes. Finally, we review the literature, summarize gaps and opportunities, and provide directions for future research.
... Board effectiveness can be assured through independent directors, audit committee independence, female independent directors on the board, and the strict monitoring role of the regulator. The study's findings endorse the results concerning the emerging economies that CEO duality affects a firm financial performance where boards are considered weak (Hartnell et al., 2016). The findings related to CEO duality in favor of the agency theory perspective that the dual position of CEO makes them more powerful, making them more opportunistic and taking care of personal interests rather than that of the firm. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses the questions of “How” and “When” CEO duality affects firm performance from a developing country’s perspective. To address the research question, CEO duality serves as an explanatory variable, board effectiveness as a mediator, CEO personal characteristics as moderator, firm-specific characteristics as control, and performance indicators as a dependent variable. Our dataset comprises 163 Pakistani firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange for 2009 to 2018. Results demonstrate that CEO’s duality negatively affects a firm’s financial performance; however, board effectiveness mediates the link between CEO duality and firm performance. The results support the agency theory framework. Furthermore, findings proposed that the CEO’s attributes (age, gender, and financial education) significantly moderate the link between a CEO’s duality and firm performance. The findings may be generalized among the developing countries and net 11 ( N-11) specifically. The current study claims to be the first one that explores the mediating role of the board effectiveness and moderating role of the CEO personal attributes together on a duality-performance link employing Pakistan’s corporate data. The findings suggest that policymakers and regulators ensure separation of power between Chairman and CEO to assure transparency through induction of more independence in the board room.
... For example, in a study with more than 1,300 interviews of executives, 92 percent reported that improving their culture would increase the firm's value (Graham, Harvey, Popadak & Rajgopal, 2017). Studies of culture have linked it to important organizational outcomes such as firm performance (Berson, Oreg & Dvir, 2008;Gordon & DiTomaso, 1992;Hartnell, et al., 2016;Kotter, 2002), innovation Hogan & Coote, 2014;Khazanchi, et al., 2007), strategy (Gupta, Nadkarni & Mariam, 2019;Herrmann & Nadkarni, 2014), efficiency (McDermott & Stock, 1999), employee satisfaction and turnover (Fiordelisi & Ricci, 2014;Hartnell, et al., 2011), and top management team dynamics (Peterson, et al., 2003). ...
... However, several empirical studies have failed to find links between this theory and their research findings (Graeff, 1997). This can be explained by the fact that other organisational factors influence the relationships between leaders and followers, such as office politics (Sinnicks, 2018) or culture (Hartnell et al., 2016), which may force the leader to adopt a specific leadership style. Furthermore, leaders' individual characteristics, such as emotions, motivation and access to information are not taken into consideration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The main purpose of this paper is to test the relationship between leadership competencies and effectiveness, with constraints as a mediating variable, and to introduce the main assumptions of the Bounded Leadership Model (BLM). Design/methodology/approach The total sample included 242 leaders in a top managerial position. Data were collected directly from leaders via self-reports. In total, five hypotheses were formed which related to the relationship between leadership competencies and effectiveness and the role of constraints. Hypotheses were tested by analysing several regression models and mediation effects. Moreover, internal consistency and construct validity were assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha and assessing the intercorrelations between study variables. Findings The study results demonstrate that leader’s competencies are positively related to leadership effectiveness. The authors also found an indirect effect of leadership competencies on effectiveness via constraints. Overall, it can be concluded that the scales included in the BLM have satisfactory reliability and validity indicators. Practical implications The paper examined the relationship between leadership competencies and effectiveness with constraints as a mediator. Moreover, it introduces the BLM which takes a broader view on leadership and includes variables that seem to play an important role in leaders’ adjustment and success. These findings can be applied in different training processes and also in assessment and development centres to serve as a facilitator in the process of enhancing leadership competencies and effectiveness and in overcoming leadership constraints. Originality/value The study overcomes previous research limitations because it offers a selection of leadership competencies that play an important role in leadership effectiveness, as well as may serve as a potential facilitator in the process of overcoming individual constraints. This knowledge can be used for future research and practical purposes.
... Thus, we followed past research and used MCMC multiple imputation in order to recover the missing values (Edwards et al., 2008;Hartnell et al., 2016). To obtain unbiased estimates, we created 1,000 imputed data sets and used the average score across the imputed data sets. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the importance of perceived organizational support on organizational outcomes has been highlighted in the literature, research is lacking concerning how organization-wide perceptions of support by employees (organizational-level perceived support [OPS]) may contribute to organizational performance. To address this critical deficiency in the literature, we extend organizational support theory to the organizational level and examine the influence of OPS on organizational profitability. We conducted two studies with samples of 224 and 96 organizations, respectively, in South Korea and found that workforce performance (Study 1) and workforce voluntary turnover rate (Studies 1 and 2) mediate the relationship between OPS and organizational profitability. Furthermore, we found that organizational financial slack resources moderate the effect of OPS on workforce performance. Specifically, the positive effect of OPS on workforce performance, and consequently on organizational profitability, was stronger when financial slack resources were lower. Financial slack resources, however, do not moderate the relationship between OPS and voluntary turnover rate. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... The information roles parallel task-oriented leadership behaviors in that information is utilized to identify and enunciate organizational goals, initiate structures and communicate expectations for employees. The interpersonal roles reflect relationship-oriented leadership behaviors as they concern social network maintenance and the training and maintenance of employees to improve performance (Hartnell et al., 2016). These alignments imply the effects of leadership behaviors on internal communication in organizations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to examine how senior leadership influences corporate communication and employees' attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Using two-way symmetrical communication model in public relations and leadership theory, it investigated the effects of CEOs' task- and relationship-oriented leadership on symmetrical internal communication, employees' organizational commitment and communicative behaviors. Design/methodology/approach An online survey was conducted with 417 full-time employees working in various industries in the United States. Findings The results showed that CEOs' relationship-oriented leadership significantly influenced symmetrical internal communication, which, in turn, increased affective commitment and employees' scouting behavior. CEOs' task-oriented communication had no significant effect on symmetrical communication. Originality/value This study advances theoretical understanding of two-way symmetrical communication in relation to senior leadership and provides practical insights for corporate leaders and public relations practitioners regarding how to improve employee outcomes through CEOs' strategic leadership and internal communication practices.
... Other researchers have noted that workers tend to support the objectives of managers whose leadership approach reflects organizational mindsets (Giessner et al., 2009;Ulrich et al., 2009). In contrast, however, Hartnell et al. (2016) reported that a lack of fit between CEO leadership and organizational culture can create opportunities for leadership to provide psychological and motivational resources that elevate returns on assets. Thus, the consequences of leadership-culture alignment may be impacted by leadership function, as well as the dimension of organizational performance in focus (Ulrich et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Top-level operations leaders can drive organizational performance across a broad range of pro-environmental objectives. The authors’ focus is on understanding which specific leadership competencies are most conducive to green performance outcomes. The authors further consider the influence of Lean thinking on the importance of these competencies. Design/methodology/approach In study 1, of a multi-method investigation, the authors interview executive search professionals, on how green objectives impact top-level operations leadership searches. In study 2, the authors adopt a multi-attribute choice task to examine how Lean thinking impacts competency preferences. Finally, in study 3, the authors merge secondary data on corporate environmental performance with a survey of top-level operations managers’ assessments. This triangulating multi-method approach provides an integrated and holistic view into these dynamics. Findings Results show particularly strong associations between resource and energy management outcomes and the specific leadership competencies of stewardship. This set of leadership competencies play the greatest role when Lean thinking is deficient. Research limitations/implications While the authors’ focus is on top-level operations managers, and their under-explored impact on environmental performance, such an impact represents only one dimension of corporate social responsibility (CSR) that these managers may be critically influencing. Practical implications The associations uncovered in this research suggest critical leadership characteristics to consider in developing and recruiting top-level operations managers, when specific environmental objectives exist. Social implications The study’s findings draw attention to the importance of leadership characteristics among influential corporate decision-makers, instrumental in the environmental progress of firms. Originality/value This work fills a critical gap in the authors’ understanding of how top-level operations managers influence green corporate objective, and how their contributions are valued across settings.
... Leaders who provide subordinates with details and clear directions in carrying out their work perform better than other leaders who did not give specific instructions (Keller, 2006). On the other hand, consideration behavior shown by leaders has a positive correlation with organizational return on assets (Hartnell, Kinicki, Lambert, Fugate & Corner, 2016). However, this result was inconsistent with Basker, Sverdrup, Schei & Sandvik (2020). ...
... The workplace culture was established by the morality, as well as personnel in the organization, the organizational structure, and the setting up of the workplace. Furthermore, workplace culture, referred to as an arrangement of shared importance held by organizational employees that recognizes one organization from another, is strongly associated with the notion of how members view their significance within the organization (Walker & Aritz, 2015;Hartnell et al., 2016). This factor is linked to the following other ideas: workplace views on self-importance, organizational significance, qualities, convictions, standards, and practices. ...
... Valmohammadi and Roshanzamir (2015) highlight the direct and indirect effect of organizational culture on firm performance through its positive influence on total quality management. Hartnell et al. (2016) study the importance of the interactive effect of leadership and organizational culture on firm performance. They note that the firm performance will be lower when levels of task culture and task leadership are similar, than when task culture and leadership are dissimilar. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the influence of organizational culture on the relationship between business model design and firm performance. The dataset consists of 107 Tunisian companies for the period from December 2014 to March 2016. We use a quantitative survey conducted from a questionnaire. We adopt a mediated moderation analysis in order to examine how organizational culture moderates business model-firm performance relationship. Our results reveal that (i) organizational culture strengthens business model-firm performance relationship and (ii) strategic planning mediates the positive moderating effect of organizational culture on business model-firm performance relationship. Overall, this research suggests that business model of firms with strong organizational culture may improve firm performance through high quality strategic decisions.
... Whilst often having little in common, stigmatised occupations do share a 'visceral repugnance' (Ashforth & Kreiner, 1999, p. 415), which has implications for 'dirty workers' and roles that require episodic 'dirty work' tasks. A further distinction to note is that implementing redundancies 'is an activity that contradicts their basic outlook towards business life' (Kets De Vries & Balazs, 1997, p. 17) as executives are responsible for employee engagement, improved financial performance (Harter et al., 2002) and organisational culture (Hartnell et al., 2016;Yanchus et al., 2020); elements that conflict with the implementation of redundancies. Role conflict when implementing 'dirty work' tasks may be an additional burden for redundancy envoys in comparison to 'dirty work' occupations that do not comprise a dual role. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite redundancies having far reaching consequences for organisations, relatively limited attention has been paid to the conflicting experiences of those implementing the redundancy process; the redundancy envoys. By drawing on theories of cognitive dissonance and ‘dirty work’ we explain how individuals implementing redundancies can experience a disconnect between their outward and inner emotions. We reconceptualise redundancy envoys as quasi-dirty workers as they intermittently perform ‘dirty work’ tasks that may be perceived as morally tainted, whilst recognising their conventional role incorporates tasks perceived as contrary to that of ‘dirty work’. Our study draws on insider research access to redundancy envoys over a five-year period during the implementation of four consecutive redundancy programmes, providing the opportunity to observe decisions and actions in ‘real time.’ We offer a contemporary reconceptualisation of the redundancy envoywhich permits a deeper understanding of the negative impact on redundancy envoys and offers opportunities to examine how this can be reduced. In addition, it is anticipated that the results of this study will offer support to HR functions in reducing the stigma of ‘dirty work’ for redundancy envoys with the intention of enhancing the management of redundancy implementation.
... Another possible limitation in the current study was the use of a sample with work groups with intra-group response rates lesser than 50%, which might introduce biases in the statistical estimations linked to attenuation of correlations, due to distortions in standard errors (Hartnell et al., 2016;Kauppila, 2016;Timmerman, 2005). The criteria to establish the proportion of this possible bias in group research is a matter of debate (Nesterkin & Ganster, 2015); thus, we use a basic heuristic to address these issues in our data by repeating our analyses using only the sample of groups whose response rates were equal or above 50% (N = 60). ...
Article
Recent research has shown that leader interpersonal emotion regulation is a relevant process for fostering desirable work outcomes. Expanding knowledge on this stream of research, here we argue that to have a complete view of the influence of leader interpersonal emotion regulation, the motives underlying the regulation behavior, namely, egocentric or prosocial, should also be taken into account. We draw on the informational function of interpersonal emotion regulation motives and use a multisource survey study with 99 group leaders and their 1482 group members to examine the effects of leader interpersonal emotion regulation motives. We found evidence that leader egocentric interpersonal emotion regulation motives were negatively related to group members’ perceptions of the relationship quality with their leaders, expressed in the group’s mean leader‐member exchange (LMX), and, thereby, related to lower leader appraisals of their own effectiveness. However, these negative effects were mitigated when leaders were at the same time prosocially motivated to regulate the emotions of the members of their groups. Therefore, this study contributes to expanding theory on interpersonal emotion regulation and its application to leadership, which is informative for theory and interventions about leaders’ affective influence in organizations.
... However, existing measures of organizational culture have typically been developed, tested, and validated on for-profit businesses rather than service organizations such as homeless shelters. The highly popular organizational culture profile measure, for example, has been used to understand the culture of government agencies (O'Reilly et al., 1991), public accounting firms (Sheridan, 1992), private consulting firms (Adkins & Caldwell, 2004), and technology firms (Hartnell et al., 2016). These businesses differ from nonprofit organizations in countless ways, such as their size, mission, funding source, and social status. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to examine perceptions of Lotus House Women's Shelter from the perspective of former program participants, for the purpose of informing shelter programming and policies. Our qualitative research followed a community‐based participatory research framework. Fifty diverse women graduates of Lotus House Women's Shelter participated in eight focus groups to discuss their experiences with Lotus House and other shelters. Findings from this study highlight the elements that create a “culture of care” within an organization. Participants described Lotus House shelter culture as genuine, defined by dignity and respect, having high expectations for guest independence and accountability, giving space to rest and recuperate, recognizing and accommodating individual needs and experiences, and fostering a sense of community. Creating an organizational “culture of care” is an avenue by which any shelter or related organization can enhance the experience of program participants.
... Defining success only by bottom line results can overlook many internal and external dysfunctional consequences of unhealthy cultures, such as employee burnout and feardriven opportunity costs. It might be noted that one rigorous research study of 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members found that good leaders can compensate for bad cultures, and vice versa (Hartnell et al., 2016). The task-oriented leadership styles of Steve Jobs and Bill Gates may have been what their companies needed at the time to compensate for cultures that had become too friendly and not sufficiently results-oriented. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to build strong cultures is a critical skill for leaders, and should be a top priority for their training, development, and education. This article addresses the need for leaders at all levels of an organization to be skilled at building cultures capable of achieving excellent results and bringing out the best in people, and offers specific advice on how to do so. The article draws from the extensive research available on building cultures and also includes lessons learned from the legendary turnaround of the culture and resulting success of Ford Motor Company by former CEO Alan Mulally.
... Half a century ago, Mintzberg (1973) identified interpersonal engagement as one of the key roles that CEOs play. Focused on maintaining employee networks and enhancing employee motivation (Hartnell, Kinicki, Lambert, Fugate, & Corner, 2016), the interpersonal roles CEOs play involve various dimensions of communication. The diverse relational communication behaviors CEOs employ when engaging with their subordinates include showing trust and confidence in employees, being friendly and considerate, and being supportive and helpful by trying to understand their problems (Yukl, 2006). ...
Article
Using a survey of 405 full-time employees, this study examined how organizations' internal communication influenced by leadership communication at the supervisory-and senior-levels impacts employee creativity and how employees' feedback-seeking behaviors mediate these relationships. The results suggest that leadership communication at the supervisory and senior levels positively influence symmetrical internal communication system. The analysis also shows that symmetrical internal communication and leadership communication cause employees to seek more feedback from different interpersonal sources including supervisors, coworkers, and peers in other departments, which in turn enhances creativity. This paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for public relations and internal communication.
... For example, in a meta-analysis of 84 studies Hartnell and his colleagues (2011) found that in cultures that were more clan-like (that included an emphasis on collaboration), employees were more satisfied with their jobs, more committed to the organization, more focused on product quality, and viewed their organization as more effective. In another study, Hartnell, Kinicki, Lambert, Fugate, and Corner (2016) found that cultures that were more team-oriented performed better, while Grijalva and her colleagues (2020) found that teams with higher levels of narcissism had lower levels of collaboration and performed more poorly. Berson et al. (2008) reported that supportive cultures (which included an emphasis on relationships) were associated with higher employee job satisfaction and better sales growth. ...
... CEO leadership is crucial for any organization. Leadership provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture [3]. Banks' performance during the financial crisis is a function of their board characteristic [4]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper aims to study the influence of a chief executive officer (CEO) characteristic on banking financial performance. CEO is the leader who will lead the company to achieve the vision, mission, and short-term target. Shareholders will determine the CEO to run the company for a specific term. Financial institution, especially banking, is a service company. That heavily depends on human resources. Therefore, the research will focus on the characteristic of the person of a CEO. Analyzed seven characteristics of a CEO that are age, education, the term of appointment, experience, any position of vice CEO, professional hire or promote internally, and affiliated to the major shareholders. The dependent variables are the return on equity (ROE) of banks. Panel data used in this research consist of 28 banks in period 2014-2018. The finding showed that the CEO age has a significant and positive impact on the profitability of banks, especially the return on equity (ROE). The implications of this research are to give information the impact of a CEO characteristic on banking financial performance.
... In another paper had the contingency theory of leadership as evidenced in the research by Hartnel et all, shows that leadership is effective in providing psychological support and lack of motivation in the organization's culture. [4] Another thing was also conveyed by [15] where cultural power in the organization is very influential so that it can affect patterns of beliefs, values, assumptions, and behavioral norms. So it can be concluded if the organizational culture represents the expectations and rules used by the organization to function. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to discuss the important role of leadership in organizations to help further understand the organizational culture that exists in a company so that it can provide a role in encouraging work motivation. This paper is aimed at employees at one of the logistics companies in Indonesia, namely PT YI with the characteristics of a contract employee of 52 people. The author gets an overview of the role of leadership, organizational culture, and work motivation through a survey conducted as data analysis and reviewing some literature. It can be concluded that the role of leadership in providing an understanding of organizational culture provides a role for employees to have work motivation so as to achieve the goals of the organization.
Article
Full-text available
This study tries to explore, The Impact of leadership style on Employees Performance, Since leadership styles are entering with lots of new changes in the last ten years and has seen a remarkable development. This study expands the knowledge of the impact of leadership style on employee’s performance, when examining how leadership style works. Contributors were requested to respond to a questionnaire focused on the impact or leadership style on employee’s performance, motivation, self-esteem, reward, turnover and diversity . Questions related to the level of interest and understanding of leadership importance and its styles towards employees’ performance. On the basis of convenience, a sample of 250 respondents was taken. Questionnaire had two variables, that is, leadership style and employees’ performance, and each of them was defined in four secondary variables. The reliability of the questionnaire was within the acceptable range.
Article
Knowledge concerning the reconciliation of work and life in developing countries with weak labor protection and little governmental support (e.g., statutory work‐life support) is still very limited. In this mixed‐method study, we explore how employees manage their work and nonwork responsibilities in Lebanon – a developing country with poor national and organizational work‐life support. Findings from a qualitative study of 10 blue‐ (BC),10 white‐collar (WC) workers and 10 HR professionals from companies in various industries identified contextual challenges and strategies to reconcile work and nonwork responsibilities. In a quantitative study based on a survey of 269 employees we examined the effect of Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior (FSSB) for different groups of workers and explored one potential mechanism of FSSB, namely schedule fit. Results show that FSSB increases employees’ perceptions of schedule fit, which in turn minimizes their work–life conflict (WLC). We also found that BC workers seem to benefit more from FSSB than WC workers. We inform work‐life research on less supportive contexts and offer practical recommendations for HR managers to operate successfully within these environments.
Article
Full-text available
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh gaya kepemimpinan Relationship Focused CEO Leadership dan Inclusive Leadership dengan Symmetrical Internal Communication terhadap Scouting Karyawan Milenial di Wilayah Perkantoran Jakarta. Data dikumpulkan dari seratus lima puluh satu karyawan milenial di Jakarta dengan teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah sampel. Uji hipotesis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah menggunakan analisis SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). Hasil pengujian hipotesis dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh positif Relationship Focused CEO Leadership dan Inclusive Leadership, Terhadap Symmetrical Internal Communication, dan terdapat pengaruh positif Symmetrical Internal Communication terhadap Scouting. Impikasi manajerial dalam penelitian ini bagaimana kemampuan gaya kempemimpinan dan berkomunikasi sangat penting dalam kehidupan berkelompok maupun berorganisasi. Pemimpin yang menerapakan gaya berfokus terhadap hubungan dan yang inclusive serta memiliki keterampilan komunikasi yang cukup akan mempengaruhi dan bergerak Orang lain dan pengikut mereka. Kepemimpinan muncul dan berkembang melalui interaksi Otomatis antara pemimpin dan pengikut. Hal ini diharapkan karyawan milenial Jakarta dapat berkontribusi dalam suaranya untuk meningkatkan perilakunya di perusahaan.
Article
Purpose – This study aims to examine the effect of the chief executive officer (CEO) characteristics on corporate performance in private listed firms in China. Design/methodology/approach – Fixed effects regressions are used to explore the connection of CEO age, tenure, political connection, duality and gender with firm performance. The final panel data sample consists of 16,010 firm-year observations from 2010 to 2020, including A-share private firms listed in the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges. Findings – Five hypotheses are proposed, and results show that certain CEO characteristics, such as age, tenure and political connection, are positively related to corporate performance. Contrary to expectations, CEOduality and gender do not affect firmperformance. Originality/value – Findings present implications for future research on corporate governance and political connections of private listed firms. Keywords CEO characteristics, Firm performance, Gender, Age, Duality, Political connection, Tenure, China, Corporate governance, Accounting
Chapter
Based on the hypothesis that human resources management directly depends on a set of organizational components that are the core for SMEs sustainability, this chapter expands previous findings in the literature. Based on a multiple regression analysis and MMOM (modernization model for organization management) implementation in 246 Colombian SMEs (small and medium enterprises), the authors show that some organizational components explain and generate 64.86% of human resources management best practices.
Book
This book examines the impact of CEOs on firm performance and focuses on their role in science-based innovation to answer the question, is it possible to lead highly complex R&D projects and innovation that you do not understand? Today, science and technology move so fast that even managers of R&D teams can become quickly disconnected from new developments. Similarly, business leaders may be required to lead organisations with technical knowledge beyond their own expertise. How to manage teams and retain respect and influence is a recognised challenge. Filled with insight from managers and CEOs in science and technology organisations, the book unlocks the skills required to balance the leadership and managerial needs of the organisation, motivate the technical teams and drive successful innovation in new product development environments. Due to the vital role played by experts in a chosen field of technical and scientific expertise, the book also describes what these specialists need and expect from their leaders. The book is required reading for managers in high tech and scientific environments - the CEO, CSO and the R&D manager. It can also be used as a classroom reference book on the management skills required for leading high-tech projects.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to investigate the associations between personality, acculturation, and performance among artisan entrepreneurs in Ghana. From a positivist standpoint, this paper adopted the quantitative approach in analyzing the data utilizing STATA 14. Data were purposively obtained from 298 artisan entrepreneurs in Ghana through questionnaire administration. Structural equation modelling and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to ascertain the validity of the suggested scales, as well as to test the associations proposed in the research framework. The paper consequently finds that personality level factors such as agreeableness has a direct bearing on the performance of artisan entrepreneurs whereas the extraversion permeates acculturation behaviours in order to lead to any form of artisan entrepreneurial performance. This finding contributes to the sparse literature on artisan entrepreneurship in Ghana.
Article
The inclusion of cultural minorities as senior leaders is of growing importance and relevance to contemporary organizations with increasingly international composition, but much is to be learned about how and when such leaders impact the workplaces they lead. We draw on the “cultural difference” and “cultural congruence” propositions (Dorfman and House, 2004) to build a model for understanding whether and under what conditions cultural minority senior leaders have an impact on the elaboration of task-relevant information and relationship conflict in their workplaces. Hierarchical regression results from a study of 315 Australian workplaces and their senior leaders suggest that, regardless of whether the senior leader is a member of a cultural minority group, an organizational climate for innovation and flexibility increases information elaboration – an effect that is stronger when the organization faces greater environmental turbulence. The results further provide support for a three-way interaction effect, whereby employees in workplaces led by a cultural minority leader have less relationship conflict when climate for innovation and environmental turbulence are both low. We conclude with a discussion of the scholarly contributions and practical implications of our conceptual and empirical work, the limitations of our study, and future directions for this research.
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to examine the impact of board characteristics on firm performance of non-financial institutions in Jordan. The study employs the random effects regression model to analyze the panel data of 77 non-financial institutions of the industrial and services sector over the period 2008–2019. Firm performance is measured by return on assets ROA. While board characteristics were explained by board size, CEO duality, CEO tenure, non-executive directors (NEDs), and a number of board meetings. Firm age and firm size were added to our model as control variables. Our results reveal that board size, CEO tenure, non-executive directors (NEDs), firm age, and firm size have a positive significant impact on firm performance, whereas the CEO duality and a number of board meetings have a negative significant impact on firm performance. This paper will contribute to the ongoing debate on the relationship between the board characteristics and firm performance. Therefore, the current study extends previous literature by providing empirical evidence about the relationship between board characteristics and a firm performance. Particularly in developing countries, there is relatively a little researched area. Jordanian firms are needed to consider the significance of the board characteristics especially, for the non-financial institutions that can help them in designing the board strategies to enhance their performance. Therefore, Jordanian data will offer new empirical evidence in an emerging market, which will provide a better understanding of the relationship between board characteristics and firm performance.
Article
Research on extreme environments has highlighted the necessity of having response teams that serve both the community and team. Though researchers have discussed the need for "unit solidarity" or a "communal code," our research is among the first to examine communal solidarity-that is, the building of unity in both the community and the team by serving both, which we operationalize as team serving culture-in an extreme environment. We use social resource theory to develop a model whereby serving culture starts with department level servant leadership. We theorize that department servant leadership influences team leader servant leadership , which enhances social resources including trust in team leader, trust in team, and team cohesion, which then translate into serving culture and team service performance in an extreme setting. We test our model with a sample of 344 officers and 104 leaders enlisted in Brazil's Special Operations Police. Criminals change their strategies and locations in the slums. They must constantly become stronger or they risk losing power over their territory. The scenery is extremely dynamic. They have access to new and modern weapons that illegally reach Brazilian borders. They study our strategies. We must be aware. The success of our mission is dependent on our commitment to the team, to the other. We are constantly watching for risks, watching out for each other. Together. As a team. We act just like one because it is a matter of life or death. Literally. My commitment to my team's lives and the success for the community is crucial. They know of my loyalty to them. 1
Article
The article theoretically substantiates the importance of the category “management culture” as part of the organizational culture in the formation and implementation of the organizations strategy and separately considers some of its elements. The paper presents the categories and subcategories of management culture: strategy, organizational structure, regulation, technology, information systems, control, incentives. The study analyses the importance of the strategy as one of the elements of the management culture and the ratio of goals. The paper evaluates the factors that determine the success of planning and implementing the strategy. The article pays special attention to the discussion of information technologies as one of the elements of management culture, intensity and options for the development and implementation of modern technologies in business process management. When discussing processes as one of the elements of the management culture, the author emphasizes the complexity of managing processes and the importance of their consistency for achieving the goals of the organization. The study concludes, that the main role of management is to achieve the goals of the company using a certain number of employees, management methods and controls, which are regulated by the management culture, which is an integral part of the organizational culture of the company.
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses to determine a conceptual framework for defining the role Entrepreneurship, Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction towards Organizational Performance in the International Bank of Yemen. The current paper deepened on a review of the previous literature, and among the theories used in this paper to explain the relationship between study variables through Human Capital Theory and Social Exchange Theory. The results of this study are likely to emphasize the importance and increasing awareness Entrepreneurship, Organizational Culture and Job Satisfactions critical factors affecting Organizational Performance in the International Bank of Yemen, as a crucial factor in improving the organizational performance of the Bank, and thus the Bank's ability to the competition, which is very important in an entrepreneurial environment.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to contribute to the emergence of the literature focusing on exploring the factors influencing the financing decision, as well as examining the relationship between the firm size, profitability and firm growth towards the corporate debt. Questions such as how relevant firm size, profitability and firm growth to debt are, quantitatively, had not been fully answered in the business literature. The purpose of this study is to fill this large gap by examining the role of the firm size, profitability, investment and firm growth for the corporate debt. This study tries to examine the determinants of debt in the financial literature which include size, growth, business risk, and profitability in accordance with the capital structure theory, in manufacturing firms in Indonesia. The sample contained financial data from 150 firms for the period 2012–2017. The results showed that the manufacturing firms in Indonesia had high debt levels, especially the size, profitability, firm growth and profitability had proven to be the debt determinants, which also confirmed the Pecking Order Theory. This study also found that the management preference of manufacturing firms in Indonesia for risk was the risk-seeker or risk-neutral ones. This finding implies that the choice of funding sources originating from debt still provided greater returns compared to the capital cost needed due to business uncertainties.
Article
Full-text available
Directors are human resources who play an important role in maintaining the long-term sustainability of the company's business. Thus, this study aims to determine board size, CEO tenure, and foreign director on company performance in the non-financial industry on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2013-2018 with multiple linear regression analysis using 1,764 sample data from 294 companies. Contributions in this study using resource dependency theory, stewardship theory and foreign directors variables as indicators of independence. The results of the study board size have a significant positive effect on company performance, with an optimal number of 4-9 people because it can provide diverse perspectives and ideas in decision making. CEO tenure does not affect ROA and ROE because the president director tends to reject and avoid risks and company's performance is influenced by all directors, not just the president director. Foreign directors have a significant positive effect on ROA with an optimal percentage of 26-50% because they provide different perspectives on decision making, but does not affect ROE with 51-75% of the optimal amount because does not have large influence to influence decisions in improving company performance. Keywords: Director’s Characteristics, Firm Performance, Resource Dependency Theory, Stewardship Theory.
Article
Full-text available
Although quite amount of research investigated the detrimental effects of destructive leadership styles at the individual level, less has focused on its effect on the organization as a whole. Therefore, this conceptual paper proposes a model of integration between the micro and the macro level of the organization through investigating the impact of CEO exploitative leadership style on firm innovativeness. Exploitative leadership emphasizes the leader’s self-interest through overdelegation of tasks and underchallenging of followers. We propose that CEO exploitative leadership is going to have a detrimental effect on firm innovativeness through TMT behavioral integration as it causes a climate of unfair exchange and hostility, which limits the amount of information being exchanged, collaboration, and joint decision making. We also propose that TMT behavioral integration is an important factor in achieving firm innovativeness, especially when TMT diversity is high. Lastly, board power is proposed to act as an intervention that mitigates the detrimental impact of CEO exploitative leadership on TMT behavioral integration and, ultimately, firm innovativeness, as a powerful board limits/controls any CEO behavior that contradicts the profit-maximizing expectations of the shareholders. Practical implications, limitations, and future directions are also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Although there have been several attempts to address the conceptual ambiguities in the literature discussing organizational climate, organizational culture, and their interrelationship, there remains much confusion and a general lack of clarity about what these two constructs represent, as well as how they may interrelate. In order to provide some clarity, we provide a comprehensive review of both constructs and conclude with a model describing how organizational climate can be viewed as a bottom-up (i.e., flowing from employee perceptions) indicator of the underlying core values and assumptions that form the organization's culture. Recommendations for researchers seeking to investigate organizational climate and culture, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed throughout the chapter.
Article
Full-text available
We propose a mediation model to explain the relationship between CEO humility and firm performance. Building on upper echelons, power, and paradox theories, we hypothesize that when a more humble CEO leads a firm, its top management team (TMT) is more likely to collaborate, share information, jointly make decisions, and possess a shared vision. The firm will also tend to have lower pay disparity between the CEO and the TMT. The humble CEO and TMT, in turn, will be more likely to adopt an ambidextrous strategic orientation, which will be associated with stronger firm performance. We tested the model by using both survey and archival data that were collected at multiple time points from 105 small-to-medium-sized firms in the computer software and hardware industry in the United States. Findings largely support our theoretical assertions, suggesting that CEO humility has important implications for firm processes and outcomes.
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to review and synthesize research on the fit, congruence, and alignment between individuals and their organizational environment. Theoretical foundations and conceptualizations of person- environment (PE) fit are reviewed, highlighting areas of ambiguity and controversy. The framework of fit addresses different fit perspectives (similarity, fulfillment, and compilation), fit to different hierarchical levels (person-individual, person-job, person-group, and person-organization fit), and different modes of defining the environment (personbased versus situational-based). Distinctions are drawn between objective and subjective fit, and a set of organizational and individual differences variables are hypothesized to increase the convergence between the two. Further, misfit is defined, and moderators of the relationship between fit, misfit, and individual outcomes are suggested. Finally, the notion that individuals simultaneously desire to fit in terms of being similar to others and being distinctive from others is addressed as a means to further future research on the PE fit in organizations.
Chapter
Full-text available
Our focus is on organizational culture and climate and the role that these constructs play in understanding individual as well as collective attitudes, behavior, and performance. We begin with the assumption that both constructs rest upon the notion of shared meanings or a shared understanding of aspects of the organizational context. Climate is defined as a perceptually based description of the what the organization is like in terms of practices, policies, procedures, and routines while culture helps define the underlying reasons and mechanisms for why these things occur in an organization based on fundamental ideologies, assumptions, values, and artifacts. The first half of the chapter provides a comprehensive review of the culture and climate literatures. The second half is framed around a multilevel model that integrates culture and climate through the linking mechanism of organizational structure, practices, and policies. This discussion elucidates a set of mechanisms that foster the emergence of organizational culture and climate and highlights the impact of weak emergent processes on individual and organizational outcomes. We then discuss the topic of culture and climate change and conclude by reviewing directions for future research. Keywords: emergent processes; levels of analysis; organizational climate; organizational culture; shared perceptions
Chapter
Full-text available
In part I of this volume, the authors challenge and extend fit research in a number of content domains. Starting with the individual level of analysis , then moving to the group and organizational level of analyses, new perspectives of fit are introduced to explain attitudes, behavior, and performance in organizations. Together, the chapters in part I provide a comprehensive treatment of fit across content domains and across levels of analysis.
Article
Full-text available
We present a comprehensive theory of collective organizational engagement, integrating engagement theory with the resource management model. We propose that engagement can be considered an organization-level construct influenced by motivationally focused organizational practices that represent firm-level resources. Specifically, we evaluate three distinct organizational practices as resources-motivating work design, human resource management practices, and CEO transformational leadership-that can facilitate perceptions that members of the organization are as a whole physically, cognitively, and emotionally invested at work. Our theory is grounded in the notion that, when used jointly, these organizational resources maximize each of the three underlying psychological conditions necessary for full engagement; namely, psychological meaningfulness, safety, and availability. The resource management model also underscores the value of top management team members implementing and monitoring progress on the firm's strategy as a means to enhance the effects of organizational resources on collective organizational engagement. We empirically test this theory in a sample of 83 firms, and provide evidence that collective organizational engagement mediates the relationship between the three organizational resources and firm performance. Furthermore, we find that strategic implementation positively moderates the relationship between the three organizational resources and collective organizational engagement. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In this article we examine the meaning of team process. We first define team process in the context of a multiphase episodic framework related to goal accomplishment, arguing that teams are multitasking units that perform multiple processes simultaneously and sequentially to orchestrate goal-directed taskwork. We then advance a taxonomy of team process dimensions synthesized from previous research and theorizing, a taxonomy that reflects our time-based conceptual framework. We conclude with implications for future research and application.
Article
Full-text available
A major problem in leadership research and theory has been lack of agreement about which behavior categories are relevant and meaningful. It is difficult to integrate findings from five decades of research unless the many diverse leadership behaviors can be integrated in a parsimonious and meaningful conceptual framework. An emerging solution is a hierarchical taxonomy with three metacategories (task, relations, and change behavior). Confirmatory factor analysis of a behavior description questionnaire found more support for this taxonomy than for alternative models.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the combined effects of charismatic leadership and organizational culture on perceived and objective company performance using a longitudinal design. Employees (N=1214) in 46 branches of a large Dutch bank rated branch management on charismatic leadership, organizational culture in terms of work practices, as well as perceived organizational performance. Objective performance data were collected twice, two years apart. The split sample technique attenuated common source bias. Results of structural equation modeling, in which Time 1 financial performance measures were controlled, revealed that charisma increased financial performance; however culture did not do so. Culture and charisma were significantly related to perceived performance, and culture and charisma were interrelated. A longer time interval may be necessary before the effects of culture on financial performance become apparent. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the value of intangible resources.
Article
Full-text available
Presents methods for assessing agreement among the judgments made by a single group of judges on a single variable in regard to a single target. For example, the group of judges could be editorial consultants, members of an assessment center, or members of a team. The single target could be a manuscript, a lower level manager, or a team. The variable on which the target is judged could be overall publishability in the case of the manuscript, managerial potential for the lower level manager, or a team cooperativeness for the team. The methods presented are based on new procedures for estimating interrater reliability. For such situations, these procedures furnish more accurate and interpretable estimates of agreement than estimates provided by procedures commonly used to estimate agreement, consistency, or interrater reliability. The proposed methods include processes for controlling for the spurious influences of response biases (e.g., positive leniency and social desirability) on estimates of interrater reliability. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Leadership often serves as an explanatory category for performance outcomes (i.e., failure and success). This process can strengthen or weaken leadership effectiveness, because contingent on their performance leaders may gain or lose follower endorsement – the basis of leadership. Drawing on the social identity analysis of leadership, we hypothesized that leader group prototypicality and performance information interact to predict followers’ perceptions of leadership effectiveness. Because group prototypical leaders are more trusted by their followers, we hypothesized that group prototypical leaders are evaluated as more effective after failure information than non-prototypical leaders. In contrast, we predicted that both prototypical and non-prototypical leaders should receive similar evaluations of leadership effectiveness after success. We found support for our predictions in a scenario experiment, a cross-sectional field study, and a laboratory experiment.
Book
'I recommend this book to anyone wishing to understand and practice leadership. Leadership is often treated in mutually-exclusive categories, such as Theory X vs. Theory Y, managers vs. leaders, transactional vs. transformative, initiation vs. consideration, etc. The Competing Values Framework presented in this book transcends these dualities. It features eight competing but complementary values that are critical for managing today's complex and pluralistic organizations. The framework emphasizes the need for balance among the eight leadership roles, and an appreciation of the context, timing, and contingencies when the leadership roles facilitate and inhibit collective endeavors. I have followed the development and testing of the Competing Values Framework over the years. It makes important contributions to both theory and practice. It stimulates positive learning outcomes for students and managers.' - Andrew H. Van de Ven, University of Minnesota, US. Creating value in a firm is an enormously complex endeavor. Yet, despite its complexity, value creation is the objective of every enterprise, every worker, and every leader. The Competing Values Framework can help leaders understand more deeply and act more effectively. In the first book to comprehensively present this framework, the authors discuss its core elements and focus attention on rethinking the notion of value. They emphasize specific tools and techniques leaders can use to institute sustainable change. © Kim S. Cameron, Robert E. Quinn, Jeff DeGraff, Anjan V. Thakor, 2006. All rights reserved.
Article
Transformational leadership and organizational culture: Toward integrating a multilevel framework Transformational leadership is the most researched leadership phenomenon of the past two decades (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009; Judge & Piccolo, 2004). Recently, researchers have begun to explore the mechanisms through which transformational leadership influences followers' attitudes and behaviors. These studies indicate that identification (Kark, Shamir, & Chen, 2003; Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993; Walumbwa & Hartnell, 2010), commitment, satisfaction, and self-efficacy (Liao & Chuang, 2007; Piccolo & Colquitt, 2006; Walumbwa, Avolio, & Zhu, 2008; Walumbwa & Hartnell, 2010; Walumbwa, Wang, Lawler, & Shi, 2004) mediate the relationships between transformational leadership and important employee outcomes. Furthermore, transformational leadership has been found to influence unit performance through mechanisms such as group cohesion (Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003) and service climate (Liao & Chuang, 2007). Although much is known about transformational leadership and its effects, few researchers have investigated specifically the ...
Article
This book integrates and assesses the vast and rapidly growing literature on strategic leadership, which is the study of top executives and their effects on organizations. The basic premise is that, in order to understand why organizations do the things they do, or perform the way they do, we need to comprehend deeply the people at the top-their experiences, abilities, values, social connections, aspirations, and other human features. The actions-or inactions-of a relatively small number of key people at the apex of an organization can dramatically affect organizational outcomes. The scope of strategic leadership includes individual executives, especially chief executive officers (CEOs), groups of executives (top management teams, or TMTs), and governing bodies (particularly boards of directors). Accordingly, the book addresses an array of topics regarding CEOs (e.g., values, personality, motives, demography, succession, and compensation); TMTs (including composition, processes, and dynamics); and boards of directors (why boards look and behave the way they do, and the consequences of board profiles and behaviors). The book synthesizes what is known about strategic leadership and indicates new research directions.
Article
Using unique data provided by the CEOs of 80 large U.S. firms, we examined relationships among the stakeholder attributes of power, legitimacy, urgency, and salience; CEO values; and corporate performance. We found strong support for the attribute-salience relationship and some significant relationships among CEO values, salience, and corporate social performance but found no support for a salience-financial performance link. Our findings suggest a need for continued emphasis on the development of normative stakeholder theory.
Article
Extending Hambrick's (1994) concept of behavioral integration, a meta-construct of top management team process, we theorized on the extent to which CEO-, team-, and firm-level determinants shape behavioral integration. Using survey data from 402 firms, we developed a reliable measure of the construct and found strong support for our structural model. Although determinants at each level explained some variance in behavioral integration, considering all three levels in concert explained the most variance.
Article
Assessing overall model fit is an important problem in general structural equation models. One of the most widely used fit measures is Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed index. This article has three purposes: (1) to propose a new incremental fit measure that provides an adjustment to the normed index for sample size and degrees of freedom, (2) to explain the relation between this new fit measure and the other ones, and (3) to illustrate its properties with an empirical example and a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation suggests that the mean of the sampling distribution of the new fit measure stays at about one for different sample sizes whereas that for the normed fit index increases with N. In addition, the standard deviation of the new measure is relatively low compared to some other measures (e.g., Tucker and Lewis's (1973) and Bentler and Bonett's (1980) nonnormed index). The empirical example suggests that the new fit measure is relatively stable for the same model in different samples. In sum, it appears that the new incremental measure is a useful complement to the existing fit measures.
Article
Recent research in the area of leadership seems to point to the existence of four basic dimensions of leadership: support, interaction facilitation, goal emphasis, and work facilitation. Data from a recent study of 40 agencies of one of the leading life insurance companies are used to evaluate the impact of both supervisory and peer leadership upon outcomes of satisfaction and factorial performance measures. Results from the study suggest that this conceptual model is useful and that leadership's relation to organizational outcomes may best be studied when both leadership and effectiveness are multidimensional. Both peer and supervisory leadership measures relate to outcomes. In most instances, the ability to predict is enhanced by taking simultaneous account of certain nonleadership variables.
Article
The past 40 years have seen considerable strides in our understanding of leadership, which until recently focused on inherited traits and abilities. Although we now see leadership as a complex interaction between the leader and the social and organizational environment, this lesson is frequently ignored in personnel selection and leadership training. At this time, most leader selection and leadership training approaches have not been adequately validated. Further progress in these areas requires that we focus research on methods that integrate situational components into personnel selection and leadership training.
Article
This study reconciles the positive and negative sides of CEO grandiose narcissism by examining the role that CEO organizational identification plays in moderating the effect of CEO grandiose narcissism on top management team (TMT) behavioral integration. We first distinguish between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and we then draw on upper echelons theory and executive personality research to hypothesize and test a model in which CEO grandiose narcissism is positively related to TMT behavioral integration when CEOs are high in organizational identification. The relationship is expected to be negative when CEOs do not identify strongly with their organizations. TMT behavioral integration, in turn, predicts subsequent firm performance. Findings based on multi-source data from a sample of 97 CEOs and their firms supported the hypotheses. These results highlight the complex nature of CEO grandiose narcissism – namely, that the construct has both positive and negative aspects as it relates to top management team dynamics and firm performance and that the relationship is affected by CEOs' identification with their organizations.
Article
Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. To take stock of established and developing theories since the beginning of the new millennium, we conducted an extensive qualitative review of leadership theory across 10 top-tier academic publishing outlets that included The Leadership Quarterly, Administrative Science Quarterly, American Psychologist, Journal of Management, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Organizational Science, and Personnel Psychology. We then combined two existing frameworks (Gardner, Lowe, Moss, Mahoney, & Cogliser, 2010; Lord & Dinh, 2012) to provide a process-oriented framework that emphasizes both forms of emergence and levels of analysis as a means to integrate diverse leadership theories. We then describe the implications of the findings for future leadership research and theory.
Article
Although there is general recognition that leadership is important for organizational cultures, the issue of how leadership affects culture has received only scattered attention. Existing analyses have tended to focus on how leaders create or change cultures, ignoring the role that leadership plays in maintaining cultures. This paper focuses on how cultural leadership that innovates, by either creating or changing organizational cultures, is likely to differ from that which maintains organizational cultures. Hypothesized linkages are advanced between nine elements of cultural leadership-drawn from the literature on charisma-and its consequences. The predictions made are derived from a synthesis of existing theory and insights gained from descriptions of leadership in the scholarly and popular literatures. Both descriptions and theoretical considerations suggest that, while cultural innovation and maintenance leadership differs in some ways, the behaviors of effective cultural leaders do not. Cultural leadership apparently has some generic characteristics. Two variants of each of the basic types are identified and linked to extant conceptualizations of leadership. Implica- tions discussed include the risks and advantages of organizations' having multiple cultural leaders at the same time. (ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES; LEADERSHIP; ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE; CHARISMA; CULTURAL CHANGE; CULTURAL CONTINUITY)
Article
Using 20 actual work units with 79 respondents, this study explores the relationships among group demography, social integration of the group, and individual turnover. Results suggest that heterogeneity in group tenure is associated with lower levels of group social integration which, in turn, is negatively associated with individual turnover. Models of these effects using individual-level integration measures are not significant. Further, the results suggest that it is the more distant group members who are more likely to leave. Both individual-level and group-level age demography directly affect turnover and are not moderated by social integration. The findings suggest a process by which group demography affects outcomes and support the usefulness of organizational demography for understanding group and individual functioning.
Article
This study investigated the potential existence and formation of subcultures in organizations, using an inductive research methodology to study the extent to which four different types of knowledge were shared by organization members. Fifty-two interviews were conducted in three different divisions of the same firm. These were content-analyzed and compared with data obtained from observations and written documents. A number of cultural subgroupings were found to exist in regard to two kinds of cultural knowledge, while an organization-wide cultural overlay was identified for a different kind of cultural knowledge. The implications for the concept of culture in organizational settings and future research on this topic are discussed.
Article
This paper examines why group norms are enforced and how group norms develop. It is argued here that groups are likely to bring under normative control only those behaviors that ensure group survival, increase the predictability of group members' behavior, avoid embarrassing interpersonal situations, or give expression to the group's central values. Group norms develop through explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers, critical events in the group's history, primacy, or carry-over behaviors from past situations.
Book
Introduce your students to strategic management with the market-leading text that has set the standard for the most intellectually rich, yet thoroughly practical, analysis of strategic management concepts today. Written by highly respected experts and prestigious instructors Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: COMPETITIVENESS AND GLOBALIZATION, CONCEPTS, 10E is the only book that integrates the classic industrial organization model with a resource-based view of the firm to give students a complete understanding of how today's businesses use strategic management to establish a sustained competitive advantage. The authors combine the latest, cutting-edge research and strategic management trends with insights from some of today's most prominent scholars. A strong global focus and carefully selected examples from more than 600 emerging and established companies place concepts into context within an inviting, relevant and complete presentation. A wealth of learning features and experiential exercises address numerous critical issues confronting managers today. Various online teaching tools and a complete electronic business library help keep study current and relevant. Count on this Concepts text to provide the solid understanding of critical strategic management concepts your students need to increase performance and establish a clear competitive advantage.
Article
An explanation of the effects of leader behavior on subordinate satisfaction, motivation, and performance is presented. The explanation is derived from a path-goal theory of motivation. Dimensions of leader behavior such as leader initiating structure, consideration, authoritarianism, hierarchical influence, and closeness of supervision are analyzed in terms of path-goal variables such as valence and instrumentality. The theory specifies some of the situational moderators on which the effects of specific leader behaviors are contingent. A set of general propositions are advanced which integrate and explain earlier fragmentary research findings. Several specific predictions are made to illustrate how the general propositions can be operationalized. The usefulness of the theory is demonstrated by showing how several seemingly unrelated prior research findings could have been deduced from its general propositions and by applying it to reconcile what appear to be contradictory findings from prior studies. Results of two empirical studies are reported that provide support for seven of eight hypotheses derived directly from the general propositions of the theory. A third study designed to test three of the original eight hypotheses is also reported. Two of these three hypotheses are successfully replicated. In the light of these results and the integrative power of the theory, it is argued that the theory shows promise and should be further tested with experimental as well as correlational methods.
Article
Using data from 48 Fortune 500 firms, the authors assessed transactional and charismatic CEO leadership as predictors of financial performance. The authors also hypothesized that the relationship between CEO leadership attributes and performance depends on perceived environmental uncertainty, as reported by immediate CEO subordinates. Uncertainty strongly moderated the relationships between performance (measured in later years) and both transactional leadership and charisma. However, the interaction of transactional leadership and uncertainty had no significant effect beyond that of the charisma-uncertainty interaction. Consistent with expectations, charisma predicted performance under conditions of uncertainty but not under conditions of certainty. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
Article
We explored whether voluntary survey completion by team members (in aggregate) is predictable from team members' collective evaluations of team-emergent states. In doing so, we reanalyze less-than-complete survey data on 110 teams from a published field study, using so-called traditional and modern missing data techniques to probe the sensitivity of these team-level relationships to data missingness. The multivariate findings revealed that a greater within-team participation rate was indeed related to a higher team-level (mean) score on team mental efficacy (across all four missing-data techniques) and less dispersion among team member judgments about internal cohesion (when the 2 modern methods were used). In addition, results show that a commonly used approach of retaining only those teams with high participation rates produces inflated standardized effect size (i.e., R2) estimates and decreased statistical power. Suggestions include research design considerations and a comprehensive methodology to account for team member data missingness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Statistical procedures for missing data have vastly improved, yet misconception and unsound practice still abound. The authors frame the missing-data problem, review methods, offer advice, and raise issues that remain unresolved. They clear up common misunderstandings regarding the missing at random (MAR) concept. They summarize the evidence against older procedures and, with few exceptions, discourage their use. They present, in both technical and practical language, 2 general approaches that come highly recommended: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian multiple imputation (MI). Newer developments are discussed, including some for dealing with missing data that are not MAR. Although not yet in the mainstream, these procedures may eventually extend the ML and MI methods that currently represent the state of the art. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a summary and synthesis of the author's work on attribution theory concerning the mechanisms involved in the process of causal explanations. The attribution theory is related to studies of social perception, self-perception, and psychological epistemology. Two systematic statements of attribution theory are described, discussed, and illustrated with empirical data: the covariation and the configuration concepts. Some problems for attribution theory are considered, including the interplay between preconceptions and new information, simple vs. complex schemata, attribution of covariation among causes, and illusions in attributions. The role of attribution in decision making and behavior is discussed. (56 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Measurement invariance is usually tested using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which examines the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model. Although many studies have examined the properties of GFI as indicators of overall model fit for single-group data, there have been none to date that examine how GFIs change when between-group constraints are added to a measurement model. The lack of a consensus about what constitutes significant GFI differences places limits on measurement invariance testing. We examine 20 GFIs based on the minimum fit function. A simulation under the two-group situation was used to examine changes in the GFIs (ΔGFIs) when invariance constraints were added. Based on the results, we recommend using Δcomparative fit index, ΔGamma hat, and ΔMcDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluate measurement invariance. These three ΔGFIs are independent of both model complexity and sample size, and are not correlated with the overall fit measures. We propose critical values of these ΔGFIs that indicate measurement invariance.
Article
discusses selected research and theories in 2 areas of the literature . . . those which deal with cognitive aspects and those which deal with the affective and motivational aspects of leadership [in management practice], that is, the highly affect-laden and motivational variables inherent in charismatic and transformational leadership dominant topics in leadership research: 1970–1987 / cognitive variables and leadership performance [attribution theory and leadership, cognitive resource theory] / charismatic and transformational leadership theories / some reflections on the state of leadership theory [the contingency model, path-goal theory, management training (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study was of 12 high-low productivity pairs of work groups, which included 24 section heads and 419 non-supervisory employees. Subjects were interviewed individually concerning their jobs and attitudes. Heads of the high-producing sections were significantly more likely to: (1) receive general rather than close supervision from their superiors, (2) like the amount of authority and responsibility they have in their jobs, (3) spend more time in supervision, (4) give general rather than close supervision to their employees, and (5) be employee-oriented rather than production-oriented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)