Output Power PDF of a Saturated Semiconductor Optical Amplifier: Second-Order Noise Contributions by Path Integral Method

Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Capital Region, Denmark
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (Impact Factor: 1.89). 01/2008; 43(12):1188 - 1197. DOI: 10.1109/JQE.2007.906226
Source: IEEE Xplore


We have developed a second-order small-signal model for describing the nonlinear redistribution of noise in a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier. In this paper, the details of the model are presented. A numerical example is used to compare the model to statistical simulations. We show that the proper inclusion of second-order noise terms is required for describing the change in the skewness (third-order moment) of the noise distributions. The calculated probability density functions are described far out in the tails and can hence describe signals with very low bit error rate (BER). The work is relevant for describing the noise distribution and BER in, for example, optical regeneration.

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Available from: B. Tromborg, May 21, 2015
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    • "An exact analysis encompassing all the physical mechanisms does not exist. In a recent study, Ohman and Mork apply second-order regular perturbation theory and path integrals to derive analytical expressions for the received signal probability density function (PDF) when the link is composed of a continuous-wave (CW) laser, an SOA, an ideal photodetector, and an arbitrary electrical filter [16]. The carrier-independent loss and the ASE generated inside the SOA are included, and the SOA operates in saturation. "
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    • "Fluctuations due to spontaneous emission noise and charge carrier noise are potential sources for disturbances of the injected signal; see [10] for a recent detailed treatment. The relative intensity noise (RIN) spectrum can, e.g., be of importance in applications such as phase-arrayed devices. "
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    • "However, it does not provide the indispensable knowledge of the PDF of the output intensity for a complete statistical analysis. In [21], a PDF is obtained when the source is coherent using perturbation theory; the ASE field added to the coherent signal is treated as a perturbation. Analytical expressions for the PDF are derived using path-integral methods. "
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